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Verbals. Учебно-методическое пособие

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для обучения английскому языку студентов 2-3 курсов естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений и магистерских программ. Основная цель пособия – развитие навыков перевода неличных форм глагола с английского языка на русский и с русского на английский...

Английский

2015-09-16

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РОССИЙСКАЯ ФЕДЕРАЦИЯ

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

ТЮМЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ ЕСТЕСТВЕННЫХ ФАКУЛЬТЕТОВ

Е.Г. Брунова, Е.Ю. Шутова

vERBALS

Учебно-методическое пособие

для студентов естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений

Издательство

Тюменского государственного университета

2009

УДК 811.111 (075.8)

ББК Ш 143.21-923

АЗ:   Б 891

 Е.Г. Брунова, Е.Ю. Шутова Verbals. Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений. Тюмень: Издательство Тюменского государственного университета, 2009. – 80 с.

Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для обучения английскому языку студентов 2-3 курсов естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений и магистерских программ. Основная цель пособия – развитие навыков перевода неличных форм глагола с английского языка на русский и с русского на английский, а также совершенствование навыков устной и письменной речи.

Рекомендовано к изданию кафедрой иностранных языков естественных факультетов. Утверждено проректором по учебной работе Тюменского государственного университета.

ОТВЕТСТВЕННЫЙ РЕДАКТОР: Е.Г. Брунова, доктор филол. наук, профессор кафедры иностранных языков естественных факультетов ТюмГУ

РЕЦЕНЗЕНТЫ:  Л.В. Мельникова, канд. филос. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков естественных факультетов ТюмГУ

 С.Н. Бронникова, канд. филол. наук, профессор кафедры лексики английского языка факультета иностранных языков Московского педагогического государственного университета

© ГОУ ВПО Тюменский государственный университет, 2009.

© Е.Г. Брунова, Е.Ю. Шутова, 2009.

Contents

Unit 1. Verbals. Participles. Absolute Participle Construction……. 5

Unit 2. Gerund………………………………………………………….22

Unit 3. Infinitive. For … to V Construction…………………………...32

Unit 4. Complex Object. Infinitive or ing-form?...............................47

Unit 5. Complex Subject………………………………………………56

Texts for Final Translation…………………………………………….62

Tests…………………………………………………………………….68

Bibliography……………………………………………………………79


ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Учебно-методическое пособие предназначается для студентов 2-3 курсов естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений, а также для магистерских программ по естественнонаучным направлениям. Пособие рекомендуется для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы при изучении следующих дисциплин: «Иностранный язык (английский)», «Технический перевод».

Пособие посвящено неличным формам английского глагола, усвоение которых представляет существенную трудность для русскоязычных студентов.

В задачи пособия входит развитие навыков чтения английской научно-технической литературы, содержащей неличные формы глагола, перевода с английского языка на русский и с русского на английский, а также совершенствование навыков устной и письменной речи. В основу пособия положен принцип сопоставления с грамматической структурой родного языка. При выборе языкового материала для упражнений и текстов особое предпочтение отдавалось естественнонаучной тематике.

Пособие состоит из пяти разделов, посвященных неличным формам глагола (инфинитив, герундий, причастия) и синтаксическим конструкциям (абсолютный причастный оборот, сложное дополнение, сложное подлежащее), небольших текстов для контрольного перевода и итоговых тестов.

Каждый из разделов включает грамматическую справку с примерами и рекомендациями по переводу и упражнения, сгруппированные по трем уровням сложности (А, В и С). Разделы С, содержащие упражнения на перевод с русского языка на английский, предназначаются преимущественно для магистерских программ и студентов, изучающих курс технического перевода.


Unit 1. Verbals. Participles. Absolute Participle Construction

Неличные формы глагола (Verbals) выражают действие без указания лица, числа, времени и наклонения и не могут выполнять функцию полноценного сказуемого в предложении. 

Многозначность суффикса -ing

1) Часть личной формы глагола (Verb) во временах группы Continuous

Our team is verifying a new method. Наша команда проверяет новый метод.

2) Причастие I (Participle I)

Almost every processing industry is now exploring the use of microwave heat. Почти каждая отрасль обрабатывающей промышленности сейчас изучает использование микроволновой энергии.

3) Герундий (Gerund)

Leaving the earth means moving upwards against gravity. Оторваться от Земли означает двигаться вверх против силы притяжения.

4) Имя существительное (Noun)

At the beginning of this chapter different routing algorithms are discussed. В начале этой главы рассматриваются различные алгоритмы маршрутизации.

5) Имя прилагательное (Adjective)

He is reading a very interesting book. Он читает очень интересную книгу.

6) Предлог (Preposition)

During last seminar three students presented their projects. В течение прошлого семинара трое студентов представили свои проекты.

Многозначность суффикса -ed

1) Личная форма правильных глаголов в прошедшем простом времени активного залога (Past Simple Active)

Our team tested this new method last month. Наша команда проверяла этот новый метод в прошлом месяце.

2) Часть личной формы правильных глаголов во временах группы Perfect активного и пассивного залогов (Perfect Active and Passive)

Our team has already tested this new method. Наша команда уже проверила этот новый метод.

3) Часть личной формы правильных глаголов в различных временах пассивного залога (Passive)

This new method was tested last month. Этот новый метод проверили в прошлом месяце.

4) Причастие II (Participle II) правильных глаголов

The results obtained were promising. Полученные результаты были обнадеживающими.

5) Имя прилагательное (Adjective)

They were moving slowly along the crooked town streets. Они двигались медленно по кривым улицам города.

6) Союз (Conjunction)

The dog will never bite you provided you let it alone. Эта собака никогда не укусит вас, если вы ее не тронете.

Причастия (Participles)

Причастие является неличной формой глагола, сочетающей свойства глагола и прилагательного (наречия) и выполняет в предложении функции определения или обстоятельства.

Причастие I образуется от первой формы глагола при помощи суффикса -ing и переводится на русский язык причастием действительного залога (что делающий) или деепричастием (что делая). Причастный оборот может также переводиться придаточным предложением.

Increasing population changes the face of the Earth. Растущее население изменяет облик Земли. (определение, переводится причастием)

The boy playing in the garden is my son. Мальчик, играющий в саду (который играет в саду), – мой сын. (определение, переводится причастием или придаточным предложением)

Translating the text the student consulted the dictionary. Переводя текст, студент пользовался словарем. (обстоятельство, переводится деепричастием).

Причастие I в функции обстоятельства может использоваться с союзами when, while, where, if, unless и др. При переводе такой союз можно опустить. Можно также перевести причастный оборот придаточным предложением или существительным с предлогом.

Translating the text the student consulted the dictionary. = While translating the text the student consulted the dictionary. Переводя текст, студент пользовался словарем. = Когда студент переводил текст, он пользовался словарем. = При переводе текста студент пользовался словарем.

Причастие I может иметь сложные формы, которые используются преимущественно в письменной речи (см. Таблицу 1).

Причастие II (Participle II) образуется с помощью суффикса -ed у правильных глаголов и с помощью 3-й формы у неправильных глаголов и не имеет сложных форм. Причастие II в функции определения переводится на русский язык причастием страдательного залога (что делаемый, что сделанный).

I went toward the lighted window. Я пошел к освещенному окну. 

He carried the box to the car parked behind the house. Он понес коробку в машину, припаркованную за домом.

В отличие от русского языка, отдельное английское причастие II в функции определения может стоять не только перед определяемым словом, но и после него, что особенно характерно для письменной речи.

The obtained results were promising. = The results obtained were promising. Полученные результаты были обнадеживающими.

Причастие II в функции обстоятельства часто сопровождается союзами when, while, where, if, unless и др. и переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением.

Asked this question, he couldn’t answer it at once. = When asked this question, he couldn’t answer it at once. Когда ему задали этот вопрос, он не смог ответить сразу. 


Таблица 1

Формы причастий и способы перевода

Participle I

Participle II

Active

Passive

V3

sent

1) отправляемый / отправленный (определение)

2) когда (его) отправили / так как (его) отправили (обстоятельство)

Simple

Ving

sending

1) отправляющий (определение)

2) отправляя (обстоятельство)

being V3

being sent

1) отправляемый / который отправляют (определение)

2) будучи отправленным (обстоятельство)

Perfect

having V3

having sent

отправив (обстоятельство)

having been V3

having been sent

когда (его) отправили / после того, как (его) отправили (обстоятельство)

Независимый причастный оборот

(Absolute Participle Construction)

Независимый причастный оборот находится в начале или в конце предложения и состоит из:

  1.  существительного, иногда с предлогом with
  2.  причастия

Независимый причастный оборот в начале предложения переводится придаточным предложением с союзом так как, если, когда и др.

(1)   (2)

The weather  being fine, we went for a walk.

(1)   (2)

Так как погода  была прекрасной, мы отправились на прогулку.

(1)   (2)

The work   done, they went home.

(1)   (2)

Когда работа  была закончена, они пошли домой.

Независимый причастный оборот в конце предложения переводится частью сложносочиненного предложения с союзом причем, а, и и др.

(1)   (2)

We completed our experiment, with the results   being published.

(1)   (2)

Мы закончили эксперимент, причем результаты были опубликованы.

Part A

Task A1. Add -ing to the following verbs and translate Participles I into Russian.

Model: to order – заказывать – ordering – заказывающий

To cut, to play, to write, to forget, to begin, to hope, to put, to study, to open, to give, to sit, to die, to permit, to copy, to refer, to lie, to admit, to close, to travel, to tie, to control, to expel, to comply, to compel, to run, to cancel, to deny.

Task A2. Add -ed to these regular verbs and translate Participles II into Russian.

Model: to order – заказывать – ordered – заказанный

To stop, to expect, to study, to open, to develop, to invite, to play, to type, to copy, to produce, to close, to translate, to describe, to equip, to illustrate, to receive, to manufacture, to publish.

Task A3. Form Participles II from these irregular verbs and translate them into Russian.

To find, to send, to throw, to keep, to take, to leave, to write, to read, to make, to see, to hear, to do, to give, to speak, to show.

Task A4. Translate into Russian.

1. We bought a CD with relaxing music.

2. Nowadays, there is a growing interest in learning foreign languages.

3. All visitors touring the art museum were asked to sign the guest book.

4. He picked up the letter lying on the floor.

5. People starting to learn a foreign language sometimes find it difficult to memorize words.

6. Tourists arriving in London visit various museums.

7. We are all concerned about the rising level of pollution.

8. I think he is the best poet living.

9. Testing the equipment, the engineers applied a new method.

10. Reading books in the original, you will master English very quickly.

Task A5. Define the function of Participle I and translate into Russian:

1. He told her an amusing story.

2. A person telling us good news is always welcome.

3. While skating yesterday he fell and hurt his leg.

4. When writing the letter he tried to follow the "Golden rules" of writing a letter: a letter should be clear, complete, concise, courteous and correct.

5. Receiving an e-mail message, he always gives it to the manager.

6. They spoke about their relatives living in France.

7. The rising sun was hidden by the clouds.

8. While examining the old vase we saw some cracks on it.

Task A6. Define the function of Participle II and translate into Russian.

1. The house built in this street is very beautiful.

2. The issue discussed at the last meeting is of great importance for our company.

3. They have to repair the broken parts of this engine.

4. The data found by the researchers is valuable for their future work.

5. The composition written by this student is excellent.

6. We shall use instruments of an improved design.

7. The method proposed by this young researcher was not acceptable.

8. The results obtained are very good. 

9. The results obtained by this group are very good.

10. There are many illustrated magazines in our reading-room.

Task A7. Translate into Russian.

