94756

Практикум по правилам чтения для студентов I курса неязыковых факультетов. Часть I

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Данный практикум предназначен для начального этапа изучения английского языка и его цель – овладение навыками чтения и их систематизация. Правила чтения каждой буквы и всех буквосочетаний представлены в многочисленных таблицах. Для отработки произносительных навыков предлагаются также упражнения, тестовые задания и тексты.

Английский

2015-09-16

293.5 KB

2 чел.

Министерство образования и науки

Российской Федерации

Федеральное агентство по образованию

Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

ТЮМЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Кафедра иностранных языков

естественнонаучных факультетов

Н. В. Войтик, М. А. Елесина, Е. В. Фомина

Практикум по правилам чтения

для студентов I курса неязыковых факультетов. Часть I

Издательство Тюменского государственного университета, 2005

Войтик Н. В., Елесина М. А., Фомина Е. В. Практикум по правилам чтения для студентов I курса неязыковых факультетов. Часть I. Тюмень: Издательство ТюмГУ, 2005.

Данный практикум предназначен для начального этапа изучения английского языка и его цель – овладение навыками чтения и их систематизация. Правила чтения каждой буквы и всех буквосочетаний представлены в многочисленных таблицах. Для отработки произносительных навыков предлагаются также упражнения, тестовые задания и тексты.

Печатается по решению кафедры иностранных языков естественнонаучных факультетов.

Рецензенты: Латфуллина И. Д., ст. преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков естественнонаучных факультетов;

Мастерских С. В., канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков гуманитарных факультетов.

©  Тюменский государственный университет, 2005.

©  Войтик Н. В., Елесина М. А., Фомина Е. В.

PRE-UNIT

The A B C

A a   [ eI ]

B b  [ bI: ]

C c  [ sI: ]

D d  [ dI: ]

E e  [ I: ]

F f   [ ef ]

G g  [ GI: ]

H h  [ eIC ]

I i    [ QI ]

J j   [ GeI ]

K k  [ keI ]

L l   [ el ]

M m [ em ]

N n  [ en ]

O o  [ Oυ ]

P p  [ pI: ]

Q q  [ kjυ: ]

R r   [ Q: ]

S s   [ es ]

T t    [ tI: ]

U u   [ jυ: ]

V v   [ VI: ]

W w  [ 'dAbl 'jυ: ]

X x   [ eks ]

Y y   [ ωQI ]

Z z   [ zed ]

Таблица чтения гласных

закрытый слог

открытый слог

Гласные буквы

гласная

+ r

гласная

+ r + гласная

[ x ]

bag

[ eI ]

may, make

A a

[ Q ]

car

[ q ]

care

[ e ]

pen

[ I: ]

bee, Pete

E e

[ q ]

her

[ Iq ]

here

[ O ]

not

[ Oυ ]

no, rose

O o

[ O: ]

north

[ O: ]

more

[ A ]

but

[ jυ: ]

due, cube

U u

[ q: ]

turn

[ jυq ]

cure

[ I ]

little, gym

[ QI ]

time, cry 

I, Y

[ q: ]

bird, myrtle

[ QIq ]

wire, tyre

UNIT 1

1.       открытый слог

           [ eI ]

A a -    закрытый слог

           [ x ]   

blame, fame, vale, blade, tape, lane, make, pale, sake, ale, hate

sat, lamp, bad, fan, pan, lad, sand, van

2.       открытый слог

            [ I: ]

E e -    закрытый слог

            [ e ]

eve, me, mete, Pete, bee

net, lend, pen, spent, bent, left, let, bed, men, ten, best, rest, step

3.       открытый слог

            [ Oυ ]  

O o -    закрытый слог

           [ O ]  

so, no, stone, sole, zone, dome, nose, slope, rose, go

lot, stop, not, on, off, spot, odd, slot, doll, dot, soft

4. [ s ]      перед e, i, y

 C c -     

 [ k ]      перед a, o, u;

           в конце слова

centre, space, 'sentence, cent

can, case, cor'rect, cone, cat

5.  [G]  перед e, i, y

G g -

    [g ] во всех остальных случаях

But: get [ gеt ], give [ gIV ], girl [ gq:l ]

gale, god, grim, 'gossip, glad, gas, got

page, gym, 'gypsy, 'gentle

1 а) tram  bag

      pan  tramp

      pram  mass

      grand         ram

      drag  lass

b) date

    late

    plate

    state

    skate

fate

made  

trade

wade

safe

c) graze – braze – craze

   maze – mane – dame

   ale – sale – make

   ape – tape – plate

   ace – cape – crape

   late – tale – trade

   save – sale – same

d) pan – pane  flat – late

can – cane  bat – bate

Sam – same  hat – hate

tram – tame  glad – glade

man – mane  mat – mate

rat – rate  lamp – lane

tap – tape  fat – flake

Test yourself: blame, pale, mate, fate, make, fame, lamp, stamp, lake, bad, late, plan, ale, date, vale, bat, nave, tape, pan, fan, blade, lane, cake, brake, wake, flake, cape, Sam, tram, can, bake, tack, glad, hat, maze, grace, trace, skate, sad, bag, Ann, game, sat, lamp.

2 a) trek  pen  Nell  b) met – mete  fence – Eve

stress  press leg  pet – Pete   mend – Mede

mess  left  keg  bed – be   met - mete

hem  dress peg  bell – grebe  zed – zebu

lest  stem  egg  wed – Swede  melt – bede

beg  spell  desk  cent – grebe

c) pen – pan

   men – man

   ten – tan

bed – bad

leg – lag

beg – bag

end – and

lend – land

deb – damp

met – mat

bed – bat

fet – fat

d) bat – bet – bade   ass – mess – mace  man – men – mane

bad – bed – bade   dam – den – dam  cab – ken – cane

flat – let – late   pan – pen – pane  lamp – led – lane

3 a) home – Rome  prone – strove  spoke – coke

bone – cone  tone – prone  broke – stoke

no – stone   robe – rope  dome – nose

strove – grove  probe – grope  home – rose

code – vote  lode – note  tone – close

smoke – woke  lobe – lope  pole – vote

b) trod  pond   prod   prop   smog

moss  grog   loss   drop   dot

lost  stop   bog   spot   loss

c) boss – broke  cross – loss  hop – hope blob – lobe

not – note  stoke – coke  mop – mope nod – node

mock – smoke rod – rode   cod – code pop – pope

d) Oh, no! Go home alone! Dont go slow. Dont go slowly, Joe. Dont go slowly, Joe, there is no snow. Dont go slowly, Joe, theres no snow on the road.

4 a) can  act  correct  camp  clap

cat  fact  cost   club   crop

b) cent  space trace   cist   place

ace nice  ice   cell   pencil

face price  'pencil  cyst

c) cist – cyst   cab – cad – cam  since – fence

cell – Celt   can – camp – cap  mince – pence

cell – cent   cob – cod – con   since – mince

clog – crop – cop  fence – pence

cum – scum – cut  hence – trace

5 a) gem – gym   b) gap – gas – gad  

gest – gist   got – god – gob   

gig – gyp   golf – glad – grab

gin – gim   grog – gloss – goblin

age – rage

page – strange  

gentle – range    c) bad – lag – hag – brag – crag

'gypsy [ 'GIpsI ]    beg – leg – keg – clog – peg

     big – pig – brig – Greg – big     

bog – log – hog – fog – flog

Test yourself: 'sentence, gym, 'gypsy, gig, range, cent, cor'rect, snow, mince, bade, scene, rage, since, 'local, cell, smoke, code, probe, centre, glad, spent, lend, cape, mete, desk, late, hate, cane, bed, camp, ice, price, page, age, crag, beg, 'traffic, hence, face, land, lace, table, hand, place, stop, Rome, close, test, rode, can, drive, cake, tent, page, state, pole, tip, brake, code, lake, damp, tell, came, stand, trace, side, nice.

