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Практикум по стилистике английского языка

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

70 per cent of our lifetime is spent in various forms of communication activities-oral (speaking, listening) or writen (reading, writing), so it is self-evident how important it is for a philologist to know the mechanics of relations between the non-verbal, extralinguistic denotational essence of the communicative act and its verbal...

Английский

2015-09-17

944 KB

15 чел.

В. А. Кухаренко

Практикум по стилистике английского языка

Допущено

Министерством высшего и среднего

специального образования СССР

в качестве учебного пособия

для студентов филологических факультетов

университетов, институтов и факультетов

МОСКВА   «ВЫСШАЯ   ШКОЛА»   1986

иностранных языков


 ББК

ББК 81.2 Англ-9 К 95

Рецензенты:

кафедра английского языка Ленинградского государственного педаго-гического института им. А. И. Герцена (зав. кафедрой д-р филол. наук, проф. 3. Я. Тураева),

д-р филол. наук проф. И. Р. Гальперин

Кухаренко В. А.

К 95 Практикум по стилистике английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов филол. фак. ун-тов, ин-тов и фак. ин. яз. —М.: Высш. шк., 1986.— 144 с. — На англ. яз.

30 к.

Цель пособия — помочь студентам применить теоретические знания по стилистике на практике. Основной объем пособия составляют упражнения и задания для самостоятельной работы. Разнообразие иллюстративного материала дает возможность выбора конкретных заданий для отработки каждой темы и каждой методики анализа.

 английском языке

к    4602010000-125  220-86 001(01)-8б

ББК 81.2 Англ-9 4И(Аигл)

Заведующий редакцией Я. Э. Волкова. Редактор А. И. Миронова. Младший редактор Т. В. Пигалева. Художник В. И. Казакова. Художественный редактор В. И. Пономаренко. Технический редактор Ю. А. Хорева. Старший корректор Н. А. Каджардузова

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Издательство     Высшая   школа»,   101430,   Москва,   ГСП-4,   Неглинная   ул.,  д.   29/14.

Ярославский полиграфкомбинат Союзполиграфпрома при Государственном комитете СССР по делам издательств, полиграфии и книжной торговли. -   Ярославль, ул. Свободы, 97.

©  Издательство «Высшая школа», 1986


CONTENTS

Page

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ  4

PRELIMINARY   REMARKS  5

CHAPTER I. PHONO-GRAPHICAL    LEVEL.    MORPHOLOGICAL

LEVEL  10

Sound Instrumenting. Craphon. Graphical Means  10

Morphemic Repetition. Extension of Morphemic Valency    .... 18

CHAPTER   II.   LEXICAL   LEVEL.      .      22

Word and its Semantic Structure.  Connotational Meanings of a  Word.

The Role of the Context in the Actualization of Meaning.    ... 22

stylistic  Differentiation  of the  Vocabulary  25

Literary Stratum of Words. Colloquial Words  25

Lexical Stylistic  Devices  37

Metaphor.    Metonymy.    Synecdoche.    Play   on    Words.    Irony.    Epithet.

Hyperbole.   Understatement.   Oxymoron  37

CHAPTER   III.   SYNTACTICAL   LEVEL  66

Main Characteristics of the Sentence. Syntactical SDs. Sentence Length. One-Word Sentences. Sentence Structure. Punctuation. Arrangement of Sentence Members. Rhetorical Question. Types of Repetition. Parallel

Constructions. Chiasmus. Inversion. Suspense. Detachment. Com-pleteness of Sentence Structure. Ellipsis. One-Member Sentences. Apokoinu Constructions. Break. Types of Connection. Polysyndeton.

Asyndeton. Attachment  66

Lexico-Syntactical Stylistic Devices  84

Antithesis.   Climax.   Anticlimax.   Simile.  Litotes.  Periphrasis.     .    . 84

CHAPTER   IV.   TYPES   OF   NARRATION    .    . 100

Author's  Narrative.   Dialogue.   Interior   Speech.   Represented   Speech.

Compositional Forms  100

CHAPTER   V.   FUNCTIONAL   STYLES  108

Colloquial vs.  Literary Type of Communication.  Oral vs.  Written Form

of Communication  108

Supplement  1.   Samples  of Stylistic Analysis  120

Supplement 2.  Extracts for Comprehensive Stylistic Analysis.    .    .    . 124

List of Authors  Whose Texts  Were Used in Exercises  140

Subject Index  141

Suggestions for Further Reading  144


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Предлагаемое учебное пособие рассчитано на 16 часов аудиторных и 16 часов самостоятельных занятий и может быть использовано парал-лельно с лекционным курсом по стилистике современного английского языка или после него.

Цель пособия — помочь студентам выработать навыки стилистического анализа конкретного языкового материала, научить их обнаруживать и правильно интерпретировать языковые явления разных уровней, несущие дополнительную информацию логического, эмоционального, изобрази-тельного и оценочного характера.

Пособие состоит из пяти глав. Каждая глава содержит теоретическое введение, задания для самоконтроля и упражнения. В качестве иллюстра-тивного материала использована англоязычная проза XIXXX вв. Объем и сложность фрагментов для анализа возрастают к концу каждой главы. Примерная схема анализа дана в приложении в конце пособия.

Пособие содержит тексты для развернутого комплексного стилисти-ческого анализа, предусматривающего использование навыков и умений, закрепленных на материале предыдущих глав.

В конце пособия имеются предметный указатель, список фамилий авторов, чьи произведения были использованы при составлении упраж-нений, и список рекомендуемой литературы.

Автор


PRELIMINARY   REMARKS

Main  Trends  in  Style  Study.   Functional  Stylistics   and  Functional   Styles.

Forms and Types of the Language. Stylistics of Artistic Speech. Individual

Style  Study.   Decoding  Stylistics.   Practical  Stylistics.   Levels  of  Linguistic

Analysis. Foregrounding. Aims of Stylistic Analysis

The term "stylistics"   originated from the Greek "stylos" which means "a pen". In the course of time it developed sev-eral meanings, each one applied to a specific study of language elements and their use in speech.

It is no news that any propositional content-any "idea"-can be verbalized in several different ways. So, "May I offer you a chair?", "Take a seat, please", "Sit down"-have the same proposition (subject-matter) but  differ  in the manner of expression, which, in its turn, depends upon the situational conditions of the communication act.

70 per cent of our lifetime is spent in various forms of communication activities-oral (speaking, listening) or writen (reading, writing), so it is self-evident how important it is for a philologist to know the mechanics of relations between the non-verbal, extralinguistic denotational essence of the communicative act and its verbal, linguistic presentation. It is no surprise, then, that many linguists follow their famous French colleague Charles Bally, claiming that stylistics is primarily the study of synonymic language resources.

Representatives of the not less well-known Prague school-V. Mathesius, T. Vachek, J. Havranek and others focused their attention on the priority of the situational appropriateness in the choice of language varieties for their adequate func-tioning. Thus, functional stylistics, which became and remains an international, very important trend in style study, deals with sets, "paradigms" of language units of all levels or lan-guage hierarchy serving to accommodate the needs of certain typified communicative situations. These paradigms are known as functional styles of the language. Proceeding from the famous definition of the style of a language offered by V. V. Vinogradov more than three decades ago, we shall follow the understanding of a functional style formulated by I. R. Galperin as "a system of  coordinated,   interrelated   and   interconditioned   language


means intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect."*

All scholars agree that a well developed language, such as English or Russian, is streamed into several functional styles. Their classifications, though, coincide only partially: most style theoreticians do not argue about the number of functional styles being five, but disagree about their nomen-clature. This manual offers one of the rather widely accepted classifications which singles out the following functional styles:

  1.  official   style,   represented   in   all   kinds   of   official
    documents and papers;
  2.  scientific  style,   found   in   articles,   brochures,   mono-
    graphs and other scientific, academic publications;
  3.  publicist style,  covering such genres as essay, feature
    article, most writings of "new journalism", public speeches,
    etc.;
  4.  newspaper style, observed in the majority of materials
    printed in newspapers;
  5.  belles-lettres style,  embracing  numerous  and  versatile
    genres of creative writing.

It is only the first three that are invariably recognized in all stylistic treatises. As to the newspaper style, it is often regarded as part of the publicist domain and is not always treated individually. But the biggest controversy is flaming around the belles-lettres style. The unlimited possibilities of creative writing, which covers the whole of the universe and makes use of all language resources led some scholars to the conviction that because of the liability of its contours it can be hardly qualified as a functional style. Still others claim that, regardless of its versatility, the belles-lettres style, in each of its concrete representations, fulfils the aesthetic function, which fact singles this style out of others and gives grounds to recognize, its systematic uniqueness, i. e. charges it with the status if an autonomous functional style. To compare different views on the number of functional styles and their classification see corresponding chapters in stylistic monographs and textbooks, listed on   p.   144 of  this   book.

Each of the enumerated styles is exercized in two forms-written and oral, an article and a lecture are examples of the two forms of the scientific style, news broadcast, on the radio and TV or newspaper information materials-of the newspaper style; an essay and a public speech-of the publicist style, etc.

* Galperin, I. R. Stylistics. M., 1971, p. 253.


The number of functional styles and the principles of their differentiation change with time and reflect the state of the functioning language at a given period. So, only recently, most style classifications had also included the so called poetic style which dealt with verbal forms specific for poetry. But poetry, within the last decades, lost its isolated linguistic position, makes use of all the vocabulary and grammar offered by the language at large and there is hardly sense in singling out a special poetic style for the contemporary linguistic situation, though its relevance for the language of the seventeenth, eighteenth and even the biggest part of the nineteenth centuries cannot be argued.

Something similar can be said about the oratoric style, which, in Ancient Greece, was instrumental in the creation of "Rhetoric", where Aristotle, its author, elaborated the basics of style study, still relevant today. The oratoric skill though has lost its position in social and political life. Nowadays speeches are mostly written first, and so contain all the characteristic features of publicist writing, which made it unnecessary to specify oratoric style within the contemporary functional stratification of the language.

All the above-mentioned styles are specified within the literary type of the language. Their functioning is characterized by the intentional approach of the speaker towards the choice of language means suitable for a particular communicative situation and the official, formal, preplanned nature of the latter.

The colloquial type of the language, on the contrary, is characterized by the inofficiality, spontaneity, informality of the communicative situation. Sometimes the colloquial type of speech is labelled "the colloquial style" and entered into the classification of functional styles of the language, regardless of the situational and linguistic differences between the literary and colloquial communication, and despite the fact that a style of speech manifests a conscious, mindful effort in choosing and preferring certain means of expression for the given communicative circumstances, while colloquial speech is shaped by the immediacy, spontaneity, unpremeditativeness of the communicative situation. Alongside this consideration there exists a strong tendency to treat colloquial speech as an individual language system with its independent set of language units and rules of their connection.

Functional stylistics, dealing in fact with all the subdivisions of the language and all its possible usages, is the most all-embracing "global" trend in style study, and such specified


stylistics as the scientific prose study, or newspaper style study, or the like may be considered elaborations of certain fields of functional stylistics.

A special place here is occupied by the study of creative writing of the belles-lettres style, because in it, above all, we deal with stylistic use of language resources, i.e. with such a handling of language elements that enables them to carry not only the basic, logical, but also additional information of various types. So the stylistics of artistic speech, or belles-lettres style study, was shaped.

Functional stylistics at large and its specified directions proceed from the situationally stipulated language "paradigms" and concentrate primarily on the analysis of the latter. It is possible to say that the attention of functional stylistics is focused on the message in its correlation with the communicative situation.

The message is common ground for communicants in an act of communication, an indispensable element in the exchange of information between two participants of the communicative act- the addresser (the supplier of information, the speaker, the writer) and the addressee (the receiver of the information, the listener, the reader).

Problems, concerning the choice of the most appropriate language means and their organization into a message, from the viewpoint of the addresser, are the centre of attention of the  individual style study, which puts particular emphasis on the study of an individual author's style, looking for correlations between the creative concepts of the author and the language of his works.

In terms of information theory the author's stylistics may be named the stylistics of the encoder: the language being viewed as the code to shape the information into the message, and the supplier of the information, respectively, as the encoder. The addressee in this case plays the part of the decoder of the information contained in the message, and the problems connected with adequate reception of the message without any informational losses or deformations, i. e., with adequate   decoding,   are   the   concern   of  decoding  stylistics.

And, finally, the stylistics, proceeding from the norms of language usage at a given period and teaching these norms to language speakers, especially the ones, dealing with the language professionally (editors, publishers, writers, journal-ists, teachers, etc.) is called practical stylistics.

Thus, depending on the approach and the final aim there can be observed several trends in style study. Common to all


of them is the necessity to learn what the language can offer to serve the innumerable communicative tasks and purposes of language users; how various elements of the language participate in storing and transferring information, which of them carries which type of information, etc.

The best way to find answers to most of these and similar questions is to investigate informational values and possibil-ities of language units, following the structural hierarchy of language levels, suggested by a well-known Belgian linguist E. Benveniste more than two decades ago - at the IX Interna-tional Congress of Linguists in 1962, and accepted by most scholars today if not in its entirety, then at least as the basis for further elaboration and development.

E. Benveniste's scheme of analysis proceeds from the level of the phoneme - through the levels of the morpheme and the word to that of the sentence.

This book of practice is structured accordingly.

The resources of each language level become evident in action, i. e. in speech, so the attention of the learners is drawn to the behaviour of each language element in functioning, to its aptitude to convey various kinds of information.

The ability of a verbal element to obtain extra signifi-cance, to say more in a definite context was called by Prague linguists foregrounding: indeed, when a word (affix, sentence), automatized by the long use in speech, through context developments, obtains some new, additional features, the act resembles a background phenomenon moving into the front 1ine - foregrounding.

A contextually foregrounded element carries more informa-tion than when taken in isolation, so it is possible to say that in context it is loaded with basic information inherently belonging to it, plus the acquired, adherent, additional infor-mation. It is this latter that is mainly responsible for the well-known fact that a sentence means always more than the sum total of the meanings of its component-words, or a text means more than the sum of its sentences. So, stylistic analysis involves rather subtle procedures of finding the foregrounded element and indicating the chemistry of its contextual changes, brought about by the intentional, planned operations of the addresser, i.e. effected by the conscious stylistic use of the language.

For foreign language students stylistic analysis holds particular difficulties: linguistic intuition of a native speaker, which is very helpful in all philological activities, does not work in the case of foreign learners. Besides, difficulties may


arise because of the inadequate language command and the ensuing gaps in grasping the basic, denotational information. Starting stylistic analysis, thus, one should bear in mind that the understanding of each separate component of the message is an indispensable condition of satisfactory work with the message as a whole, of getting down to the core and essence of its meaning.

Stylistic analysis not only broadens the theoretical horizons of a language learner but it also teaches the latter the skill of competent reading, on the one hand, and proprieties of situational language usage, on the other.

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What are the main trends in style study?
  2.  What forms and types of speech do you know?
  3.  What is a functional style and what functional styles
    do you know?
  4.  What do you know of the studies in the domain of the
    style of artistic speech?
  5.  What do you know about individual style study? What
    authors most often attract the attention of style theoreticians?
  6.  What is foregrounding and how does it operate in the
    text? 7. what  levels  of linguistic  analysis  do  you  know  and
    which of them are relevant for stylistic analysis?

  1.  What is decoding stylistics?
  2.  What is the main concern of practical stylistics?

10. What  is   the   ultimate   goal   of  stylistic   analysis   of
a speech product?

CHAPTER I. PHONO-GRAPHICAL   LEVEL. MORPHOLOGICAL   LEVEL

Sound  Instrumenting.   Graphon.   Graphical  Means

As it is clear from the title of the chapter, the stylistic use of phonemes and their graphical representation will be viewed here. Dealing with various cases of phonemic and graphemic foregrounding we should not forget the unilateral nature of a phoneme: this language unit helps to differentiate meaningful lexemes but has no meaning of its own. Cf.: while unable to speak about the semantics of [ou], [ju:], we acknowledge


their sense-differentiating significance in "sew" [sou] шить and "sew" [sju:] спускать воду; or [au], [ou] in "bow" бант, поклон etc.

Still, devoid of denotational or connotational meaning a phoneme, according to recent studies,* has a strong associative and sound-instrumenting power. Well-known are numerous cases of onomatopoeia - the use of words whose sounds imitate those of the signified object or action, such as "hiss", "bowwow", "murmur", "bump", "grumble", "sizzle" and many more.

Imitating the sounds of nature, man, inanimate objects, the acoustic form of the word foregrounds the latter, inevitably emphasizing its meaning too. Thus the phonemic structure of the word proves to be important for the creation of expressive and emotive connotations. A message, containing an onomat-opoeic word is not limited to transmitting the logical informa-tion only, but also supplies the vivid portrayal of the situation described.

Poetry abounds in some specific types of sound-instrument-ing, the leading role belonging to alliteration - the repetition of consonants, usually in the beginning of words, and asson-ance - the repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed syllables. They both may produce the effect of euphony (a sense of ease and comfort in pronouncing or hearing) or cacophony (a sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing or hearing). As an example of the first may serve the famous lines of E. A. Poe:

...silken sad uncertain

rustling of each purple curtain...

An example of the second is provided by the unspeakable combination of sounds found in R. Browning:

Nor soul helps flesh now more than flesh helps soul.

To create additional information in a prose discourse sound-instrumenting is seldom used. In contemporary advertizing, mass media and, above all, creative prose sound is foregrounded mainly through the change of its accepted graphical repre-sentation. This intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word combination) used to reflect its pronunciation is called graphon.

* See, e.g. Воронин С. В. Основы фоносемантики. Л., 1982, where the author lays foundations for a new linguistic subject - phonosemantics, claiming symbolic relevance of sound for naming objects.


Graphons, indicating irregularities or carelessness of pronunciation were occasionally introduced into English novels and journalism as early as the beginning of the eighteenth century and since then have acquired an ever growing frequency of usage, popularity among writers, journalists, advertizers, and a continuously widening scope of functions. Graphon proved to be an extremely concise but effective means of supplying information about the speaker's origin, social and educational background, physical or emotional condition, etc. So, when the famous Thackeray's character-butler Yellowplush - impresses his listeners with the learned words pronouncing them as "sellybrated" (celebrated), "benny-violent" (benevolent), "illygitmit" (illegitimate), "jewinile" (juvenile), or when the no less famous Mr. Babbitt uses "pee-rading" (parading), "Eytalians" (Italians), "peepul" (people)-the reader obtains not only the vivid image and the social, cultural, educational characteristics of the personages, but also both Thackeray's and S. Lewis' sarcastic attitude to them.

On  the  other  hand,   "The b-b-b-b-bas-tud-he   seen   me c-c-c-c-com-ing" in R. P. Warren's Sugar Boy's speech or "You don't mean to thay that thith ith your firth time" (D.C.) show the physical defects of the speakers - the stumbling of one and the lisping of the other.

Graphon, thus individualizing the character's  speech, adds to his plausibility, vividness, memorability. At the same time, graphon is very good at conveying the atmosphere of authentic live communication, of the informality of the speech act. Some amalgamated forms, which are the result of strong assimilation, became cliches in contemporary prose dialogue: "gimme" (give me), "lemme" (let me), "gonna" (going to), "gotta" (got to), "coupla" (couple of), "mighta" (might have), "willya" (will you), etc.

