Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Цель пособия – помочь студентам в усвоении и закреплении курса английского языка для практического использования. Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов вузов, обучающихся по специальности 030501.65 - Юриспруденция и по направлению 030900.62 - Юриспруденция (бакалавр).



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НОУ ВПО «Санкт-петербургский институт

Внешнеэкономических связей,

экономики и права»

Филиал  в г. Красноярске



УЧЕБНОе пособие

по специальности 030501.65 - Юриспруденция

и по направлению 030900.62 - Юриспруденция (бакалавр)

Красноярск 2010

ББК  81.2 Англ.

А 64

Английский   язык.     Сборник   разговорных   тем : учеб. пособие /М.Г. Рекида. – Красноярск:   Филиал     НОУ      ВПО «СПб ИВЭСЭП», 2010. – 47 с.

Цель пособия – помочь студентам в усвоении и закреплении курса английского языка для практического использования.

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов вузов, обучающихся по специальности 030501.65 - Юриспруденция и по направлению 030900.62 - Юриспруденция (бакалавр).

Материалы обсуждены и одобрены на заседании кафедры гуманитарных и социально-экономических дисциплин, протокол № 8 от 26.11.2009г.

Автор-составитель: Рекида М.Г., старший преподаватель кафедры гуманитарных   и  социально-экономических   дисциплин    филиала    НОУ ВПО «СПб .ИВЭСЭП»  в  г. Красноярске.

Рецензенты: Анисимова Т.В., канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков Красноярского государственного педагогического университета им. В.П. Астафьева;

Холодилова М.В., канд. филол. наук, старший преподаватель кафедры германских языков Красноярского государственного педагогического университета им. В.П. Астафьева.


               © Филиал НОУ ВПО «СПб ИВЭСЭП» в г.Красноярске, 2010

   © М.Г. Рекида, 2010







5.My Favourite Season…………………………………………………….

6.A House of  My Dream………………………………………………….

7.Sports in My Life………………………………………………………..

8.TV in our Live…………………………………………………………..



11.My Future Profession…………………………………………………..

12.The State Body Structure……………………………………………......

13.The President of the Russian Federation……………………………..…

14.The Federal Assembly and the Government ………………………..….

15.Court System………………………………………………………..…

16.The Bodies of Government in the United Kingdom …………………....

17.The Bodies of Government in the USA…………………………………




















Учебное пособие состоит из двух частей: лексической и практической.

Лексическая часть включает в себя тексты на английском языке, уровень сложности и содержание которых соответствуют необходимому уровню знаний английского языка для общения.

В  учебном пособии представлены тексты, отражающие современное состояние российского законодательства.

Практический раздел представлен широким спектром упражнений, направленных на усвоение и закрепление каждой лексической темы. Сюда включены упражнения на подстановку, дифференциацию, трансформацию и перевод с русского языка на английский. В практическую часть также входят упражнения, способствующие развитию монологической и диалогической речи.

Данное пособие может быть использовано как на занятиях, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов, обучающихся по специальности «Юриспруденция».


I was born in Krasnoyarsk; this is my native city. Krasnoyarsk is situated on the River Yenisey. Two parts of the city which are situated on both banks of the river are connected with four bridges. Our city is surrounded with forests and mountains and so it was founded in 1628 by Andrei Dubensky as a fortress against the Tatar and Mongolian invasion. Krasnoyarsk got its name because of the colour of the rocks and soil of the river-banks. This city was never conquered by enemies and had played the role of frontier advanced post for one hundred years.

The status of town it got in 1690 when Siberia was finally joined Russia. Now Krasnoyarsk is the administrative center of the Krasnoyarsk Region. It is one of the biggest industrial, cultural and scientific center of Siberia.

The population of Krasnoyarsk is about one million people. The life of the city is rather various. Beside big industrial enterprises there are a lot of institutions for studying, going in for sports, creative work and a rest. Krasnoyarsk can offer for this purpose different stadiums, the sport Center on Recreation Island, theatres, a new and modern building of the Concert Hall.

The Central Park is one of the favourite places for having a rest in Krasnoyarsk. There are always a lot of people there, especially during the summer time. Young and old people like also very much to go for a walk to the Yenisey River Embankment.

Krasnoyarsk has many higher educational institutions, and the Krasnoyarsk State University, the Medical Academy, the Technical University, and Krasnoyarsk State Teachers' Training University are among them.

Guests, tourists and those who live in Krasnoyarsk like very much to go to the hill where our city was founded. There is a small chapel on the top of the hill. According to history it was a watch - tower first. Several years ago after some repair work it was rebuilt into a chapel, which has become a symbol of the city.

Krasnoyarsk is famous for its National Park "Stolby" which is situated 3 kilometers from the city. It is the area of wonderful rocks. If you are the one who loves nature you should visit this place. It is a unique place with unforgettable nature and picturesque cliffs. Usually everyone leaves this place with the desire to come back.

Krasnoyarsk is also known for its Railway Bridge which was built in 1899 and in 1900 it won the gold medal together with the Eiffel Tower.

Krasnoyarsk is rich in its own talents. World fame was brought to it at the end of the 19th century by V. I. Surikov. His pictures "Boyarina Morozova", "Menshikov in Beryozov" and others became the pride and decoration of the best world museums. The names of D. Khvorostovsky, N. Chekhovskaya, V. Polushin and L. Kazarnovskaya are known all over Russia and abroad.

Two of the world's most powerful hydroelectric power stations are situated on the Yenisey River: The Sayano-Shushenskaya and Krasnoyarskya. Krasnoyarsk Aluminium Plant is one of the biggest world producers of primary aluminium.

Our city has 5 professional theatres: the Opera and Ballet House, Musical Comedy Theatre, Young Spectator's Theatre, Drama and Puppet theatres. These theatres are probably popular among the inhabitants and guests of the city.

Krasnoyarsk is remarkable for its museums. The Krasnoyarsk Museum of Region Studies has a unique collection of Artificats. The Krasnoyarsk Museum of Fine Arts was named in honour of Surikov. The museum preserves a small but very nice collection of Russian icons, which hopefully gives a clear view of the late period of icon-painting. We are sure that the Surikov Art Museum will find a special place in the hearts of all the visitors. Krasnoyarsk is one of the most beautiful cities of Russia and citizens are proud of their city.


I. Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary.

  1.  Krasnoyarsk  is  situated   ...  both banks   ...   the  River Yenisey. It divides the city ... two parts.
  2.  Krasnoyarsk is famous .,. its wonderful rocks.
  3.  The citizens love their city and are proud ... it.
  4.  There are a lot of institutions ... studying and going  sports there.
  5.  Krasnoyarsk is rich ... many talented people.
  6.  The museum of Fine Art was named ... honour ... the famous Russian painter Surikov.
  7.  There is a sport complex ... Recreation Island for people to go sport.

II. Read the dialogue and retell it in Reported Speech.

Alice: I am so glad you are in Krasnoyarsk, John. How long are you planning to stay here?

John: Only three days, that is why I'd like to make a trip through the streets of Krasnoyarsk  right now to get a great impression of the city.

Alice: We'll see more of the city if we take a bus and begin with the chapel.

John: O'kay. I have always wished to see your famous chapel.

Alice: Now we are moving along Mira Street. You can see numerous shops, banks and restaurants, on both sides of the Street. The pavements are crowded with people, because this street is the most popular with people. In the Roadway there is a constant stream of cars, taxies, buses.

John: An unusual thing is that your drivers keep to the right, not like in London.

Alice: Oh, yes. It is very important. We have right hand traffic here. Remember this while crossing the street. When I was in London it was very difficult for me to concentrate the left hand traffic. Be careful! Now we begin our excursion. Let’s go!

III. Translate into English.

1. Когда Красноярск  приобрёл статус города?

2. Город был назван Красноярском из-за цвета скал и почвы, окружающих его.

       3. Остров Отдыха – одно из любимых мест отдыха горожан, где расположены сооружения для занятий спортом и развлечений.

4. В Красноярске много средних и высших учебных заведений.

5. Какие достопримечательности города вы бы посоветовали посмотреть вашему другу,   приехавшему к вам из Англии?

6. Как часто вы посещаете театры, и какой ваш любимый театр в г. Красноярске?