UNIT 2

6. Y y - [ j ] в начале                        слова

yes, yet, yell, yelp, yoke

7.        открытый слог

           [ QI ]   

I, Y -     закрытый слог

            [ I ]  

by, dye, my, tie, size, mine, fine, dive, style, pine, like, time, tyke, bye, dyke, type, life

if, nip, tip, fit, tin, kid, tint, is, did, 'system

8.           открытый слог

            [ jυ: ]

U u -     [ υ: ] после r, l, j

           закрытый слог

             [ A ]

cube, rule, mule, use, Hume, rude, brume, June, junior

nut, but, cut, bus, sum, hug, luck, brush

But: busy [ bIzI ]

9.      ck - [ k ]

lick, lack, stick, nick, black, sack, deck, pack, clock, stuck

6 a) yes – yet  bell – yell

you – yoke  elm – yelp

yam – yak  end – yes

7 a) it – did  nip – nib  trip – big

bit – bid  rip – rib  strip – pin

it – lid   strip – trim  miss – print

kit – kid  pin – bin  him – grip

prim – brim  prill – brill  list – still

b) by   style  tyke  fly – sly

my  dyke  type  fry – pry

cry  syce  Tyke  my – dry

c) file – tile   mile – pile   rid – ride   tie – die

fine – dine  lime – crime  grid – bride  bye – dye

pipe – ripe  gripe – stripe  scrip – scribe  lie – pie

ride – side  bride – pride  mince – mine  lye – rye

drive – wife  strive – wife  wince – wine

8 a) use – fuse – cute  brume – Rome  mule – mole

mute – fume – Hume  rule – role   Hume – home

muse – cube – tube  prune – prone  fume – bone

huge – mule –due  tune – tone  huge – cola

b) ruse – Bruce   plume – flute  price – spruce

rune – prune   flute – fluke  rise – ruse

Hume – brume  fluke – plume  scribe – cube

prude – brute  fly – flute   rice – truce

rude – crude   ply – plume  'useful – re'fuse

due – huge   fly – rude   pro'duce – oppor'tunity

dry – dune

c) cub – cube  tub – tube  fuss – fuse  huge – cute

us – use   hug – huge tune – truce  tune – mule

cut – cute  luck – Luke dune – spruce  rug – glue

rud – rude  nut – true  suck – stuck  duck – duke

run – rune  rut – dug  struck – cut  brush – Brume

plum – plume  bus – blue  sum – mule  luck – fluke

rub – rule  rub – rude  'under – use  dull – duke

d) dis'cuss, 'customer, pro'duction, 'study, 'under, 'uncle, 'unit, un'less, un'like, un'til, up, up'set, up-to-day

9

  1.  pack – stack – slack

Nick – stick – click

deck – neck – reck

duck – stuck – struck

lock – clock – block

b) click – fleck – clock – cluck – clack

dick – deck – dock – duck – back

sick – neck – sock – suck – sack

lick – lock – luck – lack – luke

Test yourself: by, dye, my, tie, size, but, if, nip, tip, system, fit, mine, gum, fine, dive, tin, style, pine, fun, tug, life, side, lift, sin, pipe, tide, kid, like, time, up, tint, tyke, bye, dyke, yelp, dike, is, did, nine, type, life, hug, slip, bug, dip, lid, mill, kill, like, file, smile, try, glade, glide, globe, dame, dime, dome, plug, grape, ripe, rope, stale, style, stole, huge, raze, rise, yoke, rose, tape, type, cup, trope, bug, lug, nut, cock, left, page, cross, deck, run, plus, big, tube, study, sum, tube, cone, dress, me, sunny, luck, rule, dry.

UNIT 3

10.           [ υ: ] перед m, l, n

    oo -        

                [ υ ]

fool, spoon, soon, tool, pool, too, zoo

look, took, hook, good, brook,                                                       book, foot

  1.      j

          dge        - [ G ]        

just, June, jet, Jeff, Jam, Jack, jazz, jig

badge, lodge, bridge

12.     sh - [ S ]   

she, shall, shop, ship, shape, fish, dish, fresh, ship

13.   ch          в словах англ.                                                                                                           

                  происхождения

                  -  [ C ]

       tch                     

chest, check, inch, lynch, chap, chill, such, match, latch, ditch, catch, snatch, hatch, crutch , chop, chess, match

10 a) bug – book  b) good – hook

hug – hook  stood – took

tug – took  foot – book

nut – nook  wood – look

lug – look   cook – wool

  1.  loo – too – zoo – woo    d) poodle

loom – toon – zoom – swoon   noodle

loop – stoop – swoop    toodle

sloop – coop – troop – snoop   tat'too – sa'loon

hoot – loot – root – moot   bal'loon – ba'boon

11 a) gap – jab  gut – jut  got – jot  jib – gin

gust – just  gum – jam  gog – jog  jest – gest   

gag – Jack  gosh – Josh god – Jo  just – gist   jam – gem  jin – gin

b) jest – yes  jazz – yam

jet – yet  Jack – yak

jam – yam  Jam – yell

c) dog – dodge   leg – fledge  bad – badge

log – lodge   hog – hedge  odd – dodge

bag – badge   brig – bridge  bud – budge

plug – plunge   egg – edge  fled – fledge

fringe – hinge   lunge – plunge  led – ledge

12 a) shop – shot  b) ash – dash – rash – cash

shell – shelf  mesh – dish – fresh – fish

shall – sham  smash – splash – crash – trash

shock – shod  rush – hush – flush – crush

chat – shunt  shut – shim – shrill – shrimp

13 a) chess chest  check b) hatch – latch – match – much

chap  chat  champ fetch – drench – crutch – snatch

chin  chill  chip  itch – hitch – pitch – rich – scratch

chop  chuck chat

c) chip – ship  cash – catch   d) back – batch – badge

chop – shop crush – Dutch   block – blotch – lodge

crutch – grudge  etch – edge   deck – etch – edge

fetch – fledge  inch – fringe   luck – lunch – plunge

blotch – lodge check – change   lick – lynch – hinge

   [ 'CeInG ]

e) Madge – age

badge – page

cadge – cage

cadge – sage

Test yourself: fledge, luck, fetch, chip, itch, match, badge, yell, root, smash, wood, bug, sa'loon, bridge, June, joke, huge, gulf, yoke, good, took, inch, such, jazz, hook, zoo, stood, catch, fresh, bridge, fledge, crash, chat, crush, wool, jump, loop, jest, moon, fresh, hatch, check, shape, noodle, go, block, shelf, judge, shine, kitchen, cage, loose, jungle, shell, ditch, spoon, shape, gum, chest, fridge, soot, June, pitch, trash, shall, chuck, jet, food, shock, cool, sock, log, swoon, jab, loom.

UNIT 4

14.   ee                    

                    -  [ I: ]

       ea                    

see, meat, feet, need, lead, sleep, deed, sea, feed, fleet, zeal, east, keep, feel, pea, deal, leaf, mean

15.   ai                 

                   - [ eI ]

       ay                 

pain, vain, mail, day, lain, may, pay, say, clay, aim, fail, sail, bay, lay, claim, plain

16.          e, i, y - [ I ]                    

в безударном положении  

'study, 'noisy, 'lobby, 'pony, 'sorry, 'lorry, 'duty, be'gin, di'vide

17.                  [ T ]   

         th  -                           

                      [ D ]   

theme, thick, thin, depth, tenth, fifth

they, these, then, with, them, those, thus, this, that, father

18.   o        в безуд. полож.          

       a       -  [ q ]                

       u                     

'sofa, 'comma, 'husband, pa'rade

a'gain, a'go, to'day, up'on

14 a) fee – tree    keep – been – seen

feel – green   speech – keen – green

sheet – sheep  feed – need – sleeve

freeze – meet  see – sweep – feet

bee – see   need – deep – sleep

b) fee – feel  c) eat – meat  mete – meat – meet

glee – green tea – sea  seam – seem – weak

lee – sleep pea – beam  scene – scream – screen

bee – been heat – neat  eat – pea – clean

see – seen tree – meat  sea – seat – cheap

deep – keen east – deal  deal – each – seat

d) week – weak   e) weal, veal, teen, weed, real, deed, treat,

see – sea weald, wheel, beach, Greek, peak,

meet – meat sneeze, sheep, sweep, seal, reap

speech – speak

reed – read

seem – seam

screen – scream

f) lead – lid  bean – bin  g) feel – fill  green – grin

leap – lip  eat – it   beet – bit   heed – hid

least – list  reach – rich week – wick  sleet – slit

meal – mill  seat – sit   cheek – chick  been – bit

peach – pitch  heat – hit  sleep – slip  fleet – fit

beat – bit  peak – pick seek – sick  sweet – wit

each – itch  read – rid  deed – did   feel – fit

Read: The art of Biography

Is different from Geography.

Geography is about maps,

Biography is about chaps.

  1.  say  sail  stay  stain  main

day  drain  tray  tail  train

pay  pail  play  plain  gait

way  wail  may  Spain lay

16 a) 'baby 'sorry  b) 'carry – 'tarry  'merry – 'Perry

'lady  'lorry   'marry – 'parry  'cherry – 'sherry

'very  'crazy  'sorry – 'sherry  fatty – jolly

'lobby 'finally  'ferry – 'cherry  dandy – fancy

'berry happy

c) em'bed   d) 'marry   e) in'scribe

re'cede   'very    in'blame

de'stroy  'baby    dis'close

re'ply   'lady    dis'cover

de'fy   'story    dis'cuss

de'ny   'vary    'public

f) Be'gin to read.    

Ex'plain it.                                       

Re'peat it, please.

Re'peat it again.

'Try it again.    The rain in Spain is mainly in the plain.