This flavour of informality and authenticity brought graphon

 popularity with advertizers. Big and small eating places invite customers to attend their "Pik-kwik store", or "The Donut (doughnut) Place", or the "Rite Bread Shop", or the "Wok-in Fast Food Restaurant", etc. The same is true about newspaper, poster and TV advertizing: "Sooper Class Model" cars, "Knee-hi" socks, "Rite Aid" medicines. A recently published book on Cockney was entitled by the authors "The Muvver Tongue",* on back flaps of big freight-cars one can read "Folio me", etc. Graphical changes may reflect not only  the peculiarities

* Baltrop, R., Wolveridge, J. The Muvver Tongue. London, 1980.


of pronunciation, but are also used to convey the intensity of the stress, emphasizing and thus foregrounding the stressed words. To such purely graphical means, not involving the viola-tions, we should refer all changes of the type (italics, capi-talization), spacing of graphemes (hyphenation, multiplication) and of lines. The latter was widely exercised in Russian poetry by V. Mayakovsky, famous for his "steps" in verse lines, or A. Voznesensky. In English the most often referred to "graphic-al imagist" was E. E. Cummings.

According to the frequency of usage, variability of functions, the first place among graphical means of foregrounding is occupied by italics. Besides italicizing words to add to their logical or emotive significance, separate syllables and morphemes may also be emphasized by italics (which is highly characteristic of D. Salinger or T. Capote). Intensity of speech (often in commands) is transmitted through the multiplication of a grapheme or capitalization of the word, as in Babbitt's shriek "Аlllll aboarrrrrd", or in the desperate appeal in A. Huxley's Brave New World-"Help. Help. HELP." Hyphena-tion of a word suggests the rhymed or clipped manner in which it is uttered as in the humiliating comment from Fl. O'Connor's story-"grinning like a chim-pan-zee".

Summing up the informational options of the graphical arrangement of a word (a line, a discourse), one sees their varied application for re-creating the individual and social peculiarities of the speaker, the atmosphere of the communi-cation act-all aimed at revealing and emphasizing the author's viewpoint.

Assignments for Self-Control       

  1.  What is sound-instrumenting?
  2.  What cases of sound-instrumenting do you know?
  3.  What is graphon?
  4.  What types and functions of graphon do you know?
  5.  What is achieved by the graphical changes of writing-
    its type, the spacing of graphemes and lines?
  6.  Which phono-graphical means are predominantly used in
    prose and which ones in poetry?

EXERCISES

I. Indicate the causes and effects of the following cases of alliteration, assonance and onomatopoeia:

1. Streaked by a quarter moon, the Mediterranean shushed gently into the beach. (I. Sh.)


  1.  He swallowed the hint with a gulp and a gasp and a grin.
    (R. K.)
  2.  His wife was shrill, languid, handsome and horrible.
    (Sc. F.)

  1.  The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,
    The furrow followed free. (S. C.)
  2.  The Italian trio tut-tutted their tongues at me. (T. C.)
  3.  You, Jean, long, lanky lath of a lousy bastard! (O'C.)
  4.  To sit in solemn silence in a dull dark dock,
    In a pestilential prison, with a life-long lock,
    Awaiting the sensation of a short, sharp shock

From  a  cheap  and  chippy  chopper  on  a  big  black block. (W. C.)

  1.  They all lounged, and loitered, and slunk about, with as
    little  spirit or purpose  as the  beasts  in a menagerie.  (D.)
  2.  "Luscious, languid and lustful, isn't she?"

"Those are not the correct epithets. She is-ог rather was surly, lustrous and sadistic." (E. W.)

  1.  Then, with an enormous, shattering rumble, sludge-
    puff,   sludge-puff,   the  train  came   into   the  station.   (A. S.)
  2.  "Sh-sh."

"But I am whispering." This continual shushing an-noyed him. (A. H.)

12. Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high,

Like a diamond in the sky. (Ch. R.)

13. Dreadful young creatures-squealing and squawking. (C.)

  1.  The quick crackling of dry wood aflame cut through the night. (St. H.)
  2.  Here the rain did not fall. It was stopped high above by that roof of green shingles. From there it dripped down slowly, leaf to leaf, or ran down the stems and branches. Despite the heaviness of the downpour which now purred loudly in their ears from just outside, here there was only a low rustle of slow occasional dripping. (J.)

II. Indicate the kind of additional information about the speaker supplied by graphon:

1. "Hey," he said, entering the library. "Where's the heart section?"

"The what?"

He had the thickest sort of southern Negro dialect and the only word that came clear to me was the one that sounded like heart.


"How do you spell it," I said.

"Heart,  Man,  pictures.   Drawing  books.  Where  you  got them?"

"You mean art books? Reproductions?" He took my polysyllabic word for it. "Yea, they's them." (Ph. R.)

  1.  "It don't take no nerve to do somepin when there ain't
    nothing else you can do. We ain't gonna die out. People is
    goin' on-changin' a little may be-but goin' right on."
    (J. St.)
  2.  "And remember, Mon-sewer O'Hayer says you got to
    straighten up this mess sometime today." (J.)
  3.  "I even heard they demanded sexual liberty. Yes, sir,
    Sex-You-All liberty." (J. K.)
  4.  "Ye've a duty to the public don'tcher know that, a duty
    to   the   great   English   public?"   said   George   reproachfully.

"Here, lemme handle this, kiddar," said Tiger. "Gorra maintain strength, you," said George. "Ah'm fightin' fit," said Tiger. (S. Ch.)

  1.  "Oh,  that's  it,  is  it?"  said  Sam.   "I  was  afeerd, from
    his manner, that he might ha' forgotten to take pepper with
    that 'ere last cowcumber he   et.   Set down, sir, ve make no
    extra charge for the settin' down, as the king remarked when
    he blowed up his ministers." (D.)
  2.  "Well, I dunno. I'll show you summat." (St. B.)
  3.  "De   old   Foolosopher,   like   Hickey   calls   yarn,   ain't
    yuh?" (O'N.)
  4.  "I had a coach with a little seat in fwont with an iwon
    wail for the dwiver." (D.)*

  1.  "The    Count," explained the German officer, "expegs
    you chentlemen at eight-dirty."
    (С. Н.)
  2.  Said Kipps one day, "As'e-I should say, ah, has'e...
    Ye know, I got a lot of difficulty with them two words, which
    is which."

"Well, 'as' is a conjunction, and 'has' is a verb." "I know," said Kipps, "but when is 'has' a conjunction, and when is 'as' a verb?" (H. W.)

12. Wilson was a little hurt. "Listen, boy," he told him.
"Ah may not be able to read eve'thin' so good, but they ain't
a  thing  Ah  can't do  if Ah  set  mah  mind  to  it."  (N. M.)

* The affected manner of Lord Muttonhead's pronunciation was well preserved in the Russian translation of the Pickwick Papers: «...с гешеткой впегеди для кучега».


III. Think of the causes originating graphon (young age, a physical defect
of  speech,   lack   of  education,   the  influence  of  dialectal  norms,   affectation,
intoxication, carelessness in speech, etc.):

1. He began to render the famous tune "I lost my heart
in an English garden, Just where the roses of England grow"
with much feeling:

"Ah-ee  last  mah-ee  hawrt  een  ahn  Angleesh  gawrden, Jost whahr thah rawzaz ahv Angland graw." (H. C.)

  1.  She mimicked a lisp: "I don't weally know wevver I'm
    a good girl. The last thing he'll do would be to be mixed with
    a howwid woman." (J. Br.)
  2.  "All  the  village  dogs    are   no-'count   mongrels,   Papa
    says.  Fish-gut eaters and no  class a-tall;  this here  dog,  he
    got insteek."
    (К. К.)
  3.  "My  daddy's  coming  tomorrow  on a nairplane."  (S.)

5. After a hum a beautiful Negress sings "Without a song,
the dahay would nehever end." (U.)

  1.  "Oh,  well, then, you just trot over to the table and
    make your little mommy a gweat big dwink." (E. A.)
  2.  "I allus remember me man sayin' to me when I passed
    me scholarship—'You break one o'my winders an' I'll skin ye
    alive'." (St. B.)
  3.  He spoke with the flat ugly "a" and withered "r" of
    Boston Irish, and Levi looked up at him and mimicked "All
    right, I'll give the caaads a break and staaat playing." (N. M.)
  4.  "Whereja get all these pictures?" he   said. "Meetcha at
    the   corner.   Wuddaya   think   she's   doing   out   there?"   (S.)

10. "Lookat him go. D'javer see him walk home from school?
You're French Canadian, aintcha?" (J. K.)

IV. State  the  function  of graphon  in  captions,   posters,   advertisements,
etc. repeatedly used in American press, TV, roadside advertizing:

  1.  Weather forecast for today: Hi 59, Lo 32, Wind lite.
  2.  We recommend a Sixty-seconds meal-Steak-Umm.
  3.  Choose the plane with "Finah Than Dinah" on its side.
  4.  Best jeans for this Jeaneration.
  5.  Follow our advice: Drinka Pinta Milka Day.
  6.  Terry's Floor Fashions: We make 'em-you walk on 'em.
  7.  Our offer is S 15.00 per WK.
  8.  Thanx for the purchase.
  9.  Ev'ybody uses our wunnerful Rackfeed Drills.

V. Analyse the following extract from Artemus Ward:*

"Sit down, my fren'; sed the man in black close; "yu mis


komprehend me. I meen that the perlitercal ellermunts are orecast with black klouds, 4 boden a friteful storm."

"Wall," replide I, "in regard to perlittercal ellerfunts i don't know as how but what they is as good as enny other kind of ellerfunts. But i maik bold to say thay is all a ornery set and unpleasant to hav round. They air powerful hevy eaters and take up a right smart chans of room."

The man in black close rusht up to me and sed, "How dair yu insult my neece, yu horey heded vagabone? Yu base exhibbiter of low wax figgers - you woolf in sheep's close," and sow 4th.

VI. State the functions and the type of the following graphical expressive means:

1. Piglet,  sitting  in the running Kanga's pocket,  substi-
tuting the kidnapped  Roo, thinks:

this shall take

"If     is         I        never to

flying really it." (M.)

2. Kiddies and grown-ups too-oo-oo

We haven't enough to do-oo-oo. (R. K.)

  1.  "Hey," he said "is it a goddamn cardroom? or a latrine?
    Attensh—HUT! Da-ress right! DHRESS! (J.)
  2.  "When Will's ma was down here keeping house for him-
    she used to run in to see me, real often." (S. L.)
  3.  He missed our father very much.  He was s-1-a-i-n in
    North Africa. (S.)
  4.  His voice began on a medium key, and climbed steadily
    up till it reached   a certain   point, where it bore with strong
    emphasis upon the topmost word, and then plunged down as if
    from a spring board:

beds

flowery

on

skies

the

to

carried

be

I

Shall of ease,

* Artemus Ward is the pseudonym of C. F. Browne (1834-67), well known for his record of the imaginary adventures of an itinerant half-literate showman.


Blood

throu'

sailed

and

prize

the

toe

fought

others

Whilst у seas? (M. T.)

  1.  "We'll teach the children to look at things. Don't let
    the world pass you by, I shall tell them. For the sun, I shall
    say, open your eyes for that laaaarge sun " (A. W.)
  2.  "Now listen, Ed, stop that, now. I'm desperate. I am
    desperate, Ed, do you hear?" (Dr.)
  3.  "Adieu you, old man, grey. I pity you, and I de-spise
    you." (D.)

10. "ALL our troubles are over, old girl," he said fondly.
"We can put a bit by now for a rainy day." (S. M.)

Morphemic Repetition. Extension of Morphemic Valency

The basic unit of this level being a morpheme we shall concentrate on examining the ways of foregrounding a morpheme so that the latter, apart from its inherent meaning, becomes vehicle of additional information-logical, emotive, expressive.

One important way of promoting a morpheme is its repeti-tion. Both root and affixational morphemes can be emphasized through repetition. Especially vividly it is observed in the repetition of affixational morphemes which normally carry the main weight of the structural and not of the denotational significance. When repeated they come into the focus of attention and stress either their logical meaning (e.g. that of contrast, negation, absence of a quality as in such prefixes like a-, -anti-, mis-; or of smallness as in suffixes -ling and -ette); their emotive and evaluative meaning, as in suffixes forming degrees of comparison; or else they add to the rhythmical effect and text unity.

The second, even more effective way of using a morpheme for the creation of additional information is extension of its normative valency which results in the formation of new words. They are not neologisms in the true sense for they are


created for special communicative situations only, and are not used beyond these occasions. This is why they are called occasional words and are characterized by freshness, originality, lucidity of their inner form and morphemic structure.

Very often occasional words are the result of morphemic repetition. Cf.: "I am an undersecretary in an underbureau." The stress on the insignificance of the occupation of I. Shaw's heroine brings forth both - the repetition of the prefix under-and the appearance, due to it, of the occasional word 'Hinder-bureau".

In case of repetition a morpheme gains much independence and bears major responsibility for the creation of additional information and stylistic effect. In case of occasional coinages an individual morpheme is only instrumental in bringing forth the impact of their combination, i. e. of new individual lexical unit.

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What are the main cases of morphemic foregrounding?
  2.  What are the functions of morphemic repetition?
  3.  How are morphemes foregrounded in occasional words?
  4.  What is the difference between occasional words and
    neologisms?

EXERCISES

I. State  the  function  of the  following  cases  of morphemic  repetition:

  1.  She unchained, unbolted and unlocked the door. (A. B.)
  2.  It   was   there   again,   more   clearly   than   before:   the
    terrible expression of pain in her eyes; unblinking, unaccepting,
    unbelieving pain. (D. U.)
  3.  We were sitting in the cheapest of all the cheap res-
    taurants that cheapen that very cheap and noisy street, the
    Rue des Petits Champs in Paris. (H.)
  4.  Young Blight made a great show of fetching from his
    desk a long thin manuscript volume with a brown paper cover,
    and running his finger down the day's appointments, murmuring:

Mr. Aggs, Mr. Baggs, Mr. Caggs, Mr. Daggs, Mr. Faggs, Mr. Gaggs, Mr. Boffin, Yes, sir, quite right. You are a little before your time, sir." (D.)

5. Young Blight made another great show of changing the
volume, taking up a pen, sucking it, dipping it, and running
over previous entries before he wrote. As, "Mr.  Alley, Mr.
Bailey,   Mr.   Calley,   Mr.   Dalley,   Mr.   Falley,   Mr.   Galley,


Mr. Halley, Mr. Lalley, Mr.  Malley.  And Mr. Boffin." (D.)

  1.  New scum, of course, has risen to take the place of
    the old, but the oldest scum, the thickest scum, and the scummi-
    est scum has come from across the ocean. (H.)
  2.  At  the  time  light rain  or  storm  darked  the  fortress
    I watched the coming of dark from the high tower. The fortress
    with its rocky view showed its temporary darkling life of lan-
    terns. (Jn. H.)
  3.  Laughing,   crying,   cheering,   chaffing,   singing,   David
    Rossi's people brought him home in triumph. (H. C.)
  4.  In a sudden burst of slipping, climbing, jingling, clinking
    and talking, they arrived at the convent door. (D.)

  1.  The procession then re-formed; the chairmen resumed
    their stations, and the march was re-commenced. (D.)
  2.  The precious   twins - untried,  unnoticed,  undirected -
    and I say it quiet with my hands down-undiscovered.  (S.)
  3.  We  are  overbrave  and  overfearful,   overfriendly and
    at the same time frightened of strangers, we're oversentimental
    and realistic. (P. St.)
  4.  There was then a calling over of names, and great work
    of singing,    sealing,     stamping,   inking,   and   sanding,   with
    exceedingly  blurred,  gritty  and undecipherable  results.   (D.)
  5.  The Major and the two Sportsmen form a silent group
    as Henderson, on the floor, goes through a protracted death
    agony, moaning and gasping, shrieking, muttering, shivering,
    babbling, reaching upward toward nothing once or twice for help,
    turning,  writhing,  struggling,  giving up at last,  sinking flat,
    and finally, after a waning gasp lying absolutely   still. (Js. H.)
  6.  She was a lone spectator, but never a lonely one, be-
    cause the warmth of company was unnecessary to her. (P. Ch.)
  7.  "Gentlemen, I put it to you that this band is a swin-
    dle. This band is an abandoned band. It cannot play a good
    godly tune, gentlemen." (W. D.)
  8.  He wished she would not look at him in this new way.
    For things were changing, something was changing now, this
    minute, just when he thought they would never change again,
    just when he found a way to live in that changelessness. (R. W.)
  9.  Three  million years ago something had passed  this
    way, had left this unknown and perhaps unknowable symbol of
    its purpose, and had returned to the planets - or to the stars.
    (A. C.)
  10.  "Sit down, you dancing, prancing, shambling, scram-
    bling fool parrot! Sit down!" (D.)


II. Analyze  the   morphemic   structure   and  the   purpose   of  creating  the occasional words in the following examples:

  1.  The girls could not take off their panama hats because
    this was not far from the school gates and hatlessness was an
    offence. (M. Sp.)
  2.  David, in his new grown-upness, had already a sort of
    authority. (I. M.)
  3.  That fact had all the unbelievableness of the sudden
    wound. (R. W.)
  4.  Suddenly  he   felt  a  horror  of her  otherness.   (J. B.)
  5.  Lucy wasn't Willie's luck. Or his unluck either. (R. W.)
  6.  She was waiting for something to happen or for everything
    to un-happen.
    (Т. Н.)
  7.  He  didn't  seem  to  think  that  that was  very  funny.
    But he didn't seem to think it was especially unfunny. (R. W.)
  8.  "You asked him."

"I'm un-asking him," the Boss replied. (R. W.)

9. He looked pretty good for a fifty-four-year-old former
college   athlete   who   for   years   had   overindulged   and   un-
derexercized. (D. U.)

  1.  She   was  a  young   and  unbeautiful   woman.   (I. Sh.)
  2.  The  descriptions were of two unextraordinary boys:
    three and a half and six years old. (D. U.)
  3.  The  girl  began  to  intuit what was  required of her.
    (Jn. H.)

13. "Mr. Hamilton, you haven't any children, have you?"
"Well, no. And I'm sorry about that, I guess. I am sorriest

about that." (J. St.)

  1.  "To think that I should have lived to be good-morn-
    inged by Belladonna Took's son!" (A. T.)
  2.  There were ladies too, en cheveux, in caps and bonnets,
    some of whom knew Trilby, and thee'd and thou'd with familiar
    and friendly affection, while others mademoiselle'd her with
    distant politeness and were mademoiselle's and madame'd back
    again. (D. du M.)
  3.  Parritt turns startledly. (O'N.)
  4.  The chairs are very close together - so close that the advisee almost touches knees with the adviser. (Jn. B.)

III. Discuss the following cases of morphemic foregrounding:

  1.  The District Attorney's office was not only panelled,
    draped and carpeted, it was also chandeliered with a huge brass
    affair hanging from the center of the ceiling. (D. U.)

He's no public offender, bless you, now! He's medalled


and  ribboned,  and  starred,  and  crossed,  and  I  don't know what all'd, like a born nobleman. (D.)

