94767

Snapshots of english-speaking countries

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

English is spoken as a native language by more than 300 million people, most of them liveng in North America, the British Isles, Australia, New Zeland, the Carribean and South Africa. In several of these countries engkish is not the sole language (e.g. in Canada – French is also spoken: many Irish and Welsh speak the Celtic language).

Английский

2015-09-16

714 KB

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РОССИЙСКАЯ ФЕДЕРАЦИЯ

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

ТЮМЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ ЕСТЕСТВЕННЫХ ФАКУЛЬТЕТОВ

Е.Н. Абдразакова, Н.А. Гаркуша, М.А. Елесина

snapshots

of english-speaking

countries

Учебно-методическое пособие 

для студентов естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений

Издательство

Тюменского государственного университета

2008

УДК 811.111(075.8)

ББК Ш 143.21-923

АЗ:   А 139

Е.Н. Абдразакова, Н.А. Гаркуша, М.А. Елесина Snapshots of english-speaking countries. Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений. Тюмень: Издательство Тюменского государственного университета, 2008. – 80 с.

Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для обучения английскому языку студентов неязыковых специальностей естественных факультетов. Основная цель пособия – ознакомить студентов с материалом по странам изучаемого языка, а также развить навыки и совершенствовать умения, необходимые для чтения и понимания оригинальной литературы, и для восприятия видеоматериалов на английском языке.

Учебно-методическое пособие опубликовано на сайте ТюмГУ: Snapshots of english-speaking countries [электронный ресурс] / Режим доступа http: www.utmn.ru

Печатается по решению кафедры иностранных языков естественных факультетов.

ОТВЕТСТВЕННЫЙ РЕДАКТОР: Е.Г. Брунова, доктор филол. наук, профессор кафедры иностранных языков естественных факультетов ТюмГУ

РЕЦЕНЗЕНТЫ:  Л.В. Скороходова, ст. преп. кафедры иностранных языков естественных факультетов ТюмГУ

Л.П. Пащенко, канд. пед. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков МИФУБ ТюмГУ

© ГОУ ВПО Тюменский государственный университет, 2008.

© Издательство Тюменского государственного университета, 2008.

© Е.Н. Абдразакова, Н.А. Гаркуша, М.А. Елесина, 2008.
ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Настоящее учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений.

Задачей данного учебно-методического пособия является создание у учащихся лингвострановедческого минимума знаний об англоязычных странах с целью развития и совершенствования навыков и умений, необходимых для чтения и понимания оригинальной литературы, для восприятия видеоматериалов на английском языке и применения этих знаний при сдаче Федерального Интерне экзамена.

Методическое пособие состоит из нескольких смысловых блоков, каждый из которых посвящен определенной стране изучаемого языка. В их число входят Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии, Соединенные Штаты Америки, Канада, Австралия и Новая Зеландия. Пособие включает в себя тексты о географическом положении, истории, политическом устройстве, обычаях, столицах и крупных городах этих стран.

Каждый из разделов начинается с введения нового лексического материала, представленного в текстах и фильмах. Для закрепления полученной информации даются упражнения и тесты.

Рекомендуется работать с предложенными заданиями 15-20 минут. Представленный вариант заданий по текстам и фильмам рассчитан на несколько занятий, посвященных одной стране изучаемого языка. При отборе материала соблюдались принципы, отвечающие современным требованиям методики обучения иностранным языкам: мотивация, коммуникативность, интегрированный подход, умение использовать полученную информацию при подготовке к Федеральному Интернет экзамену.

Авторы выражают благодарность за консультации и неоценимую помощь в работе над данным пособием доктору филологических наук, профессору Е.Г. Бруновой и рецензенту пособия старшему преподавателю Л.В. Скороходовой.


Content

The English language............................................................

6

SNAPSHOTS OF BRITAIN...............................................................

9

Fact file..............................................................................................

9

Public holidays in the United Kingdom…………..………………….....

10

A sense of identity……......................................................................

13

London……………………………………………………………………

15

The system of government……….....................................................

18

Further and higher education………..................................................

23

Additional material……......................................................................

25

SNAPSHOTS OF the United States of America……..........

29

The map of the USA……...................................................................

30

Government and elections………………………………………………

34

The capital of the United States….....................................................

37

Higher education in the United States…............................................

41

American holidays……………………………………………………….

45

Fact file…………………………………………………………………….

50

SNAPSHOTS OF Australia………………………………………...

52

General description............................................................................

53

Amazing Australia..............................................................................

55

SNAPSHOTS OF Canada…………………………………………….

57

General description...........................................................................

57

The first inhabitants...........................................................................

59

SNAPSHOTS OF new zealand...................................................

61

video materials..........................................................................

64

North Wales……………………………………………………………….

64

London…………………………………………………………………….

64

Northern Ireland…………………………………………………………..

66

New York………………………………………………………………….

68

Test 1  the united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland.....................................................................

69

test 2     the united states of america.............................

73

test 3.....canada, new zealand.............................................

76

bibliography…………………………………………………………

79


THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

English is spoken as a native language by more than 300 million people, most of them liveng in North America, the British Isles, Australia, New Zeland, the Carribean and South Africa. In several of these countries engkish is not the sole language (e.g. in Canada – French is also spoken: many Irish and Welsh speak the Celtic language). But English is the second language for governmental, commercial, social and educational activities in the contries where native language isn’t English.

In about 25 countries English is used as official language (either it is the sole official language there, or it shares that status with other languages).

Most of these countries are former British territories. Even more widely English is studied and used as a foreign language. Half of the world’s scientific literature is in English. It is the language of automation and computer technology, the major language of diplomacy and bussines.

English-speaking countries

Country

Capital

Language

Country

Capital

Language

the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

London

(English)

Botswana

Gaborone (English, Setswana)

The Republic of Ireland

Dublin

(English)

Cameroon

Yaonde (English, French,African language groups)

The United States of America

Washington

(English)

Kenya

Nairobi (English, Kiswahili)

New Zeland

Wellington

(English, Maori)

Liberia

Monrovia (English, some 20 ethnic group languages)

Malta

Valletta (English, Maltese)

Namibia

Windhoek (English, Afrikaans, German, Oshivambo)

Maldives

Male

(Dhivehi (Maldivian), (also English in Government))

Rwanda

Kigali (Kinyarwanda, French, English)

Australia

Canberra

(English)

Nigeria

Abuja (English, Hausa, Yoruba, Fulani)

India

New Delhi

(English, Hindi, Assamese, Bengali, Telugu and Urdu, and others)

Bangladesh 

Dhaka (Bengali, English)

Philippines

Manila  (Pilipino, English, Pampangan, Pangasinan, Igorot, Maranao)

Lebanon

Beirut (Arabic, French, Armenian, Assyrian, (also English))

Kuwait 

Kuwait (Arabic (also English))

Jamaica

Kingston (English, Creole)

Singapore

Singapore (Chinese, Malay, Tamil and English)

Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur (Malay, Chinese, Tamil, (also English))

Sri Lanka

Colombo(Sinhala, Tamil, (also English in Government))

Barbados

Bridgetown (English)

Jordan 

Amman (Arabic, (also English among upper-class))

Grenada

St. Georges (English and French)

Falkland Islands

Stanley (English)

Puerto Rico

San Juan (Spanish, English)

Task 1. Fill in the crossword using the information from Appendix 1.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Down

2. Mr Clinton's country.

3. See 6 down.

4. Where both English and French are spoken.

6. (with 3 down) Mr Mandela's country

Across

1. European country whose capital is London. 5. African country whose capital is Nairobi.

7. Nation which is also a continent.

SNAPSHOTS OF BRITAIN

FACT FILE

Flag

Royal coat of arms

Government

Parliamentary system and Constitutional monarchy

Motto

"Dieu et mon droit" (French)

"God and my right"

Legislature

Parliament

Anthem

"God Save the Queen"

Upper House

House of Lords

Capital

London

Lower House

House of Commons

Official languages

English

Area

244,820 km (79th)

94,526 sq mi 

Recognised regional languages

Welsh, Irish, Ulster Scots, Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Cornish

Population (2007)

60,975,000

Ethnic groups (2001)

92.1% White, 4.0% South Asian, 2.0% Black, 1.2% Mixed Race, 0.80% East Asian

Currency

Pound sterling

Symbols

The Statue of Britannia in Plymouth

Britannia is a national personification of the United Kingdom, originating from Roman Britain. Britannia is symbolized as a young woman with brown or golden hair, wearing a Corinthian helmet and white robes. She holds Poseidon's three-pronged trident and a shield, bearing the Union Flag. Sometimes she is depicted as riding the back of a lion. At and since the height of the British Empire, Britannia has often associated with maritime dominance.

Symbols within the United Kingdom

Country

Patron saint

Flower

England

St. George

Tudor rose

Scotland

St. Andrew

Thistle

Wales

St. David

Leek/Daffodil

Northern Ireland

St. Patrick

Shamrock/Flax

PUBLIC HOLIDAYS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

These are the public holidays observed in the countries of the United Kingdom. Workers in the United Kingdom are not automatically entitled to time off on a public holiday. Time off can be provided for in an employment agreement or by expending annual leave.

When an anniversary day that is usually a bank holiday falls on a weekend, the date of the bank holiday is postponed and declared for a following weekday. In this way, public holidays are not 'lost' on years when they coincide with weekends (which will already be a day off for many people).

England and Wales

Scotland

1 JanuaryNew Year's Day

21 MarchGood Friday

24 MarchEaster Monday

5 MayMay Day Bank Holiday

26 May – Spring Bank Holiday (Victoria Day)

25 August – Summer Bank Holiday

25 DecemberChristmas Day

26 December  Boxing Day

1 JanuaryNew Year's Day

2 January – 2 January

21 MarchGood Friday

5 May – May Day Bank Holiday

26 May – Spring Bank Holiday

4 August – Summer Bank Holiday

1 December – Bank Holiday in Lieu of St. Andrew's Day

25 DecemberChristmas Day

26 DecemberBoxing Day

Northern Ireland

1 JanuaryNew Year's Day

17 MarchSt Patrick's Day

21 MarchGood Friday

24 MarchEaster Monday

5 May – May Day Bank Holiday

26 May – Spring Bank Holiday

12 July – Bank Holiday in Lieu of Battle of the Boyne (Orangeman's Day)

25 August – Summer Bank Holiday

25 DecemberChristmas Day

26 DecemberBoxing Day / St. Stephen's Day

Christmas Traditions

Christmas is probably the most festive time of the year, a season of gift-giving and celebration. We all know that Christmas is a religious holiday which marks the birth of Jesus Christ. But did you also know that some of the traditions are adapted from rituals dating back to a time before Christianity?

Many pagan peoples regarded the winter solstice as a time of celebration. Anticipating the return of spring, people decorated their homes with evergreen plants, a symbol of eternal life. Mistletoe was especially popular, as it was believed to have magic powers. People hung sprigs of mistletoe in their homes and kissed beneath them as a gesture of friendship. At pagan festivals there was also a lot of singing and dancing going on – “dancing in a circle” is the original meaning of the word “carol”.

Still now we keep these traditions up: we sing Christmas carols and dance around in circles, we kiss beneath the mistletoe and we decorate our homes with Christmas trees. By the way, did you know that it was a German who set the trend of decorating Christmas trees in England? It was Prince Albert, Queen Victoria’s husband. When he moved to England, Christmas trees had already been popular in continental Europe, but not in England. In 1841, Prince Albert put up a Christmas tree at Windsor Castle. The event was reported in the press; and as the whole country was very keen on the royal family, people enthusiastically took up the custom of decorating a tree at Christmas.