1. The method proposed by this scientist was discussed at the meeting.

2. The data referred to in this paper showed that our conclusions were correct.

3. Our attention will be focused on comparative methods applied by different sciences.

4. The technique employed used a single probe (зонд).

5. The complexity of the technique involved increased considerably.

6. The pressure just calculated is surface pressure.

7. The nucleus formed by the emission of the gamma-ray may be unstable.

8. The temperature of the liquid obtained remained constant.

9. All the isotopes produced by reactors can be made in a cyclotron.

Part В

Task B1. Choose the correct form and translate into Russian.

1. The (breaking / broken) dishes lay on the floor.

2. The (trembling / trembled) children were given a blanket for warmth.

3. Compassionate friends tried to console the (crying / cried) victims of the accident.

4. When James noticed the (burning / burnt) building, he notified the fire department immediately.

5. The (exciting / excited) passengers jumped into the lifeboats when notified that the ship was sinking.

6. The wind made such (frightening / frightened) noises that the children ran to their parents’ room.

7. The (frightening / frightened) hostages only wanted to be left alone.

8. The (boring / bored) lecture got the students to sleep.

9. The (boring / bored) students went to sleep during the (boring/bored) lecture.

10. The police towed away the (parking / parked) cars because they were blocking the entrance.

11. (Freezing / frozen) food is often easier to prepare than fresh food.

12. The (cleaning / cleaned) shoes were placed in the sun to dry.

Task B2. Choose the correct English equivalent.

1. Будьте внимательны, когда ведете машину.

a) Be attentive when driving a car.

b) Be attentive when to be driving a car.

2. На листке бумаги было несколько строк, написанных карандашом.

a) On the sheet of the paper there were several lines writing in pencil.

b) On the sheet of the paper there were several lines written in pencil.

3. Получив телеграмму, моя сестра немедленно выехала в Москву.

a) Received a telegram my sister immediately left for Moscow.

b) Having received a telegram my sister immediately left for Moscow.

4. Я не знаю человека, говорящего по телефону .

a) I don’t know the man speaking on the phone.

b) I don’t know the man having been spoken on the phone.

5. Уехав вечером, мы прибыли в город в полдень.

a) Having left in the evening, we arrived to the city in the afternoon.

b) Have left in the evening, we arrived to the city in the afternoon.

6. Полученное известие взволновало всех.

a) The news having received made everybody excited.

b) The news received made everybody excited.

7. Я оставила ей записку, не застав ее дома.

a) I left her a message not find her at home.

b) I left her a message not having found her at home.

8. Чувствуя усталость, они решили передохнуть.

a) Felt tired they decided to have a rest.

b) Feeling tired they decided to have a rest.

9. Мы сидели на террасе, наслаждаясь чудесным видом гор, окружающих наш отель.

а) We sat on the terrace enjoying a wonderful view of the mountains being surround our hotel.

b) We sat on the terrace enjoying a wonderful view of the mountains surrounding our hotel.

Task B3. Change the sentences according to the model:

Model 1: Getting sufficient energy, the particle can start a discharge. > When the particle gets sufficient energy, it can start a discharge.

1. Flowing towards the anode, the electrons may collide with the atoms or molecules of the gas.

2. Knowing enough about these particles, they can identify them.

3. Finding support, the hypothesis was extended and clarified.

Model 2: Having escaped from the field, the electrons may collect on the walls of the container. > After the electrons escaped from the field, they may collect on the walls of the container.

4. Having compared all these materials, they were able to choose the best one for their purpose.

5. Having attended a course of lectures on the subject, he got a better understanding of it.

6. Having considered that hypothetical experiment, they could tell the difference between these two processes.

Task B4. Find ing-forms and refer the number of each sentence with one of the columns. The first one is done for you. Then translate the sentences into Russian.

Part of the predicate

(Continuous Tenses)

Participle I as an attribute

Participle I as an adverbial

modifier

1

1. He is checking your results.

2. The calculation depends on the peculiar laws governing the movement of molecules.

3. Creative programmers are busily designing new applications.

4. An equation has been developed describing the depolarization of the fluorescence.

5. A theory is presented taking into account the angular distribution of the scattered light.

6. The students will be troubleshooting problems in a real computer network.

7. The students designing and checking a network should meet the specifications.

8. Computers are the sources and receivers of information, both giving to and taking from the Internet.

9. Laptop computers and notebook computers are becoming increasingly popular.

10. Computers recognize and process data using the binary numbering system.

Task B5. Find ed-forms and refer the number of each sentence with one of the columns. The first one is done for you. Then translate the sentences into Russian.

Predicate (Past Simple Active)

Part of the predicate (Perfect Tenses)

Part of the predicate (Passive Voice)

Participle II

as an attribute

Participle II

as an adverbial modifier

1

1. He checked all the compositions two days ago.

2. When checked by the teacher, the compositions were given back to the students.

3. He has checked all the papers written by the students.

4. We ordered new magazines yesterday.

5. A network is a connected system of objects or people.

6. When completed, the project was given for approval.

7. The completed project was a great success.

8. We completed our project the other day.

9. I tried to speak to him more than once, but he hasn’t replied.

10. Though boiled, the water was unsuitable for drinking.

11. A decimal number system is based on powers of 10.

12. In a computer, bits are represented by the presence or absence of electrical charges.

13. Unless otherwise stated we shall analyze only solutions in liquids.

14. The articles referred to above deal with alkali metals.

15. After the hardware is set up, the software must be configured.

Task B6. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1. He fell asleep (exhaust) by the journey.

2. She entered the dining room (accompany) by her husband and her father.

3. In the wood they sat down on a (fall) tree.

4. A snake (sleep) in the grass will bite anyone who steps upon it.

5. (Fill) his pockets with apples, the boy was about to run away when he saw the owner of the garden with a stick in his hand.

6. It was a bright Sunday morning of early summer (promise) heat.

7. When I came home, I found the table (lay).

8. (Judge) by the colour of the sun, it should be windy tomorrow.

9. (Arrive) at a big seaport, he started to look for a job.

10. He had received an urgent message (ask) him to telephone Sir Matthew.

Task B8. Find the Absolute Participle Construction and translate the sentences into Russian.

1. Nobody being there, I went away.

2. It was dark, the sun having set an hour before.

3. The play being very popular, it was difficult to get tickets.

4. The UK being a constitutional monarchy, the Queen is only a formal ruler.

5. London is a great port, with many imported and exported goods passing through it.

6. The signal given, the train started.

7. The choice having been made, all other papers have been rejected.

8. The total value of the country’s exports increased by 19.4% last year, with foodstuffs and manufactured goods occupying an important part in the exports.

9. The sun having risen, they continued their way.

10. The contract is written in English and Russian, both versions being valid.

Task B9. Correct the mistakes.

1. When being tested the equipment, the engineers applied a new method.

2. Received the telegram, he hurried up to the station.

3. Being arrived in London, we went sightseeing.

4. If freeze, water becomes ice.

5. When asking, he answered all the questions.

6. Unless having discussed, the new method must not be used.

7. The discovery maked by him is of great value.

8. Ice melts when heating.

9 The proposal be unconstitutional, the committee rejected it.

10. There are ten executive departments under the US President, the heads of these departments being formed a council known as the President’s Cabinet.

Part C

Task C1. Combine two sentences into one using Participle I.

Model: The equations are necessary for mathematics. They should be used in geometry as well. > Being necessary for mathematics, the equations should be used in geometry as well.

1. Their concept was only philosophical. It differs from today’s one.

2. This equipment is reliable. It is often used by the experimenters.

3. That value was significantly in error. It had to be re-determined by new methods.

4. The mechanism of ionization by collision is simple in concept. It is easy to understand.

5. Explanation of these phenomena is a difficult problem. It has received a great deal of attention.

6. This formalism was so successful for classical physics that it might lead to a useful theory of particles.

7. The final method was a combination of the ideas and apparatus of several early experiments yielded good results.

Task C2. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model: As these quantities had been measured with great accuracy, they were of great significance. > Having been measured with great accuracy, these quantities were of great significance.

1. After the description had been simplified, it became more convenient to use.

2. As the value had been calculated correctly, it could be used by many scientists.

3. After the results had been generalized, they were reported in this scientific magazine.

4. After the results obtained had been published, they gave rise to interesting response.

5. As the experimental techniques had been refined, they could be used for this kind of investigation.

6. As the new method had been used, it made possible to study the strong interactions between particles in detail.

7. After these values had been determined experimentally, they were reported to be in agreement with theoretical predictions.

Task C3. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model: When we extend such theories to higher energies, we are not obliged to include all other particles and interactions. > When extending such theories to higher energies it is necessary to include all other particles and interactions.

1. When we deal with such problems, we are not obliged to use strictly accurate values.

2. When we explain physical effects, we are not obliged to take into account all the experimental results.

3. When we conduct such experiments, we are obliged to choose the materials carefully.

4. When we work with this substance, we should not be aware of its peculiarities.

5. When we simplify the procedure of experiments, we don’t have to leave out unnecessary details.

6. When we specify these values, we should not use these sets of equations.

7. When we design new kinds of experiments, we don’t have to bear in mind the advantages of the previous ones.

8. When we confirm theoretical predictions, we are not obliged to use the experimental results.

Task C4. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model: The potential difference being low, only some of the electrons can reach the anode. (if) > If the potential difference is low, only some of the electrons can reach the anode. 

1. The instrument operating with high accuracy, we got satisfactory results. (as)

2. The voltage being increased, more of the electrons are collected by the anode. (when)

3. All the liberated electrons having reached the anode, saturation occurs. (when)

4. The atom being excited to a higher level, a quantum of radiation is emitted. (if)

5. The results lacking precision, we had to employ another method. (as)

6. The chamber leaking, we couldn’t get vacuum. (as)

7. The phenomenon demanding explanation, they began to study it thoroughly. (as)

8. The results confirming the theory, they considered the theory valid. (as)

Task C5. Combine two sentences into one using the Absolute Participle Construction.

Model: He criticized the theory. His reasons were based on a thorough analysis of the facts. > He criticized the theory, his reasons being based on a thorough analysis of the facts.

1. Atoms are in a constant state of random movement. Their speed is tremendous.

2. They performed the experiment. The results were in good agreement with the theoretic predictions.

3. A review of the main properties of the effect is given. The instrumental difficulties are presented.

4. They have invented a new device. Its main advantages are simplicity and low cost.

5. He has created a new apparatus. Its main disadvantages are low frequency and short lifetime.

6. Several theories account for the observation. One of them exhibits exceptional ingenuity.

7. He performed hundreds of experiments. His results provided an explicit explanation of the phenomenon.

Task C6 . Translate into English using participles.

Обсуждаемый вопрос, обсуждая вопрос, обсудив вопрос, выполнив работу, выполненная работа, измеряя величины, измеренные величины, слушая лекцию, прослушав лекцию, рассматривая вопрос, рассмотрев вопрос, рассмотренный вопрос, обозначая проблему, обозначив проблему, обозначенная проблема.

Task C7. Translate into English using participles.

1. Ученые, определяющие эту величину, много работают.

2. Определяя эту величину, они сделали несколько ошибок.

3. Величины, определяемые таким образом, обычно бывают точными.

4. Величина, определенная этим ученым, используется всеми математиками.

5. Величина, которая была определена, упоминалась в его статье дважды.

6. Величина, которая сейчас определяется, будет использована в будущих исследованиях.