  1.  a) thin  thick  theft  thrift   b) with

width  thump throb  thin   thus

thrill  thrum thrill  thud   them

myth  depth smith  thug   this

math  tenth  thug  thrust  that

thump theft  depth myth   then

kith  filth  smith  cloth   than

  1.  this – myth  that – math  with – filth

this – pith  that – depth  with – smith

this – throb  that – thrill   with – thrill

  1.  sick – thick  zip – this

sin – thin  zed – then

silk – thrill  Zen – then

mat – math  dad – that

tilt – filth  dust – thus

kit – kith  disk – this

tent – tenth  den – then

  1.  a) a'gain 'comma up'on  a'gree  suc'cess

a'go  'sofa  un'less  pro'pose  'algebra

to'day a'bout sug'gest  o'pinion  'binary

a'gainst sa'lute un'like  con'trol  'capital

b) a 'book, a 'house, a 'boy, a 'pen, a 'song, an 'end, a man, a dog, a club

Test yourself: zoom, ago, nurse, jest, ba'boon, 'traffic, foot, prize, ad'dress, 'comma, 'public, June, tease, u'pon, jest, thrum, thug, 'hurry, crush, with, de'ny, pith, de'fy, breath, em'bed, past, flask, di'rect, breathe, re'cede, math, thrill, thus, in'flame, vast, 'marry, mess, chum, 'family, agree, theme, thick, happy, width, length, them, student, myth, story, rep'ly, gain, then, sixth, with, com'pose, bath, bathe.

UNIT 5

19.             [ ks ]    

     x -                                          

                 [ gz ] перед ударной гласной  

next, text, sex, vex, box, ex'cept, ex'pect, 'excellent, tax

e'xam, e'xist, ex'ample, e'xact, e'xhibit

20.         oi                          

                         -   [ OI ]         

             oy                        

oil, point, boy, soil, noise, toy, coin, voice

21.         kn - [ n ]   

knee, knife, knock, knew, knell

22.     ng  - [ N ]   в конце слова

             nk - [ Nk ]  

But: [ Ng ] 'single, 'finger, 'singular  в середине слова

English, ring, thing, bring, ink bank, wing, wrong, hang, rang, drink, length, strength, think

23.         qu  - [ kω ]   

quick, quiz, quite, quote, quit

24. 

s, ss, sc -  [ s ]      

s -          [ z ] между гласными

bus, sense, miss, scent

ease, tease, please, his, noise

19 a) fix  next  fox  b) ex'act

text  six  flax  ex'hibit [ Ig'zIbIt ]

ox  box  ax  ex'aggerate [ Ig'zæGqreIt ]

mix  Max    e'xist [ Ig'zIst ]

     ex'amination [ IgzæmI'neISn ]

     ex'ample [ Ig'zQ:mpl ]

20 a) boy  soil  join  noisy   'boiler

toy  spoil  joist  poison  'boycott

joy  toil  moist  'roister  point

troy  oil  voice  'toilet   coin

  1.  a) knit – knock  knap – nap

knife – knave  knick – Nick

knick – knack  knell – Nell

knap – knag  knack – snack

knot – knob  knot – not

knell – knelt  knife – wife

  1.  knap – nap   c) knap – cat

knick – Nick   knick – kick

knell – Nell   knot – cot

knack – snack  knock – cock

knot – not   knave – cave

knag – nag   knob – rob

knife – wife   knoll – lot

knave – wave  knelt – net

22 a) sing – king  gang – tang  b) ink – link

ring – bring  bang – sprang  brink – clink

sling – fling  lung – flung  drink – think

spring – swing  song – gong  tank – thank

flank – frank

bunk – chunk

  1.  sing – sang – sung    d) ink  sang

ring – rang – rung    link   ping

cling – clang – clung   bank   strong

sting – stang – stung   trunk   bring

spring – sprang – sprung  wink   swing

fling – flang – flung   

e) ran – rang – range     f) 'single  

ban – bang – bank    'finger

tan – tang – tank     'singular

tug – rung – trunk

thin – thing – think     g) sing – singe – inch – ink

sink – sank – sunk    bring – cringe – pinch – pink

stink – stank – stunk – stitch

king – fringe – winch – wink

drink – drank – drunk  

flung – flunge – hunch – hunk

lung – lunge – bunch – bunk

  1.   quill – quilt

quick – quip

quiz – quint

quell – well

quest – west

24 a) is – his   b) bus  'person  add'ress

as – has   release  'sense  res'ponse

rose – nose  case   suc'cess

rise – noise  suspense  c) his – kiss bus – is

lose – close  reset   his – hiss  plus – is

zone – those  mesa  his – miss  us – is

rise – prize  cross

zoo – zoom  rose

braze – maze  close

Test yourself: next, exist, quip, knit, 'singular, knick, set, bang, trunk, voice, e'xaggerate, joy, knag, tang, single, moist, troy, thing, thank, sale, be'long, meeting, ring, song, kneel, knoll, ex'act, send, e'xample, ex'hibit, fix, sane, sake, scent, scene, close, prose, science, quiz, oil, ex'treme, quite, point, text, depth, re'sponse, strength, toy, ex'cept, knee, these, prize, thing, 'liquid, noise, knave, spring, swing, quick, boil, trunk, box, coil.


UNIT 6

25.

ea - [ e ] перед  d, th

dead, bread, ready, feather, leather, head

But: break [ breIk ], great [ greIt ], steak [steIk ], create [ krI: 'eIt ]

26.

o - [ A ] перед 

        m, n, th, v

'company, 'become, done, won, 'mother, glove, dove, some, 'cover, front, month, love, 'wonder, a'bove, 'other, come, 'money

27.     ew             

                    - [ jυ: ]

          eu             

new, few, knew, stew, mew, dew, pew, hew

neutral, feudal, 'Euclid, 'Eugene, 'Europe

28.   i + ld, nd - [ QI ]   

grind, be'hind, mild, kind, blind, wild, find    But: gild [ gIld ], wind [ ωInd ], [ωQind ]

29.     igh - [ QI ]  

fight, light, might, night, high, right, bright sight, tight, to'night

  1.  a) head – read – spread – thread – dead – dread

feather – weather – breath – death – stead – lead

  1.  heading – 'deadly  c) a'head   heal – head

spread – 'dreadful      in'stead   deal – dead

thread – steady      be'head   steal – stead

   be'spread  beat – breath

   be'stread  treat – thread

d) heed – head    e) Whether the weather be fine,

deep – death        Whether the weather be not,

breed – bread       Whether the weather be cold,

breed – breath       Or whether the weather be hot,

deed – dead        We’ll weather the weather

reed – fleet        Whatever the weather

       Whether we like it or not.

  1.   son come love  wonder other  cover become

won some dove  mother another money London

front above glove  brother month company

27 a) feud  few  grew  rue – drew

deuce  new  crew  due – dew

Zeus  chew  threw flue – flew

     true – sue

b) 'neutral – 'newly    'Andrew – 'Lewis

'Newton – 'Euclid    'newish – a'new

'Eugene – 'Newton    re'new – 'newal

28-29 a) wild – child – mild

nigh – sigh – nigh – thigh

fight – night – tight – sight – might

slight – light – right – bright – plight

kind – mind – find – bind – blind – rind

  1.  file – fight  mite – might  will – wild  pile – plight

style – sight  tile – tight   chill – child

Nile – night  lime – light   mill – mild

  1.  wink – wing – wind

brink – bring – bind

sink – fling – find

think – spring – grind

Test yourself: London, night, wind, light, cover, bread, front, new, front, become, 'ready, 'feudal, some, a'nother, won, great, blind, high, Nile, weather, plight, hew, a'bove, to'night, breath, dead, thread, child, high, 'Monday, dew, son, mind, light, come, right, few, bright, find, head, knew, dove, sight, de'light, fight, break, weather, other, done, mild, tight, feather, flew, wonder, might.


UNIT
7

30.            [   ]        в словах

ch  -             франц. происх.