  1.  I gave  myself the  once-over in the  bathroom mirror:
    freshly shaved, clean-shirted, dark-suited and neck-tied. (D. U.)
  2.  Well, a kept woman is somebody who is perfumed, and
    clothed, and wined, and dined, and sometimes romanced heavi-
    ly. (Jn. C.)
  3.  It's the knowledge of the unendingness and of the rep-
    etitious uselessness that makes Fatigue fatigue. (J.)
  4.  The   loneliness   would   suddenly   overcome   you   like
    lostness and too-lateness, and a grief you had no name for.
    (R. W.)
  5.  I  came  here  determined  not  be  angry,  or weepy,  or
    preachy. (U.)
  6.  Militant feminists grumble that history is exactly what
    it says-His-story-and not Her story at all. (D. B.)
  7.  This dree to-ing and fro-ing persisted throughout the night
    and the next day. (D. B.)

10. "I love you mucher."

"Plently mucher? Me tooer." (J. Br.)

  1.  "I'm going to build me the God-damnedest, biggest,
    chromium-platedest, formaldehyde-stinkingest free hospital and
    health center." (R. W.)
  2.  So: I'm not just talented. I'm geniused. (Sh. D.)
  3.  Chickens - the tiny balls of fluff passed on into semi-
    naked pullethood and from that into dead henhood. (Sh. A.)
  4.  I'll   disown   you,   I'll   disinherit  you,   I'll   unget  you.
    (R. Sh.)
  5.  "Ready?"  said  the  old gentleman,  inquiringly,  when
    his guests had been washed, mended, brushed, and brandied. (D.)

CHAPTER   II.   LEXICAL   LEVEL

Word and its Semantic Structure. Connotational Meanings of a Word. The Role of the Context  in  the  Actualization  of Meaning

The idea of previous chapters was to illustrate potential possibilities of linguistic units more primitive than the word, found at lower levels of language structure and yet capable of conveying additional information when foregrounded in a specially organized context.

The forthcoming chapter is going to be one of the longest and most important in this book, for it is devoted to a lin-


guistic unit of major significance - the word, which names, qualifies and evaluates the micro- and macrocosm of the sur- rounding world. The most essential feature of a word is that it expresses the concept of a thing, process, phenomenon, na-ming (denoting) them. Concept is a logical category, its linguistic counterpart is meaning. Meaning, as our outstanding scholar L. Vygotsky put it, is the unity of generalization, communication and thinking. An entity of extreme complexity, the meaning of a word is liable to historical changes, of which you know from the course of lexicology and which are responsible for the formation of an expanded semantic structure of a word. This structure is constituted of various types of lexical meanings, the major one being denotational, which informs of the subject of communication; and also including connotational, which informs about the participants and conditions of communication.

The list and specification of connotational meanings varies with different linguistic schools and individual scholars and includes such entries as pragmatic (directed at the perlocutionary effect of utterance), associative (connected, through individual psychological or linguistic associations, with related and non-related notions), ideological, or conceptual (revealing political, social, ideological preferences of the user), evaluative (stating the value of the indicated notion), emotive (revealing the emotional layer of cognition and perception),* expressive (aiming at creating the image of the object in question), stylistic, (indicating "the register", or the situation of the communication).

The above-mentioned meanings are classified as connotational not only because they supply additional (and not the logical / de-notational) information, but also because, for the most part, they are observed not all at once and not in all words either. Some of them are more important for the act of communication than the others. Very often they overlap. So, all words possessing an emotive meaning are also evaluative (e. g. "rascal", "ducky"), though this rule is not reversed, as we can find non-emotive, intellectual evaluation (e. g. "good", "bad"). Also, all emotive words (or practically all, for that matter) are also expressive, while there are hundreds of expressive words which cannot be treated as emotive (take, for example the so-called expressive

* Cf. the famous quotation from V. I. Lenin: «Нельзя «изучать дейст-вительное положение вещей», не квалифицируя, не оценивая его». Ленин В. И. Полн. собр. соч., т. 23, с. 240).


verbs, which not only denote some action or process but also create their image, as in "to gulp" =  to swallow in big lumps, in a hurry; or "to sprint" = to run fast).

The number, importance and the overlapping character of connotational meanings incorporated into the semantic structure of a word, are brought forth by the context, i. e. a concrete speech act that identifies and actualizes each one. More than that: each context does not only specify the existing semantic (both denotational and connotational) possibilities of a word, but also is capable of adding new ones, or deviating rather considerably from what is registered in the dictionary. Because of that all contextual meanings of a word can never be exhausted or comprehensively enumerated. Compare the following cases of contextual use of the verb "to pop" in Stan Barstow's novel "Ask Me Tomorrow":

  1.  His face is red at first and then it goes white and his eyes stare
    as if they'll pop out of his head.
  2.  "Just pop into the scullery and get me something to stand
    this on."
  3.  'There is a fish and chip shop up on the main road. I thought
    you   might   show   your   gratitude   by   popping   up   for   some."

4. "I've no need to change or anything then."
"No, just pop your coat on and you're fine."

  1.  "Actually Mrs. Swallow is out. But she won't be long.
    She's popped up the road to the shops."
  2.  "Would you like me to pop downstairs and make you a
    cup of cocoa?"

In semantic actualization of a word the context plays a dual role: on the one hand, it cuts off all meanings irrelevant for the given communicative situation. On the other, it foregrounds one of the meaningful options of a word, focusing the communicators' attention on one of the denotational or connonational components of its semantic structure.

The significance of the context is comparatively small in the field of stylistic connotations, because the word is labelled stylistically before it enters some context, i.e. in the dictionary: recollect the well-known contractions - vulg., arch., sl., etc., which make an indispensable part of a dictionary entry. So there is sense to start the survey of connotational meanings with the stylistic differentiation of the vocabulary.


Stylistic Differentiation of the Vocabulary

Literary  Stratum  of Words.  Colloquial  Words

The word-stock of any given language can be roughly divided into three uneven groups, differing from each other by the sphere of its possible use. The biggest division is made up of neutral words, possessing no stylistic connotation and suitable for any communicative situation, two smaller ones are literary and colloquial strata respectively.

Literary words serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, poetic messages, while the_colloquial ones are employed in non-official everyday communication. Though there is no immediate correlation between the written and the oral forms of speech on the one hand, and the literary and colloquial words, on the other, yet, for the most part, the first ones are mainly observed in the written form, as most literary messages appear in writing. And vice versa: though there are many examples of colloquialisms in writing (informal letters, diaries, certain passages of memoirs, etc.), their usage is associated with the oral form of communication.

Consequently, taking for analysis printed materials we shall find literary words in authorial speech, descriptions, considerations, while colloquialisms will be observed in the types of discourse, simulating (copying) everyday oral communication - i.e., in the dialogue (or interior monologue) of a prose work.

When we classify some speech (text) fragment as literary or colloquial it does not mean that all the words constituting it have a corresponding stylistic meaning. More than that: words with a pronounced stylistic connotation are few in any type of discourse, the overwhelming majority of its lexis being neutral. As our famous philologist L.V. Shcherba once said- a stylistically coloured word is like a drop of paint added to   a glass of pure water and colouring the whole of it.

Each of the two named groups of words, possessing a styl-istic meaning, is not homogeneous as to the quality of the meaning, frequency of use, sphere of application, or the number and character of potential users. This is why each one is further divided into the general, i.e. known to and used by most native speakers in generalized literary (formal) or colloquial (informal) communication, and special bulks. The latter ones, in their turn, are subdivided into subgroups, each one serving  a  rather  narrow, specified communicative purpose.

So, among special literary words, as a rule, at least two major subgroups are mentioned. They are:


  1.  Terms, i. e. words denoting objects, processes, phenomena
    of science, humanities, technique.
  2.  Archaisms, i. e. words, a) denoting historical phenomena
    which are no more in use (such  as   "yeoman",   "vassal",
    falconet"). These are
    historical words.

  1.  used in poetry in the XVII-XIX cc. (such as "steed" for
    "horse"; "quoth" for "said"; "woe" for "sorrow"). These are
    poetic words.
  2.  in the course of language history ousted by newer syn-
    onymic words (such as "whereof" = of which; "to deem" = to
    think;   "repast" = meal;   "nay" = no)   or   forms   ("maketh" =
    makes;   "thou wilt" = you will; "brethren" = brothers). These
    are called
    archaic words (archaic forms) proper.

Literary words, both general (also called learned, bookish, high-flown) and special, contribute to the message the tone of solemnity, sophistication, seriousness, gravity, learnedness. They are used in official papers and documents, in scientific communication, in high poetry, in authorial speech of creative prose.

Colloquial words, on the contrary, mark the message as in-formal, non-official, conversational. Apart from general collo-quial words, widely used by all speakers of the language in their everyday communication (e. g. "dad", "kid", "crony", "fan", "to pop", "folks"), such special subgroups may be mentioned:

1. Slang forms the biggest one. Slang words, used by most speakers in very informal communication, are highly emotive and expressive and as such, lose their originality rather fast and are replaced bу newer formations. This tendency to syno-nymic expansion results in long chains of synonyms of various degrees of expressiveness, denoting one and the same concept. So, the idea of a "pretty girl" is worded by more than one hundred ways in slang.

In only one novel by S. Lewis   there are close to a dozen synonyms used by Babbitt, the central character, in reference to a girl: "cookie", "tomato", "Jane", "sugar", "bird", "cutie", etc.

The substandard status of slang words and phrases, through universal usage, can be raised to the standard colloquial: "pal", "chum," "crony" for "friend"; "heavies", "woolies" for "thick panties"; "booze" for "liquor"; "dough" for "money"; "how's tricks" for "how's life"; "beat it" for "go away" and many many more - are examples of such a transition.

2. Jargonisms stand close to slang, also being substandard, expressive and emotive, but, unlike slang they are used by limited groups of people, united either professionally (in this


case we deal with professional jargonisms, or professionalisms), or socially (here we deal with jargonisms proper). In distinction from slang, jargonisms of both types cover a narrow semantic field: in the first case it is that, connected with the technical side of some profession. So, in oil industry, e. g., for the terminological "driller" (буровик) there exist "borer", "digger",  "wrencher", "hogger", "brake weight"; for "pipeliner" (тpyбonpoводчик) - "swabber", "bender", "cat", "old cat", "collar-pecker", "hammerman"; for "geologist"-"smeller", "pebble pup", "rock hound", "witcher", etc From all the examples at least two points are evident: professionalisms are formed according to the existing word-building patterns or present existing words in new meanings, and, covering the field of special professional knowledge, which is semantically limited, they offer a vast variety of synonymic choices for naming one and the same professional item

Jargonisms proper are characterized by similar linguistic features, but differ in function and sphere of application. They originated from the thieves' jargon (l'argo, cant) and served to conceal the actual significance of the utterance from the uninitiated. Their major function thus was to be cryptic, secretive. This is why among them there are cases of conscious deformation of the existing words. The so-called back jargon (or back slang) can serve as an example: in their effort to conceal the machinations of dishonest card-playing, gamblers used numerals in their reversed form: "ano" for "one", "owt" for "two", "erth" for "three".

Anglo-American tradition, starting with E. Partridge, a famous English lexicographer, does not differentiate between slang and jargonisms regarding these groups as one extensive stratum of words divided into general slang, used by all, or most, speakers and special slang, limited by the professional or social standing of the speaker . This debate appears to concentrate more on terminology than on essence. Indeed slang (general slang) and jargonisms (special slang) have much in common, are emotive, expressive, unstable, fluctuating, tending to expanded synonymity within certain lexico-semantic groups and limited to a highly informal, substandard communication So it seems appropriate to use the indicated terms as synonyms.

3. Vulgarisms are coarse words with a strong emotive mean-ing, mostly derogatory, normally avoided in polite conversa-tion. History of vulgarisms reflects the history of social ethics. So, in Shakespearean times people were much more lin-guistically frank and disphemistic in their communication than in the age of Enligtenment,   or the Victorian era, famous for


its prudish and reserved manners. Nowadays words which were labelled vulgar in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are considered such no more. In fact, at present we are faced with the reverse of the problem: there are practically no words banned from use by the modern permissive society. Such intensifiers as "bloody", "damned", "cursed", "hell of, formerly deleted from literature and not allowed in conversation, are not only welcomed in both written and oral speech, but, due to constant repetition, have lost much of their emotive impact and substandard quality. One of the best-known American editors and critics Maxwell Perkins, working with the serialized 1929 magazine edition of Hemingway's novel A. Farewell to Arms found that the publishers deleted close to a dozen words which they considered vulgar for their publication. Preparing the hard-cover edition Perkins allowed half of them back ("son of a bitch", "whore", "whorehound," etc.). Starting from the late 'fifties no publishing house objected to any coarse or obscene expressions. Consequently, in contemporary West European and American prose all words, formerly considered vulgar for public use (including the four-letter words), are even approved by the existing moral and ethical standards of society and censorship.

4. Dialectal words are normative and devoid of any stylistic meaning in regional dialects, but used outside of them, carry a strong flavour of the locality where they belong. In Great Britain four major dialects are distinguished: Lowland Scotch, Northern, Midland (Central) and Southern. In the USA three major dialectal varieties are distinguished: New England, Southern and Midwestern (Central, Midland). These classifica-tions do not include many minor local variations. Dialects markedly differ on the phonemic level: one and the same pho-neme is differently pronounced in each of them. They differ also on the lexical level, having their own names for locally existing phenomena and also supplying locally circulating synonyms for the words, accepted by the language in general. Some of them have entered the general vocabulary and lost their dialectal status ("lad", "pet", "squash", "plaid").

Each of the above-mentioned four groups justifies its la-bel of special colloquial words as each one, due to varying reasons, has application limited to a certain group of people or to certain communicative situations.

Assignments for Self-Control

1. What can you say about the meaning of a word and its relation to the concept of an entity?


  1.  What types of lexical meaning do you know and what
    stipulates their existence and differentiation?
  2.  What connotational meanings do you know? Dwell on
    each of them, providing your own examples.
  3.  What is the role of the context in meaning actualization?

5. What registers of communication are reflected in the styl-
stic differentiation of the vocabulary?

  1.  Speak   about  general   literary   words   illustrating   your
    elaboration  with  examples  from  nineteenth-  and  twentieth-
    century prose.

What are the main subgroups of special literary words?

  1.  What do you know of terms, their structure, meaning,
    functions?
  2.  What are the fields of application of archaic words and
    forms?

  1.  Can you recognize general colloquial words in a literary
    text?   Where do they mainly occur?
  2.  What are the main characteristics of slang?
  3.  What do you know of professional and social jargonisms?
  4.  What  connects  the   stock  of vulgarisms  and  social
    history?
  5.  What is the place and the role of dialectal words in the
    national language? in the literary text?
  6.  To provide answers to the above questions find words
    belonging to different stylistic groups and subgroups:

a) in the dictionary, specifying its stylistic mark ("label"); b) in

your reading material, specifying the type of discourse, where you found it - authorial speech (dialogue, narration), description, etc

EXERCISES

I. State the type and function of literary words in the following examples:

1. "I  must decline  to  pursue  this  painful  discussion.  It
is not pleasant to my feelings; it is repugnant to my feelings." (D.)

2. "I am not in favour of this modern mania for turning bad
people into good people at a moment's notice. As a man sows so

let him reap." (O. W.)

3. Isolde  the  Slender  had  suitors  in  plenty  to  do  her
lightest hest.  Feats of arms were  done  daily for her sake.

Tо win her love suitors were willing to vow themselves to perdi-tion. But Isolde the Slender was heedless of the court thus paid to her. (L.)

4. "He of the iron garment," said Daigety, entering, "is
bounden unto you, MacEagh,   and this noble lord shall be
bounden also." (W. Sc.)


  1.  If manners maketh man, then manner and grooming
    maketh poodle. (J. St.)
  2.  "Thou art the Man," cried Jabes, after a solemn pause,
    leaning over his cushion. "Seventy times didst thou gapingly
    contort thy visage - sevently times  seven did I take  council
    with my soul - Lo! this is human weakness: this also may be
    absolved.  The first of the seventy first is come.  Brethren-
    execute upon him the judgement written. Such honour have all
    His saints."  (E. Br.)
  3.  At noon the hooter and everything died. First, the pulley
    driving   the   punch  and   shears   and   emery  wheels   stopped
    its lick and slap. Simultaneously the compressor providing the
    blast for a dozen smith-fires went dead. (S. Ch.)
  4.  "They're real!" he murmured. "My God, they are abso-
    lutely real!" Erik turned. "Didn't you believe that the neutron
    existed?" "Oh, I believed," Fabermacher shrugged away the
    praise.   "To  me  neutrons  were  symbols  
    n with a  mass  of
    mn = 1.008. But until now I never saw them." (M. W.)
  5.  Riding back I saw the Greeks lined up in column of
    march.  They were all still there.  Also, all armed.  On long
    marches when no action threatened, they had always piled their
    armour,   helmets  and  weapons  in  their  carts,   keeping  only
    their swords; wearing their short tunics (made from all kinds of
    stuff, they had been so long from home) and the wide straw
    hats Greeks travel in, their skins being tender to sun. Now they
    had on corselets or cuirasses, helmets, even grades if they owned
    them,  and  their round  shields hung at their backs.  (M. R.)

10. There wasn't a man-boy on this ground tonight did
not have a shield he cast, riveted or carved himself on his
way to his first attack, compounded of remote but nonetheless
firm   and   fiery   family   devotion,   flag-blown   patriotism   and
cocksure immortality strengthened by the touchstone of very
real gunpowder, ramrod minnie-ball and flint. (R. Br.)

11. Into the organpipes and steeples
Of the luminous cathedrals,

Into the weathercocks' molten mouths Rippling in twelve-winded circles, Into the dead clock burning the hour Over the urn of sabbaths... Erupt, fountain, and enter to utter for ever Glory glory glory

The sundering ultimate kingdom of genesis' thunder.

(D. Th.)

12. If any dispassionate spectator could have beheld the
countenance of the illustrious man, whose name forms the


leading feature of the title of this work, during the latter part of this conversation, he would have been almost induced to wonder that the indignant fire that flashed from his eyes, did not melt the glasses of his spectacles - so majestic was his wrath. His nostrils dilated, and his fists clenched involuntarily, as he heard himself addressed by the villain. But he restrained himself again - he did not pulverize him.

"Here," continued the hardened traitor, tossing the licence at Mr. Pickwick's feet; "get the name altered - take home the lady-do for Tuppy." (D.)

II. Think of the type of additional information about the speaker or communicative situation conveyed by the following general and special colloquial words:

  1.  "She's engaged. Nice guy, too. Though there's a slight
    difference in height. I'd say a foot, her favor." (T. C.)
  2.  "You know Brooklyn?"

"No. I was never there. But I had a buddy at Myer was from Brooklyn." (J.)

  1.  I didn't really do anything this time. Just pulled the
    dago out of the river. Like all dagos, he couldn't swim. Well,
    the fellow was sort of grateful about it. Hung around like a dog.
    About six months later he died of fever. I was with him. Last
    thing, just as he was pegging out, he beckoned me and whispered
    some excited jargon about a secret. (Ch.)
  2.  "Here we are now," she cried, returning with the tray.
    "And don't look so miz." (P.)
  3.  "What's the dif,"  he wanted to know. (Th. S.)
  4.  Going down the stairs he overheard one beamed freshman
    he knew talking to another. "Did you see that black cat with
    the black whiskers who had those binocks in front of us? That's
    my comp prof."
    (В. М.)
  5.  "Don't you intend to get married?" asked Eugene curi-
    ously.  "I don't know," she replied, "I'd want to think about
    that. A woman-artist is in a d-of a position anyway," using the
    letter d only to indicate the word "devil". (Dr.)
  6.  "There we were... in the hell of a country-pardon me-
    - country of raw metal.