Task 1. Answer the questions according to the text.

  1.  What did pagan peoples celebrate at this time of the year?
    1.  the birth of Jesus Christ  b)    the winter solstice
  2.  the magic powers of mistletoe

2. What does the word “carol” originally mean?

  1.  to dance in a circle   b)to sing Christmas songs

c)    to sing and dance around the Christmas tree

3. According to the text, which statement is correct?

  1.  The royal family were the first Europeans who had a Christmas tree.
  2.  Many people went to Windsor Castle to see the Christmas tree.
  3.  Queen Victoia had a German husband.


A SENSE OF IDENTITY

Vocabulary

a unitary state унитарное государство to emerge появляться

a political entity политический субъект to rule  управлять

Task 1. Look at the title of the text. What do you think it is about? Say the words you expect to find in it.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, to give it its formal title, is a highly centralized and unitary state and its largest component England. By the sixteenth century Wales was fully incorporated into English administration and law but Britain as a political entity did not emerge until 1707, when the ancient kingdoms of Scotland and England were united. Ireland, which fell completely under English rule in the sixteenth century, became formally part of the United Kingdom in the 1801 when, like Scotland a century earlier, it lost its own parliament. Ireland achieved independence in 1921, with the exception of six northern counties which remained part of the United Kingdom. Yet Northern Ireland is not part of Britain, although the term “Britain” is often used to mean the United Kingdom. London is the capital of England and the UK. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh; the capitals of Wales and Northern Ireland are Cardiff and Belfast.

Great Britain and the Ireland are separated by the Irish Sea. The north-west and west of Great Britain is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean. In the east the country is washed by the North Sea, in the south it is separated from France by the English Channel.

England, unlike the largely mountainous counties of Wales and Scotland, is mainly lowland, except for six major hilly regions: the Pennines, called the “backbone of England” dividing the north west of England from the north east; the scenic Lake District in the north west; the Yorkshire Dales, running to the east coast of Yorkshire; the moorlands of Cornwall and Devon in the south west; and the border areas with Scotland and Wales. Elsewhere the ranges of hills are relatively low, while East Midlands and East Anglia are notably flat and featureless. In Scotland and Wales the greater part of the population is concentrated in the more lowland areas, particularly the area between Glasgow and Edinburgh, and in the eastern and south-eastern parts of Wales.

Task 2. Answer the questions:

What are main parts of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

When was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland formed?

What is the UK washed by?

Are there any mountains in the UK?

Task 3. Fill in the necessary information about the structure of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

 

capital

landscape

additional information

LONDON

Vocabulary

a chapel - часовня

a tomb - надгробие

to make one's wayпройти

Renaissance - Возрождение 

a mint - монетный двор

a torture - пытка 

furnishing - обстановка, меблировка

without any doubt - без всякого сомнения

a statesman - государственный деятель

Crown Jewels - сокровища короны

Task 1. Think of tree questions you would like to ask about London. Read the textand see if you can answer them.

London is without any doubt one of the most fascinating cities in the world. It is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the seat of the government, a great industrial and cultural centre.

It lies on the river Thames and has a population of more than 8 million (Greater London, Central London).

London was founded 2. 000 years ago. When the Romans came, it was a small village called Llyn-Dyn. Now it is one of the largest cities in the world.

The main parts of London are Westminster, the City, the West End and the East End.

Westminster is the government part of London. Most of the government buildings are here. The most imposing building is the Westminster Palace, in which the British Parliament sits (the New Palace of Westminster). At two corners of the building there are two great towers. One of them is the Clock Tower with a huge bell known all over the world as Big Ben, called so after the name of the Chief Commissioner of Works Benjamin Hall. Here you can find the Lords' Chamber.

Near the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Abbey. It is the ancient church where a lot of kings and queens have been crowned and buried for nearly 1 000 years. There are 3 000 graves of statesmen, scientists, artists inside the Abbey (Newton and Darwin among them). Some of the tombs are decorated with gold and precious stones. If you come over to the south side you all see the Poets Corner where many of the greatest English writers are buried: Chaucer, Dickens, Hardy, and Kipling. There are also some memorials to those writers and poets who are not buried there: Shakespeare, Burns, Byron, Scott, Thackeray and Longfellow.

Buckingham Palace, the official London residence of the Royal family is not far from the Houses of Parliament.

The most important streets of this part are White hall (once a palace where kings lived), a street of government offices where there's the Cenotaph, the memorial to the fallen of both World Wars. New Scotland Yard, the centre of police; Downing Street where the Prime Minister has his official residence and Mall, where royal processions usually take place.

At the end of Whitehall is Trafalgar Square. In the middle of it rises the Nelson Column – a monument to Admiral Nelson for his victory in the war against Napoleon. The total height of the column is 56 meters. Four big lions in bronze are placed at the foot. Two fine fountains beautify the square. On the other side of it are the National Gallery with its richest collections of pictures and the National Portrait Gallery. Trafalgar square is often the scene of political demonstrations for peace and human rights. The City is the commercial heart of the capital: most of London banks and offices are located there. There is the bank of England and the Mansion House, the official residence of the Lord Mayor of London, the Royal Exchange.

From the end of the Fleet Street, the centre of British newspaper industry, you can see St. Paul's Cathedral, one of the greatest English churches, built by the famous English architect Sir. Christopher Wren.

St. Paul's Cathedral with its huge domes and Mall, rows of columns is considered to be a fine specimen of Renaissance architecture. It is 110 meters high and it has one of the largest bells in the world, called Great Paul, weighing about 17,5 tone. Nelson, Sir Christopher Wren and other great men of England are buried in the Cathedral. There are such words on his tomb: "Reader, if you seek his monument, look around"

The Tower of London which is found here as well was built in the Xl th century (William the Conqueror). It has been a citadel, a prison, a mint, a royal palace, even a royal Zoo once and now – a museum. The Tower of London consists of 13 towers. The most beautiful is the White tower. It's 90 feet high with 15 feet thickness. It was the usual place for the medieval royal families to live. From Norman days the Tower has been a state prison; it has been a place of torture and of execution. Thomas More was one of those who were executed there. Arms and armour have always been stored in the Tower and today it contains the National Collection. The most popular sight here is the room in which the Crown Jewels are displayed.

All the traditions and ceremonies are kept up in the Tower of London, everything is left there as many centuries ago. One of the known ceremonies is the Ceremony of the Keys. The Tower is guarded by the Yeomen – warders dressed in traditional medieval clothes.

Near the Tower of London there's Tower Bridge, a marvel of engineering skill. It was built the XlX-th century. It links South and East London. Fourteen bridges (Westminster Bridge, Lodon Bridge) cross the Thames and Tower Bridge is the finest. On the Victoria Embankment Cleopatra Needle, an ancient Egyptian obelisk brought here in the XlX-th century.

Task 2. Answer the questions

  1.  What is the ancient name of London?
  2.  How are the main parts of London are called?
  3.  Why is Big Ben called so?
  4.  Where is the seat of the British Parliament?
  5.  What is the ofocial residence of the Royal family?
  6.  What is placed in Trafalgar square?
  7.  Which part of London is called “the financial heart” of the capital?
  8.  What is the name of the cathedral built by Sir Cristopher Wren?
  9.  What do you know about the Tower of London?

Internet resourses

  1.  Aspects of Britain   www.buckinghamgate.com
  2.  British Tourist Authority   www.visitbritain.com
  3.  Central Offoce of Information   www.coi.gov.uk/coi
  4.  Countryside Commission   www.countryside.gov.uk

THE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT

Vocabulary

contradictory  противоречивый

the Crown  королевская власть

authority  власть

chamber  палата

wealth – благосостояние

secular  мирской, светский

a bishop  епископ

hereditary – наследственный

succession  преемственность

an offspring  отпрыск

confirmed – подтвержден

executive – исполнительный

judiciary – судебная власть

a peer – пэр

assent –королевская санкция to merge with – соединиться с

to remit  прощать, смягчать(наказание)

entrepreneurial  предпринимательский

socially aware – ориентированный на общество

sovereign  суверен, носитель верховной власти

the House of Lords – Палата Лордов

the House of Commons  Палата Общин

the commander-in-chief  главнокомандующий 

the Labour party  Лейбористская партия

constituency  избиратели, избирательный округ

a Deputy Speaker  заместитель спикера

to claim expenses  требовать возмещения расходов

matters of great interest дела особой важности

Law Lords  «лорды закона»

Lord Chancellor лорд-канцлер

Lords Spiritual  «духовные лорды»

to confer honors  присуждать, даровать награды (звания)

Task 1. Read the text and match these heading to the passages:

The System of the Government / The House of Commons / The Party System / The House of Lords / The Crown

1. Britain is a democracy, yet the constitutional situation is a contradictory one. As a result of a historical process, the people of Britain are subjects of the Crown, accepting the Queen as the head of state. Yet the Queen is not sovereign in any substantial sense since she receives her authority from Parliament. In short, she “reigns” but does not rule. Technically the system of government consists of three elements of Parliament: the Crown and Parliament’s two chambers, the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

This curious situation came about as a result of a long struggle for power between the Crown and Parliament during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In 1689 Parliament won the struggle, because it controlled most of the national wealth. It agreed to allow the Crown to continue to function within certain limits, and subject to Parliament’s control.

2. The reigning monarch is not only the head of the state but also a symbol of the unity of the nation. The monarchy is Britain’s oldest secular institutions, its continuity for over 1,000 years broken only once by a republic that lasted 11 years (1649-60). The monarchy is hereditary, the succession passing automatically to the oldest male child, or in the absence of males, to the oldest female offspring of the monarch. By the act of Parliament, the monarch must be a protestant.

In the law the monarch is the head of the executive and of the judiciary, head of the Church of England, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. However, since 1689, the monarch’s sovereign powers have been formally limited. The remaining powers of the monarch are: to give royal assent to legislation passed by Parliament; to appoint government ministers, judges, officers of the armed forces, governors, diplomats and bishops of the Church; to confer honors, such as peerages and knighthoods; to remit sentences passed on convicted criminals; and finally to declare war or to make peace with an enemy power. In practice, of course, with an exception of few honors she is free to decide herself, the monarch discharges all these functions on the direction of government.

Away from public gaze, the monarch plays a more practical role. The Queen is visited regularly by her Prime Minister to receive an account of Cabinet decisions and to be consulted on matters of national life. Since 1952 the Queen has given weekly audience, as it is called, to 11 Prime Ministers.

3. The main political parties of the UK are the Conservative Party (the “Tory”, the party of business) and the Liberal Party (“Whig”), the Labour party.

The Conservative Party is the party of the Right, identified with the idea of economic freedom. In the nineteenth century with the support of the wealthier classes it gives emphasis to the importance of law and order, and the maintenance of strong armed forces to protect British interests.

Labour is the party of “social justice”. It tends to give the collective well-being of society slightly more importance than to individual freedom. It now favors an entrepreneurial but socially aware economy.

The Liberal Party, which traces its origin to the eighteenth century “Whigs”, merged with the new Social Democratic Party in 1988 to become the Liberal Democrats. It seeks to attract the votes of the middle ground between Labour and the Conservatives. This party is for the constitutional and electoral reform. It also prides itself less tied to either capitalist or union interests, and being free to offer more radical policies.

4. The dynamic power of Parliament lies in the House of Commons. Its 659 members represent 529 constituencies in England, 40 in Wales, 72 in Scotland and 18 in Northern Ireland.

