94788

IT World. Учебно-методическое пособие

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Пособие предназначено для профессионально ориентированного обучения английскому языку студентов 2 курса математических и компьютерных специальностей и направлений. Основная цель пособия – развитие навыков устной и письменной речи, а также перевода с английского языка на русский.

Английский

2015-09-16

660.5 KB

3 чел.

РОССИЙСКАЯ ФЕДЕРАЦИЯ

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

ТЮМЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ ЕСТЕСТВЕННЫХ ФАКУЛЬТЕТОВ

Е.Г. Брунова

IT World

Учебно-методическое пособие

по английскому языку

для студентов Института математики и компьютерных наук

Издательство

Тюменского государственного университета

2009

УДК 811.111 (075.8)

ББК Ш 143.21-923

АЗ:   Б 891

Е.Г. Брунова IT World. Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов Института математики и компьютерных наук. Тюмень: Издательство Тюменского государственного университета, 2009. – 84 с.

Пособие предназначено для профессионально ориентированного обучения английскому языку студентов 2 курса математических и компьютерных специальностей и направлений. Основная цель пособия – развитие навыков устной и письменной речи, а также перевода с английского языка на русский. Пособие построено с учетом требований Федерального Интернет-экзамена по английскому языку.

Рекомендовано к изданию кафедрой иностранных языков естественных факультетов. Утверждено проректором по учебной работе Тюменского государственного университета.

ОТВЕТСТВЕННЫЙ РЕДАКТОР: Е.Г. Брунова, доктор филол. наук,

профессор кафедры иностранных языков естественных факультетов ТюмГУ

РЕЦЕНЗЕНТЫ:  Л.В. Скороходова, старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков естественных факультетов ТюмГУ

 С.Н. Бронникова, канд. филол. наук, профессор кафедры лексики английского языка факультета иностранных языков Московского педагогического государственного университета

© ГОУ ВПО Тюменский государственный университет, 2009.

© Е.Г. Брунова, 2009.

Contents

Unit 1. Personal Computing. Reading about the history of PC industry; processors and memory. Writing a business letter and a CV. Discussing printers and problems with hardware and software. Humour: Gigabytes Song…………………………………………………..

5

Unit 2. Gadgets. Reading about technical toys; mobile phone networks; electronic payments; virtual reality. Writing a memo and a business letter. Discussing mobile phones and other gadgets. Humour: How to Spot a Computer Science Student……………….

23

Unit 3. Computer Software. Reading about software, the control panel, information systems. Distinguishing between different documents. Discussing software products. Humor: Error Messages…………………………………………………………………….

35

Unit 4. Networks. Reading about computer networks; the OSI reference model; network topologies; the Web and the Internet, a contract, payment and prices. Distinguishing between different documents. Discussing careers in IT. Humor: If a packet hits a pocket……………………………………………………………………….

49

Unit 5. Information Security. Reading about Internet firewalls, types of web-attackers, viruses and malware. Distinguishing between different documents. Discussing home computer security, hacker’s ethics. Humor: Virus Alert……………………………………………….…

68

Appendix. Confusable Words……………………………………………..

81

Bibliography………………………………………………………………….

83

Recommended Web-Sources……………………………………………..

83


ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Учебно-методическое пособие предназначается для студентов 2 курса математических и компьютерных специальностей и направлений. Пособие рекомендуется для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы при изучении дисциплины: «Иностранный язык (английский)».

Основная цель пособия – развитие навыков профессиональной коммуникации. Пособие построено с учетом требований Федерального Интернет-экзамена по английскому языку, что позволяет использовать его для подготовки по таким аспектам экзамена, как «Лексика», «Чтение» и «Письмо».

При выборе языкового материала для упражнений и текстов использовались аутентичные материалы, отражающие современные тенденции в области информационных технологий.

Пособие состоит из пяти разделов («Персональные компьютеры», «Технические новинки», «Программное обеспечение», «Сети передачи данных», «Информационная безопасность»), приложения, библиографии и списка рекомендованных веб-ресурсов. Каждый из разделов включает перечень специальной лексики с переводом, текст для чтения, задания на понимание текста и усвоение лексических единиц, тексты для письменного перевода на русский язык, упражнения по практике устной и письменной речи, а также юмористические материалы компьютерной тематики (стихотворения, пародии, анекдоты). Приложение включает перечень «похожих» слов с переводом.

Упражнения по развитию навыков письменной речи позволяют студентам ознакомиться с особенностями составления деловых писем, служебных записок, контрактов и резюме.


Unit
1. Personal Computing

Reading and Vocabulary

  1.  advantage (N)преимущество
  2.  assemble (V)собирать, assemblage (N) – сборка, монтаж
  3.  back (V) – поддерживать, субсидировать; back up (V) – дублировать, резервировать
  4.  binary (A) – двоичный
  5.  bus (N) – шина
  6.  capacity (N) – емкость, мощность
  7.  capital (N) – капитал; capitalize (V) – использовать для своей выгоды
  8.  circuit (N) – сеть, система, цепь; circuitry (N) – схема, плата
  9.  compatible (A) – совместимый
  10.  compete (V) – конкурировать
  11.  curriculum vitae, CV жизнеописание, биография, резюме
  12.  desktop – настольный; desktop publishing, DTP – настольная издательская система
  13.  develop (V) – разрабатывать
  14.  device (N) – устройство
  15.  digit (N)цифра; digital (A)цифровой 
  16.  draft (A) – черновой
  17.  dual core – двухъядерный
  18.  environment (N) – среда (разработки)
  19.  external (A) – внешний
  20.  feasible (A) – осуществимый, возможный, доступный
  21.  hardware (N) – аппаратное обеспечение
  22.  inkjet printer – струйный принтер
  23.  input / output – ввод / вывод
  24.  internal (A) – внутренний
  25.  kit (N) – набор, комплект
  26.  landscape orientation – альбомная ориентация (страницы)
  27.  lay out (V) – размечать, layout (N)разметка
  28.  manufacture (V) – производить
  29.  network (N) – сеть
  30.  portable (A) – переносной
  31.  portrait orientation – книжная ориентация (страницы)
  32.  process (V) – обрабатывать
  33.  proliferate (V) – расти, распространяться
  34.  pull-down menu – всплывающее меню
  35.  purchase (V) – приобретать
  36.  rival (N) – соперник, конкурент
  37.  routine (A) – текущий
  38.  run (V) – работать
  39.  scale (N)  шкала, масштаб
  40.  semiconductor (N) – полупроводник
  41.  share (V) – совместно использовать
  42.  software (N) – программное обеспечение
  43.  still (A) – неподвижный 
  44.  store (V) – хранить; storage (N) – хранилище
  45.  upgrade (V) – совершенствовать
  46.  various (A) – различный

Task 1.  Answer the questions.

  1.  Have you got a PC at home? Is it a desktop, or a notebook?
  2.  Do you have an opportunity to use a PC at university?
  3.  Where do you prefer to use a computer, at home or at university? Why?
  4.  What do you use a PC for?

Task 2. Read the text and match each highlighted word with its correct definition.

A) A display format that allows the user to select commands, call up files, start programs, and do other routine tasks by using a device called a mouse to point to pictorial symbols (icons) or lists of menu choices on the screen.

B) A semiconductor chip that contains all the arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry needed to perform the functions of a computer's central processing unit.

D) Various devices used to enter information and instructions into a computer and to deliver processed data to a human operator.

E) The generic term for any microcomputer that is designed to be carried around.

F) The use of a computer system to perform many of the functions of a printing shop, including page layout and design, choice of fonts, and the inclusion of illustrations.

G) A type of microcomputer designed for use by only one person at a time.

H) The ability to address a given quantity of data held in memory storage.

1) Personal computers generally are low-cost machines that can perform most of the functions of larger computers but use software oriented toward easy, single-user applications. A typical personal computer (1) assemblage consists of a central processing unit; primary, or internal, memory, consisting of hard magnetic disks and a disk drive; various input/output devices (2), including a display screen (cathode-ray tube), keyboard and mouse, modem, and printer; and secondary, or external, memory, usually in the form of floppy disks or CD-ROMs (compact disc read-only memory).

2) Computers small and inexpensive enough to be purchased by individuals for use in their homes first became feasible in the 1970s, when large-scale integration made it possible to construct a sufficiently powerful microprocessor on a single semiconductor chip. A small firm named MITS made the first personal computer, the Altair. This computer, which used the Intel Corporation's 8080 microprocessor, was developed in 1974. Though the Altair was popular among computer hobbyists, its commercial appeal was limited, since purchasers had to assemble the machine from a kit. The personal computer industry truly began in 1977, when Apple Computer, Inc., founded by Steven P. Jobs and Stephen G. Wozniak, introduced the Apple II, one of the first pre-assembled, mass-produced personal computers. Radio Shack and Commodore Business Machines also introduced personal computers that year. These machines used 8-bit microprocessors (3), which process information in groups of 8 bits, or binary digits, at a time and possessed rather limited memory capacity. But because personal computers were much less expensive than mainframes, they could be purchased by individuals, small and medium-sized businesses, and primary and secondary schools.

3) The IBM Corporation, the world's dominant computer maker, did not enter the new market until 1981, when it introduced the IBM Personal Computer, or IBM PC. The IBM PC was only slightly faster than rival machines, but it had about 10 times their memory capacity (4), and it was backed by IBM's large sales organization. The IBM PC became the world's most popular personal computer, and both its microprocessor, the Intel 8088, and its operating system, which was adapted from the Microsoft Corporation's MS-DOS system, became industry standards. Rival machines that used Intel microprocessors and MS-DOS became known as “IBM compatibles” if they tried to compete with IBM on the basis of additional computing power or memory and “IBM clones” if they competed simply on the basis of low price.

4) In 1983 Apple introduced Lisa, a personal computer with a GUI, graphical user interface (5), to perform routine operations. This type of format had certain advantages over interfaces in which the user typed text- or character-based commands on a keyboard to perform routine tasks. A GUI's windows, pull-down menus, dialog boxes, and other controlling mechanisms could be used in new programs and applications in a standardized way, so that common tasks were always performed in the same manner. The Lisa's GUI became the basis of Apple's Macintosh personal computer, which was introduced in 1984 and proved extremely successful. The Macintosh was particularly useful for DTP, desktop publishing (6) because it could lay out text and graphics on the display screen as they would appear on the printed page. The Macintosh's graphical interface style was widely adapted by other manufacturers of personal computers and PC software. In 1985 the Microsoft Corporation introduced Microsoft Windows, a graphical user interface that gave MS-DOS-based computers many of the same capabilities of the Macintosh. Windows became the dominant operating environment for personal computers. These advances in software and operating systems were matched by the development of microprocessors containing ever-greater numbers of circuits, with resulting increases in the processing speed and power of personal computers.

5) By 1990 some personal computers had become small enough to be completely portable (7); they included laptop computers, which could rest in one's lap; notebook computers, which were about the size of a notebook; and pocket, or palm-sized, computers, which could be held in one's hand. At the high end of the PC market, multimedia personal computers equipped with CD-ROM players and digital sound systems allowed users to handle animated images and sound (in addition to text and still images) that were stored on high-capacity CD-ROMs. Personal computers were increasingly interconnected with each other and with larger computers in networks for the purpose of gathering, sending, and sharing information electronically. The uses of personal computers continued to multiply as the machines became more powerful and their application software proliferated.

Task 3. Answer these questions about the text.

  1.  What parts does a typical PC include?
  2.  What company was the first to introduce a PC?
  3.  When did the PC industry begin?
  4.  What is the difference between “IBM compatibles” and “IBM clones”?

Task 4. Decide  if  the  statement  is  true,  false  or  there  is  no  information

in the text.

  1.  The first personal computer was developed by IBM Corporation, the world’s dominant computer maker.
  2.  The widespread availability of computers has in all probability changed the world for ever.
  3.  The first IBM PC was nearly as fast as rival machines.
  4.  The IBM PC is particularly useful for desktop publishing.
  5.  The price of a desktop PC is not much higher than that of a portable computer.

Task 5. Using the paragraph number references given, look back in the text and find words that have a similar meaning to.