7. Когда эта величина была определена, она была использована в дальнейших расчетах.

8. Определив эту величину, ученые смогли вычислить некоторые другие величины.

9. После того как эта величина была определена, она могла быть использована в наших исследованиях.


Unit 2. Gerund

Герундием (Gerund) называется неличная форма глагола, сочетающая в себе свойства глагола и существительного.

Таблица 2

Свойства глагола и свойства существительного у герундия

Свойства глагола

Свойства существительного

1. может иметь обстоятельства:

I need going there at once. Мне нужно немедленно пойти туда.

1. может иметь притяжательное местоимение: I like his singing. Мне нравится, как он поет.

2. может иметь прямое дополнение:

This is a diagram of recording temperature. Это график показаний температуры.

2. может иметь предлог:

This is a device for measuring temperature. Это прибор для измерения температуры.

3. может иметь активные и пассивные формы:

I suggest recording the results. Я предлагаю фиксировать результаты. 

I need the results being recorded. Мне нужно, чтобы результаты были зафиксированы.

3. может выполнять функции подлежащего, именной части составного сказуемого.

4. может иметь перфектные формы:

After having recorded the results they started analysing them. После того как результаты были зафиксированы, их начали анализировать.

Поскольку в русском языке нет части речи, однозначно соответствующей герундию, способ его перевода зависит от функции в предложении.

Таблица 3

Функции герундия в предложении

и способы перевода на русский язык

Функция

Способы перевода

Примеры

Подлежащее

(Subject)

Неопределенная форма глагола или существительное

Walking is useful. Ходить пешком полезно (ходьба … полезна).

Часть сказуемого

(Part of predicate)

Неопределенная форма глагола или существительное

Our aim is mastering English. Наша цель – овладеть (овладение) английским.

Дополнение

(Object)

Неопределенная форма глагола или существительное

I like reading. Я люблю читать.

Определение

(Attribute)

Неопределенная форма глагола, существительное или прилагательное

There are many ways of solving this problem. Существует много способов решить эту задачу (решения этой задачи).

The working language of the conference is English. Рабочий язык конференции – английский.

Обстоятель-ство

(Adverbial modifier), всегда с предлогом

Неопределенная форма глагола, существительное или деепричастие

She went there for studying physics. Она поехала туда изучать физику (для изучения физики).

He left without saying good-bye. Он ушел, не попрощавшись.

Таблица 4

Формы герундия

Active

Passive

Simple

Ving

sending

being V3

being sent

Perfect

having V3 

having sent

having been V3 

having been sent

Особенности перевода сложных форм герундия

1) Герундий в простых формах (Ving, being V3) обозначает действие, происходящее одновременно с действием сказуемого предложения:

He left the room without saying a word. Он вышел из комнаты, не сказав ни слова.

She has not even dreamt of being sent to Paris. Она даже и не мечтала, что ее отправят в Париж.

2) Герундий в перфектных формах (having V3, having been V3) обозначает действие, предшествующее действию сказуемого.

Victor is proud of having won the prize. Виктор гордится тем, что получил приз.

She denies having been blackmailed. Она отрицает, что ее шантажировали. 

3) Герундий в активных формах (Ving, having V3) обозначает действие, субъектом которого является то же лицо, что и подлежащее предложения:

He left the room without saying a word. Он вышел из комнаты, не сказав ни слова. (Кто вышел? Он. Кто не сказал ни слова? Он.)

Victor is proud of having won the prize. Виктор гордится тем, что получил приз. (Кто гордится? Виктор. Кто получил приз? Виктор)

4) Герундий в пассивных формах (being V3, having been V3) обозначает  действие,   объектом   которого   является   подлежащее

предложения.

She has not even dreamt of being sent to Paris. Она даже и не мечтала, что ее отправят в Париж. (Кто не мечтал? Она. Кто отправил? Неизвестно = Не она. Кого отправили? Ее.)

She denies having been blackmailed. Она отрицает, что ее шантажировали. (Кто отрицает? Она. Кто шантажировал? Неизвестно = Не она. Кого шантажировали? Ее.)

Сложные формы герундия используются только в письменной речи и переводятся придаточными предложениями.

После глаголов want – хотеть, need – нуждаться, require – требовать, deserve, be worth – заслуживать, используется герундий в активной форме, несмотря на пассивность значения.

Your car needs repairing. Ваша машина нуждается в ремонте.

The exhibition is worth seeing. Выставка заслуживает того, чтобы ее посмотреть.

Part A

Task A1. Translate the sentences with the gerund as a subject.

1. Packing goods for export is a highly specialized job.

2. Interrupting people is not polite.

3. Gardening is becoming more popular.

4. Reading science fiction is a fascinating pastime.

5. Walking develops leg muscles.

Task A2. Translate the sentences with the gerund as a part of the predicate.

1. His greatest pleasure was traveling.

2. Mr. Taylor’s suggestion is worth discussing.

3. The chairman kept on speaking though nobody was listening to him any longer.

4. Seeing is believing.

5. It has stopped raining, and we can go.

Task A3. Translate the sentences with the gerund as an object.

1. I am very tired of arguing with you.

2. Everybody congratulated Mr. Harter on being elected Vice-President.

3. She denies having spoken to him.

4. He didn’t succeed in taking things easily.

5. I don’t remember hearing the legend before.

6. The child deserves praising.

7. Do you mind my opening the window?

8. Everybody looked forward to her coming back.

9. You may rely on his setting matters right.

Task A4. Translate the sentences with the gerund as an attribute.

1. There are different ways of solving this problem.

2. Young people are excited at the idea of purchasing audio-visual equipment.

3. We have a plan for modernizing the factory.

4. He was in the habit of doing things thoroughly.

5. Don’t miss the opportunity of listening to this concert.

6. A laser is a device for making and concentrating light waves into an intense beam.

Task A5. Translate the sentences with the gerund as an adverbial modifier.

1. It was planned to put the plant into operation 3 years after signing the contract.

2. Before reaching a final decision, the market research group is to collect some information.

3. Without waiting for our answer, he turned and left us.

4. On seeing Sofia, he stopped to talk to her.

5. In spite of being busy, he did all he could to help you.

6. He left without saying good-bye.

7. He gave a few examples instead of explaining the rule.

Task A6. Define the function of the gerund and translate into Russian.

1. We won’t achieve anything by arguing.

2. Miss Parker dreams of being an actress.

3. Mrs. Hilton dreams of her husband becoming a lawyer.

4. Emily got used to speaking before a big audience.

5. We gave up all hope of seeing him again.

6. The ceremony of changing the guard at Buckingham Palace attracts a lot of tourists.

7. Instead of buying a house, he went on a sightseeing tour abroad.

8. We understood his desire of making a success of his undertaking.

9. Walking fast doesn’t burn quite as many calories as running slowly.

10. Such people are not worth speaking about.

11. At hearing his name, he turned round.

Task A7. Translate into Russian.

1. Measuring resistance is necessary in many experiments.

2. Go on demonstrating your slides.

3. In solving problems it is necessary to distinguish between fact and hypothesis.

4. The droplets are capable of being photographed.

5. Falling is a case of motion at constant acceleration.

6. Avoid mixing these two substances.

7. Heating copper wire from 0 to 100° increases its resistance about 40 %.

8. Metals cannot be dissolved without being changed into new substances.

9. It’s no use searching for another approach.

10. Calcium and sodium are alike in being very soft.

11. Upon being heated to a high temperature many metallic compounds are decomposed.

12. Sulphur is hardened by being mixed with copper.

Part B

Task B1. Make sentences according to the model.

Model: insist on … discuss the problem. > You can insist on discussing the problem.

1. stop … watch the experiment.

2. consider … determine the initial conditions of the experiment.

3. go on … test the device.

4. insist on … heat the substance.

5. enjoy … examine the result of the observation.

6. keep on … use a diode in your experiment.

7. avoid … initiate a discharge.

8. finish … count the particles.

Task B2. Complete the sentences according to the model.

Model: What is your idea of... (to solve the problem) > What is your idea of solving the problem?

1. He avoids... (to work with these materials).

2. We intend... (to study the new phenomenon thoroughly).

3. He thinks of... (to develop the theory).

4. He insists on ... (to transmit the information by radio).

5. He is interested in... (to discuss such problems).

6. There were several reasons for... (to do that).

7. She has no experience in... (to carry out such experiments).

8. We take every opportunity of... (to go to this scientist’s lectures).

9. His task consists in... (to provide the necessary materials for the experiment).


Task B3. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model: It is not difficult to observe these phenomena in nature. > Observing these phenomena in nature is not difficult.

1. It is necessary to study the problem thoroughly.

2. It is necessary to confirm these predictions.

3. It is necessary lo distinguish between these two processes.

4. It is easy to demonstrate the truth of this hypothesis.

5. It is sometimes impossible to obtain direct evidence for a theory.

6. It is important to consider the average density of this substance.

7. It is possible to observe the phenomenon in the laboratory.

Task B4. Complete each sentence with gerunds formed from the following verbs.

clean cut  upgrade empty paint  repair tighten

1. The jacket is dirty. It needs ….

2. The room isn’t very nice. It needs ….

3. The grass is very long. It needs ….

4. The screw is loose. It needs ….

5. The bin is full. It needs ….

6. The clock is broken. It needs ….

7. The computer is old. It needs ….

Task B6. Fill in the gaps with gerunds formed from the following verbs.

take  go  tell  use  turn  pay  stop

1. We ran ten kilometers without ….

2. He left the hotel without … the bill.

3. It’s a nice morning. How about … for a walk?

4. We were able to translate the letter into English without … a dictionary.

5. I was annoyed because the decision was made without … me.

6. We lost our way because we went straight on instead of …left.

7. I like these photographs. You are good at … photographs.

Part C

Task C1. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model: He will not make his description brief unless he eliminates all the unnecessary details. > He will not make his description brief without eliminating all the unnecessary details.

1. She will not be able to do this exercise unless she learns the rule.

2. The student’s will not know the subject well unless they study it hard.

3. He will not solve this problem unless he considers it properly.

4. Тhey will not be able to solve the problem unless they suggest a better approach to it.

5. Не will not understand the nature of this phenomenon unless he reads the article thoroughly.

6. He will not be able to perform the experiment unless he gets all the necessary materials.

7. They will not be able to specify the value unless they use this equation.

Task C2. Choose the correct Russian equivalent. 

1. I hate disturbing people.

A) Терпеть не могу беспокоить людей.

B) Терпеть не могу, когда меня беспокоят.

2. William likes being read to.

A) Уильям любит читать.

B) Уильям любит, когда ему читают.

3. Jane is against being sent abroad.

A) Джейн против того, чтобы посылать его за границу.

B) Джейн против того, чтобы ее посылали за границу.

4. He doesn’t like asking questions.

A) Он не любит, когда ему задают вопросы.

B) Он не любит задавать вопросы.

5. Ann denies being helped.

A) Анна отрицает, что ей помогают.

B) Анна отрицает, что ей оказали помощь.

6. He is proud of having a friend like you.

A) Он гордится тем, что имеет такого друга, как ты.

B) Он гордится тем, что может иметь такого друга, как ты.

Task C3. Translate into English using gerunds.

1. Испытание нового оборудования было нелегкой задачей.

2. Его главная задача сейчас – испытание нового оборудования.

3. Они начали испытывать новое оборудование на прошлой неделе.

4. Им нужно дополнительное время для испытания нового оборудования.

5. При испытании нового оборудования были выявлены существенные дефекты.

6. Мы не можем начать эксперимент, не испытав (без испытания) нового оборудования.