...It's like a man of sixty looking down his nose at a youth of thirty and there's no such God-darned - pardon me - mistake as that. (G.)

9. "All those medical bastards should go through the ops
they put other people through. Then they wouldn't talk so much
bloody nonsense or be so damnably unutterably smug." (D. C.)


  1.  "I thought of going to the flicks," she said. "Or we
    could go for a walk if it keeps fine."  (J. Br.)
  2.  "Let me warn you that the doc is a frisky bacheldore,
    Carol.  Come on, now, folks, shake a leg. Let's have some
    stunts or a dance or something." (S. L.)
  3.  "Goddamn sonofabitching stool," Fishbelly screamed,
    raining blows on Bert's head. "Lawd Gawd in heaven, I'll kill,
    kill every chink-chink goddamn chinaman white man on this
    sonofabitching bastard earth." (Wr.)
  4.  There  was a fearful  mess in the room, and piles of
    unwashed crocks in the kitchen. (A. T.)
  5.  "Of course  I've  spent  nine  years around  the  Twin
    Cities - took my B. A. and M. D. over at the U, and had my
    internship in a hospital in Minneapolis." (S. L.)
  6.  "How long did they cook you?" Dongeris stopped short
    and looked at him. "How long did they cook you?"

"Since eight this morning. Over twelve hours." "You didn't unbutton then? After twelve hours of it?" "Me? They got a lot of dancing to  do  before they'll get anything out of me." (Т. Н.)

  1.  "Nix   on   that,"   said   Roy.   "I   don't   need  a   shyster
    quack  to  shoot  me  full   of confidence juice.  I  want to go
    through on my own steam." (В. М.)
  2.  "Go in there, you slob. I hope you get a hell of a lot of
    fun out of it. He looks too damned sick." (H.)
  3.  Just then Taylor comes down. "Shut up and eat," my
    mother says to him before he can open his mouth.  In less
    than five minutes my father is back. "Keep the kids home,"
    he says.

"My God," my mother says wearily, "them under foot all day." (Sh. Gr.)

  1.  "Don't wanna sleep, Don't wanna die, just wanna go
    a-travelin' through the pastures of the sky." (T. C.)
  2.  "Never heard anything so bloody daft in all my life."
    (J. Br.)
  3.  "You know. The mummies - them dead guys that get buried in them toons and all." (S.)
  4.  His expenses didn't go down...washing   cost a packet,
    and you'd be surprised the amount of linen he needed. (S. M.)
  5.  "We'll show Levenford what my clever lass can do. I'm
    looking ahead, and I can see it. When we've made ye the head
    scholar of the  Academy,  then  you'll  see what your father
    means to do wi' you. But ye must stick in to your lessons, stick in
    hard." (A. C.)
  6.  Wee modest crimson tipped flow'r,


Thou's met me in an evil hour;

For I maun crush amang the stoure Thy slender stem:

To spare thee now is past my pow'r

Thou bonnie gem. (R. B.)

25. "That's so, my lord. I remember having tae du much the same thing, mony years since, in an inquest upon a sailing ves-sel that ran aground in the estuary and got broken up by bumping herself to bits in a gale. The insurance folk thocht that the accident wasna a'tegither straightforward. We tuk it upon oorsels tae demonstrate that wi' the wind and tide setti' as they did, the boat should ha' been wellaway fra' the shore if they started at the hour they claimed tae ha' done. We lost the case, but I've never altered my opeenion." D. S.)

Ш. Compare the neutral and the colloquial (or literary) modes of expression:

1. "Also it will cost him a hundred bucks as a retainer."
"Huh?" Suspicious again. Stick to basic English.
"Hundred dollars," I said. "Iron men. Fish. Bucks to

the number of one hundred. Me no money, me no come. Savvy?" I began to count a hundred with both hands. (R. Ch.)

2. "...some thief in the night boosted my clothes whilst
I slept. I sleep awful sound on the mattresses you have here."

"Somebody boosted...?"

"Pinched. Jobbed. Swiped. Stole," he says happily. (К. К.)

3. "Now take fried, crocked, squiffed, loaded, plastered,
blotto, tiddled, soaked, boiled, stinko, viled, polluted."

"Yes," I said.

"That's the next set of words I am decreasing my vocabulary by,"   said  Atherton.   "Tossing  them  all  out in favor of-"

"Intoxicated?" I supplied.

"I favor fried," said Atherton. "It's shorter and monosyl-labic, even though it may sound a little harsher to the squeamish-minded."

"But there are degrees of difference," I objected. "Just being tiddled isn't the same as being blotto, or-"

"When you get into the vocabulary-decreasing business," he interrupted, "you don't bother with technicalities. You throw out the whole kit and caboodle - I mean the whole bunch," he hastily corrected himself. (P. G. W.)

4. "Do you talk?" asked Bundle. "Or are you just strong
silent?"

"Talk?"   said Anthony. "I babble. I murmur. I burble-


like  a  running  brook,   you  know.   Sometimes  I  even  ask questions." (Ch.)

5. "So you'll both come to dinner? Eight fifteen. Dinny,
we must be back to lunch. Swallows," added Lady Mont round
the   brim  of her  hat  and  passed  out  through  the  porch.

"There's a house-party," said Dinny to the young man's elevated eyebrows. "She means tails and a white tie." "Oh! Ah! Best bib and tucker, Jean." (G.)

6. "What do you really contemplate doing?"
"No Plaza? Not even when I'm in the chips?"
"Why are you so rich?" (J. O'H.)

  1.  "Obviously an emissary of Mr. Bunyan had obtained clan-
    destine access to her apartment in her absence and purloined
    the communication in question." It took Lord Uffenham some
    moments to work this out, but eventually he unravelled it and
    was able to translate it from his butler's language. What the
    man was trying to say was that some low blister, bought with
    Bunyan's gold, had sneaked into the girl's flat and pinched
    the bally things. (P. G. W.)
  2.  "I say, old boy, where do you hang out?" Mr. Pickwick
    responded that he was at present suspended at the George and
    Vulture. (D.)
  3.  "The only thing that counts in his eyes is solid achieve-
    ment.   Sometimes  I   have   been  prostrate  with  fatigue.   He
    calls it idleness. I need the stimulation of good company:
    He terms this riff-raff. The plain fact is, I am misunderstood."
    (D. du M.)

10. "The scheme I would suggest cannot fail of success,
but it has what may seem to you a drawback, sir, in that it
requires a certain financial outlay."

"He means," I translated to Corky, "that he has a pippin of an idea but it's going to cost a bit." (P. G. W.)

  1.  Mrs.   Sunbury  never  went  to   bed-she   retired,   but
    Mr. Sunbury who was not quite so refined as his wife always
    said: "Me for Bedford." (S. M.)
  2.  "He tried those engineers. But no soap. No answer."
    (J. O'H.)
  3.  "You want to know what I think? I think you're nuts.
    Pure plain crazy. Goofy as a loon. That's what I think." (J.)
  4.  The   famous   Alderman   objected   to   the   phrase   in
    Canning's   inscription for a Pitt Memorial "He died poor" and
    wished to substitute "He expired in indigent circumstances."
    (Luc.)
  5.  "I am Alpha and Omega - the first and the last," the solemn voice would announce. (D. du M.)


  1.  The tall man ahead of him half-turned saying "Gre't
    God! I never, I never in all my days seen so many folks."
    Mr. Munn thought that he, too, had never seen so many people,
    never before. (R. W.)
  2.  It may sound to some like cold-blooded murder of the
    English  tongue,  but American  kids  have  been  speaking a
    language of their own since they annoyed their Pilgrim parents
    at Plymouth Rock.

Ask a teen-ager today what he thought of last night's rock show. If he liked it, it was "wicked" or "totally awesome". But if he didn't, it was "groady" or "harsh".

Young people punctuate their sentences with slang. They drop phrases that would make Professor Henry Higgins turn over in his grave. Twice.

"It's just like a dictionary that only teen-agers under-stand," said Michael Harris, 17, a high school student in Rich-mond, Va. "You go home and you have to spell it for your parents. They don't even know what you're talking about."

But this has been going on for years. Slang is as old as English itself, says Stuart Berg Flexner, editor-in-chief of the Random House Dictionary, author of the Dictionary of American Slang.

It offended puritan parents that their Pilgrim children look their traditional farewell-God be with you - and turned it into "good-bye", Flexner says.

Today's words are obsolete tomorrow.

"I may call somebody a jerk, but today they would call him a nerd," says Flexner, 54. "Each generation seems to want to have some of its own words."

"It's not so much to shut out adults - although that's a part of it. It gives them identity with their own age group. They sort of belong to their own club," he says.

There is valleytalk and preppyspeak, jocktalk and street language.

Take Moon Unit Zappa's Valley Talk. The daughter of famed rocker Frank Zappa was 14 years old when her dad sat her before a microphone and documented her language in a pop song.

"Gag me with a spoon," she says to show disgust. "Groady to the max."

Legions of youngsters across America picked it up. The song, and language,  was  a  coast-to-coast  hit.   But that killed it.

"Valley Speak is out," reports Jane Segal, 16, a reformed Valley Girl at Santa Monica High School. "It went out after the song was played to death. It was really popular, and then eve-ryone got so sick of the stupid song they quit saying that stuff."


"No one ever says 'Gag me' anymore," she says. "'Totally' is still hanging on, and everyone uses 'like'. They say it everywhere, just sprinkle it in. I do it subconsciously, I use it like 'um."

Flexner considers slang a reflection of American pop culture. Words come and go like No. 1 hit songs. Once a word is widely known it may he dropped, relegated to the used-slang bin alongside "swell" from the '50s and "groovy" from the '60s.

Others stick around like golden oldies.

"There are classics. Once a good phrase comes along it's pretty hard to replace it," says Scott Wenger, 19, a New York University student. "'Flipped out' still means crazy and 'pulling an allnighter' still means to study hard until all hours of the morning for exams."

Teen-agers may dream up slang, but adults use it too. Julia Shields, 42, a high school English teacher in Charlottes-ville, Va., is an avowed user.

"I love slang, think it's colorful, wonderful, metaphoric. Some of it is quite clever," she says. "I hate it, but I call everything 'about It's such a horrible, vague, meaningless word. But I use it in every sentence."

Slang is not the talk of board rooms and diplomatic ses-sions. Because young people spend more time informally than adults, and slang is a product of relaxing the rules, high schools and college campuses are breeding grounds for it. (C. R.)

IV. Speak about the difference between the contextual and the dictionary meanings of italicized words:

  1.  Mr. James Duffy lived in Chapelizod because he wished
    to live as far as possible from the city of which he was the
    citizen and because he found all the other suburbs of Dublin
    mean,
    modern and pretentious. (J. J.)
  2.  He does all our insurance examining and they say he's
    some doctor. (S. L.)
  3.  He seemed prosperous, extremely married and unromantic.
    (S. L.)
  4.  "What do you think?" The question pops their heads up.
    (K. K.)
  5.  We  tooled the car into the street and eased it into
    the ruck of folks. (R. W.)
  6.  He inched the car forward. (A. H.)
  7.  "Of course it was considered a great chance for me, as
    he  is  so  rich.  And - and - we  
    drifted into  a sort of under-
    standing-I suppose I should call it an engagement-"

"You may have drifted into it; but you will bounce out of it, my pettikins, if I am to have anything to do with it." (B. Sh.)

 


  1.  He sat with the strike committee for many hours in a
    smoky  room  and  
    agonized over ways  and means.   (M.G.)
  2.  Betty loosed fresh tears. (Jn. B.)

  1.  When the food came, they wolfed it down rapidly. (A. M.)
  2.  He  had  seen  many  places and been many  things:
    railroad foreman, plantation overseer, boss mechanic, cow-
    puncher, and Texas deputy-sheriff. (J. R.)
  3.  Station platforms were such long, impersonal, dirty,
    ugly
    things, with too many goodbyes, lost hearts, and tears
    stamped into the concrete paving. (A. S.)
  4.  "Let me say, Virginia, that I consider your conduct
    most unbecoming. Nor at all that of a pure young widow."

"Don't be an idiot, Bill. Things are happening." "What kind of things?" "Queer things." (Ch.)

  1.  I need young critical things like you to punch me
    up. (S. L.)
  2.  Oh!  the way the women wear their prettiest every
    thing! (T.C.)

Lexical Stylistic Devices

Metaphor. Metonymy. Synecdoche. Play on Words. Irony. Epithet. Hyperbole. Understatement. Oxymoron

You know by now that among multiple functions of the word the main one is to denote, denotational meaning thus being the major semantic characteristic of the word. In this paragraph we shall deal with the foregrounding of this particular function, i. e. with such types of denoting phenomena that create additional expressive, evaluative, subjective connotations. We shall deal in fact with the substitution of the existing names approved by long usage and fixed in dictionaries by new, occasional, individual ones, prompted by the speaker's subjective original view and evaluation of things. This act of name-exchange, of substitution is traditionally referred to as transference, for, indeed, the name of one object is transferred onto another, proceeding from their similarity (of shape, colour, function, etc.), or closeness (of material existence, cause/ effect,  instrument/ result,  part/ whole  relations,  etc.).

Each type of intended substitution results in a stylistic device (SD)* called also a trope. The most frequently used,

* For the elaboration of SDs see:  Galperin I. R. Stylistics.  M.,  1971, esp. pp. 24-30 and part IV (pp. 132-190).


well known and elaborated among them is а transference of names based on the associated likeness be-tween two objects, as in the "pancake", or "ball", or "volcano" for the “sun”; “silver dust”, "sequins" for "stars"; "vault", "blanket", "veil" for the "sky".

From previous study you know that nomination - the process of naming reality by means of the language-proceeds from choosing one of the features characteristic of the object which is being named for the representative of the object. The con-nection between the chosen feature, representing the object, and the word is especially vivid in cases of transparent "in-ner form" when the name of the object can be easily traced to the name of one of its characteristics. Cf.: "railway", "chairman", "waxen". Thus the semantic structure of a word reflects, to a certain extent, characteristic features of the piece of reality which it denotes (names). So it is only natural that similarity between real objects or phenomena finds its reflection in the semantic structures of words denoting them: both words possess at least one common semantic component. In the above examples with the "sun" this common semantic component is "hot" (hence -"volcano", "pancake" which are also "hot"), or "round" ("ball", "pancake" which are also of round shape).

The expressiveness of the metaphor is promoted by the implic-it simultaneous presence of images of both objects - the one which is actually named and the one which supplies its own "legal" name. So that formally we deal with the name transfer-ence based on the similarity of one feature common to two different entities, while in fact each one enters a phrase in the complexity  of its other characteristics. The wider is the gap between the associated objects the more striking and unexpected - the more expressive - is the metaphor.

If a metaphor involves likeness between inanimate and animate objects, we deal with personification, as in "the face of London", or "the pain of the ocean".

Metaphor, as all other SDs, is fresh, original, genuine, when first used, and trite, hackneyed, stale when often repeated. In the latter case it gradually loses its expressiveness becoming just another entry in the dictionary, as in the "leg of a table" or the "sunrise", thus serving a very important source of enriching the vocabulary of the language.

Metaphor can be expressed by all notional parts of speech, and functions in the sentence as any of its members.

When the speaker (writer) in his desire to present an elaborated image does not limit its creation to a single meta-phor but offers a group of them, each supplying another feature


of the described phenomenon, this cluster creates a sustained (prolonged) metaphor.

Exercise I. Analyse the given cases of metaphor from all sides mentioned above — semantics, originality, expressiveness, syntactic function, vividness and elaboration of the created image. Pay attention to the manner in which two objects (actions) are identified: with both named or only one — the metaphorized one-presented explicitly:

  1.  She looked down on Gopher Prairie. The snow stretching
    without break from street to devouring prairie beyond, wiped
    out the town's pretence of being a shelter. The houses were
    black specks on a white sheet. (S. L.)
  2.  And the skirts! What a sight were those skirts! They were
    nothing but vast decorated pyramids; on the summit of each
    was stuck the upper half of a princess. (A. B.)
  3.  I was staring directly in front of me, at the back of
    the driver's neck, which was a relief map of boil scars. (S.)
  4.  She was handsome in a rather leonine way. Where this
    girl was a lioness, the other was a panther-lithe and quick.
    (Ch.)
  5.  His   voice   was   a   dagger  of corroded   brass.   (S. L.)
  6.  Wisdom  has  reference  only  to  the  past.   The future
    remains for ever an infinite field for mistakes. You can't know
    beforehand. (D. H. L.)
  7.  He felt the first watery eggs of sweat moistening the
    palms of his hands. (W. S.)
  8.  At the last moment before the windy collapse of the day,
    I myself took the road down. (Jn. H.)
  9.  The man stood there in the middle of the street with
    the    deserted    dawnlit   boulevard   telescoping   out   behind
    him.
    (Т. Н.)

  1.  Leaving Daniel to his fate, she was conscious of joy
    springing in her heart. (A. B.)
  2.  He smelled the ever-beautiful smell of coffee imprisoned
    in the can. (J. St.)
  3.  We talked and talked and talked, easily, sympathetically,
    wedding her experience with my articulation. (Jn. B.)
  4.  "We need you so much here. It's a dear old town, but it's
    a rough diamond, and we need you for the polishing, and we're
    ever so humble...". (S. L.)
  5.  They walked along, two continents of experience and
    feeling, unable to communicate. (W. G.)
  6.  Geneva,    mother    of   the    Red    Cross,   hostess   of
    humanitarian congresses for the civilizing of warfare! (J. R.)
  7.  She and the kids have filled his sister's house and their
    welcome is wearing thinner and thinner: (U.)


  1.  Notre Dame squats in the dusk. (H.)
  2.  I am the new year. I am an unspoiled page in your book
    of time. I am your next chance at the art of living.

I am your opportunity to practice what you have learned during the last twelve months about life.

All that you sought the past year and failed to find is hidden in me; I am waiting for you to search it out again and with more determination.

All the good that you tried to do for others and didn't achieve last year is mine to grant - providing you have fewer selfish and conflicting desires.

In me lies the potential of all that you dreamed but didn't dare to do, all that you hoped but did not perform, all you prayed for but did not yet experience. These dreams slumber lightly, waiting to be awakened by the touch of an enduring purpose. I am your opportunity. (Т. Н.)

19. Autumn comes

And trees are shedding their leaves, And Mother Nature blushes Before disrobing. (N. W.)

20. He had hoped that Sally would laugh at this, and she
did, and in a sudden mutual gush they cashed into the silver
of laughter  all   the   sad  secrets  they  could  find  in  their
pockets. (U.)

Metonymy, another lexical SD, - like metaphor - on losing its originality also becomes instrumental in enriching the vocabulary of the language, though metonymy is created by a different semantic process and is based on contiguity (nearness) of objects or phenomena. Transference of names in metonymy does not involve a necessity for two different words to have a common component in their semantic structures, as is the case with metaphor, but proceeds from the fact that two objects (phenomena) have common grounds of existence in reality. Such words as "cup" and "tea" have no linguistic (semantic) nearness, but the first one may serve the container of the second, hence - the conversational cliche "Will you have another cup?", which is a case of metonymy, once original, but due to long use, no more accepted as a fresh SD.