7. Национальный парк «Столбы» располагается недалеко от города и знаменит своими причудливыми скалами.

  1.    Многие известные люди живут в Красноярске. Говорят : Сибирь – родина талантов. 

  1.  RUSSIA

The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of the earth's surface. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometers. The country is washed by twelve seas of three oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic ones. Russia borders on foreign countries and the countries of former republics of the USSR. In the South Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Belarus and the Ukraine. It also has a sea-border with the USA.

There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. There are steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east.

There are two Great Plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. There are several mountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and the others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.

There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe's biggest river, the Volga flows into the? Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers - the Ob, the Yenisey and! the Lena - flow from the south to the north. The Аmur  in the East flows into the Pacific Ocean.

Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world's deepest lake (1,600 meters) is Lake Baikal. It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there is much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you can see the stones on the bottom.

Russia has one-sixth of the world's forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.

On the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate and continental.

Russia is rich in numerous mineral resources, such as: oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and others. Russia is one of the richest country all over the world speaking about natural resources.

By structure Russia is a parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the President. The legislative power is exercised by the Duma.

The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is the largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial center. It is one of the oldest Russian cities. Its total area is about nine hundred square kilometers. The population of the city is about 10 million people already. Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The heart of Moscow is Re4 Square. It has more historical associates than any other place in Moscow. The Kremlin and St. Basil's Cathedral are masterpieces of ancient Russian architecture. The main Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the country. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see the old Cathedral, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the Palace of Congresses, the Tsar-Cannon and the Tsar-Bell, the biggest cannon and the Bell in the world. St. Cathedral was built in the mid-16th century in memory of the victory over Kazan. There is a legend that Ivan the Terrible blinded the architects Barma and Postnic, because he didn't want them to create another masterpiece. Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament (the Duma) and the center of political life of the country.

Today there are a lot of opportunities for this country to become one of the leading countries in the world. It has great past and promising future. Everybody believes the prosperity of Russia will come soon.


  1.  Characterize the peculiarities of different types of climate and vegetation zones  of the Russian Federation.

  1.  Correct the sentences:
  2.  The immensity of the Russian Federation is easy to imagine, because it is not big.
  3.  No one can find a great variety of scenery and vegetation on the territory of Russia.
  4.  The stones on the bottom of the Baikal can't be seen if you look down, because the water isn't so clear and transparent.
  5.  Forests in Russia are widely stretched in the south of the country.
  6.  Russia is a monarchy because it is headed by the Queen.
  7.  The Palace of Congresses is situated on Red Square in Moscow.
  8.  The symbol of the country is St. Basyl's Cathedral, which is situated on the territory of Red Square.
  9.  Russian famous architects Barma and Postnik have created many masterpieces, which are known in our country and abroad.

III. Translate into English.

Российская Федерация - крупнейшее государство в мире, которое располагается в   восточной части Европы и в северной части Азии.

Вряд ли найдётся другая страна в мире, где можно встретить такое большое число растительных зон и климатических поясов.

Каждый россиянин знает, что Волга - самая длинная река в Европе и что она впадает в Каспийское море.

Ландшафт России преимущественно ровный.

1/6 всех лесных массивов мира находится в России.

Москва с населением около 10 млн. человек является столицей России и её научным, культурным и промышленным центром.

Говоря о разнообразии природных ресурсов, можно отметить, что Россия является одной из богатейших стран.

Кремль и Собор Василия Блаженного - шедевры древнерусской архитектуры, которые были воздвигнуты в 16 веке.

Несмотря на то, что Россия является парламентарной республикой, во главе государства стоит Президент.

Россия - богатое государство и сейчас есть все предпосылки для того, что бы она стала ведущей державой мира.

Россияне уверены, что период процветания их Родины очень скоро настанет и Россия превратится в мощное государство.

  1.  MOSCOW

Moscow the capital of Russia is one of the biggest industrial, scientific and cultural centers of the world. The city was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky on the bank of the Moscow River. The city was razed in the 13th century during the Tatar invasion. In the 14th century it grew stronger and it was a military as well as an administrative and economic centre. With the invasion of Napoleon in 1812 almost the whole Moscow was destroyed by fire but it was soon rebuilt and trade and industry developed again.

Moscow is built on seven hills, one of which is encircled by a red wall. The Kremlin stands on this hill. If it is a symbol of Russia, then the Spasskaya Tower is a symbol of the Kremlin. It is notable for its clock, its diameter is over six meters. The Kremlin is on Red Square, which is called the heart of Russia.

Moscow is a modem city. Its population is about 10 million people now. The number of streets constantly increases. The largest one is Leninsky Prospect, which is fifteen kilometres long and the widest one is Leningradsky Prospect.

Moscow Underground is one of the most beautiful in the world. It has about two hundred stations. Visiting the metro stations is equal going to museums crammed with bronze and marble statues and different masterpieces of Russian architect. There are nine railway stations in Moscow and five airports around the city. International Sheremetievo Airport is among them.

Moscow is famous for its museums: the Pushkin Fine Arts Museum, the Tretyakov Art Gallery. The Gallery was named after the Moscow merchant and great lover of Art Pavel Tretyakov, who spent most of his life on this collection. Not long before his death Tretyakov had given his collection to the city of Moscow. The Gallery reflects the history of Russia, the life and ideals of its people.

Lots of theatres of Moscow are well-known. The best-known is, of course, the Bolshoi Theatre. Contemporary outstanding actors work in enormous Moscow drama theatres.

In the city there are many stadiums, sports facilities for going in for sports. Many of them were built for the 22nd Olympic Games in 1980, when Moscow was the host of the Games.

Moscow is the main educational center of the country. There are 76 higher educational establishments in it. At the end of University Prospect on the Lenin Hills the high building rises. It is the thirty two storeyed building of Moscow University.

Moscow is a great city. In the Alexandrovsky Garden we can stand by the tomb of the Unknown Warrior. It is a simple memorial to the soldier who died for the country in the Second World War. For heroism of the people of our capital during the Great Patriotic War Moscow was awarded the title of Hero City. Moscow faces many problems now. But nevertheless, its future is bright.


I. Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary:

Moscow the capital of Russia was founded in 1147 ... Yuri Dolgoruky.

The Kremlin stands ... one of the seven hills, which Moscow is situated ....

The Spasskaya Tower is a symbol of the Kremlin and is notable ... its clock.

The diameter of the Spasskaya Tower clock is ... 6 meters.

Moscow underground is one of the most beautiful and famous all over the world ... its history and traditions.

Everybody can stand ... the tomb of the Unknown Warrior and remember everyone who won the Great Victory ... us to live in freedom.

The Kremlin is the heart... Red Square.

  1.  Make up 10 questions of Moscow sightseeing and answer them.

  1.   Translate into English.

1. Москва была основана в 12 веке.

  1.  Шаг за шагом город становился сильнее, больше и красивее и сейчас является административным и экономическим центром России.
  2.  В результате нашествия Наполеона Москва была уничтожена пожаром, но очень скоро была восстановлена.
  3.  Москву называют городом на 7 холмах.
  4.  Кремль - сердце Москвы и располагается он на одном из холмов, обнесённом красной стеной.
  5.  Символом Кремля является Спасская Башня с самыми точными часами в мире.
  6.  Одним из великолепнейших достопримечательностей Москвы называют Московское метро с красивейшими памятниками из бронзы и мрамора, которыми украшены его многочисленные станции.
  7.  Огромное собрание шедевров живописи было подарено Павлом Третьяковым городу Москве незадолго до его смерти. С тех пор галерея носит название Третьяковской, и каждый год её посещают миллионы жителей и гостей столицы.
  8.  За героизм москвичей, проявленный в Великой Отечественной Войне, Москве было присвоено звание города-героя.
  9.  Москва и сейчас развивается и разрастается. Каждый год в городе появляется много красивейших зданий.


Our modern life is impossible without travelling. Thousands of people travel every day either on business or for pleasure. They can travel by air, by sea, by train, by car or on foot. All means of travelling have their own advantages and disadvantages. For example, travelling by air is the fastest and most convenient, but it is the one of the most expensive too. Travelling by train is slower than by plane, but it has its advantages. You can see many interesting places through the window of a train. And many people like to travel by train very much. They like to be seen off and like when the train gathers speed. Each train stops at big stations where some passengers change trains.