  •  

                 [ k ] в словах греч.                                  происхождения

ma'chine, chef, Chi'cago, chimes,

chic, champagne [∫  æm'peIn ]

'scholar, chrome, chorus, chloride, 'architect, scheme, school

31. гласные в ударном слоге читаются как в открытом слоге перед согласной + le

'stable, 'title, 'able, 'idle, 'maple, 'Bible, 'sable

32. ph - [ f ] в словах греческого происхождения

                

'physics, phi'losophy, 'telephone, 'phrase, 'photo, 'photgraph, 'telegraph, 'alphabet, 'graphic

33.         a + ff, th -  [ Q: ]            

'pather, 'father, 'bathroom, path

34.                a + lm [ m]       

                    a + lf [ f ]        

    [ Q: ]  -      a + nce      

                    a + nch    

                    a + nt       

palm, balm, salmon, calm

calf, half, halves

dance, glance, France, chance

ranch, branch

grant, plant, can’t, shan’t

35.      ey                 

                     - [ eI ]

          ei                   

grey, o'bey, they, veil

36.    a + s + cогл. -  [ Q: ]   

ask, task, fast, grasp, plaster, master, pass, class, task, grass, last, vast, last

30 machine, chef, Chicago, chimes, chrome, chlorite, scheme, chorus, architect, mechanic, technical, character

31 a) tape – table  b) rifle  sable   cobble

state – stable  stifle   cable   noble

cape – cable  trifle   table   ogle        

ape – able   cycle   stable  fugle

babe – fable  title   Maple  Bible

idle   bridle

32 phone   phase  'phantom   'telegraph

phlok   phrase  Phillip   'atmosphere

Phipps   photo  phut    'alphabet

Phony   phobia      'paragraph

  1.  a) staff – chaff   b) calm – palm  calves – halves

aft – craft – shaft  calm – charm  leaf – leaves

bath – path – lath  balm – palm  life – lives

staff – bluff – fluff  calf – half   wife – wives

c) France – chance – dance – glance   shunt – shan’t

plant – grant – can’t – shan’t    hunt – can’t

branch – stanch – ranch – planch   stuff – staff

cuff – chaff

  1.  bat – bath

lad – lath

pat – path

34 a) calm – palm calf – half  half – harm calm – charm

calf – half  calf – scarf balm – barn palm – farm

calve – halve  

balm – palm  

35 a) grey  fey   b) same – they  plane – feint

rein  vein   face – fey   wave – vein

veil  trey   trace – trey  crane – rein

they  skein   

feint  ley

36 a) class – pass – glass – grass – brass

ask – task – flask – bask – mask

fast – past – cast – vast – mast

b) past – pass – grasp

fast – glass – clasp

cast – class – gasp

last – grass – rasp

Test yourself: ma'chine, phlok, 'telephone, rein, 'technical, 'alphabet, chaff, halves, phrase, glance, staff, chef, 'chronicle, path, grey, cable, obey, palm, calm, fast, de'mand, me'chanics, 'character, plant, noble, scholar, stable, physics, graphics, they, pass, glass, fast, task, class, past, branch, bath, half, hey, glass, stable, noble, photo, idle.

UNIT 8

37.    

     au        

                 - [ L ]

     aw          

'autumn, hawk, law, paw, draw, August, 'saucer, fault, dawn, maul, Paul, pawl, 'raucid, raw, saw, sawn, 'saunter, saucy, tawdry, taut, 'tawny, pause, vaunt, bawd, awful

38.                    lt                       

a -  [ L ]         ll

                       lse

                      lk [ k ]

'Baltic, chalk, palsy, palter, talk, walk, waltz, altar, alter, 'altering, bald, balk, 'balsam, chalk, 'falcon, falter, halt, also, 'almost, all

39.   oar - [ L ]

oar, boar, hoard, hoar, hoarse, coarse

40. au               

               + gh -  [ L ]

     ou

caught, fought, nought, brought, thought, taught, sought, 'naughty, draught, ought

41.

      qua - [ kωL ]

'quadrant, quad, 'quadral, quaff, 'quadrate, 'quarrel, 'quality, 'quantity, quant, quart, quartz, quash, 'quarry

37 a) paw  saw  b) haunt – taunt   c) 'August – 'aurrist

maw  raw  haunch – launch  'aura – 'aural

jaw  yaw  'Mauna – jaunt   'austral – 'auburn 

law  caw  'awful – 'sawmill   'auto – 'autumn 

claw  slaw  'bawdy – 'sawder  (n не читается)

taw  thaw  'trawler – 'crawler

38 a) all – fall – small – tall – stall  b) talk – chalk all – balk

call – ball – salt – small – false  chalk – walk wall – walk

falling – calling – stalling – wall  small – talk stall – stalk

salty – fallen – baldly – spall  all – chalk  call – chalk

task – talk  mask – chalk

ask – chalk cask – stalk

stalk – balk bask – balk

  1.  calm – palm  calf – half  carves – halves

calm – balm  palm – half calf – scarf

39 board, coarse, hoarse, roar, boar, oar, hoard, hoar, soar

40 a) ought   fought  draught

nought   saught  daughter

bought   thought  brought

b) fort – fought   ought

sort – sought  'daughter

thorn – thought  draught

north – naught  caught

41 a) quad – squad  b) 'quadrant  c) quail  quiet

quash – squash      quadral   quaint  quill

gosh – quarrel      quadrate  quake  'quota

        quality   queen  

        qualifi'cation  quick   

Test yourself: auto, bauble, fault, 'quality, half, 'naughty, coarse, wall, alter, Paul, wash, fought, quart, ought, hoar, walk, 'saucer, 'August, 'quarrel, 'daughter, 'almost, 'Baltic, draw, 'quarter, auto'matic, cause, call, brought, thought, low, caught, false, quantity, hoard, quant, pause, bought, thought, quash, spall, chalk, author.

UNIT 9

42. er                

     ir        [ q: ]     в

    yr           ударном

    ur           слоге 

herd, turn, skirt, sir, terse, dirty, serf, nerve, first, curd, purse, thirty, serf, girl, burst, spur, turtle, myrtle

43.  eer                  

                      -  [ Iq ]

     ear

     ere

cheer, beer, veer, steer, clear, ear, hear, near, fear, year, dear, queer, deer, dear, merely, mere, sere, here

But: were [ ωq ], [ ωq ]

44.     ire                

                   -  [ QIq ]

        yre              

tired, mire, lyre, Shire, tyre, hire, sa'tire

45.    ure - [ jυ:]

lure, pure, cure, en'dure, se'cure

46.    oor - [ υq ]

moor, spoor, poor But: floor [ flL ], door [ dL ]

42 a) her, ob'serve, 'verses, 'person, re'turn, merge, ab'surd, heard, re'serve

b) fur – 'further  surd – 'surplus   nurse – 'murder

fur – 'furnish  Turk – 'Turkish   surd – 'sturdy

fur – 'furnace turk – 'turnip   urge – 'urgent

curl – 'curly  purr – pure    plur – lure

curt – cure  'purchase – 'turnover   'curtain – cure

occur – obs'cure       fur – fure

c) thirst – third  sir – 'circus  first – firstly  

firm – 'firman  bird – birch  dirt – dirty

Read: I observed. I observed an absurd person. I observed the absurd person and I heard her. I observed the absurd person and I heard her recite the verses. When I returned I observed the absurd person and I heard her recite the verses.

43 a) deer  beer  sere  sphere  queer

ear  near  veer  steer   fear

Shear smear dear  rear   tear

Here mere  spear hear   clear

b) nearing, steering, fearing, rearing, clearing, cheering

  1.  a) mire  hire  tire  fire  wiry  wiring

spire  sire  quire  byre  miry  firing

tyre  pyre  lyre  squire hiring tiring

  1.  ad'mire   at'tire  de'sire

cons'pire  re'spire  ex'pire

re'quire   in'spire  re'tire

en'quire   

  1.  fine – fire  type – tyre   fir – fire

wide – wire  site – sire   sir – sire

hide – hire  mile – mire  bird – byre

spite – spire  pipe – pyre  birch – lyre

quite – quire  ar'rive – ad'mire  'firman – 'fireman

45 a) en'dure  pure – purely   

al'lure  pure – purer   

se'cure  pure – purest   

lure – luring

  1.  a) poor – poorly   b) cute – cure  huge – pure

poor – poorer   rule – poor   mule – moor

poor – poorest   plume – spoor

    

Test yourself: west, term, sphere, here, breeze, these, were, sere, chest, hem, stress, prefer, bed, germ, further, curtain, smart, burst, learn, pure, near, firm, turn, se'cure, wire, circle, hear, verb, cheer, curve, clear, spoor, cure, nerve, burn, re'tire, queer, fire, dirty, third, require, tyre, re'turn, dear, merge, poor, con'vert, ad'mire, hire, person, sir, fur, 'circuit, 'ther'mal, surface, university, early, 'thirsty.