"My brass will call your brass," says one of the characters of A. Hailey's Airport to another, meaning "My boss will call your boss." The transference of names is caused by both bosses ] being  officers,   wearing  uniform  caps  with  brass  cockades.

The scope of transference in metonymy is much more limited than that of metaphor, which is quite understandable:

 


the scope of human imagination identifying two objects (phenomena, actions )on the grounds of commonness of one of their innumerable characteristics is boundless while actual relations between objects are more limited. This is why metonymy, on the whole, is a less frequently observed SD, than metaphor.

Similar to singling out one particular type of metaphor into the self-contained SD of personification, one type of metony-my - namely, the one, which is based on the relations between the part and the whole - is often viewed independently as synecdoche.

As a rule, metonymy is expressed by nouns (less frequently -by substantivized numerals)* and is used in syntactical functions characteristic of nouns (subject, object, predicative).

Exercise II. Indicate metonymies, state the type of relations between the object named and the object implied, which they represent, also pay attention to the degree of their originality, and to their syntactical function:

  1.  He went about her room, after his introduction, looking
    at her pictures, her bronzes and clays, asking after the creator
    of this, the painter of that, where a third thing came from. (Dr.)
  2.  She wanted to have a lot of children, and she was glad
    that things were that way, that the Church approved. Then the
    little girl died. Nancy broke with Rome the day her baby died.
    It was a secret break,  but no  Catholic  breaks with Rome
    casually. (J. O'H.)
  3.  "Evelyn Clasgow, get up out of that chair this minute."
    The girl looked up from her book.

"What's the matter?"

"Your satin.  The skirt'll be a mass of wrinkles in the back." (E. F.)

  1.  Except for a lack of youth, the guests had no common
    theme, they seemed strangers among strangers; indeed, each
    face, on entering, had struggled to conceal dismay at seeing
    others there. (T. C.)
  2.  She saw around her, clustered about the white tables,
    multitudes of violently red lips, powdered cheeks, cold, hard
    eyes, self-possessed arrogant faces, and insolent bosoms. (A. B.)
  3.  Dinah,  a  slim,  fresh,  pale  eighteen,  was  pliant and
    yet fragile.
    (С. Н.)
  4.  The man looked a rather old forty-five, for he was al-
    ready going grey. (K. P.)
  5.  The delicatessen owner was a spry and jolly fifty. (T. R.)

* Cases of adjectival metonymies are considered to be closer to qualifying SDs and will be discussed later, in the section dealing with epithets.


9. "It was easier to assume a character without having to tell
too  many  lies  and you brought a fresh  eye  and mind to
the job." (P.)

10. "Some remarkable pictures in this room, gentlemen.
A   Holbein,   two   Van   Dycks   and   if  I   am   not  mistaken,
a Velasquez. I am interested in pictures." (Ch.)

11. "You have nobody to blame but yourself."
"The saddest words of tongue or pen." (I. Sh.)

  1.  For several days he took an hour after his work to make
    inquiry taking with him some examples of his pen and inks.
    (Dr.)
  2.  There you are at your tricks again. The rest of them
    do earn their bread; you live on my charity. (E. Br.)
  3.  I crossed a high toll bridge and negotiated a no man's
    land and came to the place where the Stars and Stripes stood
    shoulder to shoulder with the Union Jack. (J. St.)
  4.  The praise was enthusiastic enough to have delighted
    any common writer who earns his living by his pen. (S. M.)
  5.  He made his way through the perfume and conversation.
    (I. Sh.)
  6.  His mind was alert and people asked him to dinner not
    for old times' sake, but because he was worth his salt. (S. M.)
  7.  Up the Square, from the corner of King Street, passed
    a woman in a new bonnet with pink strings, and a new blue dress
    that sloped at the shoulders and grew to a vast circumference
    at the hem. Through the silent sunlit solitude of the Square
    this bonnet and this  dress floated northwards in search of
    romance. (A. B.)
  8.  Two men in uniforms were running heavily to the Admin-
    istration building. As they ran. Christian saw them throw away
    their rifles. They were portly men who looked like   advertise-
    ments  for Munich  beer,  and running  came  hard to  them.
    The first prisoner stopped and picked up one of the discarded
    rifles. He did not fire it, but carried it, as he chased the guards.
    He swung the rifle like a club, and one of the beer advertisements
    went down (I. Sh.)

As you must have seen from the brief outline and the examples of metaphor and metonymy, the first one operates on the linguistic basis (proceeding from the similarity of semantic components of a word), while the latter one rests solely on the extralinguistic, actually existing relations between the phenomena denoted by the words.

Our next concern is a cluster of SDs, which are united into a small group as they have much in common both in the


mechanism of their formation and in their functioning. They are— pun (also referred to as paronomasia), zeugma, violation of phraseological units, semantically false chains, and nonsense of non-sequence. In the stylistic tradition of the English-speaking countries only the first two are widely discussed. The latter, two, indeed, may be viewed as slight variations of the first ones for, basically, the foursome perform the same stylistic function in speech, and operate on the same linguistic mechanism. Namely, one word-form is deliberately used in two meanings. The effect of these SDs is humorous. Contextual conditions leading to the simultaneous realization of two meanings and to the formation of pun may vary: it can be misinterpretation of one speaker's utterance by the other, which results in his remark dealing with a different meaning of the misinterpreted word or its homonym, as in the famous case from the Pickwick Papers. When the fat boy, Mr. Wardle's servant, emerged from the corridor, very pale, he was asked by his master: "Have you been seeing any spirits?" "Or taking any?"-added Bob Allen. The first "spirits" refers to supernatural forces, the second one -to strong drinks.

Punning may be the result of the speaker's intended violation of the listener's expectation, as in the jocular quotation from B. Evans: "There comes a period in every man's life, but she is just a semicolon in his." Here we expect the second half of the sentence to unfold the content, proceeding from "period" understood as "an interval of time", while the author has used the word in the meaning of "punctuation mark" which   becomes   clear  from   the   "semicolon",   following   it.

Misinterpretation may be caused by. the phonetic similarity of two homonyms, such as in the crucial case of O. Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest.

In very many cases polysemantic verbs that have a practically unlimited lexical valency and can be combined with nouns of most varying semantic groups, are deliberately used with two or more homogeneous members, which are not connected semantically, as in such examples from Ch. Dickens: "He took his hat and his leave", or "She went home in a flood of tears and a sedan chair". This is a classical zeugma, highly characteristic of English prose of previous centuries, and contemporary, too.

When the number of homogeneous members, semantically disconnected, but attached to the same verb, increases, we deal with semantically false chains, which are thus a variation of zeugma. As a rule, it is the last member of the chain that falls out of the thematic group, defeating our expectancy and produc-


ing humorous effect. The following case from St. Leacock may serve an example: "A Governess wanted. Must possess knowledge of Rumanian, Russian, Italian, Spanish, German, Music and Mining Engineering."

As you have seen from the examples of classical zeugma the ties between the verb on the one hand and each of the dependent members, on the other, are of different intensity and stability. In most cases one of them, together with the verb, form a рhra-seological unit or a cliche, in which  the verb loses some of its semantic independence and strength (Cf.: "to take one's leave" and "to take one's hat"). Zeugma restores the literal original meaning of the word, which also occurs in violation of phraseological units of different syntactical patterns, as in Galsworthy's remark: "Little Jon was born with a silver spoon in his mouth which was rather curly and large." The word "mouth", with its content, is completely lost in the phraseological unit which means "to have luck, to be born lucky". Attaching to the unit the qualification of the mouth, the author revives the meaning of the word and offers a very fresh, original and expressive description.

Sometimes the speaker (writer) interferes into the structure of the word attributing homonymous meanings to individual morphemes as in these jocular definitions from Esar's dictionary: professorship - а ship full of professors; relying - telling the same story again; beheld - to have somebody hold you, etc.*

It is possible to say thus that punning can be realized on most levels of language hierarchy. Indeed, the described violation of word-structure takes place on the morphological level; zeugma and pun-on the lexical level; violation of phraseological units includes both lexical and syntactical levels; semantically false chains and one more SD of this group-nonsense of non-sequence - on the syntactical level.

Nonsense of non-sequence rests on the extension of syntactical valency and results in joining two semantically disconnected clauses into one sentence, as in: "Emperor Nero played the fiddle, so they burnt Rome." (E.) Two disconnected statements are forcibly linked together by cause / effect relations.

Exercise III. Analyse various cases of play on words, indicate which type is used, how it is created, what effect it adds to the utterance:

1. After a while and a cake he crept nervously to the door of the parlour. (A. T.)

* Cf. with the popular pseudo-etymological studies on the last, humorous page of «Литературная газета»: тычинкауказательный палец; экстаз бывший таз; табуретка небольшой запрет.


  1.  There are two things I look for in a man. A sympathetic
    character and full lips. (I. Sh.)
  2.  Dorothy, at my statement, had clapped her hand over
    mouth  to  hold  down laughter and  chewing  gum.  (Jn. B.)
  3.  I believed all men were brothers; she thought all men
    were husbands. I gave the whole mess up. (Jn. B.)
  4.  In December, 1960, Naval Aviation News, a well-known
    special publication, explained why "a ship" is referred to as
    "she": Because there's always a bustle around her, because
    there's usually a gang of men with her, because she has waist
    and stays; because it takes a good man to handle her right;
    because she shows her topsides, hides her bottom and when
    coming into port, always heads for the buyos."
    (N.)
  5.  When I am dead, I hope it may be said:

"His sins were scarlet, but his books were read." (H. B.)

  1.  Most   women   up   London  nowadays   seem   to  furnish
    their rooms with nothing but orchids, foreigners and French
    novels. (O. W.)
  2.  I'm   full    of  poetry   now.   Rot   and   poetry.   Rotten
    poetry. (H.)
  3.  "Bren, I'm not planning anything. I haven't planned a
    thing in three  years...  I'm - I'm not a planner.  I'm a liver."

"I'm a pancreas," she said. "I'm a- " and she kissed the absurd game away. (Ph. R.)

10. "Someone at the door," he said, blinking.

"Some four, I should say by the sound," said Fili. (A. T.)

  1.  He   may   be   poor   and   shabby,   but   beneath   those
    ragged trousers beats a heart of gold. (E.)
  2.  Babbitt  respected  bigness  in anything:  in mountains,
    jewels, muscles, wealth or words. (S. L.)
  3.  Men, pals, red plush seats, white marble tables, waiters
    in white aprons. Miss Moss walked through them all. (M.)
  4.  My mother was wearing her best grey dress and gold
    brooch and a faint pink flush under each cheek bone. (W. Gl.)
  5.  Hooper  laughed  and  said  to  Brody,   "Do  you  mind
    if I give Ellen something?"

"What do you mean?" Brody said. He thought to himself, give her what? A kiss? A box of chocolates? A punch in the nose?

"A present. It's nothing, really." (P. B.)

  1.  "There  is  only  one  brand of tobacco allowed here -
    'Three nuns'. None today, none tomorrow, and none the day
    after." (Br. B.)
  2.  "Good morning," said  Bilbo, and  he  meant it.  The
    sun was shining and the grass was very green. (A. T.)


18. Some writer once said: "How many times you can call yourself a Man depends on how many languages you know." (M. St.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What   lexical   meanings   of  a   word   can   you   name?
    Which of them, in most cases, is  the most important one?
  2.  What SDs are based on the use of the logical (deno-
    tational) meaning of a word?
  3.  What is a contextual meaning? How is it used in a SD?
  4.  What is the  difference  between the original and the
    hackneyed SDs?
  5.  What is a metaphor? What are its semantic, morpholog-
    ical, syntactical, structural, functional peculiarities?
  6.  What is a metonymy?  Give  a  detailed  description of
    the device.
  7.  What   is   included   into   a   group   of  SDs   known   as
    "play  on  words"?  Which  ones  of them  are  the  most  fre-
    quently used? What levels of language  hierarchy are involved
    into their formation?
  8.  Describe   the   difference   between   pun   and   zeugma,
    zeugma   and   a   semantically   false   chain,   semantically   false
    chain and nonsense of non-sequence.
  9.  What meanings of a word participate  in the violation
    of a phraseological unit?

  1.  What   is  the   basic   effect  achieved   by   the   play  on
    words?
  2.  Find examples of each of the discussed stylistic devices
    in your home reading.
  3.  Try   and  find  peculiarities   in   the   individual   use   of
    various  SDs  by  different  authors  known  to  you  from  your
    courses of literature, interpretation of the text, home   reading.

In all previously discussed lexical SDs we dealt with various transformations of the logical (denotational) meaning of words, which participated in the creation of metaphors, metonymies, puns, zeugmas, etc. Each of the SDs added expressiveness and originality to the nomination of the object. Evaluation of the named concept was often present too, but it was an optional characteristic, not inherent in any of these SDs. Their subjectivity relies on the new and fresh look at the object mentioned, which shows the latter from a new and unexpected side. In irony, which is our next item  of consideration, subjectivity lies in the evaluation of

 


the   phenomenon  named.   The   essence  of this  SD  consists in  the   foregrounding not of the logical but of the evaluative meaning. The context is arranged so that the qualifying word in irony reverses the direction of the evaluation, and the word positively charged is understood as a negative qualifi-cation and (much-much rarer) vice versa. Irony thus is a stylistic device in which the contextual evaluative meaning of a word is directly opposite to its dictionary meaning. So, like all other SDs irony does not exist outside the context, which varies from the minimal - a word combination, as in J. Steinbeck's "She turned with the sweet smile of an alli-gator,"- to the context of a whole book, as in Ch. Dickens, where one of the remarks of Mr. Micawber, known for his complex, highly bookish and elaborate style of speaking about the most trivial things, is introduced by the author's words "...Mr. Micawber said in his usual plain manner".

In both examples the words "sweet" and "plain" reverse their positive meaning into the negative one due to the context, micro- in the first, macro- in the second case.

In the stylistic device of irony it is always possible to indicate the exact word whose contextual meaning diametric-ally opposes its dictionary meaning. This is why this type of irony is called verbal irony. There are very many cases, though, which we regard as irony, intuitively feeling the reversal of the evaluation, but unable to put our finger on the exact word in whose meaning we can trace the contra-diction between the said and the implied. The effect of irony in such cases is created by a number of statements, by the whole of the text. This type of irony is called sustained, and it is formed by the contradiction of the speaker's (writer's) considerations and the generally accepted moral and ethical codes. Many examples of sustained irony are supplied by D. Defoe, J. Swift, by such contemporary writers as S. Lewis, K. Vonnegut, E. Waugh and others.

Exercise IV. In the following excerpts you will find mainly examples of verbal irony. Explain what conditions made the realization of the opposite evaluation possible. Pay attention to the part of speech which is used in irony, also its syntactical function:

1. The book was entitled Murder at Milbury Manor and was a whodunit of the more abstruse type, in which everything turns on whether a certain character, by catching the three-forty-three train at Hilbury and changing into the four-sixteen at Milbury, could have reached Silbury by five-twenty-seven, which would have given him just time to disguise himself


and be sticking knives into people at Bilbury by six-thirty-eight.'' (P. G. W.)

  1.  When  the  war  broke  out  she  took  down  the  signed photograph  of the   Kaiser  and,  with  some  solemnity,  hung  it in  the  men-servants'  lavatory;  it was  her  one  combative action. (E. W.)
  2.  "I   had   a   plot,   a   scheme,   a   little   quiet   piece   of enjoyment afoot, of which the very cream and essence was that   this   old   man   and   grandchild   should   be   as   poor  as frozen rats," and Mr. Brass revealed the whole story, making himself out to be rather a saintlike holy character. (D.)
  3.  The   lift  held  two  people   and  rose  slowly,  groaning with diffidence. (I. M.)
  4.  England has been in a dreadful state for some weeks. Lord   Coodle   would  go  out,   Sir  Thomas   Doodle  wouldn't come in, and there being nobody in Great Britain (to speak of)  except Coodle and Doodle,  there has been no Govern-ment (D.)
  5.  From her earliest infancy Gertrude was brought up by her aunt. Her aunt had carefully instructed her to Christian principles. She had also taught her Mohammedanism, to make sure. (L.)
  6.  "She's  a  charming  middle-aged  lady  with a face  like a  bucket  of mud  and  if she  has  washed  her  hair  since  Coolidge's   second   term,   I'll   eat   my   spare   tire,   rim   and all." (R. Ch.)
  7.  With all  the  expressiveness  of a  stone  Welsh  stared at   him   another   twenty   seconds   apparently   hoping   to   see him gag. (R. Ch.)

9. "Well. It's shaping up into a lovely evening, isn't it?"
"Great," he said.

"And if I may say so, you're  doing everything to make it harder, you little sweet." (D. P.)

  1.  Mr.   Vholes  is  a  very  respectable  man.   He  has  not a large  business,  but he  is  a very  respectable  man.  He is allowed  by  the  greater  attorneys  to  be  a  most respectable man.   He   never  misses  a  chance   in  his  practice  which  is a mark of respectability, he never takes any pleasure, which is another mark of respectability, he is reserved and serious which   is   another   mark   of  respectability.   His   digestion   is impaired which is highly respectable. (D.)
  2.  Several months ago a magazine named Playboy which concentrates editorially on girls, books, girls, art, girls, music, fashion,  girls  and girls, published an  article  about old-time science-fiction. (M. St.)


  1.  Apart from  splits  based on politics,  racial, religious and ethnic  backgrounds and specific personality  differences, we're just one cohesive team. (D. U.)
  2.  A local busybody, unable to contain her curiosity any longer, asked an expectant mother point-blank whether she was going to have a baby.  "Oh, goodness, no," the young woman said pleasantly. "I'm just carrying this for a friend." (P. G. W.)
  3.  Sonny   Grosso   was   a   worrier   who   looked   for  and frequently managed to find, the dark side of most situations. (P. M.)
  4.  Bookcases  covering one wall boasted a half-shelf of literature. (T. C.)
  5.  I  had  been  admitted as  a partner  in  the   firm  of Andrews and Bishop, and throughout 1927 and 1928 I enriched myself and  the  firm  at  the   rate  of perhaps  forty  dollars a month. (Jn. B.)   
  6.  Last time it was a nice, simple, European-style war. (I. Sh.)
  7.  He could walk and run, was full of exact knowledge about God, and entertained no doubt concerning the special partiality   of  a   minor   deity   called   Jesus   towards   himself. (A. B.)
  8.  But every Englishman is born with a certain miraculous power that makes  him master of the  world.  As  the  great champion of freedom and national independence he conquers and annexes half the world and calls it Colonization. (B. Sh.)
  9.  All this blood and fire business tonight was probably part of the graft to get the Socialists chucked out and leave  honest   business   men   safe   to   make   their   fortunes   out  of murder. (L. Ch.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What is irony, what lexical meaning is employed in its formation?
  2.  What    types   of  irony   do   you   know?   What   is   the length   of  the   context   needed   for   the   realization   of  each of them?
  3.  What are the most frequently observed mechanisms of irony formation? Can you explain the role of the repetition in creating irony?
  4.  Can you name English, American or Russian writers known for their ingenuity and versatility in the use of irony?
  5.  Find cases of irony in books you read both for work and pleasure.