The members of the House of Commons are elected every 5 years. The chairman of the House of Commons is the Speaker, he is chosen by a vote of the entire House, although in practice the party leaders consult their supporters in order to achieve informal agreement beforehand.

5. The upper chamber of Parliament, the House of Lords, is not democratic in any sense at all. It consists of peers, totaling 1,197 members. The majority are hereditary peers, currently about 750, of whom only about half take an active interest in the affairs of state. A smaller number, about 400, are “life” peers. Only one-quarter of these life peers are women. All life peers are created on the recommendation of the Prime Minister of the day. Nine of the most senior judges, the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (commonly known as the “Law Lords”), are also entitled to sit in the Lords. Finally alongside these secular peers, the Lords Temporal, are 26 most senior bishops and archbishops of the Church of England, the Lords Spiritual. The Law Lords and the Lords Spiritual are the ancient non-hereditary component of the Lords.

The House is presided over by a Lord Chancellor, the senior law officer of the state. He or she is responsible for the administration of justice and is also an automatic member of the Cabinet.

Task 2. Answer the questions

  1.  What is the political structure of the UK?
  2.  Why did the Crown lose its power?
  3.  What are the functions of the Crown?
  4.  What must be the religion of the English monarch?
  5.  What are the main parties of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland? How do they differ from each other?
  6.  Who are the members of the House of Lords? How many peers are entitled to sit in the House of Lords?
  7.  How many members does the House of Commons have? What is the number of members presenting England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland?
  8.  How often are the members of the House of Commons elected?
  9.  Who are the members of the House of Lords?
  10.  Explain the functions of the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

Task 3. Write down a diagram showing the structure of governmrnt in the UK

Task 3. Fill in the table with the information from the text.

Name of the branch

The head of the branch

Way of succession

Powers and duties

Institutions under control

1. The Crown

hereditary

2. The House of Commons

1.To participate in committees

3. The House of Lords

Internet resourses

  1.  Government   www.open.gov.uk
  2.  Parliament    www.parliament.uk
  3.  The Monarchy (official) www.royal.gov.uk


FURTHER AND HIGHER EDUCATION

Vocabulary

part-time vocational courses  курсы по профессии с частичной нагрузкой (вечерние)

manual – ручной, физический

to enroll – записываться, поступать

further education – дополнительное образование

clerical  канцелярский

medieval  средневековый

to boast – хвастаться

a demand  потребность

en expansion – расширение

to conduct  вести, управлять

a completion  завершение

Task 1. Read the text and answer the questions:

What are the most famous universities of England?

What is the difference between further and higher education?

Which degrees can a student get?

What are the types of higher educational establishments?

When were the most famous English universities founded?

Further education has traditionally been characterized by part-time vocational courses for those who leave school at the age of 16 but need to acquire a skill, be that in the manual, technical or clerical field. Lots of students enroll each year in part-time courses at further education (FE) colleges, some released by their employers and a great number of unemployed.

Higher education in the UK is represented by five types of the establishments: the medieval English foundations, the medieval Scottish ones, the nineteenth-century “redbrick” ones, and finally the previous polytechnics. They are all private institutions, receiving direct grants from central government.

Oxford and Cambridge, founded in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries respectively, are easily the most famous of Britain’s universities. Today “Oxbridge", as the two together are known, educate less than one-twentieth of Britain’s total university student’s population. But they continue to attract many of the best brains.

Scotland boasts four universities: Glasgow, Edinburgh, St Andrews and Aberdeen, all founded in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

In the nineteenth century more universities were established to respond to the greatly increased demand for educated people as the result of the Industrial Revolution and the expansion of Britain’s overseas empire. Many of these were sited in the industrial centres, for example Birmingham, Manchester, Nottingham, Newcastle, Liverpool and Bristol.

Nowadays there is also a highly successful Open University, which provides every person in Britain with the opportunity to study for a degree, without leaving their home. It is particularly designed for adults who missed the opportunity for higher education earlier in life. It conducts learning through correspondence, radio and television, and also through local study centres.

University examinations are for Bachelor of Arts or of Science (BA or BSc) on the completion of the undergraduate course, and Master of Arts or of Science (MA or MSc) on completion of postgraduate work, usually a one- or two-year course involving some original research. Some students continue to complete a three year period of original research for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).

Task 3. Fill in the table with the names of the Universities from

the text

Medieval English Universities

Medieval Scottish Universities

Red-brick Universities


Additional material

Education in England

Vocabulary

compulsory  обязательный, принудительный

voluntary  добровольный

comprehensive общеобразова-тельный

admission  доступ, принятие

aptitude   пригодность, склонность

remainder  остальные, остаток

vocational  профессиональный

to charge  требовать, запрашивать цену

tuition fee плата за обучение

residential  жилой, предусматривающий проживание

preparatory  подготовительный, предварительный

completion  завершение, окончание

Task 1. Read the following article and discuss the questions with the partner.

What institution is responsible for all levels of education in England?

What is the most popular type of secondary schools?

What schools are categorized as independent schools?

What are the most famous public schools?

Why are the “redbrick” universities called so?

In England the Department of Education and the Science is responsible for all levels of education. Universities, however, are self-governing and depend on the central government only for financial grants. Education is compulsory between the ages of five and sixteen. About one third of primary and secondary schools in England are administered by Anglican or Roman Catholic voluntary organizations. More than 90 per cent of the secondary-school population (children aged eleven through eighteen) attend state-funded comprehensive schools, in which admission is not based on aptitude alone, and the remainder attend either grammar or secondary modern schools.

Tertiary colleges offer a full range of vocational and academic courses for students aged sixteen and older. Independent schools provide both primary and secondary education but charge tuition. In large cities, a number of independent schools are run by various ethnic and religious communities. So-called public schools, which actually are private, are often categorized as independent schools. Most public schools are residential, are privately financed, and provide education to children aged eleven through nineteen. Important public schools for boys include Eton, Harrow, Winchester and Westminster; famous public schools for girls include Cheltenham, Roedeam and Wycombe Abbey. There are also private, mostly residential, preparatory schools, which prepare students aged seven through thirteen for the Common Entrance Examination required to enter senior secondary schools. At the completion of secondary education, students receive the General Certificate of Secondary Education.

More than a third of England’s young adults receive some form of postsecondary education through colleges, polytechnics and universities. The universities Oxford and Cambridge date from the 12th and 13th centuries are the oldest in England. There are about 35 universities in England, some of which are referred to as redbrick universities. These universities were founded in the late 19th or early 20th century in the industrial cities of Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Birmingham, Sheffield and Bristol and were constructed of red brick, as contrasted with the stone constructions of Oxford and Cambridge.


VOCABULARY – EDUCATION

Task 1. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with the words from the box

playground     truant     cheat     heart     correct     term     give     absent     break     university     headmaster     report     board     hard     degree

Our teachers ______ our homework in the evening and _____ it out the next day.

My brother tried to _____ in the exam, but he was caught and sent to the ____ .

I like to play football in the _____ with my friends during the lunch _____ .

She got a very good school _____ because she worked so _____ this _____ .

I’d like to go to _____ when I finish school and do a _____ in Economics.

The teacher wrote the rules on the _____ and told us to learn them by _____ .

Were you _____ for a good reason yesterday or were you playing _____ ?

Task 2. Read the following text and choose the correct alternative in each case

I started school when I was 5 and I went to the local nursery/primary school. I liked it very much; the classes/lessons were small and the teachers/professors were very friendly. At 11 I changed and went to the sixth form college/secondary school. Things didn’t go so well here. I hated studying subjects/courses like Biology and Physics and I got terrible points/marks in tests. My parents tried to teach/learn me the things I didn’t understand, but it was no good. I used to get very worried about my end-of-year exams and one year, even though I spent a lot of time revising/reviewing, I knew I wouldn’t pass/succeed. In the end I was right  I failed/missed all the exams and had to retake/remake them all a few months later. That was the worst tear of my school life, but it didn’t stop me having a good course/career as an engineer.

Task 3. Read the opinion of three students about the exams and compare them

Exam fever

I’ve always been terrible in exams, what is probably why I can’t stand them! I don’t know what it is exactly, but I just seem to go to pieces. I forget everything I’ve learnt. I think it’s really unfair because I write really slowly  when I look around the exam room, everyone else has usually written twice as much as me! The other thing is that it all depends on luck. I mean it’s all right if the questions you have revised come up, but sometimes they don’t and then it’s a disaster. I must say I hate revising  it’s so boring!

I think exams are much better in a way than coursework. I’d prefer to just have exams at the end of the year. As far as I’m concerned, the problem with coursework it that the pressure is on you all the time and nearly everything you do counts towards your final stages. I think exams are Ok… in the end I think they generally give a pretty accurate picture of how much you know about the subject. In fact, I quite like revising for exams. I find it brings together all the different things I’ve been learning and I suddenly begin to understand what the teachers have been going on about. I like to get up early and go through my notes on the day of the exam. That way everything is fresh in my mind.

In my country we have to repeat our school year if we fail the end-of-

year exams, so they are pretty serious. In fact, most people repeat a year at some point or other. Something which is a bit different to England is that we quite often have oral exams where you see your question a few minutes in advance and then you have to go and speak your answers to a group of professors, for example. Another thing which happens sometimes is that exams can be competitive, so only a certain percentage will pass. That makes it hard if you happen to be taking the exam at the same time as a lot of very good students!

Task 4. Work in a group with other students and discuss whether you agree or disagree with the following statements. Give reasons.

Exams are not an accurate measure of person’s ability.

A mixture of exams and coursework is a good idea.

You should repeat a school year if you fail the exams.

You should be told the questions a little time before you go into the exam.

Exams should involve an oral and a written part.

Internet resourses

  1.  Education in Great Britain  www.Questia.com/British_Education
  2.  Education UK  Innovative. Individual. Inspirational http://www.educationuk.org
  3.  Higher Education Funding Council for England www.hefce.ac.uk
  4.  University of Liverpool   www.liverpool.ohecampus.com

snapshots of the United States of America

Vocabulary

Geographical names:

Lake Superiorоз. Верхнее

Lake Ontario - оз. Онтарио

Lake Michigan - оз. Мичиган

Lake Huron - оз. Гурон

Lake Erie - оз. Эри

The Mississippi - р. Миссисипи

The Niagara - Ниагара

The Missouri р. Миссури

Hawaiiо. Гавайи

Gulf of Mexico - Мексиканский залив

the Appalachian Аппалачи (горы)

the Great PlainsБольшая равнина

the Rocky MountainsСкалистые горы

the Sierra Nevada rangeСьерра-Невада (горы)

the Cascade rangeКаскадные горы

seaboard - побережье

deciduous - лиственный

grasslands - площадь, покрытая травой; пастбище

arid - засушливый

humid - влажный

to be prone - (зд.) быть подверженным чему-то

hurricane – ураган, циклон

abundant – обильный, богатый

commodity – товар, предмет потребления

to stretch - растягиваться, тянуться

to border on - граничить с

a highland - нагорье, высокогорная местность

a plain - равнина

boundary - граница

fertile – плодородный

inland – вглубь, внутрь

contiguous – смежный, близкий

Task 1. Read the text and complete the table:

 Oceans

Border countries

Mountains

Lakes

Rivers

Cities

The Map of the USA

 The United States of America (commonly referred to as the United States, the U.S., the USA, the States or America) is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district. The states differ very much in size, population and economic development. The flag of the USA is called “Stars and Stripes”. 50 stars=50 states; 13 stripes=13 original colonies. 