UNIT 10

47.      ar - [ Q: ]  

cart, hard, bar, large, yard, charm, harm, dark, star, bard, car

48.   are - [  ]

A + r + гласная

rare, hare, care, square, stare, share, spare, bare, scare   But: are [a:]

49.   air     

                -  [ q ]

       eir     

air, hair, fair, pair, chair, stair, dairy, fairy, their

50.   or                 

                  -  [ L ]

       ore                 

cord, fork, score, port, sport, more, born, core, store, short, sort, forty, explore

51.  wa - [ ωO ]

watch, want, wash, wand, wash, was, wander, water, walk

52.  war -  [ ωL ]

war, ward, warn, warm, re'ward

53.  wor - [ ωq ]

word, worse, world, worst, 'worship, 'network

47-48 a) mar – mare   dark – dare  barn – bare

car – care   spar – spare  farm – fare

star – stare   far – fare   harm – hare

bar – bare   charm – chair  tar – tare

b) mate – mare  wake – ware  

cate – care  rake – rare 

state – stare  bake – bare 

shake – share fate – fare 

c) far – car – bar – mar – tar – star 

car – cart – barn – card – par – carp 

part – start – tart – smart – cart – art 

arm – farm – darn – barn – tarn – charm 

d) cat – cart  bad – bard  fame – farm  scape – scar 

mat – smart  match – march Dane – darn  cape – carp 

cap – cart  cad – card  shame – charm  shape – sharp 

bat – Bart  dad – yard  stake – stark  spade – spar

e) mare  bare  care  dare  fare  share

air  pair  hair  fair  their  careful

prepare parent hairy  daring farewell careless

49 a) fair – fairly   pail – pair  hail – hair  air – airship

hair – hairless  fail – fair  air – aim  pare – fairy

air – airless  chain – chair stain – stair

b) they – their   c) fair – fail  dare – daring

they – there   hair – hail    stare – staring

they – where   rare – rail    share – sharing

where – there  chair – chain   care – caring

stair – stain   pare – parent

air – aim    flare – flaring

50 a) fort

       torn

       sport

       York

       short

       horse

b) for – form 

    sort – short 

    fork – cork 

    nor – norm 

    torch – scorch 

    ford – cord 

or – storm 

torn – thorn 

born – corn 

port – porter 

storm – stormy 

for – forty 

c) fore          bore

   tore          ore

   spore       more

   Yore

   shore

   core

d) cod – corn 

   odd – lord 

   cock – cork 

   fog – forge 

   Bob – born 

code – cord 

tone – torn 

cone – corn 

phone – form 

stone – storm 

e) sharp – short 

   card – cord 

   are – form 

   farm – form 

   parch – porch 

51-53 a) was – squash  watt – wand

watch – wash  want – squat

b) 'warmer – wormy  work – worker   c) 'farmer – warder

warder – worker  wored – woredly  'former – warder

wardress – worthy  worse – worser   varnish – warship

warship – worship  worst – worsen   Cornish – warty

re'ward – reword  worth – worthy  [ 'ωqDI ] barman – wardress

a'ward – a word  word – wordy   corner – warmer

farther – warmer       corny – warship

d) tapper – taper – Tarter  ladder – lazy – larder  

chatter – chaser – charter manner – maker – market

panty – paper – partner

Test yourself: mare, charm, wormy, award, want, worst, forty, ex'plore, worse, store, share, watch, work, born, card, cord, world, more, far, hard, fair, forty, store, yore, York, porch, phone, are, sore, morning, code, core, harm, their, torn, forge, spore, scorch, far, barn, shake, fare, trade, tale, bag, Sam, dare, care, car, mate, smart, card, rare, fate, square, stare, shame, bart, yard, bare, ware, re'ward, re'port, walk, prepare, article, pair.

UNIT 11

54.   ou        - [ Qυ ]

                     

       ow       - [ Qυ, Oυ ]                 

[ Qu ] out, a'bout, round, town, ground, brown, pound, a'mount, gown, loud, down

[ Ou ] row, know, show, blow, throw, snow

55.  our           

  •  [ Qυq ]

      ower            

our, flour, sour, flower

56.   wr - [ r ]

wrist, wrench, wry, write, wrap, wrong

57. wh -         [ ω ]

  wh + o        [ h ]  

whine, why, wheel, whale, while, whim, wheat

whose [ hυz ], who [ hυ ], whom [ hυm ], whose [ hυz ]

54  [ Qυ ]        [ Oυ ]

a) bow  al'low  browse  bow  slow  

row  ac'count  crown  row  tow  

cow  dis'count  ground  show  mow

now  'output  noun   glow  flow

'powerful found  mouse  known borrow

b) lone – glow  stone – mown

so – slow  rose – row

no – mow  snow – smoke

c) faun – found   sauce – house   d) hawk – how

haunt – hound  fault – foul    dawn – down

laud – loud   staunch – stout   claw – clown

Maude – mound  pause – rouse   pawn – pound

         pawl – foul

55 a) our – sour – dour – flour – scour – hour [ Qυq ]

b) our – out  sour – stout  hourly

hour – oust  flour – flounce  sourly

scour – scout dour – doubt  flouring

our – noun  sour – south  dourer

hour – mouth hour – house  scouring

56 write – wrote   write – wrung   wrest – west

writ – wrist   wrong – wring   wring – wing

wrest – wreck  wren – wrench   wrote – wove

wrack – wrap   wry – wren

wrest – rest   write – rite    

wrack – rack   wrench – trench   

wring – ring   wry – try   

57 a) when – which – why – what b) while – wine  which – witch

whole – hole – whole – hole what – watt  whale – wake

who [ υ: ] – whose [ υ: ]  who – rule   why – wide

when – wet

[ V - f ]        [ ω ]

c) vat – fat      d) wet – went – well

van – fan     west – wept – swept

vet – vent     will – win – wit

vend – felt     swim – swift – swell

vin – fin      twin – twist – dwell

Read:

a) bid – bed – bond – bump – bard    still – stem – stop – stump – stamp

pit – pet – pot – but – bat      spill – spell – spot – pump – stand

rib – red – rob – run – tram      grip – get – grog – grunt – grand

trip – trek – trod – truss – flax    print – press – prop – plump – pram

strip – stress – prod – bust – tramp

miss – mess – moss – muss – mass

him – hem – loss – hum – ham    b) timber – timer – thirty

list – lest – lost – last – lass    sister – spider – skirmish

big – bed – bog – bug – bag    finish – final – firmer

pin – pen – pond – pun – pan    differ – diver – dirty

Test yourself: wiry, follow, expire, show, yellow, voted, secure, moor, snow, mountain, vet, whose, our, south, stress, down, wrack, while, dwell, wrench, count, slow, low, why, twist, print, hour, wrong, whole, flower, whom, finish, still, swim, write, noun, hourly.


UNIT
12

58.                   после глух. согл.   - [ s ]

окончание (e) s -

                       после звонк. согл., гласн.

                                                        [ z ]

после шипящих и свистящих       [ Iz ]

ports, months, slopes, cases, forces, pages, chairs, rooms, cameras, borders

59.  ea - [ e ]

   перед sure [ Zq ]

'leisure, 'pleasure, 'measure, 'treasure

But: sure [Sυq], sugar [Sυgq]

60.    ture - [ Cq ]

 

'picture, 'lecture, 'future,  'culture, 'nature, 'structure

61.      ssian

            tion      

           cian            - [ Sn ]

          ssion

          sion            - [ Zn ]

'nation, 'Russian, 'dictation, 'station, de'cision, 'action, di'vision, trans'lation

58 a) cut – cuts   beg – begs  refuses

clock – clocks  pig – pigs   finishes

weep – weeps  will – wills   changes

shout – shouts  bard – bards  buses

  1.  beef – beeves  life – lives

calf – calves   wolf [ υ ] – wolves [ υ ]

half – halves   loaf – loaves

leaf – leaves   scarf – scarves

wife – wives   self – selves

shelf – shelves  thief – thieves [ I: ]

[ s ]      [ z ]    [ Iz ]

c) cut – cuts        bus – buses

clock – clocks   beg – begs  gas – gases

paint – paints   cave – caves  plus – pluses

drink – drinks   pig – pigs   match – matches

stop – stops    grave – graves  fetch – fetches

fork – forks    hill – hills   rich – riches

mark – marks   wave – waves  age – ages

flirt – flirts    club – clubs  dress – dresses

hope – hopes   ale – ales   rose – roses

vote – votes    stab – stabs  race – races

take – takes    pole – poles  breeze – breezes

grape – grapes   hand – hands  hinge – hinges

shape – shapes   hole – holes  brush – brushes

flake – flakes   band – hands  tax – taxes

point – points   eve – eves  fox – foxes

wait – waits    ten – tens   fix – fixes

suit – suits    drive – drives  rise – rises

fruit – fruits    fan – fans   horse – horses

boot – boots    lime – limes  fuss – fusses

root – roots    run – runs   dish – dishes

hawk – hawks   style – styles  boss – bosses

fault – faults    ring – rings  dash – dashes

haunt – haunts   crime – crimes  flash – flashes

boat – boats    tire – tires   kiss – kisses

[ s ]      [ z ]    [ Iz ]

toast – toasts   fire – fires   force – forces

weep – weeps   wire – wires  lodge – lodges

cheek – cheeks   side – sides  fuzz – fuzzes

creep – creeps   song – songs  

cheat – cheats   long – longs  

street – streets   tribe – tribes  

hook – hooks   tube – tubes  

book – books   lung – lungs  

mount – mounts   carve – carves  

count – counts   mule – mules  

coast – coasts   starve – starves  

'object – objects   spoil – spoils  

'traffic – traffics   hire – hires  

'subject – subjects   try – tries   

rocket – rockets   serve – serves

stripe – stripes   join – joins

bite – bites    fly – flies

white – whites   sire – sires

wake – wakes   dry – dries

    [ z ]

nerve – nerves   rain – rains  hear – hears

bard – bards    train – trains  steer – steers

lord – lords    maid – maids  boy – boys

firm – firms    need – needs  stair – stairs

term – terms    read – reads  pair – pairs

curl – curls    cry – cries   trey – treys

form – forms    leave – leaves  sea – seas

ward – wards   sleeve – sleeves fir – firs

bird – birds    town – towns  day – days

car – cars    fry – fries   fur – furs

star – stars    toy – toys   fee – fees

care – cares    grey – greys  stare – stares

59-60

a) measure – measuring  'picture  'culture  'sculpture

pleasure – pleasurer  nature  future  feature

treasure – treasurer  fixture  mixture  texture

lecture – lecturer   capture  torture  gesture

structure – structural  furniture  signature [ 'sIgnqCq ]

b) Eat at pleasure,

Drink with measure

What do you usually do at leisure?