  1.  cheap (1)
  2.  bought (2)
  3.  mount (2)
  4.  benefits (4)
  1.  prevailing (4)
  2.  growth (4)
  3.  comprised (5)

Task 6. Using the paragraph number references given, look back in the text and find the reference for the words in italics.

  1.  that can perform most of the functions (1).
  2.  which used the Intel Corporation's 8080 microprocessor (2).
  3.  they could be purchased by individuals (2).
  4.  but … it had about 10 times their memory capacity (3).
  5.  in … which the user typed text- or character-based commands (4).
  6.  because … it could lay out text and graphics (4).
  7.  and … their application software proliferated (5).

Task 7. Choose the correct words.

1) To turn on the computer, __________ the "Start" button.

 a. touch   b. press    c. switch

2) The printer has __________ of ink.

 a. finished   b. ended   c. run  out

3) Unfortunately, my scanner isn't __________ at the moment.

 a. working   b. going   c. doing

4) ______ any key to continue.

 a. Kick   b. Smash   c. Hit

5) The projector isn't working because it isn't __________.

 a. plugged   b. plugged in  c. plugged into

6) The mouse moves on a __________.

 a. mouse mat  b. mouse carpet  c. mouse table

7) TV and computer screens are usually measured in __________.

 a. feet   b. miles   c. inches

8) Oh dear! I pressed the __________ button.

 a. incorrect  b. wrong   c. false

9) I can't use my mobile phone. The battery's __________.

 a. over   b. flat   c. exhausted

10) Keeping files on a computer database is a __________ solution.

 a. new-tech  b. now-tech  C. high-tech

Writing and Translation

Task 8. Read the texts, fill in the gaps using the words below, and translate into Russian.

Processors and memory

 The "brain" of a computer is the __(1)____. Most of these are made by Intel and AMD, and are sometimes referred to as "___(2)___". The fastest processors are ____(3)____, which means that there are two processors working together. The ____(4)_____ of a processor is measured in ___(5)__, which is usually written as MHz. A computer's memory is measured in ___(6)___. The processor and memory modules are located on the ____(7)___. Changing a computer's processor is not generally practical, but the memory can usually be ____(8)__.

 chips   dual core  megabytes  megahertz

motherboard processor  speed  upgraded

Structure of the processor

 The processor consists of a ___(1)__, which is a circuit board on which are mounted ___(2)_, memory chips, and other components linked together by __(3)_ lines or channels in the form of control, address, and data __(4)_. In addition, a processor has ___(5)___, which are electronic circuits providing specialized functions such as graphics, or which connect a system board to __(6)_ The system board also consists of electronic devices, such as an electronic ___(7)__ for controlling the speed of operation; ___(8)__, which store numeric data during the course of processing; and various __(9)__ including sequence control register, address register, and function register.

adaptor boards  registers   microprocessor

clock    conductive   buses

system board  accumulators  input or output devices

Task 9. Make the written translation into Russian (2,000 characters).

The history of the multi-billion dollar PC industry has been the hisrory of mistakes. Xerox Corporation funded the initial research on personal computers in their Palo Alto laboratory in California. However, the company failed to capitalize on this work, and the ideas that they put together went into the operating system developed for Apple's computers. This was a graphical interface: using a mouse, the user clicks on icons which represent the function to be performed.

The first IBM PC was developed using existing available electrical components. With IBM's badge on the box it became the standard machine for large corporations to purchase. When IBM were looking for an operating system, they went initially to Digital Research, who were market leaders in command-based operating systems (these are operating systems in which the users type in commands to perform a function). When the collaboration between IBM and Digital Research failed, IBM turned to Bill Gates, then 25 years old, to write their operating system. Bill Gates founded Microsoft on the basis of the development of MS/DOS, the initial operating system for the IBM PC. Digital Research have continued to develop their operating system, DR/DOS, and it is considered by many people to be a better product than Microsoft's. However, without an endorsement from IBM, it has become a minor player in the market. Novell, the leaders in PC networking, now own Digital Research, so things may change.

The widespread availability of computers has in all probability changed the world for ever. The microchip technology which made the PC possible has put chips not only into computers, but also into washing-machines and cars. Some books may never be published in paper form, but may only be made available as part of public databases. Networks of computers are already being used to make information available on a world-wide scale.

Task 10. True or false? Read the text and check your answers.

1) On unheaded notepaper, you should always write your name above your address.

2) On unheaded notepaper, the address of the sender is on the right.

3) Our ref. refers to the writer's filing system.

4) In the UK, the date 2/4/09 means February 4th, 2009.

5) You should always write the name and position of the person you are writing to above his/her company address.

6) You use the salutation Dear Sir or Dear Madam when you know that the person you are writing to is older or more senior than you.

7) If you begin with Dear Sir, you end with Yours faithfully.

8) The initials p.p. indicate that the person signing the letter is doing so on behalf of someone else.

9) It is unusual for the writer to put his/her company position at the end of the letter.

10) In business letters, dates should appear as numbers separated by full points (.) or obliques (/).

Hints on writing business letters

Most company notepaper is headed. However, if you are writing on unheaded paper, put your address (but not your name) in the top right-hand corner. The address of the company you are writing to should appear on the left so that it can be seen through an envelope with a window. If you are writing to a specific individual in the company, his/ her name and position goes above the address.

Dates can cause some confusion. 2/ 3/ 2009 means 'the second of March' in English letters, but 'February third' in American ones. Confusion can be avoided by writing dates as follows: 2 March (or March 2 in the USA)

2009. The names of the months should not be abbreviated in formal letters.

When you receive a business letter, there is usually a reference number at the top following the words Our ref. This is designed to help the sender to file related correspondence, and you should quote this reference when you reply.

If you do not know the name of the person you are writing to, or you are not sure if you are writing to a man or woman, you should begin Dear Sir or Madam (Gentlemen: in the USA) and end Yours faithfully (Yours truly in the USA). If you know the person's surname, begin (for example) Dear Mrs Jones and end Yours sincerely. If the person is more of a friend, begin (for example) Dear Peter, and end Best wishes. In opening and closing salutations and in addresses, it is common not to use full stops and commas.

Refer to men as Mr. Refer to women as Ms, unless in previous correspondence from them they have indicated that they use the title Mrs (for married women) or Miss (for unmarried women). Women will often indicate their preferred title by writing it in brackets after their signature, for example: Catherine Honey (Mrs). Most correspondents will assume you are a man unless told otherwise, so if you sign a letter H. Jones, most people will reply beginning Dear Mr Jones.

When you sign your name, it is common practice to type it out as well and to put your position in the company below it. If someone in a company signs a letter on behalf of someone else, the initials p.p. (per pro) should be used before the name to indicate this.

If something is being sent with a letter, Enc. or Encl. (enclosure) should appear in the bottom left-hand corner of the page. State your message clearly, concisely, and politely.

Task 11. Read the covering letter and fill in the gaps.

A. Subject

B. Enclosure

C. interview

D. ABC Company, Ltd

E. resume

____(1 )____

Green Street

Liverpool, England, BZ244

____(2)____ : CV OF JOHN JONES

Dear sirs,

I read with interest your advertisement for engineering positions at ABC Company. Your company is one of the leaders in the electronics industry, and I am interested in being employed by a company with your background.

Enclosed is a copy of my resume that details my academic qualifications and practical experience gained through the cooperative education program. As you can see from my ___(3)____, I have a firm foundation in electrical engineering.

Thank you for taking your time to review my resume. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss how my education, practical skills, and background would qualify me to be a member of the ABC Company.

Please contact me at 287 99 23 or john@email.com to set up a time for an ____(4)_____. I look forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely,

JOHN JONES

_____(4)_____ : CV

Task 12. Read the CV of John Jones and answer the questions.

1) How old is John?

2) What academic degrees does he have?

3) Is John single?

4) Will he be able to work as the ABC representative in Russia? Why / Why not?

Curriculum Vitae

PERSONAL

First name    John

Surname    Jones

Nationality    British

Date of birth   1981, June, 4

Place of Birth   Glasgow, UK

Sex     Male

Marital status   Married with two children

Passport No, Validity  TR-F 250301, 09/06/2011

Place and Date of Issue London, 10/06/2008

Permanent Address  7, Red Road, London, UK

Telephone No   (44312) 287 99 23

E-mail    john@email.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Sep 1986- June 1998  West High School, Glasgow

Sep 1998- Nov 2002  Oxford Technical University, Oxford

    Faculty of Computer Science

    B. Sc. Degree

Sep 2002- June 2004  College of Political Sciences, Oxford

    Business Administration Department

    Master of Business Administration

WORK HISTORY

1. Jan 2005 - Dec 2006 British Petroleum Corporation, London

Project engineer

2. Dec 2006 – June 2008 Headquarters of BST Industrial Plants Programmer

TECHNICAL EXPERIENCE

Languages: C++, CORE JAVA, VB 6.0, UNIX shell scripts, HTML

Platforms: Windows XP/98/95,2000,NT, Red hat Linux (9.0, ES, WS)

Concepts: networking, operating systems

Languages

English, French

Task 13. Write your own CV using the text in Task 12 as a sample.


Speaking

Task 14.

A) Which type of printer is each phrase about?

1. cheaper to buy

2. cheaper to run

3. faster printing speed

4. takes up more space

5. uses liquid ink

6. uses toner

7. more reliable

8. cartridges need changing more often

B) True or false?

1. Inkjet cartridges can be refilled up to three times.

2. Inkjet cartridges are very difficult to change.

3. Photo-paper is a lot more expensive than plain paper.

4. Recycled paper is made out of old bottles

5. Some inkjet printers have three print qualities: draft, normal and best.

6. Before you can use a new printer, you have to install the driver from a CD-ROM.

7. When a print job has started, it can't be cancelled.

С) Do you have a printer at home? Is it a laser printer or an inkjet one? Describe to your partner the characteristics of the printer you would like to use.

Task 15. Which do you think is the best solution for each problem? More than one solution is possible for some of problems.

1. I want to make a copy of a music CD.

2. I want to store some files. I may need to update them in the future.

3. I want to back up data on my computer. I want to update it every day.

4. My computer's having problems with reading and writing CDs.

5. I want to add 100MB of extra storage to my computer.

6. I want to give a copy of a small file to a friend. He has an old computer.

7. My computer's running slowly.

A. You need an external hard drive.

B. Use a CD-R.

C. Try a USB flash drive.

D. Perhaps you need a new internal CD drive.

E. Put them on a CD-RW.

F. Perhaps you need to defragment the hard drive.

G. You could put it on a floppy disk.

Task 16.

A. Comment on these forecasts about computing.

1. "Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons." (Popular Mechanics, 1949)

2. "There is a world market for maybe five computers." (Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943)

3. "I have traveled the length and breadth of this country and talked with the best people, and I can assure you that data processing is a fad that won't last out the year." (The editor in charge of business books for Prentice Hall, 1957)

4. "But what is it good for?" (Engineer at the Advanced Computing Systems Division of IBM, 1968, commenting on the microchip)

5. "There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home."
(
Ken Olson, president, chairman and founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977)

Notes: fadпричуда, кратковременное увлечение

B. Tell about the history of PC.

Task 17. Review crossword

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

Across

1. A camera connected to the Internet. (6 letters)

6. To send an SMS message. (4)

9. The most common page orientation. (8)

10. A computer's "brain". (9)

11. It prevents a computer from overheating. (3)

14. A connection without wires. (8)

15. The place where you put a plug. (6)

20. Processor speeds are measured in these. (9)

21. The cheapest type of printer. (6)

22. Lift this before you use your scanner. (3)

24. The shop assistant does this to your credit card. (5)

26. The strip on the back of a credit or debit card. (8)

Down

2. When it's dead, recharge it or replace it. (7)

3. You speak into this. (10)

4. The mouse moves on this. (3)

5. A computer, printer and scanner on a desk with a chair. (11)

7. Laser printers use this instead of ink. (5)

8. A design (for example, a type of keyboard) which is better for your body. (9)

12. An image on a screen is made up of thousands of these. (6)

13. Printers, scanners, webcams etc. (11)

16. A very large computer which never moves. (9)

17. A photo or drawing. (5)

18. You need to change or refill this when your printer runs out of ink. (9)

19. Two or more computers connected together. (7)

23. The slowest form of Internet connection. (4, 2)

26. Image resolution is usually measured in this. (3)


Task 18.
Enjoy the poem.