Antonomasia is a lexical SD in which a proper name is used  instead of a common noun or vice versa, i.e. a SD, in which the nominal meaning of a proper name is suppressed by its logical meaning or the logical meaning acquires the new-nominal-component. Logical meaning, as you know, serves to denote concepts and thus to classify individual objects into groups (classes). Nominal meaning has no classifying power for it applies to one single individual object with the aim not of classifying it as just another of a number of objects constituting a definite group, but, on the contrary, with the aim of singling it out of the group of similar objects, of individualizing one particular object. Indeed, the word "Mary" does not indicate whether the denoted object refers to the class of women, girls, boats, cats, etc., for it singles out without denotational classification. But in Th. Dreiser we read: "He took little satisfaction in telling each Mary, shortly after she arrived, something... ." The attribute "each", used with the name, turns it into a common noun  denoting any woman. Here we deal with a case of anto- nomasia of the first type.

Another type of antonomasia we meet when a common  noun serves as an individualizing name, as in D. Cusack:  "There are three doctors in an illness like yours. I don't mean only myself, my partner and the radiologist who does your X-rays, the three I'm referring to are Dr. Rest, Dr. Diet and Dr. Fresh Air."

Still another type of antonomasia is presented by the  so-called "speaking names" - names  whose origin from common nouns is still clearly perceived. So, in such popular English surnames as Mr. Smith or Mr. Brown the etymology can be restored but no speaker of English today has it in his mind that the first one used to mean occupation and the second one - color. While such names from Sheridan's School for Scandal as Lady Teazle or Mr. Surface immediately raise associations with certain human qualities due to the denota-tional meaning of the words "to tease" and "surface". The double role of the speaking names, both to name and to qualify, is sometimes preserved in translation. Cf. the list of names from another of Sheridan's plays, The Rivals: Miss Languish — Мисс Томнэй; Mr. Backbite —М-р Клеветаун; Mr. Credulous — М-р Доверч; Mr. Snake —М-р Гад, etc. Or from F. Cooper: Lord Chatterino — Лорд Балаболо; John Jaw — Джон Брех; Island Leap-High - Остров Высокопрыгия.

Antonomasia is created mainly by nouns, more seldom by attributive combinations (as in "Dr. Fresh Air") or phrases


(as in "Mr. What's-his name"). Common nouns used in the second type of antonomasia are in most cases abstract, though there are instances of concrete ones being used too.

Exercise V. Analyse the following cases of antonomasia. State the type of meaning employed and implied; indicate what additional information is created by the use of antonomasia; pay attention to the morphological and semantic characteristics of common nouns used as proper names:

  1.  "You  cheat, you  no-good  cheat - you  tricked  our son. Took  our  son   with a   scheming  trick,  Miss   Tomboy,  Miss Sarcastic, Miss Sneerface." (Ph. R.)
  2.  A   stout   middle-aged   man,   with   enormous   owl-eyed spectacles, was sitting... on the edge of a great table. I turned to him.

"Don't ask me," said Mr. Owl Eyes washing his hands of the whole matter. (Sc. F.)

3. To attend major sports event most parents have arrived. A   Colonel   Sidebotham   was   standing   next   to   Prendergast, firmly   holding   the    tape    with   "FINISH".   "Capital,"   said Mr.   Prendergast,   and   dropping   his   end   of  the   tape,   he sauntered  to  the  Colonel.  "I can see  you are a fine judge of the race, sir. So was I once. So's Grimes. A capital fellow, Grimes; a bounder, you know, but a capital fellow. Bounders can be capital fellows; don't you agree, Colonel Slidebottom... I wish you'd stop pulling at  my arm, Pennyfeather. Colonel Shybottom and I are just having a most interesting conver- sation." (E. W.)

4. I keep six honest serving-men

(They taught me all I know);

Their names are What and Why and When

And How and Where and Who.

I send them over land and sea,

I send them east and west;

But after they have worked for me

I give them all a rest.

I let them rest from nine till five,

For I am busy then,

As well as breakfast, lunch, and tea,

For they are hungry men.

But different folk have different views.

I know a person small –

She keeps ten million serving-men,

Who get no rest at all.


She sends 'em abroad on her own affairs,

From the second she opens her eyes-

One million Hows, two million Wheres,

And seven million Whys. (R. K.)

5. "Her mother is perfectly unbearable. Never met such a Gorgon."

"I don't really know what a Gorgon is like, but I am quite sure, that Lady Bracknell is one. In any case, she is a monster without being a myth." (O. W.)

  1.  Our secretary is Esther D'Eath. Her name is pronounced by   vulgar   relatives   as   Dearth,   some   of  us   pronounce   it Deeth. (S. Ch.)
  2.  When Omar P. Quill died, his solicitors referred to him always   as   O.P.Q.     Each   reference   to   O.P.Q.   made   Roger think of his grandfather as the middle of the alphabet. (G. M.)
  3.  "Your fur and his Caddy are a perfect match."

"I respect history: don't you know that Detroit was founded by Sir Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, French fur trader." (J. O'H.)

9. Now let me introduce you - that's Mr. What's-his-name, you remember him, don't you? And over there in the corner, that's  the  Major,  and  there's  Mr.  What-d'you-call-him,  and that's an American. (E. W.)

  1.  Cats   and   canaries   had   added   to   the   already   stale house  an  entirely  new   dimension of defeat.  As  I  stepped down, an evil-looking Tom slid by us into the house. (W. Gl.)
  2.  Kate   kept   him   because   she   knew   he   would   do anything   in  the   world   if he   were   paid   to   do   it  or  was afraid not to do it She had no illusions about him. In her business Joes were necessary. (J. St.)
  3.  In   the   moon-landing  year  what  choice   is   there   for Mr. and Mrs. Average - the programme against poverty or the ambitious NASA project? (M. St.)
  4.  The next speaker was a tall gloomy man, Sir Something Somebody. (P.)
  5.  We sat down at a table with two girls in yellow and three   men,   each   one   introduced   to   us   as   Mr.   Mumble. (Sc.F.)
  6.  She's   been   in  a  bedroom   with  one   of the  young Italians, Count Something. (I. Sh.)

Assignments for Self-Control

1. What is antonomasia? What meanings interact in its formation?


  1.  What types of antonomasia do you know? Give examples of each.
  2.  Do you remember any speaking names from the books you have read?
  3.  Give examples of personages" names used as qualifying common nouns.

Epithet is probably as well known to you as metaphor, because it is widely mentioned by the critics, scholars, teachers, and students discussing a literary work. Epithet expresses a characteristic of an object, both existing and imaginary. Its basic feature is its emotiveness and subjectivity: the characteristic attached to the object to qualify it is always chosen by the speaker himself. Our speech ontologi-cally being always emotionally coloured, it is possible to say that in epithet it is the emotive meaning of the word that is foregrounded to suppress the denotational meaning of the latter.

Epithet has remained over the centuries the most widely used SD, which is understandable - it offers ample opportunities of qualifying every object from the author's partial and subjective viewpoint, which is indispensable in creative prose, publicist style, and everyday speech. Through long and repeated use epithets become fixed. Many fixed epithets are closely connected with folklore and can be traced back to folk ballads (e.g. "true love", "merry Christmas", etc.).* A number of them have originated in euphemistic writing of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (e.g. "a valiant youth", "a trembling maiden", "dead silence", etc.). Those which were first found in Homer's poetry and have been repeated since, are known as Homeric epithets (e.g. "swift-footed Achilles", "rosy-fingered dawn").

The structure and semantics of epithets are extremely variable which is explained by their long and wide use. Semantically, there should be differentiated two main groups, the biggest of them being affective (or emotive proper). These epithets serve to convey the emotional evaluation of the object  by the speaker. Most of the qualifying words found in the dictionary can be and are used as affective epithets (e.g. "gorgeous", "nasty", "magnificent", "atrocious", etc.).

The second group  - figurative, or transferred, epithets-is formed  of metaphors,   metonymies  and  similes  (which  will

* Cf. with fixed epithets of Russian folklore — «красна девица», «удалой молодец», «чисто поле», etc.


be discussed later) expressed by adjectives. E.g. "the smiling sun", "the frowning cloud", "the sleepless pillow", "the tobacco-stained smile", "a ghost-like face", "a dreamlike experience". Like metaphor, metonymy and simile, corresponding epithets are also based on similarity of characteristics of two objects in the first case, on nearness of the qualified objects in the second one, and on their comparison in the third.

In the overwhelming majority of examples epithet is expressed by adjectives or qualitative adverbs (e.g. "his triumphant look" = he looked triumphantly).* Nouns come next. They are used either as exclamatory sentences (You, ostrich!) or as postpositive attributes ("Alonzo the Clown", "Richard of the Lion Heart").

Epithets are used singly, in pairs, in chains, in two-step structures, and in inverted constructions, also as phrase-attri-butes. All previously given examples demonstrated single epithets. Pairs are represented by two epithets joined by a conjunction or asyndetically as in "wonderful and incomparable beauty" (O. W.) or "a tired old town". (H. L.) Chains (also called strings) of epithets present a group of homogeneous attributes varying in number from three up to sometimes twenty and even more. E.g. "You're a scolding, unjust, abusive, aggravating, bad old creature." (D.) From the last example it is evident that if a logical attribute (which in our case is the word "old") is included into the chain of epithets  it begins to shine with their reflected light, i.e. the sub-jectivity of epithets irradiates onto the logical attribute and adapts it for expressive purposes, along with epithets proper.

Two-step epithets are so called because the process of qualifying seemingly passes two stages: the qualification of the object and the qualification of the qualification itself, as in "an unnaturally mild day" (Hut.), or "a pompously majestic female". (D.) As you see from the examples, two-step epithets have a fixed structure of Adv + Adj model.

Phrase-epithets always produce an original impression. Cf.: "the sunshine-in-the-breakfast-roqm smell" (J. В.), or "a move-if-you-dare expression". (Gr.) Their originality proceeds from rare repetitions of the once coined phrase-epithet which, in its  turn,  is  explained  by  the  fact that  into a phrase-epithet

* Don't fall into the trap of regarding all attributes as epithets. Such attributes as in "a round table", "a tall man" reflect objective features of entities and not their subjective qualification which is the leading characteristic of an epithet. Those adjectives (adverbs, nouns) which offer objective represen-tation of the features and qualities of an object form the group of logical attributes.


is turned a semantically self-sufficient word combination or even a whole sentence, which loses some of its independence and self-sufficiency, becoming a member of another sentence, and strives to return to normality. The forcible manner of this syntactical transformation is the main obstacle for repeated use of such phrasally-structured epithets.

A different linguistic mechanism is responsible for the emergence of one more structural type of epithets, namely, inverted epithets. They are based on the contradiction between the logical and the syntactical: logically defining becomes syntactically defined and vice versa. E.g. instead of "this devilish woman", where "devilish" is both logically and syntactically defining, and "woman", also both logically and syntactically defined, W. Thackeray says "this devil of a woman". Here "of a woman" is syntactically an attribute, i.e. the defining, and "devil" - the defined, while the logical relations between the two remain the same as in the previous example - "a woman" is defined by "the devil".

All inverted epithets are easily transformed into epithets of a more habitual structure where there is no logico-syntactical contradiction, Cf.: "the giant of a man" (a gigantic man); "the prude of a woman" (a prudish woman), etc. When meeting an inverted epithet do not mix it up with an ordinary of-phrase. Here the article with the second noun will help you in doubtful cases: "the toy of the girl" (the toy belonging to the girl); "the toy of a girl" (a small, toylike girl), or "the kitten of the woman" (the cat belong-ing to the woman); "the kitten of a woman" (a kittenlike woman).

Exercise VI. Discuss the structure and semantics of epithets in the following examples. Define the type and function of epithets:

  1.  He has that unmistakable tall lanky "rangy" loose-jointed graceful closecropped formidably clean American look.  (I. M.)
  2.  Across  the ditch Doll was having an entirely different reaction.   With   all   his   heart   and   soul,   furiously,  jealously, vindictively, he was hoping Queen would not win. (J.)
  3.  During   the   past   few   weeks   she   had   become   most sharply   conscious   of   the   smiling   interest   of  Hauptwanger. His   straight   lithe   body - his   quick,   aggressive   manner – his assertive, seeking eyes. (Dr.)
  4.  He's   a   proud,   haughty,   consequential,   turned-nosed peacock. (D.)
  5.  The Fascisti, or extreme Nationalists, which means black-shirted, knife-carrying, club-swinging, quick-stepping, nineteen-


year-old-pot-shot  patriots,   have   worn  out  their  welcome   in Italy. (H.)

  1.  Where the devil was heaven? Was it up? Down? There was  no up  or down in a finite  but expanding  universe  in which even the vast, burning,  dazzling, majestic sun was in a  state   of progressive   decay  that  would  eventually  destroy the earth too. (Js. H.)
  2.  She  has taken to wearing heavy blue bulky shapeless quilted   People's   Volunteers   trousers   rather   than the   tight tremendous how-the-West-was-won trousers she formerly wore. (D. B.)
  3.  Harrison - a  fine,   muscular,   sun-bronzed,   gentle-eyed, patrician-nosed,  steak-fed,  Gilman-Schooled,  soft-spoken,  well-tailored aristocrat was an out-and-out leaflet-writing revolutionary at the time. (Jn. B.)
  4.  In the cold, gray, street-washing, milk-delivering, shutters-coming-off-the-shops  early  morning,  the  midnight train  from Paris arrived in Strasbourg. (H.)

  1.  Her painful shoes slipped off. (U.)
  2.  She  was a faded white  rabbit of a  woman.  (A. C.)
  3.  And   she still has that look, that don't-you-touch-me look, that women who were beautiful carry with them to the grave. (J. B.)
  4.  Ten-thirty is a dark hour in a town where respectable doors are locked at nine. (T. C.)
  5.  He loved the afterswim salt-and-sunshine smell of her hair. (Jn. B.)
  6.  I was to secretly record, with the help of a powerful long-range movie-camera lens, the walking-along-the-Battery-in-the-sunshine meeting between Ken and Jerry. (D.U.)
  7.  "Thief!" Pilon shouted. "Dirty pig of an untrue friend!" (J. St.)
  8.  She spent hausfrau afternoons   hopping about in   the sweatbox of her midget kitchen. (T. C.)
  9.  He acknowledged an early-afternoon customer with a be-with-you-in-a-minute nod. (D. U.)
  10.  He  thoroughly  disliked  this  never-far-from-tragic  look of a ham Shakespearian actor. (H.)
  11.  "What a  picture!" cried the  ladies.  "Oh!  The lambs! Oh, the sweets! Oh, the ducks! Oh, the pets!" (К. М.)
  12.  A branch, cracking under his weight sent through the tree a sad cruel thunder. (T. C.)
  13.  There was none of the Old-fashioned Five-Four-Three-Two-One-Zero   business,   so   tough   on   the   human   nervous system. (A. Cl.)


  1.  His shrivelled head bobbed like a dried pod on his frail stick of a body. (J. G.)
  2.  The children were very brown and filthily dirty. (W. V.)
  3.  Liza  Hamilton  was  a  very  different  kettle   of Irish. Her head was small and round and it held small and round convictions. (J. St.)
  4.  He sat with Daisy in his arms for a long silent time. (Sc.F.)
  5.  From the Splendide  Hotel guests and servants were pouring in chattering bright streams. (R. Ch.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What lexical meaning is instrumental in the formation of epithets?
  2.  What semantic types of epithets dp you know?
  3.  What structural types of epithets do you know?
  4.  What parts of speech are predominantly used as epithets and why?
  5.  When reading a book pay attention to the type and distribution of epithets there. Give your considerations as to what defines the  quantity and the quality of epithets in a literary work.

Hyperbole-a stylistic device in which emphasis is achieved through deliberate exaggeration, - like epithet relies on the foregrounding of the emotive meaning. The feelings and emotions of the speaker are so ruffled that he resorts in his speech to intensifying the quantitative or the qualitative aspect of the mentioned object. E.g.: In his famous poem "To His Coy Mistress" Andrew Marvell writes about love: "My vegetable love should grow faster than empires."

Hyperbole is one of the most common expressive means of our everyday speech. When we describe our admiration or anger and say "I would gladly see this film a hundred times", or "I have told it to you a thousand times"-we use trite language hyperboles which, through long and repeated use, have lost their originality and remained signals of the speaker's roused emotions.

Hyperbole may be the final effect of another SD - metaphor, simile, irony, as we have in the cases "He has the tread of a rhinoceros" or "The man was like the Rock of Gibraltar".

Hyperbole can be expressed by all notional parts of speech. There are words though, which are used in this SD more often than others. They are such pronouns as "all", "every",


"everybody" and the like. Cf.: "Calpurnia was all angles and bones" (H. L.); also numerical nouns ("a million", "a thousand"), as was  shown above, and adverbs of time ("ever", "never").

Outstanding Russian philologist A. Peshkovsky once stressed the importance of both communicants clearly perceiving that the exaggeration, used by one of them is intended as such and serves not to denote actual quality or quantity but signals the emotional background of the utterance. If this reciprocal understanding of the intentional nature of the overstatement is absent, hyperbole turns into a mere lie.

Hyperbole is aimed at exaggerating quantity or quality. When it is directed the opposite way, when the size, shape, dimensions, characteristic features of the object are not overrated, but intentionally underrated, we deal with under-statement. The mechanism of its creation and functioning is identical with that of hyperbole, and it does not signify the actual state of affairs in reality, but presents the latter through the emotionally coloured perception and rendering of the speaker. It is not the actual diminishing or growing of the object that is conveyed by a hyperbole or understatement. It is a transient subjective impression that finds its realization in these SDs. They differ only in the direction of the flow of roused emotions. English is well-known for its preference for understatement in everyday speech- "I am rather annoyed" instead of "I'm infuriated", "The wind is rather strong" instead of "There's a gale blowing outside" are typical of British polite speech, but are less characteristic of American English.

Some hyperboles and understatements (both used individually and as the final effect of some other SD) have become fixed, as we have in "Snow White", or "Liliput", or "Gargantua".*

Trite hyperboles and understatements, reflecting their use in everyday speech, in creative writing are observed mainly in dialogue, while the author's speech provides us with examples of original SDs, often rather extended or demanding a considerable fragment of the text to be fully understood.

Exercise VII. In the following examples concentrate on cases of hyperbole and understatement. Pay attention to their originality or stateness, to ether SDs promoting their effect, to exact words, containing the foregrounded emotive meaning:

  1.  I was scared to death when he entered the room. (S.)
  2.  The girls were dressed to kill. (J. Br.)

* Cf.    with    Russian — мальчик-с-пальчик,    Дюймовочка,    мужичок-с-ноготок.


  1.  Newspapers are the organs of individual men who have jockeyed themselves to be  party leaders, in countries where a new party is born every hour over a glass of beer in the nearest cafe. (J. R.)
  2.  I was violently sympathetic, as usual. (Jn. B.)
  3.  Four loudspeakers  attached to  the  flagpole  emitted a shattering  roar  of what  Benjamin  could  hardly  call  music, as if it were  played by a collection of brass  bands, a few hundred fire  engines, a thousand blacksmiths'  hammers and the amplified reproduction of a force-twelve wind. (A. S.)
  4.  The car which picked me up on that particular guilty evening was a Cadillac limousine about seventy-three blocks long. (J. B.)

7. Her family is one aunt about a thousand years old. (Sc. F.)

  1.  He didn't appear like the same man; then he was all milk  and   honey-now   he   was   all  starch  and   vinegar.   (D.)
  2.  She was a giant of a woman.  Her bulging figure was encased in a green crepe  dress and  her feet overflowed in red   shoes.   She   carried   a   mammoth   red   pocketbook   that bulged throughout as if it were stuffed with rocks. (Fl. O'C.)