61 'section  re'ception  attraction  deduction  motion

action  at'tention  refraction  reduction  notion

sanction cor'rection  distraction  production  

pro'motion commotion translation  e'quation [ I'kωeISn ]

Test yourself: dairy, flour, measure, matches, production, structure, leisure, stair, ear, lecturer, veer, sour, decision, treasure, illusion, sculpture, queer, year, emotion, furniture, action, fair, cheer, our, confusion, television, oppression, mathematician, dresses, cares, leaves.

UNIT 13

62. после звонк. согл., гласн. - [ d ]

ed - после глух. согл.               - [ t ]

      после t, d                          - [ Id ]  

'mated, 'fainted, re'ferred, 'married, opp'ressed, 'sweeped, 'dropped, re'laxed, 'aired, 'entered, 'learned, di'vided

63.   o + ld - [ Oυld ]

old, cold, fold, gold

64.   ing - [ IN ]

ring, sing, planning

 [ t ]    [ d ]     [ Id ]

62 a) chop – chopped bar – barred    vote – voted

shop – shopped  star – starred    de'bate – de'bated

stop – stopped  pre'fer – pre'ferred   note – noted

chip – chipped  offer – offered    hate – hated

shock – shocked  dare – dared    found – founded

chuck – chucked  air – aired     date – dated

tax – taxed   play – played    faint – fainted

mix – mixed   de'stroy – de'stroyed  seat – seated

match – matched  lodge – lodged   heat – heated

         greet – greeted

         boot – booted

         wait – waited

[ t ]    [ d ]     [ d ]

b) top – 'stopped  blame – blamed   row – 'rowed

flop – 'flopped  try – 'tried    charge – charged

shop – 'shopped  flame – flamed   tire – 'tired

ship – 'shipped   fry – 'fried    sneeze – sneezed

chip – 'chipped   rage – raged   sleeve – sleeved

force – forced  cry – 'cried    ease – eased

shock – 'shocked  dare – 'dared   cool – cooled

back – 'backed  cone – coned   dream – dreamed

pack – 'packed  care – 'cared   clean – cleaned

crack – 'cracked  stone – stoned   peal – pealed

check – 'checked  share – 'shared   fool – fooled

peck – 'pecked  close – closed   roof – roofed

link – 'linked   stare – 'stared   slow – 'slowed

wink – 'winked  tune – tuned   rub – 'rubbed

thank – 'thanked  fear – 'feared   fog – 'fogged

flank – 'flanked  fuse – fused   pin – 'pinned

smash – 'smashed near – 'neared   poise – poised

crash – 'crashed  use – used   skin – 'skinned

fish – 'fished   fire – 'fired    rail – railed

cash – 'cashed  charm – charmed  leg – 'legged

wash – 'washed  hire – 'hired   plug – 'plugged

wish – 'wished  scorn – scorned   bag – 'bagged

tax – 'taxed       

fix – 'fixed     

[ t ]    [ t ]     [ d ]

box – 'boxed   step – 'stepped   play – 'played

mix – 'mixed   watch – watched  stave – starved

press – 'pressed  fork – forked   fail – failed

dress – 'dressed  cork – corked   web – 'webbed

kiss – 'kissed  pace – paced   trim – 'trimmed

ask – asked   trace – traced   name – named

fetch – fetched  match – matched  carve – carved

mark – marked  sweep – sweeped  call – called

cheek – cheeked  leash – leashed   show – 'showed

creep – creeped  book – booked

63 a) old – cold – fold – hold – bold – gold

b) curl – old   c) boat – bold   d) oil – old

bird – bold   soap – sold   boil – bold

hurl – hold   goat – gold   coil – cold

firm – fold   coat – cold   soil – sold

turn – told   foam – fold   toil – told

murk – mold   wove – wold   foil – fold

64 planning  rubbing  boxing  potting

sitting   robbing  nesting  sensing

stopping  digging  fishing  fencing

hitting   bidding  singing  solving

humming  milling  sticking  flashing

Test yourself: old, cold, fold, gold, 'mated, 'fainted, re'ferred, 'married, opp'ressed, 'sweeped, 'dropped, re'laxed, 'aired, 'entered, 'learned, di'vided, a'voided, ring, sing, planning, walked, priced, liked, scraped, hoped, sloped, talked, asked, washed, turned, turned.

Additional Exercises

Exercise 1

  1.  Cod – code – cork – core   mat – mate – mar – mare

stock – stoke – storm – store   plum – plume – blur – lure

shot – shone – short – shore   punch – pule – purr – pure

net – neat – nerve – near   Nack – shake – shark – share

hen – heat – her – here    stack – stake – star – stare

quench – queen – perm – queer  cut – cute – curt – cure

fin – fine – fir – fire     sit – site – sir – sire

spit – spite – spirt – spire   

Exercise 2

'Safe, 'even, 'mine, tube, 'nylon, due, life, style, dry, same, smoke, fame, mile, pole, drive, 'duty, 'eve, those, 'battle, club, jump, much, 'subject, myth, lorry, re'sult, 'butter, cute, pigs, 'budget, 'tiny.

Exercise 3

Bare, pure, care, core, rare, pre'pare, square, fire, 'tired, cure, 'merely, 'circus, star, chart, 'Turkey, term, 'surface, serve, 'hardly, 'organize, trans'form, force, firm, 'murder, 'turnip, con'serve, shore, sphere.

Exercise 4

Pet, peep, been, bee, sleeve, end, mess, bee, smell, seed, life, lift, pine, pin, tie, lie, side, snip, snipe, by, bind, fight, mild, find, site, sight, bay, maid, fleece, pale, cliff, cite, 'tailor, pain, mat, cede, cave, fat.

Exercise 5

Star, wrack, sharp, spends, bone, charm, weave, wrap, bold, doom, coke, fees, witch, arch, cool, whale, cock, wreck, cash, seems, wrist, wheat, boar, wheeze, took, pool, sold, told, shells, whence, while.

Exercise 6

'Tower, wing, pink, quite, worm, knelt, 'diagram, hire, 'power, single, flank, quaint, worst, knave, 'diary, spire, 'flower, sprinkle, quake, worth, knob, 'via, 'wiry, sung, quack, words, knees, 'diamond, shire, 'shower, quest, 'worthy, tire, knives, 'pioneer, de'sire, vio'lin, wires, tire, 'angry.

Exercise 7

Crew, suc'cess, arti'ficial, bathe, laugh, whole, de'cay, 'storage, knuckle, 'moisture, be'hind, sidle, me'chanic, 'pressure, caught, 'virgin, 'naughty, 'fountain, 'sympathy, o'bey, 'feather, sledge, pew, true, exact, cow, 'casque, aunt, a'ware.

Exercise 8

Sport, wove, slave, solve, hunt, ward, hard, stove, worry, hurry, pause, care, ware, as, was, soar, sour, sore, war, pore, square, spoor, flour, more, moor, pure, urge, lynx, hear, room, raze, roam, here, prey, tire, fair, raise, rise, rood, rude, four, or, there, hair, their, they, fare, fur, far, fire, cool, coal, curl, girl, dire, dear, true, warm, work, farm, where, your, tyre, fear, deal, air, quire, world, noun.

Exercise 9

Deep snow, clean seat, raw meat, new grain, each toy, low voice, flew low, smooth Brown, shrewd boy, grey soil, new glue, good wood, frail mail, green paint, main jail, took aim, wool goat, staunch crowd, gay queen, plain boot, low lawn, round cloud, foul hawk, sharp teeth, new tooth, dark hood, proud joy, loud noise, good choice, cheep clay, sea coast.

Exercise 10

Calf – carve, loose – lose, lip – fib, heat  heed, duck  dug, fetch  edge, lent  lend, sink  sing, cliff  live – leaf  leave, bit  bid  beat  bead. Give me five minutes. I believe in a good laugh. Please, use a pencil. His ties look nice. I need a good guide. He died at night. He used to buy used cars. He meets us in Leeds. He left his 'luggage in a 'village pub. Put out your tongue. I think things are changing.