Gigabytes Song

Ten little gigabytes, waiting on line

one caught a virus, then there were nine.

Nine little gigabytes, holding just the date,

someone jammed a write protect, then there were eight.

Eight little gigabytes, should have been eleven,

then they cut the budget, now there are seven.

Seven little gigabytes, involved in mathematics

stored an even larger prime, now there are six.

Six little gigabytes, working like a hive,

one died of overwork, now there are five.

Five little gigabytes, trying to add more

plugged in the wrong lead, now there are four.

Four little gigabytes, failing frequently,

one used for spare parts, now there are three.

Three little gigabytes, have too much to do

service man on holiday, now there are two.

Two little gigabytes, badly overrun,

took the work elsewhere, now just need one.

One little gigabyte, systems far too small

shut the whole thing down, now there's none at all.

Notes: to hold a date – собраться на вечеринку

 prime (сокр. от prime number) – простое число

 hive – улей, пчелиный рой  

 lead – подводящий провод

Unit 2. Gadgets

Reading and Vocabulary

  1.  account (N) – счет (в банке и т.п.)
  2.  advance (N) – аванс, in advance – заранее, авансом
  3.  ATM (Automatic Teller Machine) / cash dispenser / cash machine – банкомат
  4.  average (N) – средний
  5.  barcode (N) – штрих-код
  6.  bill (N) – счет ( в ресторане, магазине и т.п.)
  7.  broadband (N) – широкая полоса (частот)
  8.  broadcast (N) – широкое вещание, широковещательный пакет
  9.  cash (N) – наличность
  10.  cell phone / cellular phone / mobile phone – сотовый / мобильный телефон
  11.  charge (N) – цена, плата за услуги, charge (V) – заряжать, charger (N) – зарядное устройство
  12.  deliver (V) – доставлять, передавать
  13.  dial (V) – набирать (номер)
  14.  duration (N) – продолжительность, длительность
  15.  gadget (N) – (разг.) гаджет, техническая новинка
  16.  item (N) – пункт, статья (в счете), единица (оборудования); itemize (V) – детализировать, распределять по статьям
  17.  jack (N) – гнездо, разъем
  18.  loyalty (N) – лояльность, преданность, приверженность
  19.  medium (N, pl. – media) среда (в т.ч. передачи данных)
  20.  memo, memorandum (N) – служебная записка
  21.  pay-as-you-goплати по пути
  22.  podcast (N)подкаст (музыка или речь, преобразованные в цифровой формат для автоматической загрузки из Интернета). От англ. iPod (торговая марка) + broadcast.
  23.  predict (V) – предсказывать, predictive (A) – предсказательный, упреждающий
  24.  receipt (N) – расписка, квитанция
  25.  reduce (V) – уменьшать 
  26.  retail outlet  предприятие розничной торговли
  27.  SIM card (Subscriber Identification Module) – сим-карта
  28.  SMS (Short Message Service) – СМС
  29.  subscribe (V) – подписываться; subscriber (N) – абонент, подписчик
  30.  top up (V) – пополнять (счет)
  31.  touch screen – сенсорный экран
  32.  transfer (V) – передавать
  33.  vendor (N)производитель
  34.  wireless (A)беспроводной

Task 1. Match the devices with the places you would find them.

1. cash dispenser / cash machine / ATM  A. at a supermarket checkout

2. barcode reader B. connected to a pair of

    headphones

3. magnetic strip C. in the headquarters of a

      large company

4. MP3 player D. in an office, university or

     copy shop

5. photocopier      E. in the hands of a tourist

6. video camera F. on the back of a credit card

7. mainframe computer    G. outside a bank

Task 2. Read the text and match its parts with the subheadings.

A. Flash drive     D. Voice recognition software

B. iPod      E. Wireless connection card

C. QuietComfort-2 headphones

Technical Toys for the Busy IT Exec.

1. What is it: Technology that converts spoken word to written word.

Who makes it: Multiple vendors

Price: About $200

Mike Fecek, vice president of tech services for Virtual Services Inc., of Troy, Mich., says the software is "a great tool for first-pass typing of medium to long documents, including e-mails, proposals, contracts and manuals, due to its speed and convenience." Setup takes about an hour. The equipment needed: a PC and a headset with microphone. To operate the software, place the cursor into any application, turn on the microphone and speak normally. The more the system is used, Fecek says, the more accurate it becomes.

2. What is it: Portable computer storage device

Who makes it: Multiple vendors

Price: About $10 to $320, depending on capacity

Forget lugging around a briefcase full of files or even a heavy laptop. For on-the-go professionals, this handy device quickly stores information or transfers data between computers. It is as small as a finger, weighs less than an ounce and is available in storage sizes of up to 4 gigabytes. “They’re incredibly convenient,” says Fecek of Virtual Services. “Plug them into a standard USB port, and they automatically appear and work like another hard drive.” When you’re finished, just unplug it and store it for later use, or plug it into another computer to transfer additional files.”

3. What is it: MP3 player

Who makes it: Apple Computers Inc., Cupertino, Calif.

Price: The new small iPod Nano ranges from about $199 to $249; the iPod shuffle is $100 to $130

First came 500-song downloads, then iPods with capability to handle 25,000 photos as well as podcasts. Now you can get an iPod that plays 150 hours of video. It comes with a 1.5-inch color LCD screen and weighs only 1.5 ounces.

Martin Jerresand, a chief information officer with the Volvo Group in Gothenburg, Sweden, doesn’t use his iPod strictly for entertainment. “I mainly listen to podcasts such as The Wall Street Journal online but also like to listen to good music,” he says.

4. What is it: Device that lets your computer receive an Internet signal without cables

Who makes it: Various vendors

Price: About $40 and up

Imagine being able to conduct all your Internet business without having to plug in to a cable port or telephone jack. All you need is to make sure your laptop or PC has the ability to plug in such a card and that the place where you’re working offers wireless access. The cards are lightweight and small – about the size of a thick credit card. Joyce Vonada, vice president of information technology services for AutoNation Inc., says being able to connect to the Internet “anytime, anywhere … can be a lifesaver.” While Vonada did not specify a particular card, Drouin of TRW is a fan of the Sierra Wireless AirCard 580. He says: “Finally, a broadband wireless card that delivers on its performance promises. I can work almost as efficiently as being in my office, even when stuck for hours on the highway.”

5. What are they: Headphones that reduce unwanted noise

Who makes them: Bose Corp., Framingham, Mass.

Price: $299

If you do a lot of flying or just need to tune out for a minute, try these. “There is such a thing as being too connected, and these help me find at least a few much-needed minutes of peace and quiet in a busy airport or on a plane,” says Joe Drouin, chief information office for TRW Automotive in Livonia, Mich.

(From Automotive News, 1/16/2006)

Notes: 1 inch = 2.54 cm, 1 ounce = 28.3 g

Task 3. Answer these questions about the text.

  1.  What is the voice recognition software used for?
  2.  Can you handle photos using iPod? What else can you handle?
  3.  What does a podcast mean?
  4.  Which of these gadgets do you possess? Which one would you like to have? Explain why.

Task 4. Decide  if  the  statement  is  true,  false  or  there  is  no  information

in the text.

  1.  It takes a few minutes to set up voice recognition software.
  2.  iPod is produced by multiple vendors.
  3.  QuietComfort-2 headphones reduce unwanted noise.
  4.  The weight of a wireless connection card is about 50 g.

Task 5. Using the paragraph number references given, look back in the text and find words that have a similar meaning to.

  1.  instrument (1)
  2.  precise (1)
  3.  convenient (2)
  4.  amusement (3)
  5.  brings (4)

Task 6. Using the paragraph number references given, look back in the text and find the reference for the words in italics.

  1.  … due to its speed and convenience (1)
  2.  Plug them into a standard USB port (2)
  3.  It comes with a 1.5-inch color LCD screen (3)
  4.  … your laptop or PC has the ability to plug in such a card (4)
  5.  that delivers on its performance promises (4)
  6.  these help me find at least a few much-needed minutes of peace and quiet (5)

Task 7. Read this passage, fill in the gaps using the words below, and translate into Russian.

Mobile Phone networks

In Britain there are several mobile phone __(1)__ including Vodaphone, O2, T-mobile and Orange. There are also ___(2)___ like Virgin Mobile who use the network of another company. When you buy a cell phone, you have a choice of ___(3)___. The most popular is “____(4)____”, with customers paying for their calls in advance. They can ____(5)____ their accounts in shops, over the Internet, and at cash machines. Heavy __(6)__ may prefer a ___(7)_____. They pay a fixed amount every month, but the calls are much cheaper than they are for pay-as-you-go customers. Mobile phones usually come with a ____(8)____ already ____(9)___. If you take the phone abroad, you may be able to use it on a local network. This is called “____(10)____”. It can be expensive, and it may be cheaper to buy a foreign SIM card.

contract   installed   operators  top up

pay-as-you-go  SIM card   roaming

tariffs    networks   users

Task 8. Choose the correct words.

1. A laptop computer with a screen you can write on is called a _______ .

 A. tablet PC  B. table PC  C. flat screen PC

2. An image on TV or computer screen is made up of thousands of ____.

 A. points   B. pixels   C. bits

3. You can draw directly onto a computer screen with a __________.

 A. bright pen  B. light pen   C. pixel pen

4. A camera connected directly to the Internet is called _________.

 A. an Internet camera B. a web watcher C. a webcam

5. After 6 pm, calls cost 20 p __________ minute

 A. for one    B. per   C. each

6. You can't use a mobile in a cave because there's no __________.

A. network   B. connection  C. power

7. I need to charge up my mobile phone battery. Have you seen my ______?

 A. charger   B. recharger  C. charging machine

8. When you send a text message, the __________ function can help your write it more quickly.

A. predicting text  B. predictive text  C. text predictor

9. In the car, it's safer to use a __________ phone.

 A. handless  B. no hands  C. hands-free

10. If you don't want to dial a number by mistake, turn on the __________.

 A. keypad locker  B. keypad lock  C. locker of keypad

11. Which network has the lowest __________?

 A. call charges  B. call costs  C. call expenses

12. My pay-as-you-go account __________ is about £7.

 A. balance   B. level   C. amount

13. My average call __________ is about two minutes.

 A. time   B. length   C. duration

Task 9. Which is NOT possible to complete the sentence?

1. I'll call her on my…

 A. mobile phone    B. cell phone

 C. moving phone    D. cellular phone

2. A mobile phone can't work without a…

 A. SIM card    B. sim card

 C. sim chip     D. similar card

3. Don't forget to send me…

 A. a text message   B. a text

 C. an SMS     D. a phone message

4. When I arrive, I'll…

 A. text you     B. textualise you

 C. send you an SMS   D. send you a text

Task 10. Read the text and choose the correct words.

Electronic payments

EPOS (electronic point of sale) terminals are (1) cash / money registers found in retail (2) openings / outlets such as shops and restaurants. They are connected to a (3) central / centre computer, and data about (4) objects / goods and services sold is entered into the terminals via keyboards, barcode readers, (5) touch / finger screens etc. They are useful for stock management, and can produce itemized bills and (6) receipts / recipes.

EFTPOS (electronic funds transfer point of sale) can also transfer (7) cash / funds directly from the customer's bank account via a (8) debit / paying card. They are now more common than EPOS terminals.

Task 11. Match the plastic cards of different types with the phrases.

1. credit card A. Buy now, pay now.

2. debit card B. Buy now, pay the bank later.

3. cash card C. Buy now, pay the shop later.

4. loyalty card D. Spend, and get some money or goods

     back from the shop.

5. store card E. Take money out of a cash machine.

Task 12. Explain the meanings of the abbreviations from Units 1 and 2.