7. После того, как они испытали новое оборудование, они составили подробный отчет.


Unit 3. Infinitive. For … to V Construction

Инфинитивом (Infinitive) называется неличная форма глагола, сочетающая в себе свойства глагола и существительного. Инфинитив представляет собой первую форму глагола с частицей to (to-infinitive) или без таковой (bare infinitive).

Употребление инфинитива без частицы to

1) После модальных глаголов can (could), may (might), must, shall (should), will (would).

Now you can classify the elements. Теперь вы можете классифицировать эти элементы.

2) После сочетаний had better (лучше бы), would rather, would sooner (предпочел бы).

You’d better not be late. Тебе бы лучше не опаздывать.

He said he would sooner stay at home. Он сказал, что предпочел бы остаться дома.

  1.  В составе сложного дополнения (Complex Object) после некоторых глаголов (см. подробнее Unit 4.)
  2.  После глагола help – помогать инфинитив может употребляться как с частицей to, так и без нее.

Таблица 5

Функции инфинитива в предложении

и способы перевода на русский язык

Функция

Способы перевода

Примеры

Подлежащее

(Subject),

перед сказуемым

Неопределенная форма глагола или существительное

To do two things at once is to do neither. Делать два дела одновременно – значит не делать ни одного.


Часть сказуемого

(Part of predicate)

Неопределенная форма глагола или существительное

Our task is to do this work properly. Наша задача заключается в том, чтобы сделать эту работу должным образом.

Дополнение

(Object),

после сказуемого

Неопределенная форма глагола или существительное

Learn to walk before you run. Научитесь ходить (ходьбе), прежде чем побежать.

Определение

(Attribute),

после определяемого слова

Придаточное предложение

There are many considerations to be taken into account. Существует много соображений, которые следует принять во внимание.

He was the first to realize the difficulty of the situation. Он был первым, кто осознал трудность положения.

Обстоятельство (Adberbial Modifier),

в начале или в конце предложения, иногда с союзом in order

Придаточное предложение

In order to live long it is necessary to live slowly. Чтобы жить долго, надо жить не торопясь.

The postulates should be simple enough to seem almost obvious. Постулаты должны быть достаточно простыми, чтобы они казались почти очевидными.

Вводное слово

(Parenthesis), всегда выделяется запятыми

Деепричастие или устойчивое выражение

To sum up, we consider a table. Подводя итог, рассмотрим таблицу.

To begin with, mind the safety. Прежде всего, помните о безопасности.

Сложное дополнение (Complex Object)

(см. подробнее Unit 4)

Придаточное предложение

We expected Dan to be late. Мы ожидали, что Дэн опоздает.

Сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject)

(см. подробнее Unit 5)

Придаточное предложение

The problem is considered to remain unsolved. Cчитается, что задача осталась нерешенной.

Чтобы правильно определить функцию инфинитива, необходимо сначала найти подлежащее и сказуемое предложения.

To do this work properly is very important. (инфинитив в функции подлежащего) Сделать эту работу надлежащим образом – очень важно.

To do this work properly we should check the source data. (инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели) Чтобы сделать эту работу надлежащим образом, мы должны проверить исходные данные.


Таблица 6

Формы инфинитива

Active

Passive

Simple

to V1

to help

to be V3

He is glad to be helped. Он рад, что ему помогают.

Continuous

to be V1

to be helping

Perfect

to have V3 

to have helped.

to have been V3 

to have been helped.

Особенности перевода сложных форм инфинитива

1) Инфинитив в простых формах (to V1, to be V3) обозначает действие, происходящее одновременно с действием сказуемого предложения:

He is glad to help you. Он рад тебе помочь.

He is glad to be helped. Он рад, что ему помогают.

2) Инфинитив в продолженных формах (to be V1) обозначает длящееся действие, происходящее одновременно с действием сказуемого предложения.

He is glad to be helping you. Он рад тебе помогать.

3) Инфинитив в перфектных формах (to have V3, to have been V3) обозначает действие, предшествующее действию сказуемого.

He is glad to have helped you. Он рад, что помог тебе.

He is glad to have been helped. Он рад, что ему помогли.

3) Инфинитив в активных формах (to V1, to be V1, to have V3) обозначает действие, субъектом которого является то же лицо, что и подлежащее предложения:

He is glad to help you. Он рад тебе помочь. (Кто рад? Он. Кто помогает? Он.)

He is glad to have helped you. Он рад, что помог тебе. (Кто рад? Он. Кто помогал? Он.)

4) Инфинитив в пассивных формах (to be V3, to have been V3) обозначает действие, объектом которого является подлежащее предложения.

He is glad to be helped. Он рад, что ему помогают. (Кто рад? Он. Кто помогает? Неизвестно = Не он. Кому помогают? Ему.)

He is glad to have been helped. Он рад, что ему помогли. (Кто рад? Он. Кто помог? Неизвестно = Не он. Кому помогли? Ему.)

Сложные формы инфинитива используются преимущественно в письменной речи и переводятся придаточными предложениями.

Некоторые устойчивые выражения с инфинитивом

как вводным словом (выражением)

to begin with    прежде всего

to judge by    судя по

to cut the long story short короче говоря

to put it another way  иначе говоря

needless to say   нет надобности говорить

to say nothing of   не говоря уже о

to be exact    точнее говоря

to say the least   мягко выражаясь

to sum up    подводя итог

to quote a single example если привести один пример

to tell the truth   по правде говоря

to illustrate    для иллюстрации, например

to take an example  например

to generalize   обобщая, в общем

Инфинитивный оборот For … to V

Инфинитивный оборот For … to V (For … to V construction) состоит из:

1) предлога for и существительного или местоимения в объектном падеже (me, him, her, us, you, them), обозначающего субъект действия инфинитива.

2) инфинитива с частицей to, обозначающего действие.

Инфинитивный оборот For … to V1 переводится придаточным предложением с союзом чтобы (что), подлежащее которого определяется субъектом действия инфинитива, а сказуемое – инфинитивом.

(1)  (2)

For this method to be valuable it must be improved.

(1)  (2)

Чтобы этот метод был полезным, его надо усовершенствовать.

В некоторых случаях возможен перевод без придаточного предложения, неопределенной формой глагола.

There is a possibility for him to attend the conference.

У него есть возможность присутствовать на конференции.

Part A

Task A1. Translate the sentences with the infinitive as a subject.

1. To understand is to forgive.

2. To err is human.

3. To explain this simple fact is not very easy.

4. Whether to leave or not has not been decided yet.

5. Where to hang a picture must be decided right now.

6. Which advice to follow is your own business.

7. To give a true picture of the surrounding matter is the task of natural science.

Task A2. Translate the sentences with the infinitive as a part of the predicate.

1. To read a lot is to know a lot.

2. The aim was to discuss the impact of scientific activity on technology.

3. To choose time is to save time.

4. His intention is to get into parliament.

5. Perhaps the greatest problem at present is to get some understanding of the remarkable phenomenon of memory.

6. The original idea was to take advantage of the high temperature of the process.

7. His primary task is to provide conditions for our experiments.

Task A3. Translate the sentences with the infinitive as an object.

1. She learned to dance at school.

2. He found it impossible to raise the question at the meeting.

3. I don’t know whether to apply for a job or not.

4. The experimental results are not easy to interpret.

5. The latest paper by Peter is rather difficult to understand.

6. He is happy to have passed all the exams successfully.

7. Jane is ready to give an interview.

8. Do you want to go to the lecture?

9. She likes to sing English songs.

Task A4. Translate the sentences with the infinitive as an attribute. 

1. We shall study minerals to be obtained in this mountain.

2. The first scientist to discover this phenomenon was Lavoisier.

3. There are many examples to illustrate the rule.

4. The procedure to be followed depends upon the substance.

5. Here are some more figures to be referred to later.

6. There was only one signal to be detected.

7. There is nothing to be surprised at.

8. Here are the papers to be signed.

9. There was nobody to speak to.

Task A5. Translate the sentences with the infinitive as an adverbial modifier.

1. To enter an institute you have to take entrance exams.

2. You are too young to understand it.

3. To understand the importance of the event you should know all the facts.

4. He was clever enough to answer any question.

5. To master English you should work hard.

6. Laws were not made to be broken; laws were made to stay within.

7. She put on her coat so as not to be cold.

8. I was too busy to see anyone.

9. He was so weak as to be unable to work.

Task A6. Translate the sentences with the infinitive as a parenthesis.

1. To begin with, one can say that an electric current is the result of a flow of electric charges.

2. To be sure, a great progress in chemistry has been made in the last few decades.

3. To sum up the chapter, gas theory enables us to determine some of the properties of molecular exterior.

4. To illustrate, Figure 2 gives the energy level diagram of potassium.

5. To anticipate a little, the evidence supports the view that the cathode rays consist of swiftly moving, negative electrons.

6. To begin with, he has been working for this company for 30 years.

7. To tell the truth, he can’t be relied upon.

Task A7. Translate the sentences with theiInfinitive in the For …to V construction.

1. It was impossible for me to solve this problem myself.

2. She was waiting for somebody to come.

3. The lady was speaking too fast for me to get her.

4. He asked for the papers to be brought.

5. I am anxious (мне очень хочется) for Mr. Smith to succeed in all he undertakes.

6. The best thing for you to do is to meet him.

7. She was impatient for him to be gone.

8. There was really nothing for him to do there.

9. For a force to exist there must be two objects involved.

10. The temperature was too low for the substance to decompose.

Task A8. Translate into Russian.

1. We were sorry to find out that most of the museums were closed that day.

2. This is a man to be relied upon.

3. This is an interesting fact to be mentioned in the report.

4. To take an example, let us go back to the chapter which has been described earlier.

5. You would rather go to class tomorrow than today.

6. There is nothing to be afraid of.

7. His name is difficult to pronounce.

8. Sally was the first to offer her help.

9. The terms to be insisted on are as follows.

10. The tendency was for the gas to become ionized.

11. To understand the phenomenon the laws of motion should be considered.

12. The motion took place long enough for the bodies to become heated.

Task A9. Insert to where necessary. Translate into Russian.

1. I think you ought ... apologize.

2. Can you help me ... move this table?

3. I must ... see him now. It’s urgent.

4. It can’t ... be done now.

5. She asked me ... read the letter carefully and ... write an answer.

6. The man told me not ... walk on the grass.

7. Let me ... help you with your work.

8. She ought ... take care of her health.

9. We had better ... stop to rest a little.

10. I don’t know what ... do.

11. I can’t ... go there now, I have ... do my homework.

12. He is not sure that it can .... be done, but he is willing ...try.

13. She looked for the book everywhere but could not ... find it.

14. He said that she might ... come soon.

Part B

Task B1. Translate into Russian.

1. To avoid making mistake is always very difficult, because to err is human.

2. To appreciate the accuracy of the data, refer to Table 1 on page 57.

3. The system should be designed to meet information requirements.

4. A common objective is to maximize the excess of value over cost.

5. Some of the immediate benefits to be obtained from a bargain are the following.

6. What we try to do is to foretell a general tendency rather than a particular development.

7. The aim of the book is to present the case for an extensive study of this complicated phenomenon.

8. To conclude, a definite science politics is needed if the development of science is to favour the best interests of the country.

Task B2. Choose the correct infinitive form and translate into Russian.