 The country is situated mostly in central North America, where its forty-eight contiguous states and Washington, D.C., the capital district, lie between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The largest state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent, with Canada to its east and Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The country also possesses several territories, or insular areas, scattered around the Caribbean and Pacific.  

 At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km²) and with more than 300 million people, the United States is the fourth largest country by total area.  

 The United States is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries. These different people brought to their new land a wonderful mixture of customs and traditions. The Germans brought Christmas trees. The Irish brought St. Patrick’s celebrations, the Scots – Halloween.   

 The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont. The Appalachian Mountains divide the eastern seaboard from the Great Lakes and the grasslands of the Midwest. The Great Lakes form the boundary between the USA and Canada. The largest of them is Lake Superior, which, as its name implies, is the highest above the sea level. Lake Michigan lies entirely on the US territory; to the east is Lake Huron, from the southern end of which the St.  Clair River leads into Lake Erie. From Lake Erie the Niagara River

rushes over the famous Niagara Falls into Lake Ontario.  

 The Mississippi-Missouri River, the world's fourth longest river system, runs mainly north-south through the heart of the country. The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast. The Rocky Mountains, at the western edge of the Great Plains, extend from the north to the south across the country, reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet (4,300 m) in Colorado. The Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges run close to the Pacific coast. At 20,320 feet (6,194 m), Alaska's Mount McKinley is the country's tallest peak. Active volcanoes are common throughout Alaska's Alexander and Aleutian Islands, and Hawaii consists of volcanic islands.  

 The U.S., with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the 100th meridian, the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south. The southern tip of Florida is tropical, as is Hawaii. The Great Plains west of the 100th meridian are semi-arid. Much of the Western mountains are alpine. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California, and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Extreme weather is not uncommon  the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico are prone to hurricanes, and most of the world's tornadoes occur within the country, mainly in the Midwest's Tornado Alley.  

 The United States has a capitalist mixed economy, which is fueled by abundant natural resources, a well-developed infrastructure, and high productivity. According to the International Monetary Fund, the U.S. produces 25% world product. The U.S. is the largest importer of goods and third largest exporter. China, Mexico, Japan, and Germany are its top trading partners.  The leading export commodity is electrical machinery, while vehicles constitute the leading import.  

 The U.S. is the third largest producer of oil in the world, as well as its largest importer. It is the world's number one producer of electrical and nuclear energy, as well as liquid natural gas, sulfur, phosphates, and salt. The U.S. is the world's top producer of corn and soybeans.

There are many big cities in the country. They are Washington (the capital of the country), New York (the city of contrasts, financial and business centre of the USA), Boston (there are three universities in it), Chicago (one of the biggest industrial cities in the USA), San Francisco, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Detroit (one of the biggest centers of the automobile industry), Hollywood (the centre of the US film business).    

Task 2. Read the sentences and decide which sentence A, B or C best fits each gap:

1. The USA is…  .

a. the largest country in the world;

b. the fourth largest country in the world;

c. the second largest country in the world;

2.. Its territory occupies about… square kilometers.

A 9,5 mln  B 7, 7 mln  C 244 000

 

3. The population of the USA is more than… million people.

A 250  B 300  C 186,7

4. The largest state in the USA is… .

A Colombia B Hawaii  C Alaska

5. The Great Lakes consist of … .

A five lakes B three lakes C six lakes

6. The number of states in the USA is… .

A 50   B 85   C 30

7. The US produces nearly … of the world’s industrial products, agricultural goods and services.

A 50%  B 25%  C 30%

8. The flag of the USA is called … .

A “Fifty Stars” B “Stars and Stripes” C “Bright Stars”

9. The leading export product is… .

A corn  B electrical machinery  C cars

Task 3. True or false?

1. The USA borders on Canada in the south and Mexico in the north.

2. The largest state in the country is Colorado.

3. Different nations who inhabit the country now brought their own holidays and customs to the USA.

4. The climate of the USA is arid throughout the country.

5. The Rocky Mountains stretch from north to south across the country.  

6. The USA is rich in various natural resources.

7. The highest peak McKinley is situated in Hawaii.

8. In Hawaii there are a lot of volcanoes.

9. Lake Erie is entirely located on the territory of the USA.

Task 4. Answer the following questions:

1. Where is the USA situated?

2. What countries does it border on?

3. How many states does the USA consist of?

4. What can you say about the landscape of the USA?

5. How does the climate of the USA differ?

6. What does the USA export and import?

7. What is the centre of the USA film business?

8. Which city has three universities?

government AND elections

Vocabulary

legislativeзаконодательная власть

executive – исполнительная власть

judicial – судебная власть

Supreme Court – Верховный суд

leap year – високосный год

Chief Justice – главный судья, председатель Верховного суда

to appoint – назначать

Associate Justice – помощник Верховного судьи

amendment – поправка

residence requirement – обязательное проживание в данной местности

taxation – налогообложение

jury trails – суд присяжных

purseкошелек, казна

Task 1. Read the text and complete the diagram:

The branches of the government

 

 

+

 

                   + +

 The United States of America is a presidential republic. The government is divided into three branches: legislative (the US Congress), executive (the President and his Administration) and judicial (the US Supreme Court).

There are two main political parties in the USA: the Democratic (symbolized by a “donkey”) and the Republican (its symbol is an “elephant”). The US President is both the head of the state and government. He is elected for a four-year term. Presidential elections are held every leap year on the first Tuesday after first Monday in November. The President is assisted by Secretaries who are the heads of the executive departments.

The Supreme Court consists of Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices who are appointed for life. It is supposed to decide whether a law of the Congress or an executive order of the President is constitutional or not.

The form of US government is based on the Constitution of September 17, 1787, adopted after the War of Independence. In December 1791, the Congress adopted ten amendments to the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights. The latter enumerated what the government controlled by the oligarchy was not going to be allowed to do, which was, of course, an important democratic gain for people.

The Congress of the United States is composed of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states and the House represents the population according to its distribution among the states. All states have electoral requirements of the same nature. First of all they are residence requirements.

Through its power over the purse, the US Congress can control much that relates to foreign policy, also it is a governmental body that determines taxation.

Each of the fifty states of the USA has a constitution patterned after the federal Constitution, with its divisions of power: legislative, executive, and judicial.

The Presidency means not only a man: means an institution – the “executive branch” of the government.

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country and the head had of the judicial branch of US government. The federal and state courts have the power of “judicial review”. Also there are about ninety district courts in different parts of the United States. American judicial practice is firmly committed to the idea of jury trails. The Constitution guarantees them for both criminal and civil cases. According to the US judicial doctrine, “justice is relationship in which each citizen or group receives due respect and return”.

 

Task 2. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. The USA is a monarchy.

2. The Constitution of the USA was adopted in 1867 after the Civil War.

3. There are three main political parties in the USA.

4. Chief Justice is appointed for life.

5. There are two houses in the congress of the USA, House of Lords and House of Commons.

6. The US Congress is not allowed to control foreign policy.

7. The constitution of each state differs from the federal Constitution.

Task 3. Answer the question:

1. Is the USA a monarchy or republic?

2. What main political parties are there in the USA and what are their symbols?

3. When are presidential elections held?

4. What power does the US President have?

5. What does the Supreme Court consist of?

6. When was the US Constitution adopted?

7. How many houses is the legislative branch of the USA composed of?

8. What is the US Senate responsible for?

9. What is the main electoral requirement?

10. What is American judicial practice based on?

The capital of the United States

Vocabulary

devoid – лишенный, свободный

to manage – удаваться

to convey – передавать, выражать (чувства)

confidence – доверие, уверенность

to conceal – скрывать, прятать

artifacts – остатки материальной культуры древнего человека; артефакты

terrestrial земной

backup - дублирование 

Task 1. Read the text and match the paragraphs (A - I)

to the headings (1 - 9)

1. The Lincoln Memorial; 2. NASM; 3. The foundation of the capital; 4. The White House; 5. The National Gallery of Art; 6. Population; 7. The Washington Monument; 8. The Capitol; 9. Sightseeing

Washington, D.C.

 A. Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia, is the capital of the United States of America. It is a planned city, designed specifically to house the federal government, and is not the part of any state. Its history, beautiful architecture, and excellent cultural centers attract millions of visitors each year.  

Washington, D.C. was established in 1790 by the United States Congress, as a federal city exclusively under the control of the federal government. The city was subsequently named for George Washington, who selected the city's exact location on the Potomac River. Designed by the architect Pierre Charles L'Enfant, Washington was built to have wide avenues radiating from traffic circles, providing for maximum open space and landscaping. Laws to building heights provide Washington with a low skyline devoid of skyscrapers present in other cities.

B.The population of Washington is more than 600,000 people. It increases almost twice at the height of the tourist’s season.

 C. If you do sightseeing, you surely start with The Mall. The National Mall is a unique National Park, filled with an intense concentration of monuments, memorials, museums, and monumental government buildings instantly recognizable to people all over the world. The White House, the US Capitol Building, the Washington Monument, the Lincoln Memorial and Reflecting Pool, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, the Vietnam War Memorial, the Jefferson Memorial, the National Gallery of Art, the Air and Space Museum, the National Natural History Museum, the Holocaust Museum, the International Spy Museum, the National Portrait Gallery – just a few of the top national attractions here, all within walking distance of each other.

 D.The city's skyline is dominated by the Capitol and the Washington Monument. The United States Capitol serves as the seat of government for

the United States Congress.

 E. The Washington Monument is a large, tall, sand-colored obelisk near the west end of the National Mall. It is a United States Presidential Memorial constructed to commemorate the first U.S. president, George Washington. The monument, made of marble, granite, and sandstone, is both the world's tallest stone structure and the world's tallest obelisk, standing 555 feet 5.5 inches (169.3 m) in height erected in 1888. Americans call it «the Pencil».

F. There are also monuments to many other outstanding public figures. The most impressive of them is, no doubt, the Lincoln Memorial. The murdered President is represented seated in a big armchair in the center, deep in thought. The sculptor, Daniel French, has managed to convey the mental and physical strength of this great American, his confidence in the people he had safely brought through the bloody conflict.

G. The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States. In 1812 during the Anglo-American War the British soldiers captured Washington and burned many public buildings, among these the Capitol, the Library of Congress and the Executive Mansion. The latter was subsequently painted white to conceal the marks of the fire and soon became known as the «White House», though this did not come into official use until the early 1900.

H. The National Gallery of Art is a national art museum. It was established in 1938 by the United States Congress. The National Gallery today houses one of the finest collections of Western painting and sculpture in the world.  

 Also you can visit the National Museum of Natural History. Admission is free and the museum is open 364 days a year. The museum's collections total over 125 million specimens of plants, animals, fossils, minerals, rocks, meteorites, and human cultural artifacts.    

 I.The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. It maintains the largest collection of aircraft and spacecraft in the world. It is also a vital center for research into the history, science, and technology of aviation and spaceflight, as well as planetary science and terrestrial geology and geophysics. Almost all space and aircraft on display are originals or backup crafts to the originals. The National Air and Space Museum is widely considered one of Washington's most significant works of modern architecture which was finished in 1976.

Task 2. Complete the sentences according to the text.  