One more kind of travelling is a sea voyage. Travelling by sea all passengers can come out on deck. Here they can breathe the rich sea air. The passengers can enjoy a beautiful sunset at sea. Travelling by sea people can visit foreign countries and different places of interest within their own country. After such voyage we return home sunburnt and fall of impressions. But if the sea is rough some passengers are sea-sick. And this

is the main disadvantage of this kind of travelling.

Travelling on foot is one of the most interesting and impressible trips. People have an opportunity to find themselves tet-a-tet with nature. They can hear the songs of birds and can enjoy bright colours of the forest and blossom of flowers, can walk by mountain paths ...

As for me, I prefer travelling by plane. The main advantage of travelling by air is time-saving. For a modern liner of the IL-86 3 thousand km is not a long distance and it can be covered by a nonstop flight within 3,5 hours.

But unfortunately, sometimes travelling by air we have some unpleasant things. For instance, we are in a great hurry and want to reach our destination as soon as possible. The booking-office sells tickets 10 days in advance, so we buy tickets beforehand, pack our luggage and come to the airport. But sometimes the voice over the public address system announces that our flight is delayed due to bad weather. We are short of time and begin to worry about the trip. In a few hours the weather becomes better and we hear the loud speaker call our flight at last; but we are too exhausted by waiting to be glad. We take our suit-cases, have our tickets registered and board the plane. A nice-looking air-hostess greets us and shows us to our seats. We settle comfortably in our seats and fasten seat belts.

Soon, the liner takes off and we are in the air. The stewardess tells us about the altitude and speed of the flight. As a rule, the hostess helps the passengers during the flight to have a good time and to feel at home. On board a plane we have hot lunch and a cup of tea with a cake and biscuits.

It's so pleasant to sleep a little after our meal. So we settle down and begin to doze. We wake up when the aircraft starts on a slow descent. When the flight is over the stewardess stands on the top of a ramp saying "Good -buy" to her passengers with best regards.

The high price of flights is the disadvantage of travelling by plane, but comfort and high speed are very good arguments. Life of people is rather short and the main plus of it is time-saving. I like travelling because of conveniences though it is very dangerous.


I. Express your opinion towards different kinds of travelling. Discuss pros and cons of your favourite one.

II. Correct the sentences:

  1.  Travelling by car is one of the most expensive.
  2.  People all over the World can do without travelling.
  3.  All types of travelling have only advantages.
  4.  The fastest kind to cross the country is by train.

Travelling by sea people aren't sea-sick, because ships are very comfortable and sea is always calm.

It takes a man very much time to cover a long distance by plane, as travelling by air is slower than by rail.

While travelling by plane many people don't have lunch and sleep; they only play cards and tennis.

The low price of tickets for travelling by sea allows people to use it at least once a year.

III. Translate into English.

  1.  Я очень люблю путешествовать и не представляю своей жизни без новых впечатлений и новых знакомств.
  2.  Аэропланы доставляют людей в разные части света очень быстро и с комфортом.
  3.  Для большинства людей скорость - очень важный аргумент, когда они путешествуют.
  4.  Некоторые люди предпочитают комфорт скорости и путешествуют морем.
  5.  Какой способ передвижения вы предпочтете, если едете отдыхать за границу?
  6.  По вечерам я люблю сидеть на пляже и, глядя на море, наслаждаться закатом.
  7.  Путешествие морем наиболее популярно для удовольствия; а если вы едете по делам, то лучше вам воспользоваться самолётом.
  8.  Летом наша семья ездит на озеро отдыхать. Мы устраиваемся в палатках на берегу, наслаждаясь свежим воздухом и солнцем целый день.

  1.  Время отпуска пролетает быстро и мы должны возвращаться домой.
  2.  Какие наиболее популярные водные маршруты в пределах нашей страны для путешествий вы знаете? 


There are four seasons in a year: spring, summer, autumn and winter. Some people like winter, its frosts and white snow. Others like autumn for its richest colours and generous gifts. Many people like spring and awakening of Nature from its long winter sleep. As for me I like summer best of all.

The summer months are: June, July and August. The longest days of a year are in June and the warmest are in July and August.

There are a lot of things for us to do in summer. Swimming and boating, hiking and travelling are very pleasant on a fine summer day. I'm very fond of warm sunny weather when there isn't any cloud in the sky. Who will stay indoors in such weather? Everybody likes to be in the open air. Children and grown-ups have a wonderful time walking in the gardens and squares. Children are playing or cycling; grown-ups are reading and talking with each other. When the sun shines brightly and the temperature is about 25 or 30 above zero most people prefer to lie in the sun. Some like to swim and bathe in the lakes and rivers.

Summer is a very beautiful season. Everything is in blossom. There are a lot of flowers in the fields and gardens which scent the air and show different colours. At night they close their buds. All women like flowers very much and it's very pleasant to be presented with a bouquet.

There are a lot of berries and mushrooms in summer. Many people like to gather them. Summer is the busiest season for farmers. They have to gather in the new crops. They work in their fields from morning till night. The grass must be cut, and the hay must be made while the dry weather lasts.

Lots of people have their holidays in summer. Most of them go to some place to the seaside. The sun shines brightly and great lovers of fishing spend a lot of time at the rivers. They get up early in the morning and go fishing.

As a rule, the weather is warm and sunny in summer. But sometimes it rains. There can be thunderstorms with flashes of lightning and claps of thunder. Anyone caught with the rain outdoors takes shelter, otherwise he may get wet to the skin. But these rains are not so long and cold as they are in autumn. Soon the sun appears again and we can see a beautiful rainbow in the blue clear sky.

There are four seasons in a year and all of them are interesting, all seasons are good, but summer is the best.


I.   Insert the necessary prepositions:

  1.  In spring nature awakens ... its long winter sleep.
  2.  ... a warm sunny day ... summer people can swim, go on hiking, sunbathe.
  3.  It is pleasant to be ... the open air in good weather.
  4.  To be sunburnt it is necessary to lay ... the sun ... a long time.
  5.  In  summer flowers,  trees  and herbs  are  ...  blossom. Everything smells good and fills  the air.. .pleasant scent.
  6.  All women like to be presented ... a bouquet of flowers.
  7.  ... farmers summer is the busiest season.
  8.  People work in the fields ... early morning ... late at night.
  9.  You risk getting wet ... the skin if you are caught ... the rain outdoors.

  1.  Give pros and cons of you favourite season.

  1.   Answer the questions:
  2.  How often do people speak about the weather?
  3.  Why is winter a good time for sports?
  4.  What is the weather like in summer?
  5.  What can you see blossoming in the fields in summer?
  6.  You like autumn, don't you?

What colour is the sky in summer, in autumn, in spring, in winter and why?

  1.  How does nature change in spring?
  2.  What season is summer followed?
  3.  Describe: what is the weather like today?
  4.  When does warm weather set in Siberia?

IV. Translate into English.

  1.  Самый короткий день в году - зимой.
  2.  Зимой дети играют в снежки и лепят снеговиков.
  3.  Весной природа просыпается от долгого зимнего сна и все начинает дышать  свежестью.
  4.  Часто светит солнце, а небо весной просветляется. Земля покрывается молодой, зелёной травой.
  5.  Апрельские дожди приносят майские цветы.
  6.  Летом солнце встает очень рано и садится поздно вечером.
  7.  Летние дни - самые длинные. Небо летом ярко-голубое с белыми облаками. Иногда летом бывают грозы со вспышками молнии и раскатами грома.
  8.  После дождя летом на ярко-голубом небе можно увидеть радугу.
  9.  Осень - прекрасное время года, когда листья меняют цвет с зелёного на жёлтый и красный.
  10.   В октябре становится холодно и часто идёт дождь.

Осенью дни короче, чем летом, а небо - серое и затянуто тёмными, тяжёлыми облаками.

Если  тебя   неожиданно  застал дождь, ты рискуешь промокнуть до нитки.

Цыплят по осени считают.


Everybody has a place to live in. It can be a room or a flat, or a house, or a residence, or even a castle. Some people would like to live in another place.