1. The article must (translate / be translated) into Russian.

2. Ann did very well at the exam. She must (be studying / have studied) very hard.

3. George has (to call / to be called) his insurance agent today.

4. It is too cold (to bathe / to have bathed) today.

5. I hope (to send / to be sent) to the conference.

6. The budget committee decided (to postpone / to be postponed) the meeting.

7. The weather seems (to be improving / to have improved) now.

8. I am glad (to have seen / to have been seen) you.

9. The letter may (have been sent / have sent) to the wrong address.

10. I am looking for Helen. Do you know where she is? She may (watch / be watching) TV in her room.

Task B3. Find the infinitive and refer the number of each sentence with one of the columns. The first one is done for you. Then translate the sentences into Russian.

Infinitive as a Subject

Infinitive as an Adverbial Modifier

1

1. To solve this problem is extremely important.

2. To solve this problem you have to make a great many experiments.

3. To drive a car in a big city is very difficult.

4. To drive a car in a big city one must be an experienced driver.

5. To calculate the age of our planet one must have much knowledge in different branches of science.

6. To calculate the age of our planet requires much knowledge in diffеrent branches of science.

7. To get the new magazine I had to go to the library.

8. To run modern machines workers must be educated.

9. To avoid an accident the cars had to move slowly.

10. To get to the earth the rays of the sun have to travel during 8 minutes.

11. To find the mass of the electron numerous experiments had to be made.

12. To convert chemical energy into electrical energy we must use an electrical cell.

13. To prevent corrosion metal must be covered with paint.

14. To give advice is easier than to follow it.

15. To prove it will be very difficult.

Task B4. Choose the correct English equivalent.

1. Макс хочет обучать вас испанскому языку.

A) Max wants to teach you Spanish.

B) Max wants to be taught Spanish.

2. Ребенок любит, чтобы ему читали.

A) The child likes to read.

B) The child likes to be read to.

3. Я хочу, чтобы меня проинформировали об ее приезде.

A) I want to be informed of her arrival.

B) I want to inform him of her arrival.

4. Грейс рада, что ее пригласили на вечер.

A) Grace is happy to have invited us to the party.

B) Grace is happy to have been invited to the party.

5. Мне не нравится, когда Вы меня беспокоите.

A) I don’t like to be disturbed by you.

B) I don’t like to disturb you.

6. Я сделал вид, что читаю газету.

A) I pretended to be reading the newspaper.

B) I pretended to have read the newspaper.

7. Я рад, что выбрал правильный ответ.

A) I am glad to have chosen the proper answer.

B) I am glad to be chosen the proper answer.

8. Ты мог бы попрощаться со мной.

A) You could say goodbye to me.

B) You could be said goodbye to me.

Task B5. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model 1: I am sorry I don’t believe you. > I am sorry not to believe you.

1. I am sorry I don’t speak French.

2. I am lucky I study at the University.

3. Не is glad he has acquired а good knowledge of English.

4. We are happy we have a good time here.

Model 2: I am glad I am asked to help you. > I am glad to be asked to help you.

5. He is sorry he is compared to a man like that.

6. She is lucky she is given much attention.

7. They were unlucky they weren’t given much attention.

8. Не is glad he is supported.

Task B6. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model: She compared these substances. It was not easy. > It was not easy for her to compare these substances.

1. He provided broad answers to their questions. It was important.

2. She treated the subject thoroughly. It was difficult.

3. They touched on a variety of more general topics. It was useful.

4. The author considered all these questions. It was not difficult.

5. They participated in the meeting. It was necessary.

6. He proved the validity of his conclusions. It was not easy.

7. They obtained the substance in extremely pure form. It was necessary.

Task B7. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model:  I have brought the book so that you may read it. > I have brought the book for you to read.

1. He suggested an article so that they should discuss it.

2. We have assembled a new device so that they may use it in their experiment.

3. I can provide some new information so that you may use it in your future work.

4. I have simplified the sentence so that you may translate it.

5. He began to speak louder so that everybody might hear him well.

6. He suggested an interesting problem so that you might consider it.

7. He has described the new scheme in detail so that you may make use of it.

Task B8. Correct the mistakes if any.

1. I can check all these calculations once more.

2. You should to consult the doctor.

3. This food must keep at -20º.

4. It is possible for the reaction occur.

5. Is it reasonable to upgrade the device?

6. I’d like to be made an appointment.

7. The President is to have visited Vienna next year.

8. It was late, so we decided to take a taxi home.

9. Do you understand what to do?

10. I promised not be late.

11. Could I to use your phone?

12. I’d better to go now.

Part C

Task C1. Respond according to the model.

Model:  To study English is not important. > Just the opposite. It’s important to study English.

1. To work with mercury is not dangerous.

2. To detect second sound in such materials is not difficult.

3. To investigate the properties of this substance is not important.

4. To draw decisive conclusions on the problem is not possible.

5. To read through the history of physics is not interesting.

6. To discuss methods for studying such phenomena is not necessary.

7. To explain the difference between these processes is not reasonable.

8. To obtain this kind of information is not easy.

Task C2. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model 1: This device is primitive. It cannot be used in our experiment. > This device is too primitive to be used in experiment.

1. The ideas are old. They will not be discussed now.

2. The question is serious. It cannot be answered at once.

3. The method is complicated. It should not be used by the students.

4. The book is difficult. It cannot be adapted for our students.

5. The explanation is too theoretical. It should not be given to students.

6. This description is too elementary. It should not be used for our purpose.

Model 2: He considered that it was important to provide answers to their questions. > He considered it important to provide answers to their questions.

7. He thought that it was necessary to simplify the procedure.

8. He thought that it was useful to touch on a variety of more general topics.

9. He found that it was impossible to consider all these problems in one article.

10. He didn’t consider that it was easy to compare these substances.

11. He found that it was impossible to adapt his plans to suit new circumstances.

12. They thought that it was necessary to take particular care over doing that task.

Task C3. Translate from Russian into English using infinitives.

1. Я рад, что приобрел достаточные знания.

2. Вы рады, что вам предложили это исследование?

3. Инженеры сообщили, что достигли хороших результатов при последних испытаниях новой модели.

4. Он первым выбрал правильное решение.

5. Ваша задача заключается в том, чтобы наблюдать за экспериментом.

6. Чтобы повысить цену, мы должны улучшить качество товаров.

7. Решить эту проблему очень важно.

8. Лучший способ решить эту проблему – много работать.

9. Он должен был решить эту проблему немедленно.

10. Эта проблема должна быть решена в ближайшем будущем.

11. Они хотели решить эту проблему.

12. Они слишком устали, чтобы решать эту проблему сейчас.

Task C4. Translate into English using For…to V construction.

1. Язык специалистов трудно понять обычному человеку.

2. Двух часов достаточно, чтобы произошла реакция.

3. Математикам потребовалось долгое время, чтобы осознать сложность задачи.

4. Чтобы запрограммировать компьютер, задача должна быть сведена к серии очень простых шагов.

5. Ученому необходимо внедрить свое изобретение.

6. Трех лет недостаточно, чтобы этот проект был завершен.

Unit 4. Complex Object. Infinitive or ing-form?

Сложное дополнение (Complex Object) располагается после сказуемого и состоит из:

1) существительного или местоимения в объектном падеже (me, him, her, it, us, you, them), обозначающего субъект действия;

2) инфинитива с частицей to, или инфинитива без частицы to или ing-формы.

После глаголов со значениями «заставлять» (make, cause и др.) и «позволять» (allow, permit, enable, let и др.) сложное дополнение переводится существительным (местоимением) и неопределенной формой глагола.

 (1)   (2)

 The pressure causes  the ice  to melt.

 (1)   (2)

 Давление заставляет  лед   таять

После глаголов make и let инфинитив используется БЕЗ частицы to.

(1)  (2)

The rain made    him   drive slower.

(1)  (2)

Дождь заставил   его  ехать медленнее.

После глаголов чувственного восприятия (see, hear, feel, watch, observe и др.) и мыслительной деятельности (think, expect, assume, consider и др.) сложное дополнение переводится придаточным предложением, подлежащее которого определяется первым элементом сложного дополнения, а сказуемое – вторым.

(1)   (2)

He considers  the problem  to beсome difficult.

(1)   (2)

Он считает,   что задача  становится сложной.

(1)   (2)

We expect  the documents  to be signed within a week.

(1)   (2)

Мы ожидаем,  что документы будут подписаны в течение недели.

(1)   (2)

После глаголов чувственного восприятия инфинитив употребляется БЕЗ частицы to.

(1)   (2)

We often see   them   play tennis.

(1)   (2)

Мы часто видим, как  они   играют в теннис.

I heard   the wind   whistling all night.

(1)   (2)

Я слышал,   как ветер   свистел всю ночь.

Однако если сказуемое используется в пассивном залоге, инфинитив всегда употребляется с частицей to:

They were made to do it. Их заставили это сделать.

She was seen to leave the room. Видели, как она выходила из комнаты.

После глагола help – помогать инфинитив может употребляться как с частицей to, так и без нее.

Инфинитив или ing-форма?

После некоторых глаголов обычно используется инфинитив: want – хотеть, ask – просить, help – помогать, expect – ожидать, offer – предлагать, would like – хотел бы, afford – позволять, agree – соглашаться, decide – решать, promise – обещать, refuse – отказывать.

I want you to come with me. Я хочу, чтобы ты пошел со мной.

После некоторых глаголов обычно используется ing-форма: imagine – воображать, keep on – продолжать, mind – возражать, admit – допускать, deny – отрицать, enjoy – нравиться, suggest – предлагать, stand – выносить.

I can’t imagine George riding a motorbike. Я не могу представить себе, как Джордж ездит на мотоцикле.

После некоторых глаголов используется как инфинитив, так и ing-форма: begin, start – начинать, continue – продолжать, intend – намереваться, stop – останавливаться, прекращать, remember – помнить, вспоминать, regret – сожалеть, жалеть, try – пытаться, пробовать.

It has started to rain. = It has started raining. Начался дождь.

Однако ing-форма не должна следовать за ing-формой

It is starting to rain. Начинается дождь.

При этом смысл глагола может несколько отличаться, ср.:

Did you remember to turn off the lights? Ты не забыл выключить свет? I remember traveling around China. Я вспоминаю поездку в Китай.

After a couple of hours we stopped to have a rest. Через пару часов мы остановились, чтобы отдохнуть. At 5 o’clock everyone stopped working and went home. В 5 часов все прекратили работу и пошли домой.

She tried to call you but she couldn’t get through. Она пыталась звонить тебе, но не могла дозвониться. Why don’t you try changing the batteries? Почему ты не попробуешь заменить батареи?

После глаголов чувственного восприятия используются как инфинитив, так и ing-форма, однако смысл будет несколько отличаться.

The accident happened. I saw this. Произошла авария. Я видел это. > I saw the accident happen. Я видел, как произошла авария.

I saw Kate yesterday. She was waiting for a bus. Я видел Кейт вчера. Она ждала автобуса. > I saw Kate waiting for a bus. Я видел Кейт, когда она ждала автобус.

Part A

Task A1. Make the sentences and translate them into Russian.

a) I would like   you   to forget it

She wants    me   to remember that day

They wished   him    to take care of the children

   us    to resign

    John   to call for the doctor

Ann   to tell the truth

b) We want    the plan  to be adopted

They don’t wish  the problem to be solved

Would you like  the fact  to be revealed?

He wouldn’t like  the work  to be done properly

She meant   the review  to be prepared

   everything  to be arranged

the facts  to be checked

c) He allows   me    to use his telephone.

I allow   her    to change the article.

We didn’t tell   anyone   to read his papers.

They ordered   everybody  to stay at home.