1. Washington was founded on the left bank of … .

2. The population of the city of Washington grows … .

3. The Washington Monument is situated in … .

4. The most impressive monument is … .

5. In the National Museum of Natural History admisson is … .  

6. The Lincoln memorial was built like… .

7. The building of NASM is considered … .

Task 3. Answer the following questions:

1. What river is Washington situated on?

2. What state does Washington belong to?

3. Why was the capital named “Washington”?

4. Where is it better to start sightseeing from? Why?

5. Who is responsible for the name “The White House”?

6. Why are there no any skyscrapers in Washington?


Higher education in the United States

Vocabulary

accounting бухгалтерское дело

sourceисточник

to appropriateпредназначать

expenses – расходы

threefold – в три раза

tuition fee – плата за обучение

possession – владение, обладание

income – доход

average – среднее

challenge – требование

amount – количество

society – общество

inevitable – неизбежный, постоянный

employment – возможности трудоустройства

widespread – широко распространенный

aurriculum – учебная программа

rigid – строгий, жесткий

competition – конкурс

to admit, admission – допускать, допуск

to seek – искать, добиваться

Task 1. Read the text and find out the main types of higher educational institutions.

Higher education in the USA

The system of higher education in the United States is complex. It comprises four categories of institution:

1. The university, which may contain:

- several colleges for undergraduate students seeking a bachelor’s four-year degree;

- one or more graduate schools for those continuing in specialized studies beyond the bachelor’s degree to obtain a master’s or a doctoral degree;

2. The four-year undergraduate institution – the college – most of which are not part of a university;

3. The technical training institution, at which high school graduates may take courses ranging from six months to four years in duration, and learn a wide variety of technical skills, from hair styling through business accounting to computer programming;

4. The two-year, or community college, from which students may enter many professions or may go to four-year colleges or universities. Any of these institutions, in any category, might be either public or private, depending on the source of its funding that is, supported by public funds or supported privately by a church group or other groups acting as private citizens although under a state charter.

A public institution is owned and operated by a government, either a state or a municipal government. The government appropriates large sums of money for the institution’s expenses. Yet these sums are normally not sufficient to cover all expenses, and so the institution is partially dependent on student fees and on gifts.

Institutions of higher learning supported by public funds are not absolutely free. The state colleges and universities charge a fee for tuition or registration. This fee is higher for those who come from outside the state. A private institution receives no direct financial aid from any government, municipal, state or federal. The money used to pay the operating expenses has a threefold origin: tuition fees paid by the students, money given in the form of gifts for immediate use, and the income from invested capital in the possession of the institution and originally received by the institution in the form of the gifts to be invested with only the income to be spend.

Many universities and colleges, both public and private, have gained reputations for providing their students with a higher quality of education. The factors determining whether an institution is one of the best, or one of lower prestige, are: quality of teaching faculty, quality of research facilities, amount of funding available for libraries, special programs, etc., and the competence and number of applicants for admission, i.e. how selective the institution can be in choosing its students. In the United States it is generally recognized that there are more and less desirable institutions in which to study and from which to graduate. The more desirable institutions are generally – but not always – more costly to attend, and having graduated from one of them may bring distinct advantages as an individual seeks employment opportunities and social mobility within the society. Competition to get into such a college is very high.

Usually there is no admission examination required by a state university for those who have finished high school within the state. Sometimes a certain pattern of high school studies is necessary, however, and some state universities require a certain scholastic average, or average of high school grades.

Private colleges and universities, especially the larger, well-known ones such as Harvard (1636), Princeton (1746), and Yale (1701), have rigid scholastic requirements for entrance, including an examination.

It usually takes four years to meet the requirements for a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. A Master of Arts or Master of Science degree may be obtained in one or two additional years. The highest academic degree is the Doctor of Philosophy. It may take any number of years to complete the original research work necessary to obtain this degree.

Still, many Americans are not satisfied with the condition of higher education in their country. Perhaps the most widespread complaint has to do with the college curriculum as a whole and with the wide range of electives in particular. Such problems are signs that American higher education is changing. Today, many of these colleges are leading schools in the world of scientific research.

To take part in dealing with new problems, most Americans feel they need all the information they can get. Colleges and universities are the most important centers of such learning. And whatever improvements may be demanded, their future is almost guaranteed by the American thirst to advance and be well informed.

Colleges

core course  основной курс

electives  факультативные дисциплины

a thesis, a dissertation  диссертация

a residency  аспирантура

College

Age

Degree

Length of Time

Junior

college

18+

Two-year degree

College

18+

BA, BS

4-5 years

Graduate school

22+

MA, MS

2-3 years plus thesis

PhD

3 years plus dissertation

Medical school

MD, DDS

4 years plus residency

Law school

JD

3 years

BA – Bachelor of Arts   PhD – Doctor of Philosophy

BS – Bachelor of Science   MD – Doctor of Medicine

MA – Master of Arts    DDS – Doctor of Dental Science

MS – Master of Science   JD – Doctor of Jurisprudence

Task 2. Complete the sentences:

1. The system of higher education in the USA includes… .

2. Public colleges and universities are supported by… .

3. The prestige of the educational institution depends upon… .

4. The competition to get into the best universities is… .

5. State universities do not require admission examinations for those… .

6. A private institution receives financial aid from… .

7. The requirements for entrance to private colleges and universities are rather… .

8. Students can get a Bachelor degree in… .

Task 3. Answer the questions.

1. What kind of higher educational establishments are there in the USA? What does this division depend on?

2. Who supports a public institution?

3. Are public institutions absolutely free of charge?

4. Who pays higher fee?

5. How are applicants admitted to public universities?

6. How can an applicant be admitted to a private institution?

7. How many years does it take to get a Bachelor Degree? A Master’s Degree?

8. What is the highest degree?

9. What does prestige of the educational institution depend on?

AMERICAN HOLIDAYS

Religious and Nonreligious Holidays

Vocabulary

to celebrateпраздновать 

a sacrificeжертвоприношение

two-facedдвуликий

a deityбожество

to commemorate – отмечать, служить напоминанием

to preceed – предшествовать

legal – узаконенный, официально признанный

to be associated with – ассоциироваться с

to occur – происходить

inclusive – включительно

the Holy Ghost – Святой Дух

to declareобъявлять 

a fireworkфейерверк

a hollyостролист

to blossomцвести

Lent –Великий пост

to observe – отмечать, праздновать 

armed forces – вооруженные силы

Thanksgiving – День благодарения

Epiphany – Крещение 

a manifestation – Богоявление

Shrove Tuesday –последний день масленицы

Ash Wednesday – день покаяния

Palm Sunday – Вербное воскресенье

Good Friday – Страстная пятница

a martyr – мученик, мученица

Easter Sunday – первый день Пасхи 

the Resurrection of Jesus – Воскресение Иисуса из мертвых

Memorial Day – День памяти погибших в войнах

Independence Day – День Независимости

Hallowe'en – канун Дня всех святых

Election Day – День выборов

Сarnival – масленица

a bonfireкостер

the Celtsкельты

by miracleчудом 

a patron saintсвятой покровитель 

Task 1. Read the text and define which holidays are religious and which are federal:

New Year's Day

This holiday is celebrated in all the states on January, 1. New Year's Day has been celebrated since Roman Times, when sacrifices were given to Janus, the two-faced Roman deity who looked back on the past and forward to the future.

Lincoln's Birthday

Abraham Lincoln brought the country through the Civil War. It's a legal holiday in many states, This day was first celebrated in Washington, D.C, in February, 1866.

St. Valentine's Day

It's celebrated on February, 14. This day is the festival of two third-century martyrs, both named St. Valentine. Nobody knows why this day is associated with lovers.

Washington's Birthday

George Washington was the country's first president. His birthday is celebrated as a legal holiday in every state of the Union, the District of Columbia and all territories.

Shrove Tuesday

Falls the day before Ash Wednesday and marks the end of the carnival season.

Ash Wednesday

It's the first day of the Lenten season, which lasts 40 days.

St. Patrick's Day

St. Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, has been honored in America since the first days of the nation. There are many dinners and meetings, and the parade is held on Fifth Avenue in New York every year on St. Patrick's Day.

Palm Sunday

It's observed the Sunday before Easter to commemorate the entry of Jesus into Jerusalem.

Good Friday

This day commemorates the Crucifixion – (распятие Христа).

Easter Sunday

This holiday is observed in all Christian churches. Easter commemorates the Resurrection of Jesus. It is celebrated on the first Sunday after the full moon which occurs on the next day after March 21 and is celebrated between March 22 and April 25 inclusive.

Mother's Day

This holiday is celebrated on the second Sunday in May, as it was proposed by Anna Jarvis of Philadelphia in 1907.

Memorial Day

This day honors American soldiers killed in wars. There are many parades on Memorial Day. Memorial Day, which comes on the last Monday in May, is also the unofficial beginning of the summer vacation season. On Memorial Day, many people go to the beach.

Flag Day

This day commemorates the flag of the United States of America and is celebrated on June 4

Father's Day

It is celebrated on the third Sunday in June. It was first observed on June 19, 1910.

Independence Day

On July 4, 1776, the American colonies declared their independence from Britain. Many families celebrate the Fourth of July by having picnics and, at night, watching fireworks.

Labour Day

This day is celebrated on the first Monday in September in all states and territories. Labour Day was first celebrated in New York in 1882. It honors the American worker. Just as Memorial Day means the beginning of summer, Labour Day marks the end of summer. For many students, the school year starts the day after Labour Day.

Columbus Day

It's a legal holiday in many states. It commemorates the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492. As Columbus was Italian, working for Spain, Columbus Day is especially important for many Italian-Americans and Hispanic-Americans.

Hallowe'en

This holiday on October 31 is not an official one, it is a very special day. It is traditionally associated in some countries with old customs such as telling ghost stories, bonfires and so on. This is the way the Celts welcomed the beginning of winter.

Election Day

Since 1845, by Act of Congress, the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November is the date for choosing Presidential electors. State elections are also held on this day.

Veterans' Day

This holiday honors all men and women who have served America in its armed forces.

Thanksgiving

This holiday is observed nationally on the fourth Tuesday in November by Act of Congress in 1941. Most Americans believe that the holiday dates back to the day of thanks ordered by Governor Bradford of Plymouth Colony in New England in 1621, but scholars say that the day of thanks is celebrated from ancient times.

Christmas

The most widely celebrated holiday of the Christian year, Christmas is observed as the anniversary of the birth of Jesus. Christmas customs are centuries old. Use of such plant as a holly comes front the ancient belief that such plants blossomed at Christmas. Comparatively recent is the Christmas tree, first set up in Germany in the 17th century and the use of candles on trees developed from the belief that candles appeared by miracle on the trees at Christmas.


FACT FILE

Do you know?

1. There are some federal public holidays in the USA. These are Thanksgiving, Independence Day, Christmas, New Year’s Day. On these days schools, banks, all offices are closed.

2. Independence Day is also very important holiday because it celebrates independence of the United States from Great Britain and a real founding it as a country. It is celebrated on the fourth of July.

3. One of the noisiest and most crowded New Year’s celebrations takes place in New York City at Times Square where people gather to watch the clock on Times Square Tower herald another year.

4. The terms «melting pot» and «salad bowl» mean that the US is a country of immigrants who work together as Americans while retaining their ethic identities.

5. The most famous American rock-and-roll star was Elvis Priestley. He lived in Memphis, Tennessee.

6. The continental US is divided into four times zones.

7. The best movie actors and actresses are awarded each year with Oscar or Academy Award in the USA.

8. The highest tree in the world grows in the USA in California. It is called «redwood» or «sequoia».

9. The smallest US state is Rhode Island.

10. The nickname of the flag of the USA is the Stars and Stripes. 50 stars = 50 states; 13 stripes = 13 original colonies.

11. The longest serving US President is Franklin D.Roosevelt. He served as president 12 years and 39 days.

12. The Statue of Liberty was presented to the USA by France. The occasion was 100-year anniversary of the Franco-American alliance during the American Revolutionary War in 1886.