I like the house I live in but I would like to live in a sky-scraper if I had such a possibility. But there are no sky-scrapers in our country at all because this climate doesn't do for them, as for my future flat it will be situated on the last storey, because I like height and can enjoy the panorama of the city at any time.

My flat will consist of a living-room, a bed-room, a kitchen and a bathroom. There also will be a pantry. All the rooms will be spacious and light. The living-room will be the biggest one. There will be a soft sofa in the center of the room. It will be a leather, white sofa with white cushions. Nearby there will be a glass journal-table, with some magazines there. To the right of it there will be a black post with a big colour TV set. To the left of the sofa there will be a post with an excellent music-center of the latest model I'll have a lot of videocassettes and compact discs. There will also be a black stove-bench. At the wall there will be some book-cases with the books on Literature, Psychology and English of course. Everything will be in modern style in my apartment. The living-room will be a corner room and 2 walls of it will be made of glass from the floor up to the ceiling. There will also be jalousie there. I think it will be my favorite room to spend my free time being tired.

The bedroom will have a window from the floor up to the ceiling to have a marvelous view. Though I'll have such enormous windows it won't be cold in my apartment, because the floor will be heated. In the center of the room there will be a huge bed with a white silk canopy over it, which will match a white-snow bedspread. On each side of the bed there will be bedside tables. There will be a big wardrobe, a chest of drawers, some book-shelves and a cheval glass too. There will be high thin black china statuettes to provide the atmosphere of mystery.

But the most important place in any flat must be a kitchen. It is a place where we spend much time cooking, eating and sometimes reading. The kitchen of my future flat will be very light. There will be a fridge, an electric stove, a deep freeze and a lot of cupboards and dressers there to keep utensil.

There will be some modern conveniences in my flat, such as central heating, electricity, hot and cold running water, a chute, some lifts and a telephone.

And as I live on the last floor I'll have a tremendous balcony. In the evenings, Г11 go out there to look at the city-lights and think about one problem: Why people can't fly?


I. Fill in the blanks with proper prepositions:

  1.  I like the house I live ....
  2.  To the right ... the writing-table, there is a sofa with some cushions ... it.
  3.  When you want your living-room to be light, you would better have a window ... the floor... the ceiling.
  4.  Kitchen is the most important place for cooking, knitting and different things to do ... every flat.
  5.  My flat is situated ... the fifth floor.   And what storey is your apartment...?

6  The Russia's climate doesn't do ... sky-scrapers.

7. There is a leather armchair ... the corner ... my bedroom.

II. Organize the nouns according their belongings to: a kitchen, a living-room, a bed-room, a study, a hall.

А chest-drawers, a journal-table, a stove, a computer, a music-center, a double-bed, a TV-set, a bedside table, a hall-stand, an arm-chair, a mirror, a book-case, a writing-table, a cooker, a wardrobe, a chair, a fridge, book-shelves, a cheval-glass, an electric stove, a stool, a dresser, a deep freeze, a desk, a corner sofa, a post.

III. Translate into English.

  1.  Гостиная в любой квартире - самая светлая и просторная комната, где обычно по вечерам собирается вся семья.
  2.  Ничего нет более приятного, чем сидеть в уютном кресле и смотреть телевизор в дождливую и промозглую погоду.
  3.  У противоположной стены стоит туалетный столик с большим зеркалом.
  4.  Слева от стола располагается большой платяной шкаф с вешалками, которые используются для хранения одежды.
  5.  Только сентиментальные люди любят, когда в их спальнях развешены портреты родственников.
  6.  Комната моей дочери не такая большая, как гостиная, но она уютная и обставлена по последнему слову.
  7.  В этой комнате немного мебели: - только самые необходимые предметы, потому что больше всего я люблю простор.

8. Книжный шкаф в кабинете буквально “напичкан” книгами. Среди них много иностранных книг в оригинале и в переводе, различные словари, и конечно – художественная литература.

9. Наша квартира хорошо спланирована.

10. “Мой дом - моя крепость” - гласит пословица. Человек может в своем доме работать, отдыхать и просто - жить.


Sport is very important in our life. It is popular among young and old people. Many people do morning exercises, make jogging in the morning and train themselves in clubs and different sections and take part in sport competitions. Others like sports too, but they only watch sport games on TV or at the stadiums, listen to sport news. The prefer reading stories about sportsmen. But they don't go in for sports themselves.

There are lots of popular kinds of sports in our country: wrestling, football, hockey, gymnastics, skiing, skating, biathlon, figure skating. As for me, my favourite sport is swimming. Swimming competitions are held all the year round as there are many modern swimming pools in our country. Competitions are always very exciting. Our swimmers are the strongest in the world. Russian swimmers get lots of Olympic medals.

There are 4 styles of swimming: breast-stroke, back-stroke, freestyle and butterfly. The last two are the most beautiful and the quickest ones.

This kind of sports is included into the Olympic Games which have a very long history. The tradition began more than 2000 years ago in Greece. All the cities sent their best athletes to the city of Olympus to compete in the games. During the Olympic Games all wars between cities and countries stopped and the people lived in peace. Now these games take place every four years. The Olympic Games Committee makes decision of the place of the Olympic Games to be held and sports that the athletes will compete in.

You know, I have a sport idol. I'm talking about Jan Thorpe, a famous Australian swimmer. Though he is only 20 now, he has already become an Olympic champion eight times. He is well built and seems vigorous- He demonstrates strong will.

I had been going in for fin-swimming for fifteen years. As for me, I have some results too. I became a champion of Europe in 1994 and a prize-winner of Russia in 1997.1 have a standard of master of sports, which had been achieved by everyday trainings for this period. Taking part in different competitions I visited a lot of cities of our country and abroad.

Sports generally helps people to keep fit, to be healthy all the year. Thinking about character sport makes a man determined and helps everybody in demonstrating his will and energy. Every one who goes in for sport is a rational person and always knows what he wants. Going in for sports helps us to organize our day, that is very important in our progressing epoch.


I. Insert the necessary prepositions:

  1.  Sport is popular ... young and old people all ... the World.

Swimming, football, track and field athletics are included ... the program ... the Olympic Games.

There is a low: ... the Olympic Games all the wars stop and people live ... peace.

Russian sportsmen compete ... all kinds of sports and they get many medals.

Sportsmen visit different cities and countries while taking part .... World and European competitions and different competitions within their own country.

Setting a record ... any kind of sports is a result ... everyday trainings.

  1.  Some people go … … different sports at stadiums, sport grounds or swimming pools. Others prefer watching sport competitions and games ... TV or reading ... Sports.

8. Various sport facilities are provided for people … every city of Russia.

9. Tennis courts, sport fields, football and hokey grounds are ... sport lovers' disposal.

  1.  Discuss the topic: Going in for sport: "for" and "against".

  1.   Translate into English.
  2.  Занятия спортом - важная часть времяпровождения в России. Это также досуг, но для  многих людей - это тяжелый труд.
  3.  Физическая культура - обязательный предмет в любой общеобразовательной школе нашей страны.
  4.  Спорт помогает людям быть здоровыми, сохранять форму, организовать и распланировать их собственное время, делает их дисциплинированными и уверенными в себе.
  5.  Современные спортзалы оборудованы необходимыми тренажерами и снарядами, способствующими тренировке мышц.
  6.  Многие люди считают занятия спортом своим хобби, но в действительности спорт - это тяжелый ежедневный труд.
  7.  Все знаменитые спортсмены защищают честь своей страны, выступая за национальную сборную команду.
  8.  В жизни каждого выдающегося спортсмена есть много болельщиков, которые ездят за ним повсюду и поддерживают его.
  9.  Мировые и европейские чемпионаты проводятся ежегодно, а Олимпийские Игры - только раз в четыре года.
  10.  С древних времен на время проведения Олимпийских Игр прекращались все войны.
  11.  Эрнест Хемингуэй сказал: «Спорт учит нас выигрывать, учит нас с достоинством проигрывать, учит всему - учит жизни!»


Weather we realize it or not, TV plays a very important part in our lives. It is essential for us to decide weather it is good or bad.