She does not ask him   to bring magazines.

You will get   them    to go for a walk.

d) The professor allowed  the prisoner to be arrested.

The chief  did not allow the man   to be set free.

The manager ordered  the bridge  to be blown up.

The commander    the device  to be questioned.

The inspector     anything  to be changed.

         to be operated on.

Task A2. Translate into Russian:

1. I supposed him to be about fifty.

2. I believed her to be in St. Petersburg.

3. We knew them to be right.

4. They thought us to be experienced enough to carry out this work.

5. He considers her to be a good singer.

6. We expected him to arrive soon.

7. Do you expect the documents to be signed tomorrow?

8. He expects them to finish the work as soon as possible.

9. You must ask someone to see her off.

10. Let him follow my advice.

11. She can make them get in touch with me.

Task A3. Insert to where necessary and translate into Russian. 

1. I saw him … cross the street.

2. They allowed us … go to the party.

3. I hate him … interrupt me.

4. She would like … be invited to concert.

5. She felt him …. touch her hand.

6. She cannot bear him … speak like that.

7. We shall watch the ship … sail off.

8. Do your parents make you … study English?

9. I like people …tell the truth.

10. I haven’t heard anyone …call me.

Task A4. Translate into Russian.

1. During the experiment we saw the temperature fall rapidly.

2. They believe the substance to have dissolved.

3. We have thought this law to hold only for gases which are under normal conditions.

4. One may safely expect this prediction to be quite reliable.

5. On assuming the body with the mass m to be acted upon by force f, let us calculate the acceleration.

6. Examination with X-rays has shown the halogen even in the solid state to possess diatomic molecules.

7. They found radon to be 3 times as heavy as hydrogen.

Task A5. Make sentences using the Complex Object.

Model: He expected (they, arrive) at 5. > He expected them to arrive at 5.

1. Do you want (they, stay) at the hotel or with us?

2. I'd like (the professor, look through) my report.

3. Do you want (I, show) you the sights of the city?

4. We expect (he, arrange) everything by the time we come.

5. I want (she, tell) me the news in brief.

6. He expected (the meeting, hold) in the Red Room.

7. I would like (they, fix) an appointment for me for Tuesday.

8. We want (she, introduce) us to the president.

9. I don't want (they, be late) for dinner.

10. He expected (she, invite) to the party by the Smiths.

11. I'd like (the dress, buy) by Saturday.

12.1 don't want (she, treat) like Alice.

13. We considered (he, be) an honest person.

14. I don't like (she, prevent) me from doing it.

15. I suspect (he, help) by her.

Part B

Task B1. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model: I saw how he seized something off the table. > I saw him seize something off the table.

1. They watched how the light particles struck the heavy ones.

2. We couldn’t see how the particles acquired the opposite sign.

3. Will you be able to notice how they will acquire a sufficient charge?

4. I’ve never observed how he rubs the substance with fur.

5. I see that the substance behaves differently.

6. He watched how we brought the two substances into contact.

7. They saw how we changed the sign.

8. They heard how I spoke on the cause for the Earth’s magnetism.

9. We watched how they weighed the substances.

Task B2. Complete the sentences. Use the following verbs in the correct forms (to-infinitive or bare infinitive).

acquire change make   electrify

weigh  support choose  observe

1. My parents want me … a sufficient knowledge of English.

2. We saw him … considerably.

3. We expect you … a new suggestion.

4. The lab assistant watched the students … the substance rubbing it with fur.

5. I asked you … the substances before the experiment takes place.

6. We heard you … the new theory.

7. I’d like you … the proper way.

8. You’d better … the behavior of the nuclei.

Task B3. Choose the correct form and translate into Russian.

1. We're still waiting for him (to arrive / arriving).

2. I would love (to visit / visiting) India one day.

3. Sandra tried (to write / writing) him a letter but he didn't answer.

4. He only finished the essay on time by (to work / working) all night.

5. Come here. I would like (to tell / telling) you something.

6. Laura didn't want to leave without (to speak / speaking) to Dan.

7. He is thinking about (to change / chanhing) jobs.

Task B3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1. He forgot (put) out the fire.

2. I'll never forget (visit) Italy for the first time.

3. Jamie couldn't stop (think) about what had happened the night before.

4. Sorry I'm a bit late. I had to stop (buy) petrol on the way over here.

5. Did you remember (get) some milk when you were out?

6. I remember (talk) to your friend Debbie at the party.

7. George isn't here; he must (be) on his way to work.

8. He wanted (catch) the 8 o'clock train but he was too late.

9. We should (do) more to help endangered species.

Part C

Task C1. Translate into English.

1. Она попросила открыть окно.

2. Она попросила сына открыть окно.

3. Он не разрешил отвезти книги в институт.

4. Он не разрешил им отвозить книги в институт.

5. Директор попросил отослать письмо по электронной почте.

6. Директор попросил секретаря отослать письмо как можно быстрее.

7. Преподаватель разрешил сдать курсовую работу.

8. Преподаватель разрешил студентам сдать курсовую работу через неделю.

9. Он приказал продать товары немедленно.

10. Он приказал своему агенту продать товары немедленно.

11. Она попросила, чтобы ей показали письмо.

12. Она попросила секретаря показать ей письмо.

Task C2. Complete each sentence so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence.

Model: I was surprised that this effect is measured directly. > I didn’t expect this effect to be measured directly.

1. At first I didn’t want to take part in the conference, but my friend persuaded me.

My friend persuaded …

2. I was not surprised that this fact found further confirmation.

I expected …

3. I think you should know the results of the experiment.

I want you …

4. This suggestion is wrong, we proved this.

We proved …

5. The developers said that users could participate in writing the manual.

The developers allowed …

6. The reaction goes faster when the pressure increases.

An increase in pressure makes …

7. Don’t stop them studying the problem.

Let …

Task C3. Translate into English using the Complex Object.

1. Я слышал, что он рассмотрел проблему достаточно хорошо.

2. Кто заставил их сравнивать эти теории?

3. Никто не сможет заставить их рассматривать этот вопрос.

4. Ничто не заставит меня изменить свое решение.

5. Мы хотим, чтоб вы поддержали новую теорию.

6. Они полагают, что мне уже предложили новое исследование.

7. Мы знаем, что они выбрали правильное решение.

8. Он хочет, чтобы мы обсудили причину его неудачи.

9. Я хочу, чтобы вы сравнили эти уравнения.

10. Он полагает, что мы приобретем достаточно хорошие знания.

Task C4. Correct the mistakes.

1. I don’t mind to walk home.

2. What made you to change your decision?

3. He asked the students calculate the price again.

4. It was really a good holiday. I enjoyed to be by the sea again.

5. He denies to have seen the document before.

6. I’ve never been to Iceland, but I’d like go there.

7. Do you want that I come?

8. Let me to carry your bag.

9. Suddenly everybody stopped to talk. There was silence.

10. They warned me not touch the switch.

Unit 5. Complex Subject

Сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject) состоит из:

1) существительного или местоимения в общем падеже (I, he, she, it, we, you, they), обозначающего субъект действия;

2) инфинитива с частицей to.

Между элементами сложного подлежащего располагается сказуемое предложения, которое переводится безличной конструкцией и может выражаться:

a) глаголом в пассивном залоге (assume , expect, think – полагать, consider – считать, see – видеть, hear – слышать, prove – оказываться и т.д.)

(1)   (2)   (3)

The problem is considered  to remain  unsolved.

(2)   (1)   (3)

Считается, что проблема  осталась  нерешенной.

б) глаголом в активном залоге (seem, appear – казаться, happen, prove, turn out, chance – оказываться и др.)

(1)   (2)   (3)

The data  proved  to be wrong

(2)   (1)   (3)

Оказалось,  что данные неверны.

в) выражениями с глаголоме to be (to be likely – вероятно, to be unlikely – маловероятно, to be sure, to be certain – несомненно и др.)

(1)   (2)  (3)

The weather is likely to change in a few days.

(2)   (1)  (3)

Вероятно,   погода  изменится через несколько дней.

Part A

Task A1. Translate into Russian.

1. He is known to be a great book-lover.

2. The members of the committee are expected to come to an agreement.

3. Many buildings were reported to have been damaged by the fire.

4. The experiment is believed to be а failure.

5. She seems to know the subject well.

6. He happened to be at home at that time.

7. There seem to be no changes in the trade relations between these two countries.

8. There proved to be many difficulties in solving the matter.

9. There happened to be many people there at that time.

10. The ship can be expected to arrive at the end of the week.

Task A2. Make sentences and translate them into Russian.

а) Mary    is considered to be   a good singer

Mr. Robinson  is believed     a talented artist

Who    was reported    an experienced lawyer

They    was announced    capable students

was said     a famous poet

are thought    very brave

is known     competent and efficient

b) The weather turned out   to have forgotten her promise

I   seemed   to be there at that time

Kate   proved   to know English well

   happened   to be a good tennis player

   chanced   to be improving

c) He  is  unlikely to come soon

They  are  likely  to be invited to the conference

The goods   certain to know her address

Dr. Brown   sure  to be unloaded

      to arrive in time

Task A3. Translate into Russian.

1. The radius of our orbit is believed to be increasing very slowly.

2. There appears to be direct evidence of the existence of negative electrons in matter.

3. Ordinary objects are not likely to move with a velocity approaching the velocity of light.

4. Secondary radiation may be expected to rise when the primary radiations are observed.

5. Light is to be considered as some kind of wave motion of electromagnetic origin.

6. In liquids and solids the movement of molecules must be supposed to be more restricted.

7. At first the alpha-rays were thought to be undeviated by the magnetic fields.

Part B

Task B1. Choose the correct English equivalent.

1. Известно, что они взяли эту информацию из журнала.

a) They are known to obtain the information from this magazine.

b) They are known to have obtained the information from this magazine.

2. Говорят, что они используют это вещество в своих опытах.

a) They are said to use the substance in their experiments.

b) They are said to have used this substance in the experiment.

3. Вероятно, он придет сегодня.

a) He is likely to come today.

b) He is unlikely to come today.

4. Маловероятно, что они закончат работу вовремя.

a) They are unlikely to complete the work in time.

b) They are likely to complete the work in time.

5. Несомненно, что его не спрашивали об этом.

a) He is sure not to ask about it.

b) He is sure not to be asked about it.

6. Маловероятно, что цены скоро упадут.

a) The prices are certain to fall soon.

b) The prices are unlikely to fall soon.

Task B2. Change these sentences according to the model.

Model 1: He may come on Sunday. > He is likely to come on Sunday.

1. They may have a good time in the bar tonight.

2. You may miss the train unless you hurry.

3. They may go on a world tour.

4. This branch of mathematics may develop very rapidly.

5. The procedure of the experiment may be simplified.

6. All her efforts may end in failure.

Model 2: She may not allow us to go there. > She is unlikely to allow us to go there.

1. The plane may not reach the place of destination on time.

2. She may not go by plane.

3. He may not be invited to the conference.

4. They may not follow my recommendations.

5. They may not develop a direct approach to the problem.

Model 3: They will certainly help us.> They are sure to help us.

1. He will certainly win this match.

2. They will certainly get married soon.

3. This picture will certainly be the best at the exhibition.

4. This experiment will certainly be performed next week.

5. This fact will certainly find further confirmation.

6. The new publication will certainly give rise to interesting response.

Task B3. Make sentences using the Complex Subject.

Model: He, to think, to study, now. > He is thought to study now.