1. DTP

2. CD-ROM

3. MS-DOS

4. GUI

5. MHz

6. SMS

7. CV

8. CD-RW

9. IT

10. ATM

11. LCD

12. SIM

Task 13. Choose the correct word to complete each sentence. You may change some words if necessary.

electron, electronic, electronics, electronically

1. An _______ pen is one example of input devices.

2. An _______ is a subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge.

3. The door opens _______ .

4. He studied _______ in the college.

technology, technological, technologist, technologically

5. The computer is the greatest _______ invention of the twentieth century.

6. There are two ________ involved in a clipboard PC.

7. Today’s computers are ______ far superior to those used a few years ago.

8. He applied to the position of a __________.

Writing and Translating

Task 14. Make the written translation into Russian (2,000 characters).

Virtual Reality

Computers are about to take people to places they have never been able to visit before, including the surface of other planets. Such a trip will be an illusion, but one that comes closer to real life than anything on stage or screen. Artificial worlds are being built up in a computer memory so that people can walk through at will, look around, and even touch objects. The system is called virtual reality, so called from the mathematical concept of an image that has the virtues of a real object without the substance.

A virtual reality system consists of a helmet with a colour display in front of each eye, and wide-angle lenses to cover the entire field of view and give a stereoscopic effect. The helmet contains sensors, rather like electronic compasses, to record where it is pointing. A computer calculates what the wearer should be seeing in that direction and displays it on the screen. In more advanced systems, the operator wears an electronic glove that detects exactly what the fingers are doing and transmits the information to the computer. If the user tries to pick up something, the computer will make the object follow the hand to give the illusion of carrying it.

Pads in the latest type of gloves press into the insides of the fingers and palm when an object is encountered, to create the illusion of feeling it. Complete 'exoskeletons' covering the user and allowing the computer to simulate almost anything possible in real life are being developed.

A fire-fighter in a nuclear power plant, for example, would move through a computer model wearing an exoskeleton, while a robot would move through the real thing. The computer program will be derived from the data used to design the plant in the first place.

The biggest initial market is likely to be for a new generation of video games. Such a system, called Virtuality, consists of a cockpit in which a player sits, wearing the helmet, at a set of controls that can mimic a bobsleigh, a spaceship or whatever the imagination of the games programmer can devise.

Task 15. Read the memo and the business letter and fill in the table.

Formal

More friendly

Salutation used

To colleagues within the same company

To another company

Initials possible

Memo

+

Business letter

Memo

TO: John Jones, Sales Assistant

FROM: Kate Fitzgerald, Sales Executive

DATE: September 14, 2009

SUBJECT: Supply of 10,000 iPods

Please write a letter to Frith Components, 139 Giles Kemp Road, London Nl 2RR.

Say we saw the advertisement for their company in the latest issue of Electronic Engineer.

Ask if they are able to supply 10,000 ipods in November and find out what discounts they give and what their terms of payment are.

K.F.

Business Letter

ABC Company

16, Green Street

Liverpool, England, BZ244

Frith Components

139, Giles Kemp Road, London Nl 2RR.

September 14, 2009

SUBJECT: Supply of 10,000 iPods

Dear sirs,

We saw the advertisement for your company in the latest issue of Electronic Engineer.

We would like to know if you could supply 10,000 ipods in November for our company. Please inform us if any discounts are possible and what your terms of payment are.

Looking forward to our future cooperation,

Sincerely yours,

John Jones

Sales Assistant

ABC Company

Task 16. Write the answer to the letter on behalf of Frith Components.

Speaking

Task 17.

A. Use the Internet to find a new, up-to-date mobile phone. Make a list of the features it has and report back to the group.

B. Describe a gadget you have or the one you would like to have.

Task 18. Enjoy the joke. Can you add your own ideas how to spot a computer science student?

7 Ways to Spot a Computer Science Student

  1.  When dating: ends up together in front of a computer.
  2.  In the street: he's the one carrying two or more notebooks.
  3.  In discussion: is the one who starts laughing hysterically when Microsoft is mentioned.
  4.  Anywhere: Red watery eyes, sleepy if awake before 4 pm.
  5.  Thinks a perfect Saturday Night is a fast FSP-connection to a base with plenty of GIFs, and a case of Heineken.
  6.  Cancels dates because he's too occupied with a new prog.


Unit 3.
Computer Software

Reading and Vocabulary

  1.  apply (V) – применять; application (N) – приложение
  2.  coin (V) – создавать (новые слова или выражения)
  3.  comprise (V) – включать, охватывать, состоять из
  4.  consequence (N) – следствие, заключение
  5.  feature (N) – отличительная черта, свойство
  6.  firmware (N) – встроенные («зашитые») программы
  7.  implement (V) реализовывать; implementation (N)реализация 
  8.  inventory (N) – запасы (на складе и т.п.)
  9.  maintain (V) – поддерживать, обслуживать; maintenance (N) – уход, обслуживание; maintainability (N) – ремонтопригодность
  10.  payroll (N) – платежная ведомость
  11.  perceive (V)понимать, ощущать
  12.  permanent (A) постоянный
  13.  rely on (V)полагаться на; reliable (A) – надежный; reliability (N) – надежность
  14.  require (V) – требовать; requirement (N) – требование
  15.  routine (N) стандартная программа
  16.  spreadsheet (N) – электронная таблица
  17.  succession (N) – последовательность; successive (A) – последовательный
  18.  temporary (A) – временный 
  19.  word processor – текстовый процессор

Task 1. Match the descriptions on the left with these well-known applications.

1. word processor     A. Adobe Photoshop

2. spreadsheet      B. Internet Explorer

3. virus protection     C. Microsoft Word

4. browser       D. Microsoft Excel

5. image editor     E. Microsoft PowerPoint

6. media player     F. Dr. Web

7. e-mail software    G. The Bat

8. presentation software   H. Adobe PageMaker

9. graphic design software   I. RealPlayer

Task 2. Read the text and write out the definitions of the following terms.

1) hardware

2) software program

3) system software

4) application software

5) network software

6) running (executing) a program

7) firmware

1) The term software is generally used for instructions that tell a computer what to do. Software comprises the entire set of programs, procedures, and routines associated with the operation of a computer system. The term was coined to differentiate these instructions from hardware – i.e., the physical components of a computer system. A set of instructions that directs a computer's hardware to perform a task is called a program, or software program.

2) The two main types of software are system software and application software. System software controls a computer's internal functioning, chiefly through an operating system, and also controls such peripherals as monitors, printers, and storage devices. Application software, by contrast, directs the computer to execute commands given by the user and may be said to include any program that processes data for a user. Application software thus includes word processors, spreadsheets, database management, inventory and payroll programs, and many other applications. A third software category is that of network software, which coordinates communication between the computers linked in a network.

3) Software is typically stored on an external long-term memory device, such as a hard drive or magnetic diskette. When the program is in use, the computer reads it from the storage device and temporarily places the instructions in random access memory (RAM). The process of storing and then performing the instructions is called running, or executing, a program. By contrast, software programs and procedures that are permanently stored in a computer's memory using a read-only memory (ROM) technology are called firmware, or hard software.

4) Computer programs, the software that is becoming an ever-larger part of the computer system, are growing more and more complicated, requiring teams of programmers and years of effort to develop. As a consequence, a new subdiscipline, software engineering, has arisen. The development of a large piece of software is perceived as an engineering task, to be approached with the same care as the construction of a skyscraper, for example, and with the same attention to cost, reliability, and maintainability of the final product.

The software-engineering process usually consists of several phases:

(1) identification and analysis of user requirements,

(2) development of system specifications (both hardware and software),

(3) software design (perhaps at several successively more detailed levels),

(4) implementation (actual coding),

(5) testing,

(6) maintenance.

Task 3. Answer these questions about the text.

  1.  What types of software do you know? Give examples of each type.
  2.  Where is software typically stored?
  3.  What are the phases of the software-engineering process?

Task 4. Decide  if  the  statement  is  true,  false  or  there  is  no  information

in the text.

  1.  Software consists of programs, procedures, and the physical components of a computer system.
  2.  Network software is produced by multiple software houses.
  3.  Computer programs are getting simpler and quicker to develop.
  4.  Software engineering is a complicated, multiphase process.

Task 5. Using the paragraph number references given, look back in the text and find words that have a similar meaning to.

  1.  invented (1)
  2.  execute (1)
  3.  comprises (2)
  1.  kept (3)
  2.  concern (4)

Task 6. Using the paragraph number references given, look back in the text and find words that have an opposite meaning to.

  1.  integrate (1)
  2.  for a long term (3)
  1.  appeared (4)
  2.  simple (4)

Task 7. Choose the correct words.

1. Turn on your computer. It will usually take a few minutes to __________.

 A. boot itself   B. boot up   C. get booted

2. Windows XP, Macintosh OSX and Linux are __________.

 A. operating systems  B. operating tools C. operators

3. On my computer, I have a picture of my cat as the __________.

 A. desktop background B. desktop picture C. desktop scene

4. Microsoft Word, Adobe Acrobat and CorelDraw are programs or ________.

 A. applicators   B. appliers   C. applications

5. I keep all my digital photos in a __________ called "Photos".

 A. folder    B. packet   C. box

6. Deleted documents stay in the recycle bin until you __________ it.

 A. wash    B. empty   C. clean

7. If I leave my computer on without using it, after a while it goes into __________ mode.

 A. passive    B. waiting   C. standby

Task 8. Fill in the gaps using the words below.

1. I couldn't open the document you e-mailed me. I don't have Microsoft Word ____________ on my computer.

2. Click on that icon to ____________ Internet Explorer.

3. I ____________ an important document, and now I can't find it.

4. You can access all the applications on your computer from the _________.

5. It's easy to move files into a folder. You can just ____________.

6. I asked the computer to ____________ for files with "English" in the name, but it didn't find any.

7. This is a shared computer. Each user has their own ____________.

8. You can free up space on your hard drive by ____________ applications you never use.

9. If you ____________ your photos as JPEGs instead of TIFFs, you'll use a lot less memory.

 drag and drop   installed   launch

 password    renamed   save

 search    uninstalling   start menu

Task 9. Choose  the  correct  English  equivalents  for  the  Microsoft  Word

menu items.

1. сохранить как

A) keep as  B) protect as  C) save like  D) save as

2. править

A) edit  B) correct   C) check   D) insert

3. вставить

A) include  B) paste   C) add   D) fill

4. параметры страницы

A) page setup B) page parameters C) page outline  D) page view

5. расстановка переносов

A) splitting  B) division   C) hyphenation  D) spelling

6. орфография

A) writing rules B) hyphenation  C) grammar  D) spelling

7. вырезать

A) delete  B) cut   C) clear   D) cancel

8. курсив

A) bold  B) italic   C) font   D) script

9. выделить все

A) choose all  B) outline all C) select all  D) focus all

10. строка

A) sentence  B) line  C) phrase   D) passage

11. верхний индекс

A) top index  B) superscript C) top mark  D) high index

12. поля (страницы)

A) fields   B) areas  C) boundaries  D) margins

13. оглавление

A) contents  B) chapters C) summary  D) list

14. нижний индекс

A) bottom index  B) subscript C) bottom mark  D) low index

15. полужирный

A) bold  B) italic   C) font   D) script

Task 10. Choose  the  correct  preposition.  Then  match  the  problem  with

the solution.

1. The operating system in / on  A. You can download one for

my computer doesn't support the  free to / from the internet.

latest version of / from this

application.

2. These files are too big.   B. Perhaps you could get an

older version – or buy a new

computer!

3. My computer says it    C. What about uninstalling the

hasn't got enough memory for /  driver for your old printer?

to run this program.

4. I can't understand this   D. Have you checked to see if

program. It's too complicated. there are any updates available in / on the Internet?

5. I think there's a bug in /   E. Why don't you close off / down

inside this software. all those other applications you've opened?

6. There doesn't seem to be an  F. You can get a manual. I've seen icon for the program in / on the  one in the local bookshop.

desktop.

7. I can't use this program. It's all G. How about compressing

in / with French!     them with / by WinZip?

8. I can't get the driver for my  H. Go to / on the "start" menu, and

new printer to / at work.   click at / on "All Programs".

9. I haven't got a media player in  I. Change the language

/ on my computer.    setting.