In the first place, television is not only a convenient source of entertainment, but also a comparatively cheap one. For a family of four, for example, it is more convenient as well as cheaper to sit comfortably at home than to go out. There is no transport to arrange. They do not have to find a baby-sitter. They do not have to pay for expensive seats at the theatre, the cinema, the opera or the ballet. All they have to do is turn a knob, and they can see plays, films, operas of every kind, not to mention political discussions and the latest exciting football match. Some people, however, say that this is just where the danger lies. The television viewer needs do nothing. He does not even use his legs. He takes no initiative. He makes no choice. He is completely passive and has everything presented to him.

Television, people often say, is the main source of information because it informs one about current events, the latest development in science and politics, and presents an endless series of programmers which are both instructive and stimulating. The most faraway countries and the strangest customs are brought into one's living-room. It is the window on the world which gives us an opportunity to "travel" all over the world, to "meet" different people and to learn about their customs and traditions.

TV has the power to educate and broaden our minds. It helps us to relax after a hard day's work and escape from reality.

People can say that the radio does this just as well; but on television everything is much more living, much more real. Yet here again there is a danger. We get to dominate our lives. A friend of mine told me the other day that his television set had broken down and that he and his family had suddenly found that they had much more time to do things, and that they could really talk to each other again. It makes one think, doesn't it?

There is always a great variety of programmers on TV: news and sports programmers, talk shows and TV games, documentaries and feature films, concerts and theatre performances...

Of course, not all programmes are good. But many of them are made in good taste and with great professional skill.

There are many arguments for and against television and some people say that television is a terrible waste of time. It makes us lazier. We read less. We think less. We even talk less.

It is true that some TV addicts spend hours in front of the "box" watching whatever is on from second-rate Mexican soap operas to silly commercials.

The trick is to learn to control television and use it intelligently. The idea is to turn on the TV-set only when there's a really interesting programme.

Violence on TV is another problem that worries people not less. As George Mikes once said, TV teaches us "how to kill, to rob, to shoot and to poison". But the same can be said about computer games and many films and books. And if you don't like a certain programme, why watch it?

Generally, the poor quality of TV programmes is often criticized. I think we must understand that television in itself is neither good nor bad. Television is as good or as bad as we make it.


I. Choose the answer that expresses most accurately what is stated in the passage. Only one answer is correct.

1.  It is essential for us to decide weather television is good or bad because:

a. it dominates many people's lives;

b. lots of people watch TV the whole time;

с. TV plays an important part in the lives of many people

2. TV is convenient source of entertainment because:

a. there is no need to arrange for tickets or transport;

b. you can watch plays, shows, etc. staying at home and enjoying the comfort of your living – room;

с. the children are with you and there is no need to find a baby-sitter.

3. TV is comparatively cheap source of entertainment because:

a. you can watch TV for nothing;

b. you pay the price of a TV set and can watch any programme you like;

с watching TV at home is cheaper than going to the theatre, cinema, etc.

4. The idea behind the sentence "Television is not only a convenient source of entertainment, but also a comparatively cheap one" is that:

a. TV, though convenient, is rather expensive;

b. TV is much cheaper than other kinds of entertainment (theatre, cinema, etc.), but   not so convenient;

с. TV is favourable to your comfort and at the same time not so expensive as other sources of entertainment.

5. "TV is as good or as bad as we make it" means that:

a. TV is good if it is put to good users;

b. TV is bad if it is put to bad users;

c. TV may be used for both good and bad purposes.

  1.  Discuss pros and cons of TV nowadays.

  1.  Translate into English.
  2.  Телевидение очень важно в жизни людей. Оно не только источник развлечений, но и сравнительно дешёвый способ "попутешествовать" по миру.
  3.  Телевидение несёт людям информацию о последних событиях, достижениях в науке и политике.
  4.  Сидя у телевизора, вы можете "посетить" самые отдалённые государства и познакомиться с их традициями и обычаями.
  5.  Многие говорят, что кроме пользы телевидение может нанести вред и быть даже опасным.
  6.  "Телеманы" сидят у телевизора целыми днями, ничего не делая. Они прекращают читать, думать и даже общаться с близкими.
  7.  Доктора считают бесцельное сидение у "ящика" болезнью.
  8.  Суть в том, чтобы включать телевизор только тогда, когда по телевизору идёт что-нибудь познавательное.
  9.  Сейчас на современном телевидении очень много насилия.
  10.  Противники телевидения считают, что этот вид развлечения учит "убивать, стрелять, грабить, отравлять".
  11.  На самом деле, телевидение настолько хорошо или вредно, насколько мы сами представляем его таковым.

  1.  CINEMA

Cinema is the most important part of art, which brings people sorrows and enjoyment, strength and weakness sometimes, makes them happy and confident.

There are many cinema-complexes now. They are equipped with up-to-date going on systems and devices. Moreover, in our cinemas we can see American films more often. When people want to go to the cinema they usually see in the programmer what films are on. Then they phone to their friends and discuss what film to see. Mostly, people prefer future films, but sometimes they see cartoons or popular science ones. To see a good love story, musical or detective film is a very pleasant way of spending free time.

If I want to go to an evening show I must usually book tickets in advance. But for matinee performances I always buy tickets just before the show.

There are many talented actors and actresses in our country. My favourite actor is Oleg Yankovsky. My favourite actress is Natalia Gundareva inspite she is dead now. They have played the leading parts in many films and I always enjoy their superb acting.

In foreign cinematography there are also many outstanding actors. The last film I saw was the screen version of the novel "Gone with the Wind" by M. Mitchel. This film is in colour. It is an old film but still it enjoys great popularity. There are many famous American actors in it with Vivien Leigh and Clark Gable in the leads. I was deeply impressed by their acting and the movie itself. It hasn't lost its visual splendour by the passage of time.

When I go to the cinema a couple of minutes before the movie starts. If there is a long time to wait I can look at the portraits of film stars hanging on the walls of the foyer.

It is a good thing that those who are late are not allowed to enter the hall until the news-reel is over. I have being disturbed when the film is on. Sometimes if I like the movie very much I come to see it for the second time and besides I see many of the movies televized. If a film is screened after a book which I don't remember very well I always reread the book to be able to compare it with the screened version. I know all the famous Russian script-writers, producers and cameramen.

To my mind, cinema is the best way to express yourself, to organize your own life, to find your place in our changeable life.


I. Fill in prepositions:

  1.  What film is ... in the cinema "Luch" today?
  2.  Nowadays all the movies produced in different studios are ... color.
  3.  Watching films and cartoons is a pleasant way ... spending free time.
  4.  Every producer is happy having famous and talented actors ... the leads.
  5.  The movie usually begins after the news-reel is ... .
  6.  Having read an interesting book it is amusing to see the film screened ... the novel.
  7.  I always deeply impressed ... my favourite actors' playing.
  8.  The success of any movie really depends ... the cast.
  9.  It is very important for a film what problems are touched ... in it,

II. Put up questions to the answers given down.

  1.  Many famous film-stars were in the cast.
  2.  The feature film ran for an hour and half.
  3.  Our seats are in the tenth row.
  4.  I like musicals best of all.
  5.  Animated cartoons are very popular, because they are funny and amusing.
  6.  The public took the film to heart because the problems it touches upon are important to everyone.

III. Translate into English.

  1.  Когда появился кинематограф, кино пришлось публике по душе, и кинопромышленность стала быстро развиваться.
  2.  Первый кинотеатр был открыт в Нью-Йорке в 1914.
  3.  Студия «Мосфильм» очень популярна в нашей стране. Недавно она стала концерном и выпускает еще больше хороших фильмов.
  4.  Самая заветная мечта каждого актера - получить премию «Оскар».
  5.  Этот фильм имел большой успех, и долгое время был в прокате.
  6.  Не понимаю, почему многие люди не любят фильмы ужасов.  Это так захватывающе.
  7.  Говорят, последний фильм Никиты Михалкова стоит посмотреть.
  8.  Ты обычно заказываешь билеты по телефону заранее или покупаешь их непосредственно перед заказом?
  9.   На каких местах ты любишь сидеть в кинотеатре?
  10.   Фильмы этого режиссера завоевали много призов на международных кинофестивалях.
  11.    Какими ты находишь научно-популярные фильмы: интересными или скучными?


When we want to buy something, we go to a shop. There are many kinds of shops in every town or city: food supermarkets, department stores, men's and women's clothing stores, a grocery, a bakery and a butchery.