1. He, to consider, to be, a good musician.

2. They, to think, to go away, some days ago.

3. James, to expect, to make a report, next Wednesday.

4. Steve, to know, to help them, when they are in trouble.

5. Mozart, to know, to compose, a lot of wonderful pieces of music.

6. The film, to consider, to be, the worst of the year.

7. He, to expect, to manage, the business himself.

8. She, to say, to be, at the customs office now.

Part C

Task C1. Change these sentences according to the model.

Model: The planets are moving in one direction around the sun. (to know) > The planets are known to be moving in one direction around the sun.

1. The scientists are taking data day and night. (to report)

2. Data are being taken day and night. (to report)

3. They are measuring the value with high degree of accuracy. (to inform)

4. The value is being measured with high degree of accuracy. (to inform)

5. They are producing these particles in a special accelerator. (to say)

6. These particles are being produced in a special accelerator. (to say)

7. He is using another method of investigation. (to seem)

8. Another method of investigation is being used by him. (to seem)

Task C2. Find the infinitive construction and refer the number of each sentence with one of the columns. The first one is done for you. Then translate the sentences into Russian.

Complex Object

Complex Subject

For … to V

1

1. The engineers of that plant are said to have constructed a new device.

2. We want you to see the new university building.

3. The company is believed to have lost a lot of money last year.

4. We suppose the construction of that building to be completed in a week.

5. The construction of that building is supposed to be completed in a week.

6. Nobody watched her dance.

7. She waited for him to speak.

8. They are certain to cope with the problem facing them.

9. We think them to build the pipeline next month.

10. This pipeline is thought to be built next autumn.

11. The engineer believes the mechanic to finish repairing the engine ahead of time.

12. The mechanic is believed to finish repairing the engine ahead of time.

13. I heard somebody mention his name at the last meeting.

14. He seems to have traveled much.

15. This experiment is said to have been completed successfully.

Task C3. Translate into English using the Complex Subject.

1. Стивен обязательно выиграет эту игру.

2. Известно, что Питер уехал в Осло.

3. Предполагают, что президент выступит на конференции.

4. Эту пьесу считают самой интересной в театре.

5. Кажется, она готовит яблочный пирог.

6. Полагают, что они уехали вчера.

7. Он, вероятно, пишет новую статью.

8. Маловероятно, что переговоры закончатся завтра.

9. Полагают, что эта работа была выполнена успешно.

10. Вряд ли этот факт очень важен для нас.

11. Говорят, что ученые уже приехали на конференцию.

12. Известно, что этот комитет был создан несколько лет тому назад.

Texts for Final Translation

Text 1. Pure and Applied Science (Participles, Gerund)

As students of science you are probably sometimes puzzled by the terms "pure" and "applied" science. Are these two totally different activities, having little or no interconnection? Let us begin by examining what is done by each.

Pure science is primarily concerned with the development of theories (or, as they are frequently called, models) establishing relationships between the phenomena of the universe. When they are sufficiently validated these theories (hypotheses, models) become the working laws or principles of science. In carrying out this work, the pure scientist usually disregards its application to practical affairs, confining his attention to explanations of how and why events occur.

Text 2. Mathematization of Natural Sciences (Participles, Gerund)

Exact science in its generally accepted sense can be referred to as a family of specialized natural sciences, each of them providing evidence and information about the different aspects of nature by somewhat different working methods. It follows that mathematics in its pure sense does not enter into this frame, its object of study, being not nature itself. Being independent of all observations of the outside world, it attempts to build logical systems based on axioms. In other words, it concentrates on formulating the language of mathematical symbols and equations which may be applied to the functional relations found in nature.

This "mathematization", in the opinion of most specialists, is witnessed first in physics which deals with general laws of matter and energy on subatomic, atomic and molecular levels. Further application of these mathematical laws and studies is made by chemistry and results in structural bonds between the elements of matter being established.

Text 3. Automation in the Research Process (Gerund)

Our goal should be automating the routine and thereby leave more time for the creative process.

 With that word of caution, let's proceed by arbitrarily dividing research into three stages and examining each stage to find what functions of the research process might be automated without endangering creativity. Stage one includes the dreams, the ideas, the exploratory work, selecting the problem, setting the objective, testing technical feasibility, and searching the literature. Stage two involves planning the experiment, conducting the experiment, checking the alternates, data taking, and data evaluation. Stage three is the solution of the problem — drawing conclusions and making recommendations.

Although there is a great deal of creativity involved in stage one, there are also opportunities for automation. The burden of keeping up with the literature even in one's own restricted field is becoming heavier with each passing year. The mass of reading necessary to make a literature search has increased immensely. Advances in computer technology have made possible storing and quick retrieving essentially all the scientific literature.

Text 4. Forecasting (Infinitive)

To speculate about the future is one of the most basic qualities of man. It involves two aspects: one is to forecast what the future development will be and the other is to determine in what approximate period of time it is going to take place. To make such a prognosis means to learn from the past experience and to extrapolate the knowledge into the future. Recently, however, the rate of change has been so great as to make it difficult to learn from experience, at least as far as the time factor is concerned. To take but one example, a prediction of man's possible landing on the Moon around the turn of the century was made as late as 1961, only 8 years before the actual event! So, to be on the safe side, we had better leave time to take care of itself, and concentrate our attention on what the future may be like.

There is yet another problem involved: are we to accept submissively any possible course of events, or are we to work for a future most suited for most people? The choice is to be made, at different levels, by every individual and by every society.

Text 5. Computer Design (Infinitive)

The design of an automatic computer is not a simple matter. To understand how to use a computer one must fully appreciate its design. Therefore, a brief introduction to the logical design is necessary for the users to understand the underlying idea. To present some background material on theoretical and philosophical aspects of information processing is to give the user more profound understanding of computers' application. From what has been said above, it is clear that a computer may be thought of both as a machine by which to handle information and a machine by which to transform one set of symbols into another. For the user it is a machine to process the information, a way to obtain an output by applying to an input a specified sequence of logical operations. The designer considers a computer to be a device for applying a sequence of logic operations to symbols representing information.

Since mathematical operations are a particular group of logic operations, the consideration of logic operations by definition includes mathematical operations. To appreciate the significance of the conventional character of logic, and to gain some understanding of computer logical design we must consider a few simple games. These games are to illustrate some significant factors.

Text 6. Scientific Attitude (Infinitive, Complex Object)

What is the nature of the scientific attitude, the attitude of the man or woman who studies and applies physics, biology, chemistry or any other science? What are their special methods of thinking and acting? What qualities do we usually expect them to possess?

To begin with, we expect a successful scientist to be full of curiosity he wants to find out how and why the universe works. He usually directs his attention towards problems which have no satisfactory explanation, and his curiosity makes him look for the underlying relationships even if the data to be analysed are not apparently interrelated. He is a good observer, accurate, patient and objective. Furthermore, he is not only critical of the work of others, but also of his own, since he knows man to be the least reliable of scientific instruments.

And to conclude, he is to be highly imaginative since he often looks for data which are not only complex, but also incomplete.

Text 7. Lobachevsky (Complex Object)

Men of science consider Lobachevsky to be a great mathematician. The whole world knows Lobachevsky to have strictly demonstrated and explained the principles of the theory of parallel lines. We consider him to be a great organizer of popular education, and we know him to have written much on the problems of education.

Lobachevsky was born on December 1, 1792 near Nizhny Novgorod. His father died when he was only a child, leaving the family in extreme poverty. The family moved to Kazan where Lobachevsky was admitted to the gymnasium. We know his progress to have been extremely rapid in mathematics and classics. At the age of 14 he entered the University of Kazan where he is known to have spent 40 years as a student, assistant professor, and finally rector. Under his direction great improvements were made at the University. We know an observatory to have been founded and equipped and a mechanical workshop to have been established.

For 2200 years all the mankind believed Euclid to have discovered an absolute truth. Lobachevsky proved Euclid’s axiom on parallel lines not to be true. He built a new geometrical theory quite different from that of Euclid. We know his ideas to have greatly influenced not only geometry, but mechanics, physics, astronomy as well. Like Galileo, Copernicus and Newton he is one of those who laid the foundation of science.

Text 8. Benjamin Franklin (Complex Subject)

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) is acknowledged to be the founder of the theory of atmospheric electricity. At the time when theories to explain electricity were neither complete nor well founded the lightning was proved by him to be an electrical phenomenon. He was not the first to think of it but he was the first to prove it. His theory of electricity still appears to hold good. He is acknowledged to have invented a means of protection against the disastrous effects of lightning the lightning rod. Franklin's theory at first seemed to be misunderstood both in his country and abroad. It is known to have been severely attacked by the leader of French scientists abbé Nollet.

Franklin is recognized to have been a great public figure who did as much as he could for the good of his country. He is known to have been the editor of one of the newspapers enjoying a great popularity with his countrymen. He is sure to be one of the broadest as well as one of the most creative minds of his time.

Text 9. "Would you like your son or daughter to become a scientist?” (Complex Object, Complex Subject)

The questions were asked by the Literary Gazette and a British scientist was reported to answer as follows.

"I would not like my son or daughter to become a scientist of the kind typical in the world today. The development of science has already led to many undesirable consequences and is likely to lead to many more unless great effort is made to control the application of scientific discoveries. If, however, science could be developed in a new way to become a meaningful social activity, I would be glad to see my son or daughter doing science.

So far as the field is concerned, I think there will be a growing tendency for scientists to occupy themselves with problems which affect fairly directly the lives of people. There seems to exist a great need to develop science which deals specially with the problems of how the applications of science affect man. To cite but a few examples, there are such problems as urban development, education and, of course, the prevention of war. If the new knowledge about the world is used for the benefit of man, rather than for death and destruction, the human race can continue to benefit from science for centuries to come.


Tests

Test 1. Participles. Absolute Participle Construction. Gerund.

Variant 1

Choose the correct Russian equivalent:

1. He hates criticizing people.

A) Он не любит критиковать людей.

B) Он ненавидит, когда люди его критикуют.

C) Он не любит критику.

D) Его ненавидят те, кого он критикует.

2. The boy writing a letter is my sister's son.

A) Мальчик, которому пишут письмо, – это сын моей сестры.

B) Мальчику написал письмо сын моей сестры.

C) Мальчик пишет письмо сыну моей сестры.

D) Мальчик, который пишет письмо, – это сын моей сестры.

3. The experiment having been made, we completed the project.

A) После того как был проведен эксперимент, мы закончили проект.

B) До проведения эксперимента мы закончили проект.

C) Проводя эксперимент, мы закончили проект.

D) Проведение эксперимента завершало наш проект.

4. Books read in childhood seem like old friends.

A) Книги, прочитанные в детстве, кажутся старыми друзьями.

B) Все, кто читает книги в детстве, кажутся старыми друзьями.

C) Все, кому читают книги в детстве, кажутся старыми друзьями.

D) Кажется, что чтение книг в детстве делает нас друзьями.

5. Considered from this point of view the question will be of great interest.

A) Рассмотрение вопроса с этой точки зрения представляет большой интерес.

B) Когда вопрос рассматривали с этой точки зрения, он оказался очень интересным.

C) Рассмотренный с этой точки зрения вопрос будет представлять большой интерес.

D) Рассматривая вопрос с этой точки зрения, они проявили большой интерес.

Choose the correct English equivalent:

6. Проведя измерения, они обработали данные.

A) While making the measurements they processed the data.

B) Before making the measurements they processed the data.

C) Being made the measurements they processed the data.

D) Having made the measurements they processed the data.

7. Она шла медленно, разыскивая Филиппа.

A) She was walking slowly, having looked for Philip.