13. Alaska once belonged to Russia and Sitka was its capital. The USA bought Alaska from Russia in 1867.There are many Russian belongings in Sitka.

14. In 1969, astronaut Neil Armstrong was the first person to walk on the moon. The name of the spaceship was Apollo II.

15. John F. Kennedy was the youngest man, the wealthiest, and the first Catholic ever elected president. He was shot to death in Dallas, Texas in 1963.

16. The famous black fighter for defacto desegregation of races in the United States was Dr. Martin Luther King. In 1964 he received the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1968 he was assassinated. In 1983 his birthday became a national holiday. On the 3d Monday in January, many Americans remember Martin Luther King.

17. The author f the popular books about the boy Harry Potter is Joan K. Rowling.

18. In Philadelphia, you can touch Liberty Bell, which was rung after the Declaration of Independence was read. The bell cracked when it was rung on George Washington’s birthday in 1846.

19. The lowest point in North America in California is in Death Valley. It is very hot and dry.

20. Coca-Cola was invented in Atlanta, Georgia. You can see where it was first bottled nearly 100 years ago, at the Biedenharn Candy Museum in Vicksburg, Mississippi.

21. The oldest university in the USA is Harvard University, Massachusetts which was founded in 1636.

22. The motto of the USA is “In God we trust”.

23. The national anthem of the USA is “the Star – Sprangled Banner”.

Comprehension Check

Task 1. Work in pairs. Find the following information in the Fact File as quickly as you can. The first pair to find the information is a winner.

- how and where York citizens celebrate New Year’s Eve;

- the highest tree of the world;

- the outstanding fighter for peace and better life for all Americans;

- which ingredients of a traditional American Thankgiving dinner;

- explain the symbolism of the stars and stripes on the US flag;

- which country presented the United States with the Statue of Liberty;

- the author of the book «Harry Potter»;

- who first stepped on the surface of the moon.

snapshots of Australia

Vocabulary

plateau – плоскогорье

to vest – принадлежать

penal – карательный

legislation – законодательство

suffrage – право голоса

campaign – военный поход

discriminatory – отличительный

to diversify – разнообразить

rival – соперник

riot – бунт, беспорядок

convict – каторжник, осужденный

barren – бесплодный, неплодородный

executive power – исполнительная власть

the secret ballot – тайное голосование

citizenship – гражданство

massacre – избиение

maternity allowanceпособие по материнству

Task 1. Read the text and make notes

Area  

7.7 million square km

Landscape: in the north

                   in the south

                   in the east

                   in the west

Government

Inhabitants

States

Social privileges

General description

 The continent of Australia (7.7 million square km), with the island state of Tasmania, is approximately equal in area to the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii). Mountain ranges run from north to south along the east coast, reaching their highest point in Mount Kosciusko (7,308 ft; 2,228 m). The western half of the continent is occupied by a desert plateau that rises into barren, rolling hills near the west coast. The Great Barrier Reef, extending about 1,245 mi (2,000 km), lies along the northeast coast. The island of Tasmania (26,178 sq mi; 67,800 sq km) is off the southeast coast.

Australia is the flattest and second driest (after Antarctica) continent. Two-thirds of the land is desert. In some places it sometimes doesn’t rain for years! The driest and hottest place in Australia is the Simpson Desert. Summer temperatures here can be more than 50˚ C. The Simpson Desert is famous for its parallel sand dunes. They are the biggest in the world. The most famous dune, Big Red, is 40 metres high.

Until 1901 Australia was a British colony. It is still a monarchy and Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain is also Queen of Australia. But now Australia is an independent state.

Democracy is a characteristic feature of Australia’s political system. Symbolic executive power is vested in the British monarch, who is

represented throughout Australia by the governor-general.

The first inhabitants of Australia were the Aborigines, who migrated there at least 40,000 years ago from Southeast Asia. There may have been between a half million to a full million Aborigines at the time of European settlement; today about 350,000 live in Australia. Now the population of Australia is 20 million people. The national currency is Australian dollar.

Dutch, Portuguese, and Spanish ships sighted Australia in the 17th century; the Dutch landed at the Gulf of Carpentaria in 1606. In 1616 the territory became known as New Holland. The British arrived in 1688, but it was not until Captain James Cook’s voyage in 1770 that Great Britain claimed possession of the vast island, calling it New South Wales. A British penal colony was set up at Port Jackson (what is now Sydney) in 1788, and about 161,000 transported English convicts were settled there until the system was suspended in 1839.

Free settlers and former prisoners established six colonies: New South Wales (1786), Tasmania (then Van Diemen’s Land) (1825), Western Australia (1829), South Australia (1834), Victoria (1851), and Queensland (1859). Various gold rushes attracted settlers, as did the mining of other minerals. Sheep farming and grain soon grew into important economic enterprises. The six colonies became states and in 1901 federated into the Commonwealth of Australia with a constitution that incorporated British parliamentary and U.S. federal traditions. Australia became known for its liberal legislation: free compulsory education, protected trade unionism, the secret ballot, women’s suffrage, maternity allowances, and sickness and old-age pensions.

Task 2. Answer the questions

What is the geographical location and topography of Australia?

What is the political structure in Australia?

Who were the first inhabitants of Australia?

What is the population of Australia?

What is the national currency of Australia?

Sailors of what European countries were the first to land on Australia continent?

How many colonies were established and what kinds of activities were developed for the raising of economic value?

What social privileges are there in Australia?

Internet resources

1. CIA – The world factbook – www.cia.gov

2. About Australia – The Australian Travel Guide – www.about-australia.com

3. CSU Guide to Australia – Essential information about Australia. – www.csu.edu.au

Task 3. Read the text and find out why Australia is a country of strange and wonderful places, unusual animals and amazing culture.

Amazing Australia

 Australia is a fascinating country. It is full of strange and wonderful places, unusual animals and amazing culture.

Canberra, the capital of Australia, is the newest city of all. It was designed by Walter Burley Griffin, an American architect, in 1912, and became the capital in 1927. Unlike other capitals, it’s very, very quiet. There ate lots of trees and a big lake in the centre. Canberra is an Aboriginal word, meaning ‘meeting place’.

Coober Pedy is a small town in South Australia, but it is known as the ‘opal capital of the world’. 95 percent of the world’s opals are mined there. But it’s very dry and hot + 40˚-50˚C for days at a time. So, the most people live under the ground in houses that are dug out of the rock. And tourists who come to Coober Pedy prefer to stay at underground hotels. The Aboriginal name Coober Pedy actually means ‘white man in a hole’.

Founded in 1788, Sydney is Australia’s oldest city. Its first settlers were British prisoners, women as well as men, who had been sent to this wild land as a punishment. Today, Sydney is the largest city in Australia. It is also home to one of the country’s most famous landmarks, the Sydney Opera House. The roof of this beautiful building looks like sails on Sydney Harbour. Near the Opera House is one of the largest bridges in the world – the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

Melbourne, the second largest city, was once the capital of Australia. Today, it’s the ‘sporting capital’ of the country. Australians have their own kind of football, called ‘Aussie rules’.

The game is unique in the world. It’s played by teams of 18 players on an oval field with an oval ball, like a rugby ball. Unlike normal football or rugby, however, the ball can be passed in lots of ways: kicked, hit with the hand and carried. On the day of the final Aussie rules match, in September each year, everything stops in Melbourne.

Everything is unusual in Australia, even the food. Only in Australia can you find a kangaroo pie, a crocodile steak or smoked ostrich.

National holiday in Australia is Australia Day which is on the 26th of January. It celebrates the first settlement of Australia.

Task 4. True or false

Melbourne is the capital of Australia.

Canberra was designed by Walter Burley Griffin, a British architect.

The Aboriginal name Coober Pedy actually means ‘black man in a hole’.

Sydney is the oldest Australian city.

Sydney is the largest city in Australia.

Sydney is the ‘sporting capital’ of the country.

Australians’ own kind of football is called ‘Aussie rules’.

In Australia one can try unusual food, ex. a kangaroo pie, a crocodile steak or smoked ostrich.

Australia Day is the national holiday which is celebrated on January, 2nd.

snapshots of Canada

Vocabulary

fjord фиорд 

tributary приток (реки)

to penetrateпроникать

prairie степь 

hemisphere полушарие 

the maple leaf – лист клёна 

to extend conquestзавоевывать 

dominionвладение 

to preserve heritage сохранять наследство

to eliminate injusticeустранять несправедливость

Task 1. Read the first part of the text and answer the questions

  1.  What is the geographical location of Canada?
  2.  What are the provinces in Canada?
  3.  What is the landscape of Canada?
  4.  What is the highest point in Canada?
  5.  What rivers are there in Canada?
  6.  How many provinces and territories are there in Canada?
  7.  What is the political structure of Canada?
  8.  What is the capital city of Canada?
  9.  What national holiday is celebrated on the 1st of July?
  10.  What is the national symbol of Canada?
  11.  What official languages has Canada got?
  12.  What kinds of liberal social policies were legalized?

General description

Covering most of the northern part of the North American continent and with an area larger than that of the United States, Canada has an extremely varied topography. In the east the mountainous maritime provinces have an irregular coastline on the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Atlantic. The St. Lawrence plain, covering most of southern Quebec and Ontario, and the interior continental plain, covering southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan and most of Alberta, are the principal cultivable areas. They are separated by a forested plateau rising from Lakes Superior and Huron.

Westward toward the Pacific, most of British Columbia, the Yukon, and part of western Alberta are covered by parallel mountain ranges, including the Rockies. The Pacific border of the coast range is ragged with fjords and channels. The highest point in Canada is Mount Logan (19,850 ft; 6,050 m), which is in the Yukon. The two principal river systems are the Mackenzie and the St. Lawrence. The St. Lawrence, with its tributaries, is navigable for over 1,900 mi (3,058 km).

 Canada is a federation of ten provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Saskatchewan) and three territories (Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut), each with its own capital city. Canada is the largest country (9.9 million square km) in the Western hemisphere and the second-largest country in the world.

Formally considered a constitutional monarchy that is also a parliamentary democracy and a federation, Canada is governed by its own House of Commons. While the governor-general is officially the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, in reality the governor-general acts only on the advice of the Canadian prime minister.

 The capital city of Canada is Ottawa, Ontario. The national holiday in Canada is Canada Day which is on the 1st of July. The national symbol of Canada is the maple leaf. Canada has two official languages, French and English. Toronto is the largest city of Canada. It is known for its cleanliness and low crime rate.

In recent years, Canada has introduced some of the world's most liberal social policies. Medical marijuana for the terminally or chronically ill was legalized in 2001; the country began legally dispensing marijuana by prescription in July 2003. In 2003, Ontario and British Columbia legalized same-sex marriage; and more provinces and territories followed in 2004. In July 2005, Canada legalized gay marriage throughout the country, becoming one of four nations (along with Belgium, the Netherlands, and Spain) to do so.

Internet resources

1. CIA – The world factbook – www.cia.gov

2. Government of Canada. Official Website. – www.canada.gc.ca

Task 2. Read the second part of the text and answer the questions

  1.  Who were the first inhabitants of Canada?
  2.  Who discovered Canada and when?
  3.  What other European explorers penetrated to Canada’s prairies?
  4.  What caused the conflict between the French and English?
  5.  Who won the Seven Years' War (1756–1763)?
  6.  When and why was the right of Canada to self-government recognized?
  7.  In the 1997 Canadians marked the 50th anniversary of their citizenship Act. What is it?
  8.  Why can we say that Canada has a high living standard?