I like to do shopping at big supermarkets, because you can buy a lot of goods there more cheaply than at a small local shop. There are several department stores under one roof at every supermarket. In Britain they often belong to different firms which run them individually. Prices vary from department to department. They sell a wide assortment of confectionary and bakery, wines, fruits and vegetables, smoked meat and sausage, dairy products, butchery's meat, a lot of jewellery, electrical appliances, perfumery, household goods, sport goods and foot wear, knitted and leather goods, textiles, stationary and others.

Supermarkets are brightly lit and well laid out. The goods are tidily arranged on trays and long shelves on which the prices are clearly marked. There is plenty of room for the customers to walk about.

In the supermarkets most of the goods are sold ready-weighed, ready-packed and wrapped. You can find wide selection of everything here from shoe polish to eggs. In the women's clothing department, for example, you can buy dresses, costumes, blouses, skirts, coats, beautiful underwear and so on.

In the men's clothing department you can choose suits, trousers, overcoats, shirts, ties. In the knitwear department one can buy sweaters, cardigans, short-sleeved and long-sleeved pullovers, woolen jackets. In the perfumery face cream and powder, lipstick, lotions and shampoos are sold.

Another shop we frequently go to is a green-grocery which is stocked   with   cabbage,   potatoes,   onions,   cucumbers,   carrots, cauliflower, beets, green peas and so on. I like to buy fruits and vegetables there. They smell good and you feel as if you are in an exotic country.

Customers go round the supermarket with a basket or trolley getting the products from the shelves. Having filled you basket you go to a cash desk,

where there is a short queue. When there is your turn the prices of your purchases are added up by a cashier. You pay money and the cashier gives you back the change.

There are departments, known as "bargain sales", where goods which are out of season are sold at reduced prices. It is important for housewives because the prices are going up constantly.


I. Fill in the necessary prepositions:

  1.  What is sold ... the butcher's?
  2.  There is a great selection of goods ... every supermarket.
  3.  Do you prefer low or high-heeled shoes ... everyday wear?

Most of all I prefer buying self-service method ... shopping.

  1.  What is the price ... this dress? I'm going to by it.
  2.  I think this red blouse matches the color ... your lipstick.

This overcoat doesn't fit me. It's too tight. I need one size more ... me.

  1.  I easily get rid ... clothes which are… …fashion.
  2.  I prefer clothes made ... wool and cotton.

II. Complete the following sentences:

  1.  When you want to buy something ...
  2.  There are different kinds of shops in our city: ...
  3.  At a stationary's we can buy ...
  4.  After you have chosen the thing you go ... and ...

5.  The greengrocery is stocked by ...

6.  We buy ... at a dairy and we go there very often.

7.  A department store is divided into several departments: ...

III. Translate into English.

  1.  Этот костюм мне подходит по размеру, но я думаю, что он мне не совсем к лицу.
  2.  Я хотел бы купить несколько новых сорочек и галстуков, которые бы к ним подходили.

3. Обычно моя мама делает покупки в небольшом магазине рядом

с домом.

 4.  Интересно, сколько может стоить такой костюм?

 5.  Покупатель попросил продавца показать ему галстук в полоску и рубашку  40-го  размера.

      6. Сегодня в продаже свежие огурцы и помидоры, а завтра в магазин привезут цветную капусту.

  1.  Женщины любят носить туфли на высоком каблуке.
  2.  В нашем гастрономе можно купить все продукты, кроме овощей.
  3.  Выбрав товар, покупатель идет к кассе, оплачивает чек, кладет покупки в сумку и выходит из магазина.
  4.   Я предпочитаю делать покупки в больших магазинах самообслуживания. Там все товары удобно разложены на полках и есть прекрасная возможность выбрать товар спокойно.
  5.   Все домохозяйки предпочитают покупать товары по сниженным ценам. Это очень важно для бюджета любой семьи, потому что цены постоянно растут.

                     11.  MY FUTURE PROFESSION


Active words and word combinations

advisory office [ad'vaizari' fis] — юридическая консультация

defence counsel [di'fens Icaunsc l] — защитник 

defendant [d fend nt] — ответчик

legal counsellor [ li:g l ‘kaunsl ] - юрист, адвокат

litigate[‘litigeit] - выступать в качестве стороны в гражданском процессе

marriage settlement [‘m srid  ‘setlm nt]— акт распоряжения имуществом по случаю заключения брака

notary [‘n ut n]— нотариус

plaintiff [‘pleintif] - истец

regional bar [‘ri;d nl ‘ba:]— коллегия адвокатов

standard of conduct [‘st nd d v ‘k nd kt] — норма поведения

I am а second-year student of the State University Law Department. When I entered the University I had a vague idea of what I should do m future. Having studied a lot of legal subjects, such as Theory of Law, State and Law, Criminal and Public Law I could outline the profession I'm engaged in. Now it is obvious to everyone, that in a community such as the one m which we live some kind of law is necessary because every day of our lives we are restrained and guided by law. It protects us while it restricts us. Sometimes it punishes us.

Law can also be defined as a standard of conduct, which regulates the relation of the individual to the central government, the relation of the government to the individual, and the relations among the individuals. If there is a conflict in these relations, the law also provides an institution, the court system through which the respective sides can litigate a problem and reach a solution. So, the scope of me law necessarily makes it complex, and complexity has created the need for specialists, namely a lawyer, whose work is quite diversified. He may act as the defence counsel in court, he may represent the interests of the plaintiff, the defendant or of third parties in civil criminal cases. The rate at which the legal profession is growing will probably continue. Why is the career in law so popular?

  Of course, because of the prestige and salary. The average salary of an experienced lawyer is still substantially greater than that of many other professionals. But that work isn't so interesting as it may seem. In national economy lawyers are entrusted the control on the legality of orders and instructions issued by governing body: they participate in drawing up different agreements and contracts, which are concluded with other enterprises; lawyers also inform workers on the current legislation and give help in legal matters, conduct their cases in courts. In addition to this professional group there are nonprofessional legal counsellors who give advice on various legal problems and are often employed by business firms, hi almost all civil-law countries there are notaries, who have exclusive rights to deal 'with such office work as marriage settlements and wills.

 All lawyers in our country are incorporated either in the national or regional (territorial) bar. Members of the bar work at legal advisory offices, which function in every town administrative district.

 That's what I know about my profession now. And it makes me think that in some years I'll be able to find the job in accordance with the knowledge I get, because our department trains specialists for working in court. Office of Public Prosecutor, Notary, other juridical bodies and also in legal service of national economy. Though Law Department is rather young it has got already a good reputation because of the teaching staff and because, of scientifically based curriculum. During our studies at the University we write a lot of scientific papers, analyze special legal literature and try to do our best to be professionals after graduation.


I. Answer the questions:

1. What faculty do you study at?

2. What subjects do you study?

3. What is your favourite subject?

4. What subject do you consider to be the most difficult (the simplest) one? Why?

5. What is the definition of law?

6. When does a person appeal to the court?

7. How can professional skills of a lawyer be used?

8. What do lawyers do in national economy?

      9.   Where can graduates from Law Department work?

      10. Where would you like to work after the graduation?

II. Discuss pros and cons of a lawyer’s profession and give your own opinion towards the problem.


      Russia is a democratic federative law-governed state with a republican form of government. The population of Russia is about 140 million people and the territory is 17 million square kilometres. The Russian Federation consists of 89 constituent entities (republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblasts and autonomous okrugs, which have equal rights). The authorities of the constituent entities have the right to pass laws independently from the federal government. These laws are valid on the territory of the appropriate federate division, but they cannot contradict the federal laws. In case of conflicts between federal and local authorities, the President uses consensual procedures to resolve the problem. In the event a consensus is not reached, the dispute is transferred to the appropriate court for its resolution. The Russian President has the right to suspend acts passed by local executive authorities in case that these acts conflict with federal laws of Russia, its international commitments, or if they violate the human and civil rights and freedoms until the issue is resolved by appropriate court.

       State power in Russia is carried out by dividing power into three independent branches : legislative, executive and judicial. Legislative power belongs to the Federal Assembly (the Parliament). Executive power belongs to the central and local governments. Judicial power is provided by appropriate judicial system and by civil, administrative and criminal legislation.