Exercise 11   [ æ – e ]

Man, hand, bad, cap, hat, back, stand back. The man had his hat in his hand. Man – men, land – lend, gas – guess. Finfen  fan, miss  mess  mass, bit bet  bat, bid  bed  bad. Bit – bid, bet – bed, bat – bad. Can I get a black hat? Mack’s neck is fat. The cat has 'blackspecks on her back. He let the cat out of the bag. Lend us a hand. My bed isn’t bad. She has a bad leg. I never said that. The man had ten tinned cans in his bag.

Exercise12   [ OL ], [ æ – υ ]

Got, lock, Tom. The pot is hot. He stopped the clock. Got – gut, lock  luck, gone  gun. The gun has gone off. She’s sung a song. Tom got a shock in the hot hut. Mop  mob, got  god, dock  dog. Tom is fond of hock. You’ve got a nice job. Short, talk, horn, law, more. They talked about Maude’s naughty daughter. No, home, moment. I don’t smoke. Law  low, court  coat, hall  hole. I bought a boat. The porter had mown the lawn. Court  cord, coat  code. He’s short of cord. Maude bought a long board. They found the code in his coat. Shot – short, lot  lord, fog  fork. Bob knocked at the door. We’ve got four bottles of Scotch. Cutcotcaught  coat, cudcodcord  code.

Exercise 13 [ eI ]

Day, game, make, face, nation. Let’s play a game. Haste makes waste. Play  plays  place, may – made  mate, pain  pained  paint. He waits  he wades. His pains were in vain. He stayed in that state till May.

Exercise 14  [ I, υ, q, jυ: ]

Fear, idea, fierce. He feared her tears. The fierce storm filled us with fears. Fee  fear, peace  pierce, bead  beard. She hears him sneeze. Poor, sure, tour. What can’t be cured must be endured. Are you sure the doors are secured? Shoe  sure, two  tour, queue  cure. I am sure this is a tour for you too. Hair, share, affair, scarce. They glared and stared at the bear. Take care of your fair hair. May  mare, ways  wears. Can you pay my fare? Dear  dare, fear  fare, really  rarely. I fear it’s not fair. Can you spare a bottle of beer? 'Zero, 'period, ma'terial. The in'terior of the 'theatre was 'seriously 'damaged.

Exercise 15   [ q: ]

Fur, firm, nurse, 'service, oc'curring. My turn comes first. Don’t 'dirty your new shirt. The nurse pulled back the 'curtains. Word, work, worse. His first 'verses are even worse. The early bird catches the worm. Fur  firs  first, learn  learns  learnt. Hurt  herd, burnt  turned. I heard the girl was hurt. First come, first served. The third word is a verb. Fir  fare, stir  stare, early  fairly. Where do you work? It was 'dirty in there.

Exercise 16  [ z – s ]

Zinc  sync, zip  sip, z  said. See, set, sick, seat, 'supper. He seems to be sea-sick. I’ve never seen such sunsets. I like soup for supper. Sing a song of 'sixpence. He sug'gested a 'system of 'simple 'symbols.

Exercise 17   [ ω, tω, ωV ]

Win, weak, white. In winter the 'weather was wet and windy. What a wonderful week-end! We 'wondered where 'William went. West  vest, wine  vine, 'William  'village. He went on a 'visit to the West Indies. What a 'wonderful voice! We waited in vain for William and his wife. This word is a verb. We 'never know the 'value of water till the well is dry.

Exercise 18 [ t, d, Id ]

Cramped, boxed, listed, plotted, hoped, worked, walked, fasted, hooked, passed, lasted, standed, roofed, sanded, called, curved, minded, knifed, dried, talked, charged, lighted, clipped, pressed, sealed, cited, backed, locked, rushed, nodded, aimed, waved.

Exercise 19

'Binary, 'parallel, math, mathe'matics, mathema'tician, mathe'matical a'nalysis, 'algorithm, ana'lytical ge'ometry, ex'periment, 'quadrate, circle, 'finite, 'digit, 'value, a'rithmetic, 'quantity, 'quality, e'quality, ad'dition, sub'traction, multipli'cation, di'vision, sign, 'minus, root, 'sequence, di'agonally, square, 'segment, 'calculus, axio'matic, 'figure, 'property, sim'plicity, true, u'niquely, so'lution, 'length, 'frequent, 'vector, 'vertically, hori'zontally.

Exercise 20

'Data, 'area, com'puting, de'vice, 'cable, 'laser, 'portable, 'mobile, 'programmer, 'expert, 'software, 'modem, 'palmtop, 'package, ca'pacity, 'channel, 'circuit, 'cursor, de'bug, configu'ration, ֽauto'mation, 'virus, se'curity, multi'media, 'graphics, ro'botics, 'satellite, 'mainframe, 'hardware, 'microchip, 'error, a'dapter, 'liquid, 'crystal, com'patible.

Exercise 21

Con'verter, 'register, 'chipboard, pixel, de'lete, 'digital, 'multiple, 'query, syn'chronous, 'bulletin board, 'object-oriented, 'fibre-optic, peri'pheral, 'pirate, en'vironment, 'signature, 'access, to 'access, 'database, ex'ternal, 'analog, source, 'schema, 'schedule, 'data 'storage, 'programming 'languages, ma'chine trans'lation, on'line 'service, 'technical sup'port.

Exercise 22

Computer, 'microcomputer, 'notebook, 'archives, appli'cation, 'wire, 'wireless, de'bugging, 'server, 'character, 'symbol, tech'nology, 'motherboard, 'kernel, in'ternal, 'malfunction, dis'play, 'screen, e'quipment, con'ductive, ac'cumulator, 'central pro'cessing 'unit, 'computer 'science, 'analyst 'programmer, arti'ficial in'telligence.

Exercise 23

'Physics, 'physicist, e'lectron, elec'tronics, me'chanics, 'hydro'dynamics, thermody'namics, la'boratory, 'molecule, mo'lecular, pulse, 'ion, i'onosphere, 'microphone, 'atmosphere, 'amplitude, ab'sorption, 'temperature, 'polarization, quartz, vib'ration, modu'lation, electro'lyte, 'diode, inter'ference, 'energy, 'energize, po'tential, ultra'sonic, multi'track, 'multi'phase 'systems, 'thermal 'physicist, ultra'violet rays, 'audio 'signal, 'digital 'circuit.

Exercise 24

'Wavelength, obser'vation, ob'servable, i'nitial, inte'grated, 'surface, 'pressure, 'voltage, 'magnitude, re'versible, re'versibility, e'vaporate, conduc'tivity, strength, 'rectify, rectifi'cation, 'amplify, amplifi'cation, 'amplifier, 'frequency, o'scilloscope, wire, col'lision, oc'currence, at'tenuate, 'bandwidth, multi'plexing, superflu'idity, 'stabilizing 'circuit, co'axial 'cable, tra'verse, 'measurement.

Exercise 25

'Calcium, 'copper, 'fluopium, 'ferrum, 'chlorine, 'iron, ger'manium, 'helium, i'ridium, 'iodine, mag'nesium, 'manganese, 'nickel, 'phosphorus, 'plumbum, lead, 'radium, 'sulphur, 'rhodium, 'silicon, 'stannum, 'strontium, 'thorium, 'hydrogen, 'nitrogen, 'oxygen, 'Chemistry, 'chemicals, 'carbon di'oxide.

Exercise 26

'Surface, earth, cause, air, de'posit, 'valley, flood, 'glacier, ice, 'weather, 'nature, en'vironment, vol'cano, ge'ology, e'rosion, 'quality, e'cology, 'industry, pol'lution, environ'mental 'safety, drought, plant, 'shower, hu'midity, 'lightning, water, wind, pour, south, north, west, east, 'climate, 'damage, o'zone, 'acid, 'dangerous, 'human, 'flora, 'fauna, 'animal, re'cycle, 'temperature, conser'vation, pro'tection, 'atmo'sphere, ex'tinction, 'scientist, area, sea, 'pressure, 'habitant, 'wildlife, re'sources, 'species, 'ocean, 'island, e'quator.

Exercise 27

To'pography, meteo'rology, hyd'rology, 'mountain, high, mig'ration, 'season, type, vege'tation, 'forecast, 'minus, mass, clima'tology, swamp, 'purify, 'desert, 'autumn, de'bris, 'forest, grass, 'mammal, 'origin, 'eco'friendly, waste, re'serve, recre'ation, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon di'oxide.

Exercise 28 [ t, d, Id ]

cook – cooked,  dry – 'dried, dance – danced, spray – 'sprayed, mask – masked, flay – 'flayed, pass – passed, free – 'freed, weep – weeped, fee – 'feed, map – 'mapped, stall – stalled, help – 'helped, wall – walled, face – faced, shape – shaped, pat – patted, pad – padded, end – ended, bed – bedded, test – tested, land – landed, list – listed, skid – skidded, tend – tended, hand – handed, state – stated, date – dated, cite – cited, pride – prided, white – whited, hate – hated, trade – traded, vote – voted, code – coded, start – started, sort – sorted, port – ported, lord – lorded, cord – corded, root – rooted, paint – painted, need – needed, speed – speeded, point – pointed, hoist – hoisted, found – founded, sound – sounded, ground – grounded, pound – pounded.