Task 11. Choose the correct word to complete each sentence. You may change some words if necessary.

 apply, applicant, applicable, application

1. We have interviewed five ______ for the new position.

2. The last part of the form is not ______ to foreign students.

3. Office workers use many computer __________ such as word processing, spreadsheets, and databases.

4. When you ______ for a job, you may need to fill in a special form.

 identify, identical, identity, identification

5. For a long time, fingerprints have provided a method of reliable _______.

6. Most companies don’t allow people without an _______ card to enter their premises.

7. The program sends a packet with a source _______ to the destination, which causes many machines to lock up.

8. A password is used to _______ the computer-user and to allow access.

 explain, explanation, explanatory

9. The package includes an ______ booklet.

10. The instructions are very clear and do not require any further ______.

11. It will only take a couple of minutes to ______.how the program works.

Writing and Translation

Task 12. Read this passage, fill in the gaps using the words below, and translate into Russian.

The control panel

 The control panel provides options for ___(1)___ the appearance of your computer screen, ___(2)___ or removing programs and ___(3)___ network connections.

 When you get a new computer, perhaps the first thing you will want to do is set the date and time. You can also choose the ___(4)___ for dates and times. For example, November 5th 2010 can be ___(5)___ as

05-11-2010, 2010-11-05 or in various other formats.

 You may wish to change the desktop ___(6)___ to a picture, for example a personal photo taken on a ___(7)___ camera. A picture on the desktop background is also known as ___(8)___ .

 If a computer screen shows the same ___(9)___ for a very long time, it can leave a permanent impression. To avoid this, you can choose a ___(10)___ . This is usually a simple moving pattern which activates if the computer is not used for a set amount of time (for example, five minutes).

 You can also use the control panel to set up or change Internet and other network connections, including ___(11)___ network connections.

In fact, you can change most aspects of your computer's ___(12)___ through the control panel, such as the system ___(13)___ , modem settings, scheduled ___(14)___ , although most users prefer to leave on the ___(15)___ settings rather than changing them.

 adding   background   customizing

default   digital    displayed

format   image    performance

properties   screen saver   setting up

tasks    wallpaper    wireless

Task 13. Make the written translation into Russian (2,400 characters).

Information systems

 The objective of information systems is to provide information to all levels of management at the most relevant time, at an acceptable level of accuracy, and at an economical cost.

 Individual businesses require information according to the nature of their operations. A car manufacturer is particularly interested in the extent of competition from overseas manufacturers in the home market and competition from other home-based manufacturers. A tour operator is concerned about purchasing power and its effect on holiday bookings and the political situation prevailing in the various countries.

 As a general guide, the detail contained in reports containing information varies according to the position of the recipient in the hierarchical management structure. The chairman and managing director of a company require details of operations which are broad in scope and which concentrate on key factors pinpointing economic and financial trends.

 Functional management require information relating to the departments they are responsible for in sufficient detail to enable them to apply whatever measures are required to bring situations into line with requirements. They require information relating to events as they occur so that appropriate action can be taken to control them.

Information systems are often computerized because of the need to respond quickly and flexibly to queries. At the bottom level in the information hierarchy are the transaction processing systems, which capture and process internal information, such as sales, production, and stock data. These produce the working documents of the business, such as invoices and statements. Typically, these are the first systems which a company will install. Above the transaction-level systems are the decision support systems. These take external information – market rends and other external financial data – and processed internal information, such as sales trends, to produce strategic plans, forecasts, and budgets. Often such systems are put together with PC spreadsheets and other unconnected tools. Management information systems lie at the top of the hierarchy of information needs. The MIS takes the plans and information from the transaction-level systems to monitor the performance of the business as a whole. This provides feedback to aid strategic planning, forecasting, and/ or budgeting, which in turn affects what happens at the transactional level.

Task 14. Match parts of the envelope with the headings.

The Marsdens

7425 (1) Lansdowne Road

(2) Bethesda, MD (3) 20812

Fred and Sylvia Becker
455
(4) Battery Lane
Bethesda,
(5) MD 20814

A. Name of the state

B. Street name in the mailing address

C. Name of the city

D. ZIP code

E. Street name in the return address

Task 15. Read the document and fill in the gaps.

A) Re

B) From

C) Thank you

D) understand

___(1)____: Management

To  : Northwest Area Sales Staff

___(2)___: New Monthly Reporting System

We’d like to quickly go over some of the changes in the new monthly sales reporting system that we discussed at Monday’s special meeting. We ___(3)____ that you have concerns about the amount of time that will be initially required for inputting your client data. ___(4)___ all for your help in putting this new system into place.

Task 16. To which type is the document in Task 15 referred?

A) Application Letter

B) Contract

C) Memo

D) Letter of Enquiry

Task 17. Put the parts of the document into the correct order.

1) Dear Ms. Bragg,

2) Meridian National Bank,

12187, Polo Drive

Fairfax, VA, 22130

3) On behalf of Meridian National Bank I thank you for your ongoing business and trust that we will continue to serve you in the future.

4) Yours sincerely,

Brenda Wallis

Loans Manager

5) December 12, 2009

6) Suzanna Bragg

127 Polk Drive, No. 112

Gary, Indiana, 46402

7) After a thorough review of your application and the supporting documents you supplied, we have concluded that your current financial situation precludes this institution from extending further credit to you at this time. When your financial picture changes and your current level of risk-exposure becomes lower, we would be happy to reconsider your application.

Task 18. To which type of letter is the letter in Task 17 referred?

A) Application Letter

B) Rejection Letter

C) Letter of Credit

D) Letter of Enquiry

Speaking

Task 19. Make a list of software products you use (e.g. word processors, spreadsheets, media player, etc.). Then choose one product and comment on it. Are there any features you never use? Are there any features missing? Discuss it with your partner.


Task 20.
Review crossword.


1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1. programs which tell the computer what to do (8)

2. a piece of software which makes a computer do a task (for example, edit an image) (11)

3. any set of instructions for a computer (7)

4. software which operates a peripheral, such as a scanner or printer (6)

5. application which stores and displays digital photos (5,5)

6. you enter a security code to prove that you have a _______ to use the software (7)

7. software which prevents unauthorized access to your computer over the Internet (8)

8. a series of letters and numbers which you have to enter before installing some programs (8,4)

9. download new features for an application (6)

10. an unauthorised copy of a program (7)

Task 21. Enjoy the jokes.

 Did you hear about the Microsoft Windows programmer who died? He found himself in front of a committee that decides whether one goes to Heaven or Hell. The committee told the programmer he had some say in the matter and asked him if he wanted to see Heaven and Hell before stating his preference. "Sure," he said, so an angel took him to a place with a sunny beach, volleyball, and rock and roll, where everyone was having a great time. "Wow!" he exclaimed. "Heaven is great!" "Wrong," said the angel. "That was Hell. Want to see Heaven?" "Sure!" So the angel took him to another place. Here a bunch of people were sitting in a park playing bingo and feeding pigeons. "This is Heaven?" asked the Windows programmer. "Yes," said the angel. "Then I'll take Hell." Instantly, he found himself plunged up to his neck in red-hot lava, with the hosts of the damned in torment around him. "Where's the beach? The music? The volleyball?" he screamed frantically to the angel. "That was the demo," she replied as she vanished.

Error Messages

  •  "The world will end in 5 minutes. Please log out..."
  •  "COFFEE.EXE missing. Insert cup and press any key."
  •  "Bad Command or File Name. Good try, though."
  •  "Press any key... no, no, no, NOT THAT ONE!"
  •  "Enter any 11-digit prime number to continue..."
  •  "General Failure's Fault. Not Yours."
  •  "Hit any user to continue."
  •  "Scandisk is now checking your hard disk. You can start praying."
  •  "Smash forehead on keyboard to continue."
  •  "Earth is 98% full. Please delete anyone you can."
  •  "Cannot find REALITY.SYS...Universe Halted."
  •  “Keyboard not found. Press any key to continue…”

Unit 4. Networks

Reading and Vocabulary

  1.  adjacent (A) – смежный, соседний
  2.  apparent (A) – явный, очевидный
  3.  bandwidth (N) – полоса пропускания, пропускная способность
  4.  connect (V) – соединять, connectivity (N)связность 
  5.  data link (N) – канал передачи данных, data link layer – канальный уровень
  6.  destination (N)место назначения, получатель
  7.  distributed system – распределенная система
  8.  fiber optic (A) – оптоволоконный
  9.  frame (N) кадр, фрейм
  10.  integrity (N) – целостность
  11.  interference (N) – помеха 
  12.  intricate (A) – сложный
  13.  layer (N) - уровень
  14.  loop (N) – цикл, петля
  15.  MAN [mæn] (Metropolitan-Area Network)региональная сеть
  16.  medium (pl. media) – среда (передачи данных)
  17.  NIC (Network Interface Card) – сетевая интерфейсная плата
  18.  OSI [΄ou ΄es ΄ai] Reference Model – эталонная модель OSI
  19.  peer (N)  ровня, peer-to-peer (A)одноранговый
  20.  property (N) – собственность, proprietary (A) – патентованный
  21.  query (N) запрос
  22.  recovery (N) – восстановление (после сбоя или ошибки)
  23.  route (N,V)– маршрут, маршрутизировать, router [΄ru:tə] (N) – маршрутизатор, routing (N) – маршрутизация
  24.  session (N) – сеанс (связи), session layer – сеансовый уровень
  25.  susceptible (A) – восприимчивый, чувствительный
  26.  subscriber (N) – абонент 
  27.  share (V)совместно использовать
  28.  stand-alone (A) – автономный, не входящий в систему
  29.  switch (N) – коммутатор; switched (A) – коммутируемый
  30.  terminate (V) – завершать, подключать (к линии связи)
  31.  token (N) – маркер (дающий право передачи)
  32.  UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) – неэкранированная витая пара
  33.  WAN [wæn] (Wide-Area Network) – глобальная сеть

Task 1. Complete the table with examples of networks below. Then add an example or your own to each column of the table.

Networks

Communications

Utilities

Transportation

Biological

Social

Cellular

Fresh Water

Air Traffic System

Neurological

Friends

Air Traffic System, Power Grid, TV/ Radio, Postal Service, Internet, Sewerage, Ecosystems, Family, Telephone, Cities, Highway System, LANs / WANs, Water Transport.

Task 2. Match the terms with their definitions.

1. Protocol A) The process of finding a path to a destination host.

2. Synchronous B) Various physical environments through which transmission signals pass.

3. Media C) The rated throughput capacity of a given network, medium, or protocol.

4. Broadcast D) A set of rules and conventions that govern how devices on a network exchange information.

5. Bandwidth E) Taking place at exactly the same time as something

6. Routing F) Data packet that will be sent to all nodes on a network.

Task 3. Read the text and explain the meanings of the abbreviations.

1) LAN

2) MAN

3) WAN

4) ISDN

5) DSL

6) ATM

7) UTP

8) TCP /IP

Computer networks

1) A network is an intricately connected system of objects or people. Networks are all around us, even inside us. Your own nervous system and cardiovascular system are networks.

Computers and computer networks have changed the way we do almost everything – the way we teach, learn, do research, access or share information, communicate with each other, and even the way we entertain ourselves. A computer network consists of two or more computing devices (often called nodes) interconnected by means of some medium capable of transmitting data that allows the computers to communicate with each other in order to provide a variety of services to users.

2) In the very early days, computer networks were relatively small, and computer or modem vendors tended to develop proprietary protocols that allowed their machines to communicate with each other, but not necessarily with those made by others. This created the need to interconnect two or more compatible or incompatible networks together to create an Internet, or a network of networks. In the mid1970s, TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) was developed and became the main communication protocol. Today, TCP/IP is the defacto standard and is available for almost all computers. When sending a file from one machine to another, TCP breaks it into a number of data packets, which also include other information such as the type of packet, source, and destination addresses. IP then takes over, routing those packets from the source to the destination, where TCP takes over and reassembles them into the original file.

3) Networks that span a local area such as one or more neighboring buildings are called local-area networks, or LANs. Ethernet is by far the most widely used LAN technology today. LANs make it possible for businesses that use computer technology to share, efficiently, such items as files and printers, and to make possible communications such as e-mail.