I. Skim the text and answer the questions.

1. What category of law is meant in the text?

2. What are the main functions of each of the 3 independent branches: legislative, executive and judicial?


      The President is the head of the state and determines the basic objectives of the internal and external policy of the state. He is elected for four years on the basis of universal, equal and direct right to vote by secret ballot for all eligible citizens. One and the same person cannot serve as President for more than two terms in succession. The President stops performing his duties ahead of time if he resigns, because  of impeachment, or if he cannot continue to carry out his duties due to poor health. Elections

of  a  new   President  are  to  take  place  within  three  months  and  in  the

meantime his duties are acted upon by the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation.

     The President appoints, with the consent of the State Duma the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, chairs the meetings of the government, adopts the decisions on the resignation of the government The President nominates to the State Duma a candidate for appointment to the post of the Chairman of the Central Bank, presents to the Federation Council candidates for the posts of the Constitutional and Supreme Court justices, Supreme Arbitrage Court justices, and a candidate for the post of Prosecutor General. The President forms and heads the Security Council. He is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and appoints and dismisses the supreme commanders of the Armed Forces. He appoints diplomatic representatives for approval by the Parliament. He confers supreme military and supreme special titles and honorary titles of the state. He has the right to show mercy and to decide on issues of citizenship. He has the right to introduce the state of emergency throughout the country or in a particular territory within the Russian Federation. The President has the right to dissolve the State Duma, to announce elections ahead of time and to pass the decision to conduct a referendum on federal issues.


I.  Scan   the  text   and   use  the   words   given   below to complete  the sentences.

1. Russia is a ... state.

2. Russia consists of...

3. Authorities of the republics have the right to pass laws independently from...

4. These laws cannot contradict...

5) The President has the right to suspend . . . passed by local executive authorities (constituent entities, federal government, acts, federative democratic, federal laws).

II. Choose from the given groups of words the appropriate one which fits each gap.

  1.  The President uses consensual procedures ... (to veto the act, to perform duties, to resolve the problem).
  2.   The dispute is transferred to the appropriate court... (for its resolution, for suspension, for discussion).
  3.   State power in Russia is carried out by dividing powers . . . (between citizens, into three independent branches, for performing duties).
  4.   The President stops performing his duties ahead of time if he resigns because of ... (impeachment, a state of emergency, elections).
  5.   He also selects and releases diplomatic representatives for approval   by  . . .(the State Duma, the Parliament, The Chairman of the Government).

III. Read the text in detail to answer the following questions:

  1.   What type of state is Russia?
  2.  Who has the right to pass laws independently from the federal government?
  3.   When does the President use consensual procedures to resolve the problem?
  4.   Where is the dispute transferred to in case a consensus is not reached?
  5.   In which case does the President have the right to suspend acts passed by local executive authorities?
  6.   What are the three independent branches of state power in Russia?
  7.   Who determines the basic objectives of internal and external policy?
  8.   What are the basic principles of voting when electing the President?
  9.   Who heads the Security Council?

IV. Find not less than 10 word combinations in the text to name the functions performed by the President.

  1.  ...
  2.  ...to head the Security Council.

3. …

4. … to appoint diplomatic representatives.

V. Word study. Find verbs in the text that correspond to the nouns:

Election, service, resignation, management, confirmation, decision introduction, dissolution, assignment, formation, suspension, enforcement.

VI. Match English words and word combinations with their Russian equivalents.

  1.   representative                                           1. международные


  1.   to pass law                                               2. принять закон
  2.   to be valid                                                 3. представитель
  3.   appropriate division                                 4. достичь согласия
  4.   to reach consensus                                    5. вводить чрезвычайное 


  1.   to suspend the activity of an act                6. соответствующий  

                                                                     административный округ

  1.   international obligations                           7. приостанавливать действие


h) criminal legislation                                   8. быть действительным

i) external policy                                           9. внешняя политика

j) to perform one's duties                              10. освободить (от       ……………………………………………  должности)

k) to release                                                  11. выполнять свои            ……………………………………………..обязанности

l)  to introduce a state of emergency            12. уголовное  …………………………………………… .законодательство


VI. What do these words or word combinations from the text refer to?

 1.  state                                           - service, law, country

 2.  authority                                    - person, power, body

 3.  to suspend                                 - to delay, to keep on

 4.  eligible citizens                         - grown up, law-abiding, educated.

 5.  to release smb.                          - to let free, to make to resign, to praise

 6.  state of emergency                    - extraordinary situation, sequence of                                                        

                                                           events, policy



  1. The Federal Assembly — the Parliament of the Russian Federation is the representative and legislative body of the Russian Federation. It consist of two chambers: the Federation Council and the State Duma. The Federation Council includes two representatives from each constituent entity of the Russian Federation and the State Duma consists of 450 deputies. The Federal Assembly is a permanently functioning body. The Federation Council and the State Duma sit separately. Their sessions are open, but they have the right to pass the decision to conduct closed sessions. Each chamber forms committees and commissions to hold appropriate hearings. Both chambers set up the Accounts Chamber to monitor implementation of the federal budget.

  2. Federal laws adopted by the State Duma on the following issues must compulsorily be examined by the Federation Council:

- the federal budget;

- federal taxes and levies;

- financial, currency, credit and customs regulation, money emission;

- ratification and denunciation of international treaties of the Russian Federation;

- the status and protection of the state border of the Russian Federation;

- war and peace.

  3. Federation Council also considers a set of other issues. In particular, it approves decisions on changes of borders between constituent entities and sanctions the introduction of martial law and a state of emergency. Without the Federation Council approval, military forces cannot be used outside the country. Within its competence, there is appointment and dismissal of the Prosecutor General and judges of the supreme body of the judicial branch, the deputy Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounts Chamber. Additionally, the Federation Council has the right of final decision on the impeachment of the President and the announcement of new elections of the President.

   4.   The following is within the jurisdiction of the State Duma:

- consent to the appointment of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation by the President of the Russian Federation;

- deciding the issue of confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation;

- appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank, the Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounts Chamber;  the Commissioner for Human Rights;

- announcement of amnesty;

- bringing charges against the President of the Russian Federation for his impeachment.

   5. The Executive power is exercised by the government which consists of the Chairman of the Government (the Prime Minister), deputy chairmen and the federal ministers. The Chairman's candidate is appointed by the President with the consent of the State Duma. Should the selected candidate rejected three times, the President appoints the Prime Minister himself, disolves the State Duma and announces new elections. Additionally, the Chairman of the Government proposes to the President candidates for the posts of deputy chairmen and the other federal ministers.

  6.   The government presents a draft budget to be discussed by the State Duma and it provides its implementation and realization of financial, credit and monetary policies. It carries out measures to ensure the legality, rights and freedoms of the citizens, to protect property, public order and combat crimes. It ensures state security, and the realization of foreign policy. The government ensures the implementation of a uniform state policy in the sphere of culture, science, education, social security, health, and ecology.


I. Scan the text to choose the best ending to these incomplete sentences.

  1.   The Parliament consists of ... (one branch only, two chambers, several committees).

2. The Federation Council and the State Duma sit.. .(separately, together, with other governmental subcommittees).

  1.   Military forces cannot be used outside the country without the approval of ... (The State Duma, the Federation Council, the President).
  2.   Appointment of the Supreme body of the judicial branch is within the competence of . . . (the Chairman of the Government, the Federation Council, the Treasury).
  3.   Charges against the President can be issued by... (the government, the deputy chairmen, the State Duma).
  4.   The Chairman's candidate is appointed by ... f the deputy Chairman, the Federation Council, the President).

II. Say if it is true or false.

1. The Federal Council doesn't approve decisions on changes of borders between the constituent entities.

  1.   It is within the competence of the State Duma to appoint and dismiss the Chairman of the Central Bank.
  2.   The government consists only of the federal ministers.
  3.   The Chairman's candidate is not to be approved by the State Duma.
  4.   Should the selected candidate be rejected three times, the President appoints the Prime Minister himself.
  5.   A draft budget is to be discussed by the State Duma.

7.  Measures to ensure state security are carried out by the government.

III. Paragraph check. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-G for each paragraph (1-6) of   the text. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use.