 

The first inhabitants

The first inhabitants of Canada were native Indian peoples, primarily the Inuit (Eskimo). The Norse explorer Leif Eriksson probably reached the shores of Canada (Labrador or Nova Scotia) in 1000, but the history of the white man in the country actually began in 1497, when John Cabot, a European explorer, an Italian in the service of Henry VII of England, discovered Canada. He was He sailed to Canada’s east coast with his sons and other crew members on a ship called the “Mathew”.   

Canada was taken for France in 1534 by Jacques Cartier. The actual settlement of New France, as it was then called, began in 1604 at Port Royal in what is now Nova Scotia; in 1608, Quebec was founded. France's colonization efforts were not very successful, but French explorers by the end of the 17th century had penetrated beyond the Great Lakes to the western prairies and south along the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. Meanwhile, the English Hudson's Bay Company had been established in 1670. Because of the valuable fisheries and fur trade, a conflict developed between the French and English; in 1713, Newfoundland, Hudson Bay, and Nova Scotia (Acadia) were lost to England. During the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), England extended its conquest, and the British general James Wolfe won his famous victory over Gen. Louis Montcalm outside Quebec on Sept. 13, 1759. The Treaty of Paris in 1763 gave England control.

At that time the population of Canada was almost entirely French, but in the next few decades, thousands of British colonists emigrated to Canada from the British Isles and from the American colonies. In 1849, the right of Canada to self-government was recognized. By the British North America Act of 1867, the dominion of Canada was created through the confederation of Upper and Lower Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. 

 Nowadays Canadian citizens share some of responsibilities: to vote in elections, to help others in community, to preserve Canada’s heritage, to obey Canada’s laws, to express opinions freely, while respecting the rights and freedom of others and to eliminate discrimination and injustice.

Canada has an extensive social security network, old age pension, unemployment insurance.

Internet resources

1. Canada. Travel – Canadian Tourism – www.canada.travel.com

2. Canadian news, entertainment. – www.canada.com


snapshots of New Zealand

Vocabulary

to scatter разбрасывать 

to annex – присоединять

encroachment – посягательство, вторжение

relentless – безжалостный, жестокий

skirmish – стычка, схватка

to institute welfare legislation – устанавливать социальное законодательство

to commemorate – отмечать память, ознаменовать

Task 1. Read the text and fill in the table

the national capital

Wellington

the national currency

official languages

the national holidays

the largest cities

New Zealand, about 1,250 mi (2,012 km) southeast of Australia, consists of two main islands and a number of smaller outlying islands so scattered that they range from the tropical to the antarctic. The country (268,680 thousand square km) is the size of Colorado. New Zealand's two main components are the North Island and the South Island, separated by Cook Strait. The North Island (44,281 sq mi; 115,777 sq km) is 515 mi (829 km) long and volcanic in its south-central part. This area contains many hot springs and beautiful geysers.

The government type of New Zealand is Parliamentary democracy. New Zealand is governed under The Constitution Act of 1986, adopted in 1987, as well as other legal documents. The monarch of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, represented by the governor-general, is the head of state. The government is headed by the prime minister, who is appointed by the governor-general following legislative elections. Members of the 120-seat unicameral parliament (the House of Representatives) are elected by popular vote for three-year terms using a system of mixed constituency and proportional representation. Administratively, the country is divided into 16 regions and one territory (the Chatham Islands). New Zealand is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.

Maoris were the first inhabitants of New Zealand, arriving on the islands in about 1000. Maori oral history maintains that the Maoris came to the island in seven canoes from other parts of Polynesia. In 1642, New Zealand was explored by Abel Tasman, a Dutch navigator. British captain James Cook made three voyages to the islands, beginning in 1769. Britain formally annexed the islands in 1840.

The Treaty of Waitangi (Feb. 6, 1840) between the British and several Maori tribes promised to protect Maori land if the Maoris recognized British rule. Encroachment on the land by British settlers was relentless, however, and skirmishes between the two groups intensified.

From the outset, the country has been in the forefront in instituting social welfare legislation. New Zealand was the world's first country to give women the right to vote (1893). It adopted old-age pensions (1898); a national child welfare program (1907); social security for the elderly, widows, and orphans, along with family benefit payments; minimum wages; a 40-hour workweek and unemployment and health insurance (1938); and socialized medicine (1941).

New Zealand fought with the Allies in both world wars as well as in Korea. In 1999, it became part of the UN peacekeeping force sent to East Timor.

In recent years, New Zealand has introduced extremely liberal social policies. In June 2003, parliament legalized prostitution and in Dec. 2004,

same-sex unions were recognized. In 2005, Helen Clark was reelected.

About 80% of the population lives in cities. Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world. The national currency is New Zealand dollar. New Zealand has two official languages, English and Maori. The national holidays in New Zealand are Waitangi Day, which is on the 6th of February (it was celebrated when the Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand) and ANZAC Day, which is commemorated as the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey, 25 April. The largest cities in New Zealand are Auckland and Christchurch.

Task 2. Complete the sentences

  1.  New Zealand consists of …
  2.  The country is the size of …
  3.  There are two main components which are …
  4.  The government type of New Zealand is …
  5.  The head of state is …
  6.  The government is headed by …
  7.  The country is divided into …
  8.  New Zealand is a member of …
  9.  The first inhabitants of New Zealand were …
  10.  New Zealand was explored by …
  11.  New Zealand was the world's first country to …
  12.  New Zealand fought with …

Internet resources

1. Statistics New Zealand - www.stats.govt.nz/

2. The official site for New Zealand – www.newzealand.com

3. New Zealand Government – www.newzealand.govt.nz

4. BBC News – country profile - New Zealand – www.news.bbc.co.uk

Video Materials

North Wales

Task 1. While watching the movie you can meet some of these places of interest. Can you name them and give more information about them?

Piar   University   Cathedral   Port

Bridges  Castles   Bays    Churches

Statues  Centers   Shops&Stores  Clubs

Mountains  Valleys   Villages&Gardens Lakes

Parks&Zoo  Palaces   Seaside Resorts  Hotels

Restaurants&Cafes     Railway Stations

London

Task 2. Answer the questions while watching these episodes:

Part I  Buckingham Palace

1. What is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

2. Where is it situated?

3. What is the centre of the city? What happens there?

4. What uniform do the guards have?

5. What is the job of the police?

6. What traditions has London got?

Part II Greenwich and St. Katharine’s Dock

  1.  Where is Greenwich situated in?
  2.  What museum can you visit there? When was it built?
  3.  Why is the sea important for London and G.B.?
  4.  What is the best way to get to Greenwich?
  5.  When was St. Katharine’s Dock finished? What is this place famous for?
  6.  When does Tower Bridge open?

Part III  The Tower of London

  1.  Where is the Tower of London situated?
  2.  Who built the Tower and what was the purpose of building?
  3.  What happens in this place nowadays?
  4.  What are other important buildings there?
  5.  What ceremony can you see there?
  6.  What happens on the Royal Birthday?

Part IV  St. Paul’s Cathedral

  1.  When was St. Paul’s Cathedral built?
  2.  Who did it and how long did it take him to finish St. Paul’s Cathedral? (describe this place)
  3.  What occasions had St. Paul’s Cathedral got?
  4.  Who was buried there?

Part V Westminster and Trafalgar Square

  1.  Where does Westminster lie?
  2.  Is Westminster the political or financial centre of the United Kingdom?
  3.  Where do Nation leaders and British people meet and debate?
  4.  How many Houses of Parliament do you know?
  5.  What happens in Westminster Abbey?
  6.  Can you describe Big Ben?
  7.  What is the best way to see London?
  8.  Where is Nelson Column situated in? What can you say about this column?
  9.  What other places of interest were there?

Part VI London’s Parks

  1.  What is London proud of?
  2.  What is the oldest park in London?
  3.  What memorial can you see there? Who built it?
  4.  What season is the best to visit London park and why?
  5.  What other parks can you visit?
  6.  What is the zoo famous for?

Part VII Shopping and Theatre

  1.  What are the famous shops in London?
  2.  What is the biggest shop in the world?
  3.  Would you like to visit any theatre or cinema in London?

Northern Ireland

Task 3. Answer the questions while watching these episodes:

  1.  What is Ireland famous for?
  2.  Why is it the land of contrast?
  3.  Why does it have two sides of their nature?
  4.  Are the Irish people proud of their music and dance?
  5.  How is it located?

Castles and Churches

  1.  What was built on the West Coast of Ireland and what for?
  2.  What place is holy for people to worship for centuries?
  3.  Who brought Christianity to Ireland and when? How many churches did he build?
  4.  Has religion been important in Ireland?
  5.  What problems have the monarchs got? What did they build?

Music and Dancing

  1.  What is the land of music and dancing?
  2.  Where are children taught with traditional songs and dances?

Horses

  1.  What is a perfect place for a long ride through beautiful country in a riding school?
  2.  What opportunities do Irish people have if they like horses and dislike riding?

Sport

  1.  Do Irish people like fishing?
  2.  What is the fastest game in the world?
  3.  What other kinds of sport have you known?

Farming

  1.  What is the most important part of Ireland’s economy?
  2.  What products do they have/grow?
  3.  What is the characteristic feature of their mild and wet climate?
  4.  How do they use peat? Where can it be found?
  5.  What is another important industry?

Irish History

  1.  How is Ireland divided into?
  2.  What is the capital of Ireland?
  3.  What is the main city of Northern Ireland?
  4.  What are other big cities in Northern Ireland?
  5.  Did the Irish people change their religion after the 16th century?
  6.  Why did the Irish people migrate to different places and where?
  7.  What happened in 1840th?

Dublin

  1.  What is the population of Dublin?
  2.  Where is it situated in?
  3.  What is the atmosphere in Dublin?
  4.  What architecture has it got?
  5.  What is it famous for?
  6.  What is the oldest cathedral in Dublin?
  7.  When was Trinity College Founded?
  8.  Has the cathedral got its own school?
  9.  What is the biggest park in Europe? What is there in it?
  10.  How many political parties are there in the Parliament?

Industry

  1.  What kind of industry is there?
  2.  What companies are there in Ireland?

Images of Ireland

  1.  What is Ireland keen on?
  2.  Is it a country where is time to relax and enjoy the life?

New York

(The world’s capital of excitement)

Task 4. Answer the questions while watching these episodes:

  1.  What is the nickname of New York City?
  2.  How many residents live in the city?
  3.  What areas is New York divided into?
  4.  What is the area of Manhattan?
  5.  What national concentrations are shown in the film?
  6.  When was the United Nations organization founded?
  7.  What is the purpose of its foundation?
  8.  What is situated in Wall Street? When was Stock Exchange founded?
  9.  What place Greenwich Village is? Who lives there?
  10.  What is the Statue of Liberty made of?
  11.  Where is Central Park situated?
  12.  How long and wide is it?
  13.  When was Central Park founded?
  14.  What can you see on its territory?
  15.  What sport do people prefer going in for in Central Park?
  16.  What skyscrapers were built in New York?
  17.  What is located in Rockefeller Centre?
  18.  What famous museums are there in New York?
  19.  What is Times Square famous for?