As computer use in businesses grew, it soon became apparent that even LANs were not sufficient. In a LAN system, each department, or business was a kind of electronic island. What was needed was a way for information to move efficiently and quickly from one business to another. The solution was the creation of metropolitan-area networks (MANs) and wide-area networks (WANs). Generally, a MAN spans a larger geographic area than a LAN, but a smaller geographic area than a WAN. Because WANs connected user networks over a large geographical area, they made it possible for businesses to communicate with each other across great distances. As a result of being networked or connected, computers, printers, and other devices on a WAN could communicate with each other to share information and resources, as well as to access the Internet. Some common WAN technologies are: modems, ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), Frame Relay, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), The T (US) and E (Europe) Carrier Series: T1, E1, T3, E3, etc., SONET (Synchronous Optical Network)

LANs, MANs and WANs have always had one thing in common, though, and that is the use of the term bandwidth to describe their capabilities. Bandwidth is the measure of how much information can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time.

4) Client/server and peer-to-peer are phrases used to describe networks with different types of hierarchy and access control. Client/server computing describes distributed network systems in which transaction responsibilities are divided into two parts: client (front end) and server (back end). Peer-to-peer computing calls for each network device to run both client and server portions of an application.

During your study of networking, you will hear references to the word medium. (Note: The plural form of medium is media.) In networking, a medium is a material through which data packets travel. It could be any of the following materials:

  •  telephone wires
  •  Category 5 UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) (used for Ethernet)
  •  coaxial cables (used for cable TV)
  •  optical fibers (thin glass fibers that carry light)
  •  atmosphere (carries radio waves, microwaves, and light).

(From Cisco Networking Academy)

Task 4. Answer these questions about the text.

  1.  Using computers as stand-alone devices is ineffective for businesses, isn’t it? Why?
    1.  What does a data packet include?
    2.  What are LANs designed for?
    3.  What is the difference between client/server computing and peer-to-peer computing?
    4.  What are the media types used in networking?

Task 5. Decide  if  the  statement  is  true,  false  or  there  is  no  information

in the text.

  1.  Computer networks appeared because people wanted something more quick and efficient than a conventional postal service.
  2.  TCP/IP was developed in 1980s.
  3.  A peer-to-peer network does not have any dedicated servers or hierarchy among its computers.
  4.  Routers make logical decisions regarding the best path for the delivery of data.

Task 6. Using the paragraph number references given, look back in the text and find words that have a similar meaning to.

1) environment (1)

2) sender address (2)

3) finding a path (2)

4) covers (3)

5) move (4)

Task 7. Choose the correct words.

1. ADSL is more commonly known as __________.

 A. longband  B. broadband  C. wideband

2. Broadband Internet connection is much faster than _________.

 A. dial-in   B. dial-through  C. dial-up

3. Each time you want to connect to the network, you have to enter a log-in name and a __________.

 A. security word  B. safe word  C. password

4. With dial-up, you can usually choose a ________ tariff.

 A. pay-as-you-go  B. pay-what-you-want C. pay-if-you-like

5. Some broadband contracts limit the amount of _________ you can have each month.

 A. pages    B. traffic   C. use

6. Looking at web pages can be called "navigating the Web" but is more commonly called ________.

 A. "surfing the net"  B. "skiing the net" C. "swimming the net"

7. When your computer is not connected to the Internet, it is ________.

 A. out of line   B. offline    C. off the line

8. An unexpected disconnection from the Internet is called a __________.

 A. lost connection B. missed connection C. dropped connection

9. A file which is copied from the Internet onto your computer is called _____.

A. an upload  B. a download  C. a load

10. The word “blog” which means “online journal” originates from _______.

 A. “block”   B. “web log”  C. “best log”

11. The word “spam” originates from _________.

A. “spice and ham” B. “spend and have” C. “spoiled ham”

Task 8. Match the network topologies with their descriptions.

 Bus / Ethernet  Star  Switched  Ring

1) In this configuration, the central computer performs all processing and control functions. All access devices are linked directly to the central computer. The configuration has two major limitations. First of all, the remote devices are unable to communicate directly. Instead, they must communicate via the central computer only. Secondly, the network is very susceptible to failure, either in the central computer or the transmission links.

2) The central device, which could be a telephone exchange, is used to connect different devices on the network directly. Once the link is established, the two devices communicate as though they were directly linked without interference from any other device. At the end of the session, the connection is closed, freeing capacity for other users and allowing access to other devices. Multiple switches can be used to create alternative transmission routes.

3) Each device is attached to a network shaped as a continuous loop. Data proceeds in only one direction and at a constant speed round the loop. Devices may send information only when they are in control of the 'token'. The token is a package of data which indicates which device has control. The receiving device picks up the token, then clears it for another's use once it has received the message. Only one device may send data at any given moment, and each device must be working for the network to function.

4) This network consists of one piece of cable terminated at each end to which all devices are connected. In such a network, each device is able to broadcast a message when it has detected silence for a fixed period of time. All devices receive the broadcast and determine from the content of the message whether it was intended for them. The only problem occurs when two devices try to send at the same time. When a sending device detects another's transmission, it aborts its own.

Task 9. Read the text and choose the correct words.

What's the difference between the Web and the Internet?

Some people think that the Internet and the Web are the same thing, but in fact they are different. The Internet (often called simply "the net") is a global (1) network/ net of interconnected computers. These computers communicate with each other (2) over / through existing telecommunications networks – principally, the telephone system. The Word Wide Web (usually known as just "the Web") is the billions of web pages that are stored on large computers called web (3) servers / services.

To (4) see / access the web, you may need a computer and a modem. You then connect over your telephone line to an Internet Service (5) Port / Provider (ISP), which sends your request to view a particular web page to the correct web server.

Websites are not the only service available on the Internet. It is also used for many other functions, including sending and receiving e-mail, and connecting to newsgroups and (6) discussion / talking groups.

You could say that the Internet is a system of roads, and web pages and e-mails are types of traffic that travel on those roads.

Task 10. Choose the correct word to complete each sentence. You may change some words slightly. Consult the Appendix for confusable words.

 describe, proscribe, inscribe, prescribe

1. The name of the National hero was _______ on the memorial plaque.

2. The medicine was made as the doctor had _______.

3. The word alphanumeric is used to _______data that contains numbers and letters.

4. Bringing food and drinks into computer laboratories is strictly __________.

 export, deport, report, import

5. Oil and gas are the main _______ of Russia.

6. The notorious spy was _______ from the country.

7. If there is an attempt of an unauthorised access, the security system ________ to an administrator.

8. DTP software can ________ text and graphics from another application.

 express, oppress, impress, depress

9. He was really _______ by his failure in the exam.

10. I must _______ my thanks for your help.

11. I was hoping to _______ my new boss with my computer skills.

12. The rural poor were _______ by the land-owners.

Writing and Translation

Task 11. Make the written translation into Russian (3,000 characters).

The OSI Reference Model

The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model describes how information from a software application in one computer moves through a network medium to a software application in another computer. The OSI model divides the tasks involved with moving information between networked computers into seven smaller, more manageable task groups. This enables the solutions offered by one layer to be updated without affecting the other layers.

The application layer (Layer 7) is the OSI layer that is closest to the user; it provides network services to the user’s applications. It differs from the other layers in that it does not provide services to any other OSI layer, but rather, only to applications outside the OSI model. Examples of such applications are spreadsheet programs, word processing programs, and bank terminal programs. The application layer establishes the availability of intended communication partners, synchronizes and establishes agreement on procedures for error recovery and control of data integrity.

The presentation layer (Layer 6) ensures that the information that the application layer of one system sends out is readable by the application layer of another system. If necessary, the presentation layer translates between multiple data formats by using a common format.

As its name implies, the session layer (Layer 5) establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between two communicating hosts. The session layer provides its services to the presentation layer. It also synchronizes dialogue between the two hosts' presentation layers and manages their data exchange. In addition to session regulation, the session layer offers provisions for efficient data transfer, class of service, and exception reporting of session layer, presentation layer, and application layer problems.

The transport layer (Layer 4) segments data from the sending host's system and reassembles the data into a data stream on the receiving host's system. The transport layer attempts to provide a data transport service that shields the upper layers from transport implementation details. In providing communication service, the transport layer establishes, maintains, and properly terminates virtual circuits. In providing reliable service, transport error detection-and-recovery and information flow control are used.

The network layer (Layer 3) is a complex layer that provides connectivity and path selection between two host systems that may be located on geographically separated networks.

The data link layer (Layer 2) provides reliable transit of data across a physical link. In so doing, the data link layer is concerned with physical (as opposed to logical) addressing, network topology, network access, error notification, ordered delivery of frames, and flow control.

The physical layer (Layer 1) defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for activating, maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between end systems. Such characteristics as voltage levels, timing of voltage changes, physical data rates, maximum transmission distances, physical connectors, and other, similar, attributes are defined by physical layer specifications.

(From CISCO Networking Academy)

A handy way to remember the seven layers of the OSI reference model is the sentence All people seem to need data processing. The beginning letter of each word corresponds to a layer.

All   Application layer

•People   Presentation layer

•Seem   Session layer

To   Transport layer

Need  Network layer

Data  Data link layer

Processing Physical layer

Task 12. Read the text and choose the correct words.

Bank transfer: payment can be made (1) by / from ordering a home bank to transfer money to an overseas account. The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Communications (SWIFT) offers facilities for a 24-hour transfer of money (2) in / to a beneficiary on its computer systems.

Bill of exchange: the seller prepares a bill of exchange in the name of the buyer. The bill states (3) that / what the buyer will pay the seller an amount within a stated time, e.g. 30 days. The bill is sent to the buyer either by post, or through a bank, and the buyer signs (accepts) the bill before the goods are sent. Shipping documents usually accompany bills when the bank acts (4) as / how an intermediary in overseas transactions.

Letter of credit (L/C): letters of credit (or documentary credits, as banks refer to them) have to be applied for from the buyer's bank, by filling out a form giving details of the type of credit (i.e. revocable, which can be cancelled, or irrevocable, which cannot be cancelled), the beneficiary (the person receiving the money), the amount, (5) when / how long the credit will be available for (i.e. valid until...), the documents involved (bill of lading, insurance, invoice, etc.), and a description of the goods. The money will be credited to the supplier's account as soon as confirmation of shipment is made. This is done (6) when / if the documents are lodged with the customer's bank.

 Notes:

beneficiary (N) – бенефициар (получатель платежа)

bill of exchange (N) переводной вексель, тратта

bill of lading (N) – коносамент, накладная на груз

insurance (N)страховка   invoice (N)счет-фактура

letter of credit (N) аккредитив

lodge (V) – помещать, класть (в банк) overseas (A) - зарубежный

revocable (A)отзывный, irrevocable (A)безотзывный

shipment (N) – отправка товаров, поставка


Task
13. Read the text and fill in the table.

Ex-works

F.O.R.

F.A.S.

F.O.B.

C.& F.

C.I.F.

Cost of goods

+

Delivery to the nearest railway station

-

Loading goods aboard

-

Shipping to the destination

-

Insurance

-

Transport and insurance costs

Ex-works: the buyer pays all costs once the goods leave the factory/ warehouse.

F.O.R. (free on rail): includes cost of delivery to the nearest railway station.

F.A.S. (free alongside ship): includes cost of taking goods to the side of the ship, but not loading.

F.O.B. (free on board): as for F.A.S., but includes cost of loading goods.

C.& F. (cost and freight): includes cost of shipping goods to the named destination, but not insurance.

C.I.F. (cost, insurance, and freight): includes all costs to the named destination.

Notes:

C.& F. (cost and freight) – цена «стоимость и фрахт»

C.I.F.– цена сиф

Ex-worksцена франко-завод

F.O.R. (free on rail) – цена франко-вагон

F.A.S. (free alongside ship) – цена фас 

F.O.B. (free on board) цена фоб.

freight (N) – фрахт (стоимость перевозки)

Task 14. Read the contract and find English equivalents to the following.