10. She   was   very   much   upset   by   the   catastrophe   that had befallen the  Bishops,  but it was  exciting, and she  was tickled to death to have someone fresh to whom she could tell all about it. (S. M.)

11. Babbitt's preparations for leaving the office to its feeble self during the hour and a half of his lunch-period were somewhat less elaborate than the plans for a general European War. (S. M.)

  1.  The little woman, for she was of pocket size, crossed her hands solemnly on her middle. (G.)
  2.  We danced on the handkerchief-big space between the speak-easy tables. (R. W.)
  3.  She  wore  a  pink  hat,  the   size  of a  button.   (J. R.)
  4.  She was a sparrow of a woman. (Ph. L.)

16. And if either of us should lean toward the other, even a fraction of an inch, the balance would be upset. (O. W.)

  1.  He  smiled back,  breathing a memory of gin at me. (W. G.)
  2.  About   a   very   small   man   in   the   Navy:   This   new sailor stood five feet nothing in sea boots. (Th. P.)
  3.  She busied herself in her midget kitchen. (T. C.)
  4.  The rain had thickened, fish could have swum through the air. (T. C.)


Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What meaning is foregrounded in a hyperbole?
  2.  What types of hyperbole can you name?
  3.  What   makes   a   hyperbole   trite   and  where   are   trite hyperboles predominantly used?
  4.  What  is  understatement?  In  what  way  does  it  differ from hyperbole?
  5.  Recollect cases of vivid original hyperboles or under-statements from your Russian or English reading.

Oxymoron is stylistic device the syntactic and semantic structures of which come to clashes. In Shakespearian defi-nitions of love, much quoted from his Romeo and Juliet, perfectly correct syntactically, attributive combinations present a strong semantic discrepancy between their members. Cf.: "O brawling love! О loving hate! О heavy lightness! Serious vanity! Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health!"

As is clearly seen from this string of oxymorons, each one of them is a combination of two semantically contradictory notions, that help to emphasize contradictory qualities as a dialectal unity simultaneously existing in the described phe-nomenon. As a rule, one of the two members of oxymoron illuminates the feature which is universally observed and acknowledged while the other one offers a purely subjective individual perception of the object. Thus in an oxymoron we also deal with the foregrounding of emotive meaning, only of a different type than the one observed in previously discussed SDs. The most widely known structure of oxymoron is attributive, so it is easy to believe that the subjective part of the oxymoron is embodied in the attribute-epithet, especially because the latter also proceeds from the foregrounding of the emotive meaning. But there are also others, in which verbs are employed. Such verbal structures as "to shout mutely" (I. Sh.) or "to cry silently" (M. W.) seem to strengthen the idea, which leads to the conclusion that oxymoron is a specific type of epithet. But the peculiarity of an oxymoron lies in the fact that the speaker's (writer's) subjective view can be expressed through either of the members of the word combination.

Originality and specificity of oxymoron becomes especially evident in non-attributive structures which also, not infrequently, are used to express semantic contradiction, as in "the street damaged by improvements" (О. Н.) or "silence was louder than thunder" (U.).


Oxymorons rarely become trite, for their components, linked forcibly, repulse each other and oppose repeated use. There are few colloquial oxymorons, all of them showing a high degree of the speaker's emotional involvement in the situation, as in "damn nice", "awfully pretty".*

Exercise VIII. In the following sentences pay attention to the structure and semantics of oxymorons. Also indicate which of their members conveys the individually viewed feature of the object and which one reflects its generally accepted characteristic:

  1.  He caught a ride home to the crowded loneliness of
    the barracks. (J.)
  2.  Sprinting  towards  the  elevator he  felt  amazed at his
    own cowardly courage. (G. M.)
  3.  They were a bloody miserable lot - the miserablest lot of men  I   ever  saw.   But  they  were  good  to  me.  Bloody good. (J. St.)
  4.  He behaved pretty lousily to Jan. (D. C.)
  5.  Well  might he  perceive  the  hanging  of her hair in
    fairest   quantity   in   locks,   some   curled   and   some   as   if it
    were   forgotten,   with   such  a  careless   care   and  an  art  so
    hiding   art   that   she   seemed   she   would   lay   them   for   a
    pattern. (Ph. S.)
  6.  There   were   some   bookcases   of superbly   unreadable
    books. (E. W.)
  7.  Absorbed as we were in the pleasures of travel – and I in my modest pride at being the only examinee to cause a commotion - we were over the old Bridge. (W. G.)
  8.  "Heaven  must  be   the  hell   of a  place.   Nothing  but
    repentant sinners up there, isn't it?" (Sh. D.)
  9.  Harriet turned back across the dim garden. The lightless
    light looked down from the night sky. (I. M.)

  1.  Sara   was  a   menace   and  a   tonic,   my   best  enemy;
    Rozzie was a disease, my worst friend. (J. Car.)
  2.  It  was   an   open   secret  that  Ray  had  been  ripping
    his father-in-law off. (D. U.)
  3.  A   neon   sign   reads   "Welcome   to  Reno - the   biggest little town in the world." (A. M.)
  4.  Huck Finn and Holden Caulfield are Good Bad Boys
    of American literature. (V.)
  5.  Haven't we here the young middle-aged woman who

* Some often repeated Russian titles form a group of trite oxymorons as in «Живой труп», «Живые мощи», «Песня без слов», «Оптимистическая трагедия».


cannot quite compete with the paid models in the fashion magazine but who yet catches our eye? (Jn. H.)

  1.  Their bitter-sweet union did not last long. (A. C.)
  2.  He   was   sure   the  whites    could   detect   his   adoring
    hatred of them. (Wr.)
  3.  You have got two beautiful bad examples for parents.
    (Sc. F.)
  4.  He opened up a wooden garage. The doors creaked.
    The garage was full of nothing. (R. Ch.)
  5.  She was a damned nice woman, too. (H.)
  6.  A  very  likeable  young  man  with  a  pleasantly  ugly
    face. (A. C.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What  is   an  oxymoron  and  what  meanings  are  fore-
    grounded in its formation?
  2.  Why are there comparatively few trite oxymorons and
    where are they mainly used?
  3.  Give some examples of trite oxymorons.

After you have learnt individual lexical stylistic devices and the linguistic mechanism which operates in each of them, we may pass on to general stylistic analysis on the lexical level.* Your main task is to indicate how and through what lexical means additional logical, emotive, expressive informa-tion is created. In many cases you will see a number of lexical units used in convergence to still more enhance the expressiveness and emphasis of the utterance.

Exercise IX. Pay attention to the stylistic function of various lexical expressive means used individually and in convergence:

  1.  Constantinople is noisy, hot, hilly, dirty and   beautiful.
    It is packed with uniforms and rumors. (H.)
  2.  At  Archie   Schwert's  party  the  fifteenth Marquess  of
    Vanburgh,  Earl Vanburgh de  Brendon,  Baron Brendon, Lord
    of  the   Five   Isles   and   Hereditary   Grand   Falconer   to   the
    Kingdom of Connaught, said to the eighth Earl of Balcairn,
    Viscount  Erdinge,  Baron  Cairn  of Balcairn,  Red  Knight  of
    Lancaster,  Count  of the  Holy  Roman Empire  and Chenon-
    ceaux Herald to the Duchy of Aquitaine, "Hullo,"   he said.
    "Isn't  it  a   repulsive   party?   What  are   you  going  to   say

* Samples of the general stylistic analysis on the lexical level are given in Supplement 1 on p. 180.


about   it?"   for   they   were   both   of  them   as   it   happened, gossip writers for the daily papers.  (E. W.)

  1.  Across the street a bingo parlour was going full blast;
    the  voice  of the  hot  dog  merchant  split the  dusk  like an
    axe. The big blue blared down the street. (R. Ch.)
  2.  Lester was  all  alone.  He  listened  to  his  steps,  as  if
    they weren't his at all but somebody  else's.  How long can
    a  guy   stand  this   without  going  nuts?  Wattinger  has   been
    a good boy but it got him and he was blown to smithereens;
    they say they'd seen his arm sailing through the air; higher
    and higher, an arm alone rising to meet God. He wondered
    whether,   up   there,   they'd accept   an   arm   in   place   of  the
    whole   man.   His   soul   couldn't   possibly   have   been   in  the
    arm;   it   was   in   your   heart   or   in   your   guts   or  in   your
    brain but not in your arm. (St. H.)
  3.  For   me   the   work   of  Gertrude   Stein   consists   in   a
    rebuilding,  an  entire   new  recasting  of life,   in  the   city  of
    words.   Here   is   one   artist   who   has   been   able   to   accept
    ridicule,   to   go   live   among   the   little   housekeeping   words,
    the swaggering bullying street-corner words, the honest working,
    money-saving words, and all the other forgotten and neglected
    citizens of the sacred and half forgotten city. (Sh. A.)
  4.  Only a couple of the remaining fighters began to attack
    the  bombers.  On  they  all  came,  slowly  getting  larger.  The
    tiny   mosquitoes   dipped  and   swirled  and   dived  in  a  mad,
    whirling   dance  around  the  heavier,  stolid  horseflies,   who
    nevertheless kept serenely and sedately on. (J.)
  5.  "I  guess,"  said Mr.  Hiram  Fish sotto voce to himself
    and  the  world  at  large,  "that  this  has   been  a  great  little
    old week." (Ch.)
  6.  The good ships Law and Equity, these teak-built, copper-
    bottomed iron-fastened, brazen-faced, and not by any means
    fast-sailing Clippers, are laid up in ordinary. (D.)
  7.  An   enormous   grand   piano   grinned   savagely   at   the
    curtains as if it would grab them, given the chance. (W. Gl.)

  1.  Duffy  was  face  to  face  with  the  margin  of mistery
    where all our calculations collapse, where the stream of time
    dwindles into the sands of eternity, where the formula fails
    in the test-tube, where  chaos  and old night hold sway and
    we hear the laughter in the ether dream. (R. W.)
  2.  Mrs.  Ape watched them benignly, then squaring her
    shoulders and looking  (except that she had really no beard
    to  speak of)  every  inch a sailor strode  resolutely forrad to
    the first-class bar. (E. W.)


12. The fog comes
on little cat feet.
It sits looking

over harbor and city

on silent haunches

and then moves on. (K. S.)

  1.  On that little pond the leaves floated in peace and
    praised Heaven with their hues, the sunlight haunting over
    them.(G.)
  2.  From the throats of the ragged black men, as they
    trotted up and down the landing-stage, strange haunting notes.
    Words  were  caught  up,  tossed  about,   held  in  the  throat.
    Word-lovers, sound-lovers - the blacks seemed to hold a tone in some warm place, under their red tongues perhaps. Their thick lips were walls under which the tone hid. (Sh. A.)
  3.  It was   a  relief not  to   have   to   machete   my  way
    through a jungle of what-are-you-talking-aboutery before I could
    get at him. (J. A.)

16. Some say the world will end in fire,
Some say in ice,

From what I've tasted of desire

I hold with those who favor fire. But if it had to perish twice

I think I know enough of hate

To say that for destruction ice

Is also great

And would suffice. (R. Fr.)

  1.  Outside the narrow street fumed, the sidewalks swarmed
    with fat stomachs. (J. R.)
  2.  The  owner,  now at the  wheel,  was  the  essence  of
    decent   self-satisfaction;   a   baldish,   largish,   level-eyed   man,
    rugged of neck but sleek and round of face - face like the back of a spoon bowl. (S. L.)
  3.  His   fingertips   seemed   to   caress   the   wheel   as   he
    nursed it over the dark winding roads at a mere whispering
    sixty. (L. Ch.)
  4.  We   plunged  in  and  out  of  sun  and   shadow-pools,
    and joy, a glad-to-be-alive exhilaration, jolted through me like
    a jigger of nitrogen. (T. C.)
  5.  They were both wearing hats like nothing on earth,
    which bobbed and nodded as they spoke. (E. W.)
  6.  These  jingling   toys   in  his   pocket  were   of eternal
    importance like baseball or Republican Party. (S. L.)
  7.  He might almost have been some other man dreaming
    recurrently that he was an electrical engineer. On the other


side of the edge, waiting for him to peer into it late at night or whenever he was alone and the show of work had stopped, was illimitable unpopulated darkness, a greenland night; and only his continuing heart beats kept him from disappearing into it. Moving along this edge, doing whatever the day demanded, or the night offered, grimly observant (for he was not without fortitude), he noticed much that has escaped him before. He found he was attending a comedy, a show that would have been very funny indeed if there had been life outside the theatre instead of darkness and dissolution. (P.)

  1.  Poetry deals with primal and conventional things-the
    hunger for bread,  the  love  of woman,  the love of children,
    the desire for immortal life. If men really had new sentiments,
    poetry. could   not   deal   with   them.   If,   let  us   say,   a   man
    did not feel a bitter craving to eat brass fenders or mahogany
    tables,  poetry  could  not express  him.  If a man,  instead of
    falling   in   love   with   a   woman,   fell   in  love   with   a   fossil
    or a sea anemone poetry could not express him. Poetry can
    only   express   what   is   original   in   one   sense-the   sense   in
    which  we   speak  of original  sin.   It  is   original  not  in  the
    paltry sense of being new, but in the deeper sense of being
    old;   it  is   original   in   the   sense   that  it   deals   with  origins.
    (G. K. Ch.)
  2.  His   dinner  arrived,  a  plenteous  platter  of food – but  no plate. He glanced at his neighbors. Evidently plates were an affectation frowned upon in the Oasis cafe.

Taking up a tarnished knife and fork, he pushed aside the underbrush of onions and came face to face with his steak.

First impressions are important, and Bob Eden knew at once that this was no meek, complacent opponent that confronted him. The steak looked back at him with, an air of defiance that was amply justified by what followed. After a few moments of unsuccessful battling, he summoned the sheik. "How about a steel knife?" inquired Bob.

"Only got three and they're all in use," the waiter replied.

Bob Eden resumed the battle, his elbows held close, his muscles swelling. With set teeth and grim face he bore down and cut deep. There was. a terrible screech as his knife skidded along the platter, and to his horror he saw the steak rise from its bed of gravy and onions and fly from him. It travelled the grimy counter for a second then dropped on to the knees of the girl and thence to the floor.

Eden turned to meet her blue  eyes filled with laughter.

 


"Oh, I'm sorry," he said. "I thought it was a steak, and it seems to be a lap dog." (D. B.)

CHAPTER III.  SYNTACTICAL LEVEL

Main Characteristics of the Sentence. Syntactical SDs. Sentence Length. One-Word Sentences. Sentence Structure. Punctuation. Arrangement of Sentence Members. Rhetorical Question. Types of Repetition. Parallel Constructions. Chiasmus. Inversion. Suspense. Detachment Completeness of Sentence Structure. Ellipsis. One-Member Sentences. Apokoinu Constructions. Break. Types of Connection. Polysyndeton. Asyndeton. Attachment

Stylistic study of the syntax begins with the study of the length and the structure of a sentence. It appears, the length of any language unit is a very important factor in informa-tion exchange, for the human brain can receive and transmit

information only if the latter is punctuated by pauses.

Theoretically speaking a sentence can be of any length, as there are no linguistic limitations for its growth, so even monstrous constructions of several hundred words each, technically should be viewed as sentences.

Indeed, psychologically no reader is prepared to perceive as a syntactical whole those sentences in which the punc-tuation mark of a full stop comes after the 124th word (Joyce Carol Oates. Expensive People), or 128th word (E. Hemingway. "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber"), or 256th word (T. Pynchon. The Crying of Lot 49), or 631st word (N. Mailer. Why Are We in Vietnam?), or even after 45 whole pages of the text (J. Joyce. Ulysses).

Unable to specify the upper limit of sentence length we definitely know its lower mark to be one word. One-word sentences possess a very strong emphatic impact, for their only word obtains both the word  and the sentence-stress. The word constituting a sentence also obtains its own sentence-intonation which, too, helps to foreground the content. Cf.: "They could keep the Minden Street Shop going until they got the notice to quit; which mightn't be for two years. Or they could wait and see what kind of alternative premises were offered. If the site was good. If.  Or. And, quite inev-itably, borrowing money." (J. Br.) As you see, even synsemantic conjunctions, receiving the status of sentences are noticeably promoted in their semantic and expressive value.

Abrupt changes from short sentences to long ones and then  back again,  create a very strong effect of tension and


suspense for they serve to arrange a nervous, uneven, ragged rhythm of the utterance. There is no direct__or immediate correlation between the length and the structure of a sentence: short sentences may be structurally complicated, while the Jong ones, on the contrary, may have only one subject-predicate pair. Cf.: "Through the windows of the drug-store Eighth street looked extremely animated with families trooping toward the center of the town, flags aslant in children's hands, mother and pa in holiday attire and sweating freely, with patriarchal automobiles of neighbouring farmers full of starched youngsters and draped with bunting." (J. R.) Almost 50 words of this sentence cluster around one subject-predicate centre "Eighth street looked animated".

At the same time very short sentences may boast of two and more clauses, i.e. may be complex, as we observe in the following cases: "He promised he'd come if the cops leave." (J. B.) "Their father who was the poorest man in town kept turning to the same jokes when he was treated to a beer or two." (A. S.) Still, most often bigger lengths go together with complex structures.

Not only the clarity and understandability of the sentence but also its expressiveness depend on the position of clauses, constituting it. So, if a sentence opens with_ the main clause, which is followed by dependent units, such a structure is called loose, is less emphatic and is highly characteristic of informal writing and conversation. Periodic sentences, on the contrary, open with subordinated clauses, absolute and participial constructions, the main clause being withheld until the end. Such structures are known for their emphasis and are used mainly in creative prose. Similar structuring of the beginning of the sentence and its end produces balanced sentences known for stressing the logic and reasoning of the content and thus preferred in publicist writing.

A word leaving the dictionary to become a member of the sentence normally loses its polysemy and actualizes only one of its meanings in the context. The same is true about the syntactical valency: a member of the sentence fulfils one syntactical function. There are cases, though, when syn-tactical ambivalence is preserved by certain members of a sentence which fact creates semantic ambiguity for it allows at least two different readings of the sentence. In the now famous quotation from N. Chomsky "The shooting of the hunters..." the second part may be regarded both as an attribute   ("whose   shooting" = who was shooting)   and  as  an


object ("whose shooting" = who was shot). Another sentence, composed by Yu. Apresyan to prove the effectiveness of transformational procedures, shows a much bigger syntactical ambivalence, for practically each of its members can be viewed  as playing more than one syntactical role, which brings the total number of possible readings of the sentence to 32 semantic variants. Here it is: «Приглашение рабочих бригад вызвало осуждение товарища Иванова».

Sometimes syntactical ambivalence, like the play on words on the lexical level, is intentional and is used to achieve a humorous effect. Cf.: "Do you expect me to sleep with you in the room?" (B. Sh.) Depending on the function of "with you" the sentence may be read "to sleep with you || in the room" (and not in the field, or in the garden) or "to sleep || with you in the room" (and not alone, or with my mother). The solution lies with the reader and is explicated in oral communication by the corresponding pausation and. intonation. To convey them in the written form of speech order of words and punctuation are used.