B) She was walking slowly, looked for Philip.

C) She was walking slowly, looking for Philip.

D) She was walking slowly, being looked for Philip.

8. Пролив – это водное пространство, разделяющее участки суши.

A) A channel is a stretch of water separating land masses.

B) A channel is a stretch of water being separated land masses.

C) A channel is a stretch of water having separated land masses.

D) A channel is a stretch of water separated land masses.

9. Алису не интересует поиск новой работы.

A) Alice is not interested in being looked for a new job.

B) Alice is not interested in having looked for a new job.

C) Alice is interested in not having looked for a new job.

D) Alice is not interested in looking for a new job.

Fill in the gaps:

10. Anyone … to leave early may do so.

A) wishing     B) wished

C) having wished    D) being wished

11. The results … showed that he was right.

A) obtaining    B) having obtained

C) obtained    D) been obtained

12. … alone we kept silence.

A) Leaving     B) Being left

C) Having left    D) Been left

Correct the mistakes (one mistake in each sentence).

13. Slowed down the speed the driver turned the corner.

14. We saw a lot of fascinated paintings at the exhibition.

15. The student having knowing English well, the exam didn’t last long.

Variant 2

Choose the correct Russian equivalent:

1. He hates being criticized.

A) Он не любит критиковать.

B) Он ненавидит, когда его критикуют.

C) Он не любит критиков.

D) Его ненавидят те, кого он критикует.

2. Traveling abroad George took a lot of nice photographs.

A) Путешествуя за границей, Джордж сделал много хороших снимков.

B) Путешествия Джорджа за границей показаны на многих снимках.

C) Прежде чем уехать за границу, Джордж сделал много хороших снимков.

D) Когда Джордж уедет за границу, он сделает много хороших снимков.

3. Man was inventing machines and instruments for making his life easier.

A) Человек, изобретающий станки и инструменты, облегчает свою жизнь.

B) Человек, который изобрел станки и инструменты, облегчил свою жизнь.

C) Человек изобретал станки и инструменты для облегчения своей жизни.

D) Человеку, который изобретал станки и инструменты, облегчили жизнь.

4. Everything written on the blackboard was correct.

A) Все, кто написал на доске, правы.

B) Все, что написано на доске, правильно.

C) Все написанное на доске было правильным.

A) Все пишущие на доске, пишут правильно.

5. We visited one of the largest computer companies producing software.

A) Нас посетила крупная компьютерная компания, создающая программное обеспечение.

B) Мы посетили одну из крупнейших компьютерных компаний, производящих программное обеспечение.

C) Наше посещение крупнейших компьютерных компаний, производящих программное обеспечение, было полезным.

D) Одна из крупнейших компьютерных компаний производит программное обеспечение для нас.

Choose the correct English equivalent:

6. Находясь в городе, он навестил друзей.

A) Being in the town he visited his friends.

B) To be in the town he visited his friends.

C) Having been in the town he visited his friends.

D) Be in the town he visited his friends.

7. После того как их пригласили на праздник, они начали готовить свое выступление.

A) Having been invited to the party, they began to prepare their show.

B) Have been invited to the party, they began to prepare their show.

C) Having invited to the party, they began to prepare their show.

D) Been invited to the party, they began to prepare their show.

8. Реакция – это процесс, который приводит к химическим изменениям веществ.

A) A reaction is a process having resulted in chemical changes of substances.

B) A reaction is a process resulting in chemical changes of substances.

C) A reaction is a process being resulted in chemical changes of substances.

D) A reaction is a process resulted in chemical changes of substances.

Fill in the gaps:

9. Do you know the student … towards us?

A) come     B) coming

C) having been come   D) being come

10. … the matter he encountered many difficulties

A) Being considered   B) Considering

C) Considered    D) Having been considered

11. I cannot understand the instructions … in the manual.

A) being giving   B) given

C) giving    D) gave

12. Who is responsible for … this room?

A) being cleaned   B) cleaned

C) cleaning    D) having been cleaned

Correct the mistakes (one mistake in each sentence).

13. The answer receiving from the traveling agency was surprising.

14. The procedure having discussed, the meeting started.

15. The lecture was so bored that she fell asleep.

Test 2. Infinitive. Complex Object. Complex Subject. Infinitive or Ving.

Variant 1

Choose the correct English equivalent:

1. Он пришел первым.

A) He came the first.

B) He came first.

C) He was the first coming.

D) He was the first to come.

2. Проблема, которую надо решить, сложная.

A) The solved problem is difficult.

B) The solving problem is difficult.

C) The problem having solved is difficult.

D) The problem to be solved is difficult.

3. Я огорчился, узнав о его визите.

A) I was sorry to know about his visit.

B) I was sorry having known about his visit.

C) I was sorry to be known about his visit.

D) I was sorry to have been known about his visit.

4. Мы договорились встретиться с ними.

A) We agreed meeting them.

B) We agreed to meet them.

C) We agreed to be met them.

D) We agreed to have met them.

5. Он притворился, что не знает ответ на мой вопрос.

A) He pretended didn’t know the answer to my question.

B) He pretended not knowing the answer to my question.

C) He pretended not to know the answer to my question.

D) He pretended not know the answer to my question.

Choose the correct Russian equivalent:

6. The general aim of this work is to increase the productivity.

A) Главная цель этой работы – повышение производительности.

B) Мы работаем над тем, чтобы повысить производительность.

C) Главная цель – работать над повышением производительности.

D) Работа в целом должна повысить производительность.

7. They are proud to have done their work in time.

A) Они горды тем, что делают свою работу в срок.

B) Ими гордятся, потому что они сделали свою работу в срок.

C) Они горды тем, что сделали свою работу в срок.

D) Они гордились тем, что работа выполняется в срок.

8. The aim of our research work is to find the necessary data.

A) Наше целевое исследование заключается в нахождении необходимых данных.

B) Результат нашей исследовательской работы – это формирование необходимых данных.

C) Цель нашей исследовательской работы заключается в том, чтобы определить все необходимые данные.

D) Результат нашей исследовательской работы – это определение всех необходимых дат.

9. Can you give me something to relieve the headache please?

A) Вы не могли бы избавить меня от головной боли?

B) Дайте мне, пожалуйста, что-нибудь от головной боли.

C) Вы можете избавить меня от головной боли?

D) Не подскажете, как избавиться от головной боли?

Fill in the gaps:

10. Would you mind … the door, please?

A) close    B) closing

C) to close   D) to be closed

11. ... the book in time you may need some help.

A) Translating   B) To be translated

C) To translate   D) Translate

12. I’d like … an appointment.

A) make    B) to make

C) making   D) to be made

13. The experimental results are not easy ….

A) interpret    B) interpreted

C) to be interpreting  D) to interpret

14. I prevented them from … the same mistake.

A) make     B) being made

C) having made   D) making

15. The writer is reported … his new book.

A) published   B) to have published

C) publishing   D) to be published

Correct the mistakes (one mistake in each sentence).

16. You should to find another solution.

17. I don't want going out tonight. I'm too tired.

18. What makes you to think so?

19. I saw him to lock the door.

20. He is likely coming tonight.

Variant 2

Choose the correct English equivalent:

1.Говорят, что он пишет новую книгу.

A) He is said writing a new book.

B) He is said to be written a new book.

C) He is said to have written a new book.

D) He is said to write a new book.

2. Он хочет, чтобы работа была сделана немедленно.

A) He wants the work to do at once.

B) He wants the work to be done at once.

C) He wants the work doing at once.

D) He wants the work to have done at once.

3. Мы пошли в наш музей, чтобы посмотреть картины.

A) We went to our museum to look at the pictures.

B) We went to our museum looking at the pictures.

C) We went to our museum so that looking at the pictures.

D) We went to our museum to have looked at the pictures.

4. Я пригласила наших друзей поехать с нами.

A) I invited our friends to go with us.

B) I invited our friends going with us.

C) I invited that our friends will go with us.

D) I invited our friends to be gone with us.

5. Они продолжали обсуждать вопрос.

A) They continued to discussing the matter.

B) They continued to be discussed the matter.

C) They continued discuss the matter.

D) They continued to discuss the matter.

Choose the correct Russian equivalent:

6. This information is believed to be of great importance for these engineers.

A) Полагают, что эта информация представляет большую важность для этих инженеров,

B) Эта важная информация предназначается для этих инженеров.

C) Инженеры полагают, что эта информация представляет большую важность.

D) Эта информация представляет большую важность для инженеров.

7. They wanted to introduce a new system.

A) Им бы хотелось, чтобы внедрили новую систему.

B) Хотелось бы, чтобы новая система была внедрена.

C) Они хотели внедрить новую систему.

D) Они хотели, чтобы новая система была внедрена..

8. This firm is reported to be conducting negotiations for the purchase of new equipment.

A) Разговоры, что эта фирма покупает новое оборудование, верны.

B) Эта фирма сообщила, что ведет переговоры о покупке нового оборудования.

C) Нам сообщили, что эта фирма купила новое оборудование.

D) Говорят, что эта фирма ведет переговоры о покупке нового оборудования.

9. We want this meter to be tested under severe conditions.

A) Мы хотим, чтобы этот измерительный прибор испытали в тяжелых условиях.

B) От нас хотят, чтобы мы испытали этот измерительный прибор в тяжелых условиях.

C) Мы хотим испытать этот измерительный прибор в тяжелых условиях.

D) Мы хотели испытать этот измерительный прибор в тяжелых условиях.

Fill in the gaps:

10. I promised … in time.

A) to come  B) having come

C) come   D) to be coming

11. I saw him yesterday. He seems … weight.

A) to losing  B) to have lost

C) to lost   D) being lost

12. He is very good at … languages.

A) to learn   B) learn

C) being learnt  D) learning

13. John insisted on … for the meal.

A) to pay  B) having paid

C) paying   D) being paid

14. Automation is one of the ways … productivity.

A) being increased  B) to increase

C) increase   D) to be increased

15. He was clever enough … any question.

A) to answer   B) answering

C) to be answered  D) answer

Correct the mistakes (one mistake in each sentence):

16. I'm not quite ready yet. Do you mind to wait a little?

17. They heard a baby to cry in the middle of the night.

18. I’d like coming to your wedding but I'm afraid I can't.

19. When I was a child, my parents made me to go to bed early.

20. I can't to afford to go out tonight. I haven't got enough money.


Bibliography

  1.  Барановская Т.В. Грамматика английского языка. Сборник упражнений – Киев: Логос-М, 2007.
  2.  Романова Л.И. Практическая грамматика английского языка. – М.: Айрис-пресс, 2008.
  3.  Рубцова М.Г. Чтение и перевод английской научно-технической литературы. – М.: Астрель, 2003.
  4.  Руцкая В.Ф. Практическая грамматика английского языка. – Минск: Вышэйшая школа, 1989.
  5.  Шанаева Н.В. Основные грамматические трудности в английском языке. – Новосибирск: Наука, 1989.
  6.  Шахова Н.И. и др. Learn to Read Science. Курс английского языка для аспирантов. – М: Флинта: Наука, 2003.
  7.  Eastwood J. Oxford Practice Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  8.  Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. 3rd Edition. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  9.  Vince M. First Certificate. Language Practice. – Oxford: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2003.


Елена Георгиевна Брунова

Елена Юрьевна Шутова

vERBALS

Учебно-методическое пособие

для студентов естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений

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625003, Тюмень, Семакова, 10.


Verbals

Infinitive

(to) V1

Gerund

Ving

Participles

Participle I

Ving

articiple II

V3


 

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