  1.  вступать в силу
  2.  в дальнейшем именуемый
  3.  затраты на страхование
  4.  без уплаты таможенных пошлин на импорт
  5.  страна происхождения
  6.  уведомить в письменной форме
  7.  утеря или повреждение товара
  8.  уплата налогов и таможенных сборов
  9.  транспортировка
  10.  юридический адрес
  11.  стороны (контракта)

CONTRACT

This Contract is signed and is entering into force between the Frith Components Company and hereinafter referred to as "Seller" and ABC Corporation hereinafter referred to as "Buyer", have entered into agreement under the following Conditions:

Terms and Conditions

1. Subject of the contract: The "Seller" is undertaking to deliver to the "Buyer" 10,000 iPods hereinafter referred to as the "Goods", under the terms of C.I.F., port UK.

2. Price and total value of the contract: The total value of the Contract is determined in U.S. Dollars as 400$ per item. Quantity: 10,000. The total amount of the Contract is 4,000,000$

The total value of the Contract is determined on C.I.F. Port UK terms (import dues uncleared), including the "Seller's" expenditures for insurance against risks of loss or damage to the "Goods" during shipment, in accordance with conditions of the present contract, as well as on payments covering taxes, and custom duties in the country of origin if necessary, and resulting from the execution of the current Contract.

The prices are fixed for duration of the current Contract and will not be subjected to any changes, with exception of wartime, when transportation costs are rising, at which point the "Seller" has to notify in written form, immediately, the "Buyer".

3. Legal Addresses and Signatures of the Parties

The Seller:    Frith Components

139, Giles Kemp Road, New York, USA

The Buyer:    ABC Company

16, Green Street, Liverpool, UK

Task 15. True or false?

  1.  The Seller is to pay for insurance against risks of loss or damage to the "Goods" during shipment.
  2.  The Seller is to pay for import dues.
  3.  The payment has to be done in euros.
  4.  In case of war the "Seller" has to notify the "Buyer" by telephone.
  5.  The Seller will deliver 10,000 iPods to one of the ports of the United Kingdom.

Task 16. Match the extracts with the types of documents.

A) Application Letter

B) Contract

C) Memo

D) Letter of Enquiry

E) CV

1) Dear Ms. Payton,

Further to our telephone conversation yesterday, could you please send me a copy of your company's Annual Report for the last two operating years.

2) TO: Kelly Anderson, Marketing Executive

FROM: Jonathon Fitzgerald, Market Research Assistant

DATE: June 14, 2007

RE: Fall Clothes Line Promotion

Through market research and analysis, it has been discovered that the proposed advertising media for the new fall lines need to be reprioritized and changed.

3) Please regard this as an application for the position of District Sales Manager that was recently advertised on Monster.com. Based on the requirements stated in the ad, I believe that I possess a unique mix of experience, knowledge, and skills that can definitely help your company in the critical customer service area.

4) Name:  David William MANNING

Age:   21

Date of Birth: 29 May 1991

Marital Status: Single
Tel:   071 263 6925

5) Seller shall issue monthly invoices to Buyer, stating Seller's charges for natural gas supplied to Buyer. Buyer agrees to pay the invoices within ten (10) days. Interest of (1.5%) per month shall accrue on any overdue balance. If Buyer defaults on any of its obligations under this contract, Seller may, in addition to other legal remedies, suspend deliveries or terminate this contract.

Speaking

Task 17. These are answers from an interview with Elissa, who works for SysTech. Ask the questions.

1. I’m a computer systems software engineer.

2. I coordinate the constructions and maintenance of a company’s computer systems.

3. A bit of both. I’m here some of the time but I also spend a lot of time on site configuring and installing computer systems at a company.

4. Well, companies have various needs. They have to organize things like ordering, inventory, billing, payroll, etc. I help companies to coordinate their computer systems in their departments.

5. No, not really. As a software engineer, I need to have good programming skills, but I’m more concerned with developing algorithms and analyzing and solving programming problems than with actually writing code programs.

6. I also help companies to set up their Intranet systems and, in general, I make suggestions about the technical direction of the company and I help them to plan for future growth.

Task 18.

A. Choose a profession from the list and make your interviews with a partner. Use the prompts in brackets.

Web designer (to use JavaScript, to make a website more interactive, freedom, flexibility and long holidays)

Computer programmer (to write software, to prefer working with computers to people)

Database administrator (to help companies to store, manage and retrieve data, to work for a good company, to have a better job security)

E-commerce manager (high risks and high rewards of E-commerce, to manage one’s own online shop, to like to work both with computers and people)

B. Tell about your future profession.


Revision

Task 19. There are 33 words connected with the Internet in this grid. Can you find them all? (Look down and across).

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Task 20. Enjoy the poem.

If a packet hits a pocket on a socket on a port,

and the bus is interrupted as a very last resort,

and the address of the memory makes your floppy disk abort,

then the socket packet pocket has an error to report.

If your cursor finds a menu item followed by a dash,

and the double-clicking icon puts your window in the trash,

and your data is corrupted 'cause the index doesn't hash,

then your situation's hopeless and your system's gonna crash!

If the label on the cable on the table at your house,

says the network is connected to the button on your mouse,

but your packets want to tunnel on another protocol,

that's repeatedly rejected by the printer down the hall,

and your screen is all distorted by the side effects of gauss,

so your icons in the window are as wavy as a souse,

then you may as well reboot and go out with a bang,

'cause as sure as I'm a poet, the sucker's gonna hang!

When the copy of your floppy's getting sloppy on the disk,

and the microcode instructions cause unnecessary risk,

then you have to flash your memory and you'll want to RAM your ROM.

Quickly turn off the computer and be sure to tell your mom!


Unit
5. Information Security

Reading and Vocabulary

  1.  alert (N)сигнал тревоги
  2.  denial of service, DOS отказ в обслуживании
  3.  destroy (V) – разрушать
  4.  destruct (V) – разрушать, destructive (A) – разрушительный
  5.  encrypt (V) – шифровать
  6.  firewall (N) – брандмауэр, файервол
  7.  forge (V) – фабриковать, подделывать, forgery (N) – подделка
  8.  gap (N) – брешь, пробел (в защите)
  9.  hacker (N) – хакер (программист высокого класса; программист или пользователь, стремящийся незаконно преодолеть системы защиты данных)
  10.  identity (N) – личность, тождество, identity card – удостоверение личности, identical (A) – идентичный, identify (V) – идентифицировать
  11.  intend (V) – намереваться, intended (A) – предназначенный, намеренный
  12.  intrude (V) – вторгаться; intrusion (N) – вторжение
  13.  legitimate (A) – законный
  14.  malicious (A) – злонамеренный 
  15.  malware (N) – вредоносное программное обеспечение
  16.  notify (N) уведомить
  17.  padlock (N) – «висячий замок» (знак защиты веб-страницы)
  18.  patch (N) – «заплата» (в программном обеспечении)
  19.  pirate (N) – пират, pirated (A) – пиратский, piracy (N) - пиратство
  20.  pollute (V)загрязнять
  21.  prank (N) – выходка, шутка
  22.  replicate (V) – самовоспроизводиться
  23.  restrict (V) – ограничивать (доступ и т.п.)
  24.  sniff (V) – вынюхивать, подслушивать
  25.  spyware (N) – шпионское программное обеспечение
  26.  tap (V) – подслушивать, перехватывать
  27.  victim (N) – жертва
  28.  vulnerable (A)уязвимый

Task 1. Answer the questions.

  1.  Who is a hacker?
  2.  How to make computer data secure?
  3.  What computer crimes do you know?
  4.  What is a firewall?
  5.  What is a computer virus?

Task 2.  Read  the  text  and  match  each  highlighted  word  with  its

correct definition.

A) an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users, network flood

B) pretending to be an authorized person and aiming to get some confidential information

C) entireness, wholeness

D) the act of taking information secretly, without the permission from the owner

E) trying account names and password combinations until one works

F) hardware (a router or access server) or software ensuring the security of the private network.

G) to overhear (a telephone conversation, etc.) secretly

H) software which sees the network traffic usually intending to find password information

Why Internet Firewalls?

If you are building a firewall, the first thing you need to worry about is what you're trying to protect. When you connect to the Internet, you're putting three things at risk: your data (the information you keep on the computers); your resources (the computers themselves); and your reputation.

The Internet is a marvelous technological advance that provides access to information, and the ability to publish information, in revolutionary ways. But it's also a major danger that provides the ability to pollute and destroy information in revolutionary ways.

Computer security incidents are different from many other types of crimes because detection is unusually difficult. Sometimes, it may take a long time to find out that someone has broken into your site. Sometimes, you'll never know. Even if somebody breaks in but doesn't actually do anything to your system or data, you'll probably lose time (hours or days) while you verify that the intruder didn't do anything.

Your data has three separate characteristics that need to be protected: secrecy (you might not want other people to know it); (1) integrity (you probably don't want other people to change it); and availability: (you almost certainly want to be able to use it yourself). A (2) firewall is a form of protection that allows a network to connect to the Internet while maintaining a degree of security.

The most common attacks on your systems are intrusions; with intrusions, people are actually able to use your computers. Most attackers want to use your computers as if they were legitimate users. Attackers have dozens of ways to get access. They range from (3) social engineering attacks (you figure out the name of somebody high up in the company; you call a system administrator, claiming to be that person and claiming to need your password changed right now, so that you can get important work done), to simple (4) guesswork (you try account names and password combinations until one works).

Firewalls help prevent intrusions in a number of ways. Ideally, they block all ways to get into a system without knowing an account name and password. Properly configured, they reduce the number of accounts accessible from the outside that are therefore vulnerable to guesswork or social engineering. Most people configure their firewalls to use one-time passwords that prevent guessing attacks.

A (5) denial of service attack is one that's aimed entirely at preventing you from using your own computers. While flooding is the simplest and most common way to carry out a denial of service attack, a cleverer attacker can also disable services, reroute them, or replace them.

Most often, the risk of denial of service attacks is unavoidable. If you accept things from the external universe – electronic mail, telephone calls, or packages – it's possible to get flooded. The notorious college prank of ordering a pizza or two from every pizzeria in town to be delivered to your least favorite person is a form of denial of service; it's hard to do much else while arguing with 42 pizza deliverers. In the electronic world, denial of service is as likely to happen by accident as on purpose. The most important thing is to set up services so that if one of them is flooded, the rest of your site keeps functioning while you find and fix the problem. The good news is that most of these attacks are avoidable; a well-designed firewall will usually not be susceptible to them itself, and will usually prevent them from reaching internal machines that are vulnerable to them.

Some types of attacks allow an attacker to get data without ever having to directly use your computers. Usually these attacks exploit Internet services that are intended to give out information, inducing the services to give out more information than was intended, or to give it out to the wrong people. Many Internet services are designed for use on local area networks, and don't have the type or degree of security that would allow them to be used safely across the Internet.

Most people who steal information try to get access to your computers; they're looking for usernames and passwords. Fortunately for them, and unfortunately for everybody else, that's the easiest kind of information to get when (6) tapping a network. Username and password information occurs quite predictably at the beginning of many network interactions, and such information can often be reused in the same form.

Network taps, which are usually called (7) sniffers, are very effective at finding password information but are rarely used by attackers to gather other kinds of information. Getting more specific information about a site requires either extreme dedication and patience, or the knowledge that the information you want will reliably pass through a given place at a given time.

There are several types of protection against (8) information theft. A properly configured firewall will protect you against people who are trying to get more information than you intended to give. Once you've decided to give information out across the Internet, however, it's very difficult to protect against that information's reaching an unintended audience, either through misauthentication (somebody claiming to be authorized, when he or she isn't) or through sniffing (somebody simply reading information as it crosses a correctly authorized channel). For that matter, once you have given the information to somebody, you have no way to prevent that person from distributing it to other people.

(From Building Internet Firewalls,

by E. Zwicky, S. Cooper & D. Chapman)

Task 3. Decide  if  the  statement  is  true,  false  or  there  is  no  information

in the text.

1. The Internet is a major danger that provides the ability to pollute and destroy information in revolutionary ways.

2. When you connect to the Internet, you're putting only one thing at risk: the information you keep on the computers.

3. Computing resources are natural resources that belong by right to the world at large.

4. A denial of service attack is aimed entirely at preventing you from using your own computers.

5. Network sniffing is often used for destroying computer data.

6. If you share the information with somebody, it is impossible to prevent that person from distributing it to other people.

Task 4. Answer the questions.