Test 1

The united kingdom of Great Britain

and Northern ireland

1. What is the official name of the country whose language you study?

a. Great Britain     b. England

c. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

2. How many countries does the United Kingdom consist of?

a. four   b. three   c. two

3. What is the capital of Scotland?

a. Manchester  b. Edinburgh  c. Cardiff

4. What is the capital of Wales?

a. Edinburgh  b. Cardiff   c. Liverpool

 

5. What is the capital of Northern Ireland?

a. Cardiff   b. Dublin    c. Belfast   

6. What is the state system of the United Kingdom?

  1.  a constitutional monarchy
  2.  a parliamentary republic
  3.  a limited monarchy

7. What is the name of the British national flag?

a. the Union Jack   b. the Saint Andrew's Cross

c. the Saint David's Cross

8. What chambers does the British Parliament consist of?

a. the Senat and the House of Representatives

b. the House of Lords and the House of Commons

c. the Cabinet of Ministers and the Shadow Cabinet

9. Who presides in the House of Lords?

a. the Lord Chancellor    b. the Speaker

c. the Prime-Minister

10. Who presides in the House of Commons?

  1.  the Lord Chancellor    b. the Speaker

c. the Chancellor of the Exchequer

11. Where does the British Premier live and work?

  1.  at 10 Downing Street
  2.  in the Houses of Parliament
  3.  in Buckingham Palace

12. What is the most important airport in Great Britain?

a. Heathrow Airport     b. Gatwick Airport  c. Stansted Airport

13. What is the main cathedral of the Anglican Church?

  1.  St. Paul's Cathedral   b. Canterbury Cathedral

c. Salisbury Cathedral

14. What is the official religion in the United Kingdom?

a. Catholicism  b. Orthodoxy       c. Protestantism

15. What is the school-leaving age in the United Kingdom?

a. 16    b. 13          c. 18

16. Further education comprises....

  1.  comprehensive schools
  2.  universities and colleges of higher education
  3.  work-related courses and colleges that do not provide higher education

17. What universities have the highest academic reputation in the United     Kingdom?

a. Oxford University and Cambridge University

b. London University and Bristol University

c. Red-brick universities

18. What is the first degree awarded by universities?

a. a doctor's degree    b. a bachelor's degree

c. a master's degree

19. At a British university or college a tutor is....

  1.  a person who examines students and gives them marks
  2.  a person who has the highest rank of the teachers in a department and delivers lectures
  3.  a member of a staff who teaches small groups of students and gives them help and advice

20. What are the best English resorts?

a. Bristol and Southampton   b. Brighton and Bath

c. Leeds and Bradford

21. What is the London residence of Queen Elizabeth II?

a. the Tower of London    b. Windsor Castle  

c. Buckingham Palace

22. Where is Nelson's Column situated?

a. in Parliament Square    b. in Trafalgar Square  

c. in Piccadilly Circus

23. Where are British kings crowned?

a. in St. Paul's Cathedral   b. in Westminster Abbey

c. in Canterbury Cathedral

24. Who was the architect of St. Paul's Cathedral in London?

  1.  Sir Christopher Wren   b. Edward Bailey

c. Henry Tate

25. The ravens are a famous sight of....

a. the Tower of London   b. London Zoo

c. Covent Garden

26. Scottish surnames begin with....

a. O'       b. Mac or Mc       c. de

27. What is the Scottish national costume for men?

a. the tuxedo  b. the bearskin         c. the kilt

28. What lake does the famous Scottish monster live in?

a. Lough Erne  b. Loch Lomond      c. Loch Ness

29. What is the most famous sport event in Scotland?

a. the Highland Games

b. the Commonwealth Games

c. the Wimbledon Championship

30. What country is called a land of castles and princes?

a. England

b. Northern Ireland

c. Wales


Test 2

The United States of America

1. How many states does the United States of America comprise at present?

a. 50    b. 13    c. 49

2. Where is Washington, the federal capital, located?

a. In the State of Washington  b. in the District of Columbia

c. in the State of New York

3. How many stars and stripes does the American national flag have?

a. 50 stars and 13 stripes  b. 13 stars and 50 stripes

c. 20 stars and 15 stripes

4. What are the two leading national parties in the USA?

a. the Republican Party and the Democratic Party

b. the Conservative Party and the Labour Party

c. the Green Party and the Prohibition Party

5. What chambers does Congress consist of?

a. the Supreme Court and the Federal Courts

b. the House of Representatives and the Senate

c. the House of Commons and the House of Lords

6. What is the highest mountain in the USA?

a. Mount Vernon  b. Mount Whitney  c.Mount McKinley

7. What is the longest river in the USA?

a. the Tennessee b. the Mississippi  c. the Colorado

9. When did Christopher Columbus discover America?

a. in 1000    b. in 1492    c. in 1607

10. When do American people celebrate Thanksgiving Day?

a. in November   b. in July   c. in September

11. Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?

a. George Washington  b. Thomas Jefferson c. Benjamin Franklin

12. What type of schools provides free secondary education?

a. comprehensive schools   b. private schools

c. public schools

13. What tragic event happened on September 11, 2001?

a. The Twin Towers in New York were destroyed by terrorists.

b. The American war in Afghanistan began.

c. The American war in Iraq started.

14. What tragic event made the USA declare war on Japan in 1941?

a. the German bombing raids on Great Britain

b. the Japanese invasion into Manchuria

c. the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

15. What is the oldest university in the USA?

a. the University of California   b. Harvard University

c. Princeton University

16. What is the centre of the US automobile industry?

a. Chicago     b. Detroit   c. San Francisco

17. Where is the Statue of Liberty located?

a. in New York Harbor    b. in Washington Mall

c. in Broadway in New York

18. What is the name of the building of the US Department of Defense?

a. the Mission Control Centre   b. the Pentagon

c. the War Ministry

19. Where does the American President live and work?

a. in the City Hall  b. in the White House  c. in the Capitol

20. Who created the Statue of liberty?

a. Frank Lloyd Wright   b. Frederic Auguste Bartholdi

c. Pierre L'Enfant

21. Where are the United Nations Headquarters situated?

a. in Washington  b. in New York   c. in Philadelphia

 

22. Where is Hollywood, the centre of the US film industry, located?

  1.  in Los Angeles, California
  2.  in Miami, Florida
  3.  in Boston, Massachusetts

23. What is the symbol of the US financial power?

  1.  Times Square  b. Pennsylvania Avenue  c. Wall Street

24. How many floors does the Empire State Building have?

a. 102    b. 50    c. 120

 

25. Where is the Metropolitan Museum of Art located?

a. Washington  b. New York  c. Atlanta

26. When was the Constitution of the USA adopted?

a. in 1791   b. in 1787   c. in 1776

27. What is the national anthem of the USA?

a. the Stars and Stripes   b. the Star – Spangled Banner

c. America the Beautiful

28. What is the motto of the USA?

a. “God save of our Gracious Queen”

b. “In God we trust”   c. “Liberty Enlightening the World”

test 3

Canada

New Zealand

1. Canada is …

a. the largest country in the world

b. the second largest country in the world

c. the third largest country in the world.

2. The capital of Canada is …

a. Montreal   b. Toronto    c. Ottawa

3. Canada has two official languages. They are

a. English and German   b. English and French

c. English and Canadian

4. The national currency of Canada is …

a. the Canadian franc   b. the Canadian dollar

c. the Canadian pound

5. The official colours of Canada are …

a. red and blue  b. white and red   c. red and gold

6. Canadians have a special celebration in honour of this sweet drink. What is it?

a. Cola    b. lemonade   c. maple syrup

7. The world-famous waterfall situated in Canada is …

a. Victoria   b. Niagara    c. Sutherland

8. Canada’s national sport is …

a. baseball   b. football    c. ice hockey

9. The Canadian head of state is …

a. the Queen   b. the President    c. the Prime Minister

10. A snow house built by the Inuit (Eskimos) is called …

a. an igloo   b. a cabin    c. a hut

11. What are the official languages in Canada?

a. English and Spanish   b. English and French

c. English and German

12. What are the official languages in New Zealand?

a. English and Maori   b. English and French

c. English and Spanish

13. Which country between the Indian Ocean and the southern Pacific Ocean is both a continent and an island?

a. New Zealand  b. Papua New Guinea  c. Australia

14. Where is New Zealand situated?

a. in the Atlantic Ocean   b. in the Pacific Ocean

c. in the Indian Ocean

15. What is the capital of Canada?

a. Montreal   b. Toronto    c. Ottawa

16. What is the capital of Australia?

a. Sidney   b. Canberra   c. Adelaide

17. What is the capital of New Zealand?

a. Wellington   b. Christchurch   c. Dunedin

18. What is the floral symbol of Canada?

a. the maple leaf  b. the thistle   c. the oak leaf

19. What is the floral symbol of New Zealand?

a. the rose   b. the kowhai   c. the daffodil

20. What animals can be seen on Australia’s coat of arms?

a. the koala and parrot   b. the dingo and kookaburra

c. the kangaroo and emu

21. What is the state system of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand?

a. a republic     b. a constitutional monarchy

c. a limited monarchy

22. What houses does the New Zealand Parliament comprise?

a. two: the House of Representatives and the Senate

b. one: the House of Representatives

c. the House of Commons and the House of Lords

23. What is the Canadian national currency?

a. the Canadian pound    b. the Canadian dollar

c. the American dollar

24. What is the Australian national currency?

a. the American dollar    b. the Australian pound

c. the Australian dollar

25. What is New Zealand’s national currency?

a. the American dollar    b. the New Zealand dollar

c. the New Zealand pound

26. Which street is called Wall Street of Canada?

a. Sussex Drive in Ottawa   b. Bay Street in Toronto

c. Main Street in Montreal


Bibliography

  1.  Баканова И.Ю., Беровая Н.В., Брюсова Н.Г. Английский язык: большой справочник для школьников и поступающих в вузы. – М.: Дрофа, 1998. – 624с.
  2.  Богацкий И.С., Дюканова Н.М. Бизнес-курс английского языка. – Киев: Логос, 1997. – С. 58-60.
  3.  Власова Е.Л., Костенко С.М. Focus on the USA. – Санкт-Петербург: Наука, 1992. –
  4.  Немыкина А.И., Ракова К.И. – 120 устных тем по английскому языку. – М.: 272с. – С.188-205.
  5.  Ощепкова В.В. USA. Geography, history, education painting. – M.: Лист, 1999. – 192с.
  6.  Приложение к газете «Первое сентября». №23 1999, №9 1994, №22 1999, №14 1995, №24 1994.
  7.  Gilbert J., Gilman A., Scott D. M, Scott J. W. The Mythmaking frame of mind. – Wadworth Publishing Company Belmort California, 1992. – P. 138-148.
  8.  McDowall D. Britain in a close up. Longman, 2000. – P.8-27.
  9.  O’Callaghan B. An illustrated history of the USA. Longman, 1997. – P.20-25.
  10.  Speak Out. Журнал для изучающих английский язык. – М.: Глосса – Пресс, 2006. – №5(57) . С. 29
  11.  English language - around the world  http://lazarus.elte.hu
  12.  Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_countries 
  13.  The English speaking world  http://pagesperso-orange.fr/michel.barbot/hotpot/geography/gb_uk/match.htm
  14.  English speaking contries  http://www.ieslamarina.org
  15.  English grammar online http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar

Екатерина Накиевна Абдразакова

Надежда Анатольевна Гаркуша

Марина Анатольевна Елесина

snapshots

of english-speaking

countries

Учебно-методическое пособие по страноведению

для студентов естественнонаучных

специальностей и направлений

Подписано в печать     Тираж    зкз.

Объём   п.л.  Формат    Заказ №    

Издательство Тюменского государственного университета

625003, Тюмень, Семакова, 10.

PAGE  5


8 Associate Justices

Cabinet of Secretaries

Legislative

Northern Ireland

Scotland

Wales

England

House of Representatives

3.

2.

1.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

1.

2.

3.

1.

2.

3.

1.

2.

3.

Parliament

........................

.........................

..........................


 

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