1. The structure of the Federal Assembly

2. The powers (competence) of the State Duma

3. The laws considered by the Federation Council

4. The appointment of the Chairman of the Government

5. The duties and powers of the government

6. The issues within the jurisdiction of the Federation Council

7. The procedure of no confidence in the government

IV. Answer the following "Whose-right-is-it" questions:

  1.   .. to approve the President's appointment?
  2.   ... to appoint the Accounts Chamber?
  3.   ... to have the final decision on the impeachment of the President?
  4.   ... to dissolve or decline the power of the Government or dissolve the State Duma?


       15.  COURT SYSTEM

      Active words and word combinations

assessor inferior court [a'ses in 'fieri 'k :t] - низший суд 

coroners' court ['k nez 'k :t] - суд коронера (специальный судья, в обязанность которого входит выяснение причины смерти, наступившей при необычных или подозрительных обстоятельствах)

court of appeal [‘k :t ev 'pi:l] — апелляционный суд 

hearing [‘hiari ]- слушание (дела)

juvenile court [‘d u- vinail ‘k :t] - суд по делам несовершеннолетних

litigation [lmgei n] - гражданский судебный спор, процесс

people's assessor ['pi:plz 'ses ] — народный заседатель 

sue or be sued [sju:] - выступать в суде в качестве истца или ответчика

superior court [sju:'piari ‘k :t] - высший суд

       Court is а person or body of persons having judicial authority to hear and determine disputes in particular cases: civil, criminal or military. Court is also a large room in a building where trials and other legal cases happen.

      English courts are divided by certain features. The first distinction is between courts trying criminal cases and courts trying civil cases. The second distinction is made between the inferior courts, or courts of first instance, in which the first hearing of any judicial proceeding takes place, and the superior courts, or courts of appeal in which the judgment of the first courts are brought under review. The court of appeal is the main appeal court, whose decision may be reviewed by the House of Lords in important points of law.

        The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners' courts (which investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths). There are administrative tribunals which make quick cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Tribunals deal with professional standards, disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments (e.g. over taxation).

        The American court system is complex. It functions as part of the federal system of government. Each state runs its own court system, and no two are identical. The federal courts coexist with the state courts.

       Individuals fall under the jurisdiction of two different court systems, their state courts and federal courts. They can sue or be sued in either system, depending mostly on what their case is about. The vast majority of cases are resolved in the state courts.

         The federal courts are organised in three tiers, like a pyramid. At the bottom of the pyramid there are the U.S. district courts, where litigation begins. In the middle there are the U.S. courts of appeals. At the top there is the U.S. Supreme Court. To appeal means to take a case to a higher court. The courts of appeals and the Supreme Court are appellate courts, with few exceptions; they review cases that have been decided in lower courts. Most federal courts hear and decide wide array of cases that have been decided in lower courts. Most federal courts hear and decide a wide array of cases; the judges in these courts are known as generalists.

        Belarusian courts are judicial criminal cases on the territory of Belarus. The Constitution of Belarus (Articles 151 – 161) provides the system of election of judges and People’s assessors and the collective order of trying criminal and civil cases in courts. In general the court system is divided into three stages – district (municipal) People’s courts, regional courts and Minsk city court and the highest one – the Supreme Court of the Republic of Belarus. Criminal and civil courts are distinguished as courts of first and second instances. Courts of first instance pronounce verdicts in criminal cases and pass judgment in civil cases after trial. Courts of second instance are courts of cassation and can control the legality and justification of verdicts or judgment pronounced by courts of first instance.


I. Answer the questions:

  1.  What is court in a wide sense of the word?
  2.  How are English courts divided?
  3.  What is a court of appeal?
  4.  What are the main functions of juvenile courts?
  5.  How do tribunals function?
  6.  Name American courts in the descending order.
  7.  In what way are the federal courts organized?
  8.  Where does litigation begin?
  9.  What does the word «to appeal» mean?

10. What do Articles 151-161 of the Constitution of Belarus provide?
1l. What is the hierarchy of the Belarusian court system?
12.What functions does the court of first instance have?

13. What are the main functions of the court of second instance?

II. Retell the text.




to have а majority in the House of Commons - иметь большинство в Палате Общин

to take policy decisions - принимать политические решения

to make the changes in the size of Cabinet - производить изменения в составе кабинета

to create new ministries - создавать новые министерства

the power of the monopolists over the parliamentary government - власть монополий  над парламентским правительством

by direct representation in Parliament - прямым представительством в Парламенте

by direct influence over the Cabinet - прямым влиянием на Кабинет

by initiation, control and amendment of legislation - введением, контролем и внесением поправок в законодательство

the bodies of the legislature - законодательные органы

the bodies of the executive - исполнительные органы

the bodies of the judiciary - судебные органы

the Queen in Parliament - Королева в Парламенте

ministers of the Crown - министры Короны

to be responsible for - отвечать за...

local authorities - местные власти

government departments - государственные департаменты

statutory boards - установленные законом коллегии (министерства)

particular nationalized industries - особые национализированные виды промышленности

hereditary power- наследственная власть

  The bodies of government in the United Kingdom are: those of legislature, which consists of the Queen in Parliament and is the supreme authority of the country; those of the executive and those of the judiciary.

   The executive bodies consist of 1) the cabinet and other ministers of the crown who are responsible for directing national policy; 20 government departments who are responsible for administration at the national level; 3) local authorities who administer. and control many services at the local level; and 4) statutory boards who are responsible for the operation of particular nationalized industries or public services. The highest judicial body in the English judicial system is the House of Lords.

       The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the party that has a majority in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister usually takes policy decisions with the agreement of the cabinet (a committee of leading Ministers). Each new Prime Minister may make changes in the size of his cabinet and may create new ministries or make other changes. The prime Minister holds Cabinet meetings, at his (her) house at number 10 Downing Street, which is very near the Houses of Parliament in Westminster.




by the Constitution of 1787 and the amendments to it – По Конституции 1787 года и поправкам к ней

the executive, legislative and judicial branches of power – исполнительная, законодательная и судебная ветви власти.

the Congress of the United States – конгресс Соединённых Штатов.

the Senate and the House of Representatives – Сенат и Палата представителей

for a term of 4 years – на (срок) 4 года

the number of representatives from each state – число представителей от каждого штата

to depend on the number of people in each particular state – зависеть от числа людей в каждом отдельном штате

in order to become a law – для того, чтобы стать законом

to pass both the Houses – пройти обе палаты

the executive power in the United States is vested in the President – исполнительная власть в Соединённых Штатах возложена на Президента

the presidential election – Президентские выборы

to carry out the programmers of the Government – выполнять программы правительства

ambassadors to other countries – послы в другие страны

to appoint Federal Judges – назначать федеральных судей

to be influential – быть влиятельным

Chief Justice of the USA – Верховный Судья Соединённых Штатов

Associate Justices – члены коллегии Верховного Суда

to try criminal and civil cases – рассматривать уголовные и гражданские дела

the governor of the state – губернатор штата

       By the Constitution of 1787 the government of the USA is composed of three   branches:    the executive one,   the legislative one,  and the judicial one.

The highest executive power in the US is vested in the President, who is elected for a term of 4 years. The President of the USA must be a native born citizen, resident in the country for 14 years and at least 35 years old.

        The President is to carry out the programmes of the Government, to recommend much of the legislation to the Congress. He is to appoint Federal Judges, ambassadors to other countries and head of various departments.

         The legislative power belongs to the Congress of the US consisting of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives.

       In order to become a law all bills and resolutions must pass both the Houses and must be signed by the President.

       The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the USA and the head of the judicial branch of power. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the USA and a number of Associate Justices. The district courts are the lowest ones in the Federal court system. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts.






                  Рекида  Маргарита  Григорьевна

                             Английский язык.

                       Сборник разговорных тем


                               Учебное пособие

                          Печатается в авторской редакции

                    Компьютерная  верстка -  Т.Е. Минакова


Подписано в печать 21.01.2010 г.

Объем: 3,0 п.л.

Тираж 100 экз.

Отпечатано: ИП Буймова М.В.

Г. Красноярск, ул. Л. Кецховели, 75а-223



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