1. What are you trying to protect on your systems?

2. Which antivirus software or service do you use? Does it help to increase your computer security?

3. What types of attacks do you know?

4. Can simple accidents or stupidity be the threat for computer security?

Task 5. Choose the correct words.

1. A person who illegally accesses somebody else's computer over the Internet is called a __________.

 A. pirate   B. guest   C. hacker

2. A website which (in theory) cannot be accessed by a hacker is _________.

 A. strong   B. secure   C. clean

3. A website which can only be viewed by authorised people has ________ access.

 A. reduced   B. small   C. restricted

4. Unwanted advertising e-mails are popularly known as _______.

 A. garbage   B. spam   C. ham

5. Software which blocks attempts by others to access your computer over the internet is called a __________.

 A. firewall   B. fire blanket  C. fire engine

6. It's essential to ________ your anti-virus protection regularly.

 A. up-to-date  B. date back  C. update

7. Anti-virus software can _______ your computer for viruses.

 A. flood   B. review   C. scan

8. Anti-virus software can also _______ viruses on removable media, such as floppy disks.

 A. detect   B. control   C. see

9. When your anti-virus software subscription ______ it's a good idea to renew it immediately.

 A. ends   B. stops   C. expires

10. Sites that ask for your credit card number or other personal information should use a secure server, so the data you send is ______.

 A. coded   B. encrypted  C. translated.

11. The _______ symbol means that a web-page is secure.

 A. smile   B. SOS   C. padlock

12. I couldn't book my flight online because the airline's system was _____.

 A. down   B. up    C. over

Task 6. Match the malware with the damage.

1. virus

2. spyware

3. trojan horse

4. keystrokelogger or keylogger

5. worm

A. collects and sends private information from the infected computer to a third party

B. an undesirable program which can replicate itself across a network

C. allows a hacker to access private information when he/she wishes

D. a program which adds itself to an executable file, and can cause considerable damage to the data on the infected computer

E. records characters that are typed into a computer

Task 7. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words below.

How can banks protect themselves?

They need technology to prevent intrusions: ___(1)___, anti-virus software and patches. The other thing they need is a process to assess threat changes. Several years ago, it was all about server-side ___(2)___. Then a year ago, ___(3)___ reported they were going after ___(4)___ in Internet Explorer. Now we are seeing a shift back to server-side attacks and the use of Microsoft Word or Excel attachments to break in.

What can bank customers do to protect themselves?

Turn your computer off when you aren't using it. If you can ___(5)___ two computers – one for online banking, the other for Internet-surfing – do that. If you are a ___(6)___ of identity theft, ___(7)___ the credit reporting agencies, place a fraud ___(8)___ on your report and get a police report.

 notify     firewalls    alert

 attacks    victim    afford

 clients    gaps

Task 8. Use the word given in brackets to form a word that fits in the space.

1. Confidential information about a company’s products or operation can be stolen or sold to unfair ________ . (compete)

2. Phone freakers send over their phones control signals that are ________ to those used by telephone company. (identity) 

3. Signatures are widely used to identify credit-card holders, but only an expert can detect a good _________. (forge) 

4. Trojan horse is a program that places illegal, _______ instructions in the middle of an otherwise legitimate program. (destruct) 

5. A programmer secretly inserts a few ______ instructions in an operating system. (author) 

6. Stay away from _______ software. (pirate) 

7. A virus is a self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other __________ code or documents. (execute) 

Task 9. Choose the correct word. Consult the Appendix for confusable words.

1. The manager received / perceived an urgent E-mail from France.

2. Copernicus was the first to deceive / conceive the idea that the Earth is round.

3. Congratulations! You have conceived / received very good recommendations.

4. The authorities refused to extend / attend his visa.

5. He is planning to attend / pretend the conference on computer security.

6. Don't attend / pretend you didn't know about this!

7. This book is attended / intended for computer science students.

8. The access / accessible to the computer room is restricted to authorised personnel.

9. The students are making good progress / congress with their French.

10. Although he had revise / advise all his notes, he could not answer most of the questions.

11. A control program schedules and devises / supervises the performance of data processing.

12. His application for the university grant was injected / rejected.

13. After the disk is rejected / ejected, the project is over.

14. We design and produce learning materials in all subjects / rejects to support education and training.

15. We impress / express our gratitude for his kind donation.


Writing and Translation

Task 10. Make the written translation into Russian (2,100 characters).

Types of Web-Attackers

All attackers share certain characteristics. They don't want to be caught, so they try to conceal themselves, their identity and real geographic location. If they gain access to your system, they will certainly attempt to preserve that access, if possible, by building in extra ways to get access. Most of them have some contact with other people who have the same kinds of interests, and most will share the information they get from attacking your system.

Joyriders are bored people looking for amusement. They break in because they think you might have interesting data, or because it would be amusing to use your computers, or because they have nothing better to do. They're curious but not actively malicious; however, they often damage the system through ignorance or in trying to cover their tracks. Joyriders are particularly attracted to well-known sites and uncommon computers.

Vandals are out to do damage, either because they get their pleasure from destroying things, or because they don't like you. Vandals are a big problem if you're somebody that the Internet underground might think of as The Enemy (for example, the phone company or the government) or if you tend to annoy people who have computers and time (for example, you're a computer company with annoyed customers).

Fortunately, vandals are fairly rare. People don't like them, even people in the underground who have nothing against breaking into computers in general. Unlike other intruders, vandals have short but splashy careers. In most circumstances, deleting your data, or even ruining your computer equipment, is not the worst thing somebody could do to you, but it is what vandals do. Unfortunately, it's close to impossible to stop a determined vandal; somebody with a true vendetta against your site is going to get you, sooner or later.

Certain attacks are attractive to vandals but not to other types of attackers. For example, denial of service attacks are not attractive to joyriders; while joyriders are around in your system, they are just as interested as you are in having your computers up, running, and available to the Internet.

Task 11. Match the extracts with the types of documents.

A) Letter of Offer

B) Contract

C) CV

D) Application Letter

1) We are pleased to learn that you have moved into the area served by our bank. We cordially invite you to do your banking business here. Checking and saving accounts, loans for all purposes, and complete banking services are available to you at our convenient location.

2) EDUCATION

Bachelor of Science in Computer Science, May 2008

Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois

Courses taken included:

Software Engineering Design Artificial Intelligence

Operating Systems Design Object-Oriented Development

Java Development Relational Database Theory

C/C++ Programming Network Programming

3) I am currently a Systems Programmer at GCG Merchant Bank where I have two years' experience of specialized programming for the financial sector. I am familiar with C/UNIX, LAN/WAN technology, and relational databases.

4) Any business communication between the Parties is considered confidential or a business secret

Speaking

Task 12. Comment on the behaviour of Simon Greens, a computer user. What can you recommend him to improve his home computer security?

1. Simon uses antivirus software and updates it every year.

2. When he is sent a file attachment or program he doesn't expect or want, he usually opens it and sees what it is.

3. He doesn’t know what a firewall means.

4. Simon thinks he has no secret data in his home computer, that’s why he shouldn’t care about computer security.

5. When Simon is not using his computer, he always disconnects from the Internet.

6. His password for E-mail is his girl friend’s name.

7. Simon copies important files from his hard disk only in case he needs to transfer them to his office computer.

8. When something strange starts to happen on his computer, Simon immediately reboots it.

9. The security setting on Simon’s Internet browser software was set to High, but he reset it to Medium.

Task 13. Read the ideas of Hacker’s Ethics from Hackers by Steven Levi. Do you think the word hacker is used it its negative or positive meaning? Agree or disagree with the rules.

  •  Access to computers and anything which might teach you something about the way the world works should be unlimited and total.
  •  All information should be free.
  •  Mistrust authority – promote decentralization.
  •  Hackers should be judged by their hacking, not bogus criteria such as degrees, age, race, or position.
  •  You can create art and beauty on a computer.
  •  Computers can change your life for the better.
  •  Like Aladdin's lamp, you could get it to do your bidding.

Task 14. Enjoy the joke.

Virus Alert

There is a virus being passed around electronically, orally, and by hand. This virus is called Worm-Overload-Recreational-Killer (W.O.R.K.).

If you receive W.O.R.K. from your colleagues, your boss, or any one else, do not touch W.O.R.K. under any circumstances. This virus will wipe out your private life completely.

Work has been circulating around our building for months and those who have been tempted to open W.O.R.K. or even look at W.O.R.K. have found that their social life is deleted and their brain ceases to function properly.

If you do encounter W.O.R.K., to purge the virus, you must immediately go to the nearest bar. Purchase the antidote known as Work-Isolating-Neutralizer-Extract (W.I.N.E.) or Bothersome-Employer-Elimination-Rebooter (B.E.E.R.). Take the antidote repeatedly until W.O.R.K. has been completely eliminated from your system.

Forward this virus warning immediately to at least 5 friends. Should you realize that you do not have 5 friends, this means that you are already infected by this virus and W.O.R.K. already controls your whole life.


Appendix
. Confusable Words

1) proscribe (V) – объявлять вне закона; изгонять, высылать, запрещать, осуждать

prescribe(V) – предписывать, прописывать

inscribe (V) – вырезать, начертать, посвящать

describe (V) – описывать, характеризовать

2) impress (V) – производить впечатление

express (V) – выражать

depress (V) – подавлять, угнетать

oppress (V) – угнетать, притеснять

repress (V) – подавлять, репрессировать, вытеснять

3) receive (V) – получать

conceive (V) – постигать, понимать, замышлять

perceive (V) – постигать, понимать, ощущать, различать

deceive (V) – обманывать

4) extend (V) – протягивать, простираться

attend (V) – посещать

pretend (V) – претендовать, притворяться

intend (V) – намереваться, предназначать

5) access (N) – доступ, (V) иметь доступ

excess (N) – избыток, излишек

recess (V) – отодвигать назад, делать перерыв

process (N) – процесс, (V) обрабатывать

6) expel (V) – выгонять, исключать, высылать

repel (V) – отгонять, отклонять, вызвать отвращение

impel (V) – побуждать, заставлять

dispel (V) – разгонять, рассеивать

7) inform (V) – информировать 

conform (V) – соответствовать, подчиняться

reform (N) – реформа, (V) реформировать

deform (V) – деформировать

perform (V) – исполнять

8) aside (Adv) – в сторону

outside (Adv) – вне 

inside (Adv) – внутри 

beside (Adv) – рядом, вне

9) supervise (V) – наблюдать, надзирать, руководить

revise (V) – проверять, исправлять, просматривать

devise (V) – придумывать, разрабатывать, завещать (недвижимость)

advise (N) – совет, (V) – советовать

10) subject (N) – предмет, тема, (V) подчинять, подвергать

eject (V) – выбрасывать, выгонять, увольнять, выселять

deject (V) – удручать, угнетать; подавлять

reject (V) – отвергать, отклонять

inject (V) – вводить, впрыскивать

11) omit (V) – упускать, пропускать

emit (V) – испускать, излучать

permit (V) – разрешать

remit (V) – прощать, отпускать, смягчать

12) progress (N) – прогресс, (V) развиваться, совершенствоваться

congress (N) – конгресс

regress (N) – регресс, возвращение, (V) возвращаться, регрессировать

digress (V) – отступать, уклоняться


Bibliography

  1.  Брунова Е.Г. Англо-русский учебный словарь по технологиям сетей передачи данных. – М.: Флинта: Наука, 2009, 160 с.
    1.  Boeckner, K., Brown P. Oxford English for Computing. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
    2.  Demetrias, D. Information Technology. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
    3.  Marks J. Check your English Vocabulary for Computers and Information Technology. – London: A & C Black, 2007.
    4.  Williams, I. English for Science and Engineering. – Massachusetts: Thompson, 2007.

Recommended Web-Sources

  1.  Samples of business letters, memos and contracts – http: //owl.english.purdue.edu
  2.  Samples of CV and business letters, hints to job search in IT http: //jobsearchtech.about.com
  3.  Cisco Networking Academy http: //www.cisco.com/web/learning/netacad


Елена Георгиевна Брунова

IT World

Учебно-методическое пособие

по английскому языку

для студентов Института математики и компьютерных наук

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625003, Тюмень, Семакова, 10.


 

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