TEXT  A                           

TEA-LEAVES

Many years ago tea was unknown in European countries. Many people didn’t even know the word “tea”, though drinking tea was very popular in the East.

Once a young sailor came back from India. He was the only son of an old woman and every time he returned to Great Britain from a far-away country he brought his mother a gift. Of course, he tried to bring her something unusual, that she could show to her friends.

This time he brought her a box of tea. The old woman didn’t know anything about tea, but she liked the smell, and invited all her friends to come and try it.

When her guests arrived, she invited them to the dining table. The old woman treated them to cakes, fruit and tea-leaves.

When the sailor entered the room and saw a big plate filled with the tea-leaves, he understood everything. He smiled when he saw his mother’s friends eating tea-leaves with butter and salt. They pretended they liked it, but it was clear they didn’t enjoy eating the leaves.

“Where is the tea, Mother?” the sailor asked. His mother pointed to the plate in the middle of the table. “No, this is only the leaves of the tea”, the sailor said. “Where is the water?”

“The water!?” his mother said. “I threw the water away, of course”.



leaf – лист                     to treat – угощать                           smell – запах

gift – подарок                to pointуказывать

TEXT  B

HER WISH TO BECOME YOUNG WAS TOO GREAT

 This is a story about an old man and an old woman. They lived near a fine green wood. One summer day the old man went to the wood to pick mushrooms. It was a hot day and the man soon got tired and thirsty, but there was no water in the wood. So he sat down under a tree to rest.

Everything around him was so fresh and fine, but he was so old and sad. He wanted to return the days when he was young and fine.

Suddenly he saw a little spring near him. He was very glad as he was very thirsty. He began drinking the water. Soon he felt that he became younger and in a few minutes he was a fine young man again.

He ran home to tell his wife about the spring. When his wife heard the story, she ran to the wood quickly, though she was very old.

It was very late, but the old woman didn’t return home. So the old man went to the wood to meet her. When he came up to the spring, he saw a little girl. She was very glad to see him as she did not know how to get home. It was his wife. The man thought, “My wife wanted to become young so much that she drank too much water”.



wood – лес                     wish – желание        to be thirsty – хотеть пить         

spring – ручей

TEXT  C

A SAD STORY

Three men came to New York for a holiday. They came to a very large hotel and took a room there. Their room was on the forty-fifth floor. In the evening the young men went to the cinema. When the film was over, they went to a restaurant and had supper there. They came back to the hotel very late.

“I am very sorry”, said the clerk of the hotel, “but our lifts do not work at night. If you don’t want to walk up in your room, you can sleep in the hall”.

“No, no”, said one of the three men, “no, thank you. We shall walk to our room”. Then he said to his friends, “I think I know how to make it easy for us to walk up to the forty-fifth floor. On our way to the room I’ll tell you some jokes, then you, Peter, will tell us some interesting stories”.

So they began to walk up to their room. At last they came to the thirty-fourth floor. They were tired by that time, and they decided to have a rest. “Well”, said Tom “now it is your turn, Peter. Tell us a story with a sad end”.

“I’ll tell you a story”, said Peter. “It will not be long, but it will be sad enough. Listen. We have left the key to our room in the hall downstairs”.



floor – этаж                                        joke – шутка

It is your turn – ваша очередь           key – ключ

TEXT  D

WHAT HIS LIFE WAS WORTH

Robert Burns, the great Scottish poet, loved common people and wrote for them. Though he had little formal education, he was well-read and talented. He began to be recognized as a poet when his first poems were published in 1786. He was known as a very witty man.

One day when Burns was walking near the docks, he heard a cry for help. He ran towards the water. At that moment he saw a young sailor jump off a boat that stood near the dock. The sailor began to swim towards the man who was calling for help. Though it was not easy, the sailor saved the man.

The man who was saved from drowning was a very rich merchant. He thanked the brave sailor and gave him a shilling. The sailor was embarrassed.

A large crowd of people gathered round them. All the people considered the sailor to be a hero. They were displeased when the rich man gave the brave sailor only a shilling.

Many of the people shouted loudly and protested against it. But the rich merchant did not pay any attention to them.

At the moment Robert Burns approached the crowd and wondered what the matter was. He was told the whole story.

He was not surprised at the behavior of the rich merchant and said:

“Let him alone. The gentleman is the best judge of what his life is worth”.



common – простой                         witty – остроумный 

docks – доки                                    to drown – тонуть

behavior – поведение                     Let him alone – оставьте его (в покое)

judge – судья                                   to be worth'стоит что-то сделать


Войтик Н. В., Елесина М. А., Фомина Е. В.

Практикум по правилам чтения для студентов I курса неязыковых факультетов. Часть I. Тюмень: Издательство ТюмГУ, 2005.

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  В основе переживаний могут лежать действительные физические недостатки крупный нос полноватая фигура и т. Темой дисморфофобических переживаний чаще всего служат недостатки лица уродливый нос торчащие уши слишком круглое лицо то или иное строение рта форма губ или фигуры чрезмерная полнота или худоба и т. Темой болезненных переживаний может быть не только строение тела но и различные функции в частности неприятный запах кишеч ные газы запах от гениталий изо рта. Тема болезненных переживаний сохраняется в неизменном виде на...
40356. Смешанное расстройство личности. Декомпенсация. Тревожно-фобический синдром 24.91 KB
  До поступления больная жаловалась на постоянную необоснованную ревность к своему мужу мешавшая ей полноценной жизни подозревала всех родных и друзей в измене и лжи. Бабушка отца испытывала тревогу и недоверие к окружающим как сама больная. Младшая сестра пациентки которой 12 лет также страдает энурезом как больная в том возрасте и также испытывает недоверие к родным и друзьям.В позе Ромберга больная устойчива.
40357. Шизофрения, параноидная форма. Парафренный синдром 60.5 KB
  При осмотре кожных покровов: кожа бледно розовая нормальной влажности и температуры пролежней сыпей расчесов участков шелушений нет кровоизлияний сосудистых звездочек нет тургор кожи сохранен. При осмотре видимые слизистые оболочки розовые кровоизлиянийизъязвлений корочек нет. Пальцы и ногти обычной формы барабанных палочек и часовых стекол нет ногти на руках и ногах блестящие ровные исчерченности и ломкости ногтей нет. Питание избыточное подкожножировая клетчатка развита чрезмерно отеков нет.
40358. Среднепроградиентная шизофрения. Синдром Кандинского-Клерамбо 50.5 KB
  после многократных стрессов сокращение штатов на работе смерть отца сестры брата бабушки которые больная переносила очень тяжело. Через 3 дня больная услышала голос духа который успокаивал ее говорил что она является избранником для передачи духовного мира называл ее своим ребенком был ласков. Дух часто заставлял больную совершать ненужные телодвижения показывал ей картины мира зла и добра при общении с посторонними людьми указывал на хороших и злых людей злых людей больная видела с красными глазами. Иногда...
40359. Депрессивный и маниакальный синдромы в анамнезе 41.5 KB
  В это время дома был сын тогда ему было 12 лет. За это время со слов родственников сын старшая сестра неоднократно были эпизоды повышенной активности интенсивной деятельности освоения новой профессии бухгалтерский учет спонтанного ухода с прежнего места работы поиска новой. Последнее время чувствовала себя очень хорошо была полна сил энергией и множеством идей. Последнее время находясь на пенсии работала дизайнером штор но поссорилась с коллективом и уволилась.
40360. Математическая модель узла абсорбции оксидов азота водой в производстве разбавленной азотной кислоты 6.14 MB
  Для реализации данной задачи инженер должен решить две основные задачи: проектирование и создание новых высокоэффективных технологических процессов либо эксплуатация уже существующих производств, их интенсификация и повышение эффективности их функционирования.
40361. Трудовая экспертиза 55 KB
  При стойком снижении или утрате трудоспособности больному определяется одна из трех групп инвалидности. Правительством РФ было принято специальное положение вменявшее решение вопросов инвалидности созданным на основе прежних ВТЭК Бюро медикосоциальной экспертизы МСЭК2. Вновь разработанные критерии определения инвалидности в отличие от прежних ориентированных преимущественно на трудоспособность больного основываются на трех основных признаках: 1 нарушение здоровья со стойким расстройством функций организма обусловленное заболеванием...
40362. Невроз, депрессивно-фобическая форма 35 KB
  Панические атаки неожиданно возникающий и быстро в течение нескольких минут нарастающий симптомокомплекс вегетативных расстройств синдром Da Costa сердцебиение стеснение в груди ощущение удушья нехватки воздуха потливость головокружение сочетающийся с ощущением надвигающейся смерти страхом потери сознания либо потери контроля над собой сумасшествия. Клинический диагноз: на основе характерного симптомокомплекса психопатолгических расстройств можно поставить диагноз невроз депрессивнофобическая форма. Дифференциальный...