The possibilities of intonation are much richer than those of punctuation. Indeed, intonation alone may create, add, change, reverse both the logical and the emotional information of an utterance. Punctuation is much poorer and it is used not alone, but substantiating  the lexical and syntactical meanings of sentence-components. Points of exclamation and of interrogation, dots, dashes help to specify the meaning of the written sentence which in oral speech would be conveyed by the intonation. It is not only the emphatic types of punctuation listed above that may serve as an additional source of information, but also more conventional commas, semicolons and full stops. E.g.: "What's your name?" "John Lewis." "Mine's Liza. Watkin." (К. К.) The full stop between the name and the surname shows there was a pause between them and the surname came as a response to the reaction (surprise, amusement, roused interest) of John Lewis at such an informal self-introduction.

Exercise 1. Comment on the length, the structure, the communicative type and punctuation of sentences, indicating connotations created by them:

  1.  The  sick child complained that his mother was going
    to read to him again from the  same  book:  "What did you
    bring  that  book  I   don't  like  to  be  read  aloud  to  out  of
    up for?" (E.)
  2.  Now, although we were little and I certainly couldn't
    be dreaming of taking Fonny from her or anything like that,


and although she didn't really love Fonny, only thought that she was supposed to because she had spasmed him into this world, already, Fonny's mother didn't like me. (J. B.)

  1.  The  congregation amened him  to  death; a big sister,
    in the  pulpit,  in her long white  robe, jumped up  and did
    a little shout; they cried, Help  him, Lord Jesus, help him!
    and the moment he sat down, another sister, her name was
    Rose  and not much later she  was  going to disappear from
    the  church and have a baby - and I still remember the last time  I  saw  her,  when  I  was  about  14  walking  the  streets in  the   snow  with  her  face  all  marked  and  her  hands  all swollen   and   a   rag   around   her   head   and   her   stockings falling down singing to herself - stood up and started singing.
    (J. B.)
  2.  Than Roy no one could show a more genuine cordiality
    to a fellow novelist. (S. M.)
  3.  Such  being at bottom  the  fact,  I  think it is  well  to
    leave it at that. (S. M.)
  4.  Yet at least Mucho, the used car salesman, had believed in the cars.  Maybe to excess: how could he not, seeing people poorer than him come in, Negro, Mexican, cracker, a parade seven days a week, bringing the most Godawful of  trade-ins:  motorized metal extensions of themselves, of their families and what their whole lives must be like, out there so naked for anybody, a stranger like himself, to look at, frame  cockeyed,  rusty underneath,  fender repainted in a shade just off enough to depress the value, if not Mucho himself, inside smelling hopelessly of children, supermarket booze, two, sometimes three generations of cigarette smokers, or only of dust - and when the cars were swept out  you had to look at the actual residue of these lives, and there was no way of telling what things had been truly refused (when so little he supposed came by that out of fear most of it had to be taken and kept) and what had simply (perhaps tragically) been lost:  clipped coupons promising savings of 5 to 10 cents, trading stamps, pink flyers advertizing specials at the market, butts, tooth-shy  combs,  help-wanted ads,  Yellow Pages torn from the phone book, rags of old underwear or dresses that were already period costumes, for wiping your own  breath off the  inside  of a windshield with so you could see whatever it was, a movie, a woman,or car you coveted, a cop who might pull you over just for drill, all the bits and pieces coated uniformly, like a salad of despair, in a grey dressing of ash,   condensed  exhaust,


dust,  body  wastes - it made him sick to look, but he had to look. (Th. P.)

  1.  Soldiers with their cartridges gone wandered aimlessly
    out of the  chapparal,  dragging their rifles and plunged into
    the brush again on the other side of the railroad, black with
    powder,   streaked   with   sweat,   their   eyes   vacantly   on   the
    ground. (J. R.)
  2.  Strolling up and down the Main Street, talking in little
    groups on the corners, lounging in and out of strike  head-
    quarters  were  hundreds  of big  strong-faced  miners  in  their
    Sunday best. (J. R.)
  3.  I am, he  thought, a part of all that I  have  touched
    and that has touched me, which having for me no existence
    save  that  I  gave  to  it,  became  other than  itself by  being
    mixed   with   what   I   then   was, and   is now   still   otherwise,
    having fused with what I now am, which is  itself a cumulation
    of what I have been becoming. (T. W.)

  1.  I like people. Not just empty streets and dead build-
    ings. People. People. (P. A.)
  2.  "You  know  so  much.  Where  is  she?"  "Dead.  Or in
    a crazy house. Or married. I think she's married and quieted
    down." (T. C.)

12. "Jesus Christ! Look at her face!" Surprise.
"Her eyes is closed!" Astonishment.
"She likes it!" Amazement.

"Nobody   could   take   my   picture   doing  that!"  Moral

disgust.

"Them goddam white folks!" Fascinated fear. (Wr.)

  1.  What courage can withstand the ever-enduring and all-
    besetting terrors of a woman's tongue? (W. I.)
  2.  "You talk of Christianity when you are in the act of
    banging   your   enemies.   Was   there   ever   such   blasphemous
    nonsense!" (B. Sh.)
  3.  What   is   the   good   of  sitting   on   the   throne   when
    other fellows give all the orders? (B. Sh.)
  4.  And what are wars but politics

Transformed from chronic to acute and bloody? (R. Fr.)

  1.  Father, was that you calling me? Was it you, the voiceless
    and  the   dead?  Was  it you,  thus  buffeted  as  you  lie  here
    in a heap? Was it you thus baptized unto Death? (D.)
  2.  "Let  us  see  the  state  of the  case.  The  question  is
    simple. The question, the usual plain, straight-forward, common-
    sense  question.  What can we  do for ourself? What can we
    do for ourself?" (D.)
  3.  Jonathan   Livingstone   Seagull   narrowed   his   eyes   in


fierce concentration, held his breath, forced one... single... more... inch... of ... curve... Then his feathers ruffled, he stalled and fell. (Rch. B.)

  1.  "Jake, will you get out!" said Magdalen. (I. M.)
  2.  A   boy  and  a  girl   sat  on  stools   drinking  pop.   An
    elderly man alone - someone John knew vaguely by sight - the
    town  clerk?-sat  behind  an  empty  Coca-Cola  bottle.   (P. Q.)
  3.  What your doctor learned:  biggest A.M.A. convention
    ever is full of medical news about remedies and treatments
    he may (sob!) be using on you.
    (M. St.)
  4.  The  neon lights in the  heart of the  city flashed on
    and off. On and off.  On. Off.  On. Off. Continuously. (P. A.)
  5.  Bagdworthy   was   in   seventh   heaven.   A   murder!   At
    Chimneys!  Inspector Badgworthy in charge  of the case.  The
    police  have  a  clue.   Sensational  arrest. Promotion and  kudos
    for the afforementioned Inspector. (Ch.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  Comment on the length of the sentence and its stylistic
    relevance.
  2.  What do you know about one-word sentences?
  3.  Is  there  any  correlation  between  the  length and  the
    structure of the sentence?
  4.  Can   syntactical   ambivalence   be   put  to   stylistic  use?
  5.  What   punctuation   marks   do   you  know  and  what  is
    their stylistic potential?

Punctuation also specifies the communicative type of the sentence. So, as you well  know a point of interrogation marks a  question  and  a  full  stop   signals  a  statement.   There  are cases  though when a statement is crowned with a question mark.   Often   this punctuation-change   is combined  with  the change of word-order, the latter following   the   pattern   of question. This peculiar interrogative construction which semantically   remains   a   statement   is   a rhetorical question. Unlike an ordinary question the rhetorical  question does not demand any   information but serves to express the emotions   of the speaker  and  also  to  call  the  attention of listeners. Rhetorical questions make an indispensable  part  of oratoric speech   for   they very   successfully   emphasize the   orator's    ideas.   In  fact the speaker knows   the   answer himself and gives it immediately after the  question is asked.  The interrogative   intonation   and/or  punctuation   draw the   attention of listeners (readers) to the focus of the utterance. Rhetorical


questions are also often asked in "unanswerable" cases, as when in distress or anger we resort to phrases like "What have I done to deserve..." or "What shall I do  when...". The artificiality of question-form of such constructions is further stressed by exclamation marks which, alongside points of interrogation, end rhetorical questions.

 The effect of the majority of syntactical stylistic devices depends on either the completeness of the structure or on the arrangement of its members. The order, in which words (clauses) follow each other is of extreme importance not only for the logical coherence of the sentence but also for its connotational meanings. The following sprawling rambling sentence from E. Waugh's novel Vile Bodies, with clauses heaping one over another, testifies to the carelessness, talka-tiveness and emotionality of the speaker: "Well, Tony rang up Michael and told him that I'd said that William thought Michael had written the review because of the reviews I had written of Michael's book last November, though, as a matter of fact, it was Tony himself who wrote it." (E. W.) More examples showing the validity of the syntactical pattern were shown in Exercise I on p. 69.

One of the most prominent places among the SDs dealing with arrangement of members of the sentence decidedly belongs to repetition. We have already seen the repetition of a phoneme (as in alliteration), of a morpheme (as in rhyming, or plain morphemic repetition). As a syntactical SD repetition is recurrence of the same word, word combination, phrase for two and more times. According to the place which the repeated unit occupies in a sentence (utterance), repetition is classified into several types:

1. anaphora: the  beginning  of some  successive  sentences
(clauses)   is   repeated-   
a...,   a...,   a...   .   The   main   stylistic
function   of  anaphora   is   not   so   much   to   emphasize   the
repeated  unit  as   to   create   the   background  for  the   nonre-
peated unit, which, through its novelty, becomes foregrounded.
The background-forming function of anaphora is also evident
from   the   kind  of words  which  are   repeated  anaphorically.
Pay attention  to  their semantics  and  syntactical function in
the sentence when working with. Exercise II on pp. 73-74.

2. epiphora:   the  end of successive  sentences  (clauses)  is
repeated - ...a,  
...a,  ...a. The main function of epiphora is to add stress to the final words of the sentence.

3. framing:  the beginning of the  sentence is repeated in
the end, thus forming the "frame" for the non-repeated part
of the  sentence (utterance) - a...  
a.  The function of framing


is to elucidate the notion mentioned in the beginning of the sentence. Between two appearances of the repeated unit there comes the developing middle part of the sentence which explains and clarifies what was introduced in the beginning, so that by the time it is used for the second time its semantics is concretized and specified.

4. catch repetition (anadiplosis): the end of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following one - ...a, a... . Specification of the semantics occurs here too, but on a more modest level.

5. chain repetition presents several successive anadiploses -...a, a...b, b...c, c... . The effect is that of the smoothly developing logical reasoning.

6. ordinary repetition has no definite place in the sentence and the repeated unit occurs in various positions - ...a, ...a..., a... . Ordinary repetition emphasizes both the logical and the emotional meanings of the reiterated word (phrase).

7. successive repetition is a string of closely following each other reiterated units - ...а, a, a... . This is the most emphatic type of repetition which signifies the peak of emotions of the speaker.

As you must have seen from the brief description, repe-tition is a powerful means of emphasis. Besides, repetition  adds rhythm and balance to the utterance. The latter function is the major one in parallel constructions which may be viewed as a purely syntactical type of repetition for here we deal with the reiteration of the structure of' several successive sentences (clauses), and not of their lexical "flesh". True enough, parallel constructions almost always include some type of lexical repetition too, and such a convergence pro-duces a very strong effect, foregrounding at one go logical, rhythmic,   emotive  and  expressive  aspects  of the  utterance.

Reversed parallelism is called chiasmus. The second part of a chiasmus is, in fact, inversion of the first construction. Thus; if the first sentence (clause) has a direct word order -SPO, the second one will have it inverted - OPS.

Exercise II. From the following examples you will get a better idea of the functions of various types of repetition, and also of parallelism and chiasmus:

  1.  I  wake  up  and  I'm  alone  and I  walk round Warley
    and I'm  alone; and I  talk with people  and I'm  alone  and
    I  look  at  his   face   when  I'm  home  and  it's   dead.   (J. Br.)
  2.  Babbitt was virtuous. He advocated, though he did not


practice,  the  prohibition  of alcohol;  he   praised,  though  he did not obey, the laws against motor-speeding. (S. L.)

  1.  "To think better of it," returned the gallant Blandois,
    "would  be  to  slight a  lady,  to  slight  a  lady  would  be  to
    be deficient in chivalry towards the sex, and chivalry towards
    the sex is a part of my character." (D.)
  2.  Halfway along  the  righthand  side  of the  dark  brown
    hall was a dark brown door with a dark brown settie beside
    it. After I had put my hat, my gloves, my muffler and my
    coat  on the  settie  we  three  went  through  the  dark  brown
    door into a darkness without any brown in it. (W. G.)
  3.  I might as well, face facts:  good-bye,  Susan, good-bye
    a big car, good-bye a big house, good-bye  power, good-bye
    the silly handsome dreams. (J.Br.)
  4.  I  really  don't  see   anything  romantic  in  proposing.   It
    is very romantic to be in love. But there is nothing romantic
    about a definite proposal. (O. W.)
  5.  Г wanted  to  knock  over the  table  and  hit him  until
    my arm had no more strength in it, then give him the boot,
    give   him   the   boot,   give   him   the   boot - I   drew   a   deep
    breath. (J. Br.)
  6.  On  her father's  being groundlessly  suspected, she  felt
    sure. Sure. Sure. (D.)
  7.  Now he understood. He understood many things. One
    can be  a person first.  A man first and  then a black man
    or a white man. (P. A.)

  1.  She stopped, and seemed to catch the distant sound of
    knocking.  Abandoning the traveller, she  hurried towards the
    parlour, in the passage she assuredly did hear knocking, angry
    and impatient knocking, the knocking of someone who thinks
    he has knocked too long. (A. B.)
  2.  Obviously - this is a streptococcal infection. Obviously.
    (W. D.)
  3.  And a great desire for peace, peace of no matter what
    kind, swept through her. (A. B.)
  4.  When he blinks,   a parrot-like look appears, the look
    of some heavily blinking tropical bird. (A. M.)
  5.  And everywhere were people. People going into gates
    and   coming   out   of   gates.   People   staggering   and   falling.
    People fighting and cursing. (P. A.)
  6.  Then there was something between them. There was.
    There was. (Dr.)

16. He ran away  from the battle. He was  an ordinary human being that didn't want to kill or be killed. So he ran away from the battle. (St. H.)


  1.  Failure meant poverty, poverty meant squalor, squalor
    led,   in   the   final   stages,   to   the   smells   and   stagnation   of
    B. Inn Alley. (D. du M.)
  2.  "Secret Love", "Autumn Leaves", and something whose
    title he missed. Supper music. Music to cook by. (U.)

19. Living is the art of loving.
Loving is the art of caring.
Caring is the art of sharing.
Sharing is the art of living. (W. H. D.)

  1.  I came back, shrinking from my father's money, shrinking
    from  my father's memory:  mistrustful  of being forced on a
    mercenary wife, mistrustful of my father's intention in thrusting
    that marriage on me, mistrustful that I was already growing
    avaricious,  mistrustful  that I  was  slackening  in gratitude  to
    the   dear   noble   honest   friends   who   had   made   the   only
    sunlight in my childish life. (D.)
  2.  If you  know  anything  that is  not known  to  others,
    if  you   have   any   suspicion,   if  you   have   any   clue   at  all,
    and  any  reason  for  keeping  it in your own  breast,  ...think
    of me, and conquer that reason and let it be  known!. (D.)
  3.  I  notice  that  father's  is  a  large  hand,  but  never  a
    heavy one when it touches me, and that father's is a rough
    voice  but never an angry  one  when it speaks to me.  (D.)
  4.  From  the  offers  of marriage  that fell  to  her,  Dona
    Clara, deliberately, chose the one that required her removal
    to Spain. So to Spain she went. (O. W.)
  5.  There lives at least one being who can never change -
    one being who. would be content to devote his whole existence
    to your happiness - who lives but in your eyes - who breathes but   in   your   smile - who   bears   the   heavy   burden   of  life itself only for you. (D.)
  6.  It is she, in association with whom,  saving that she
    has  been for years a main fibre  of the  roof of his dignity
    and  pride,  he   has  never  had  a  selfish  thought.  It  is  she,
    whom he has loved, admired,  honoured and set up for the
    world  to   respect.   It  is   she,   who,   at  the   core   of all   the
    constrained  formalities  and  conventionalities  of his  life,  has
    been a stock of living tenderness and love. (D.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What is a rhetorical question?
  2.  What types of repetition do you know?
  3.  Comment   on   the   functions   of  repetition   which  you
    observed in your reading.


  1.  Which type  of repetition  have  you met most often?
    What, in your opinion, makes it so popular?
  2.  What constructions are called parallel?
  3.  Have you ever observed chiasmus? What is it?

 Inversion which was briefly mentioned in the definition of

chiasmus is very often used as an independent SD in which
the direct word order is changed either completely so that
the  predicate (predicative) precedes the subject, or partially
so that the object precedes the subject-predicate pair. Cor-
respondingly, we differentiate between a
partial and a complete
inversion.

The stylistic device of inversion should not be confused  with grammatical inversion which is a norm in interrogative  constructions. Stylistic inversion  deals with the rearrangement of the normative word order. Questions may also be rearranged: "Your mother is at home?" asks one of the characters of J. Baldwin's novel. The inverted question presupposes the answer with more certainty than the normative one. It is the assuredness of the speaker of the positive answer that con-stitutes additional information which is brought into the question by the inverted word order. Interrogative constructions with the direct word order may be viewed as cases of two-step (double) inversion: direct w / о - grammatical inversion -direct w / o.

Still another SD dealing with the arrangement of members of the sentence is suspense - a deliberate postponement of the completion of the sentence. The term "suspense" is also used in literary criticism to denote an expectant uncertainty about the outcome of the plot. To hold the reader in suspense means to keep the final solution just out of sight. Detective and adventure stories are examples of suspense fiction. The theme, that which is known, and the rheme, that which is new, of the sentence are distanced from each other and the new information is withheld, creating the tension of expecta-tion. Technically, suspense is  organized with the  help of embedded clauses (homogeneous members) separating the  predicate from the subject and introducing less important facts and details first, while the expected information of major importance is reserved till the end of the sentence (utterance).

A specific arrangement of sentence members is observed in detachment,  a stylistic device based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of punc-tuation (intonation). The word-order here is not violated, but secondary members obtain their own stress and intonation


because they are detached from the rest of the sentence by commas, dashes or even a full stop as in the following cases: "He had been nearly killed, ingloriously, in a jeep accident." (I. Sh.) "I have to beg you for money. Daily." (S. L.) Both "ingloriously" and "daily" remain adverbial modi-fiers, occupy their proper normative places, following the modified verbs, but-due to detachment and the ensuing additional pause and stress - are foregrounded into the focus of the reader's attention.

Exercise III. Find and analyse cases of detachment, suspense and inversion. Comment on the structure and functions of each:

  1.  She narrowed  her eyes a trifle at me and said I looked
    exactly   like   Celia   Briganza's   boy.   Around   the   mouth.   (S.)
  2.  He   observes   it   all   with   a   keen   quick   glance,   not
    unkindly,   and   full   rather   of  amusement   than   of  censure.
    (V. W.)
  3.  She   was   crazy   about   you.   In   the   beginning.   (R. W.)
  4.  How   many   pictures   of  new  journeys   over   pleasant
    country,   of   resting   places   under   the   free   broad   sky,   of
    rambles   in   the   fields   and   woods,   and   paths   not   often
    trodden - how many tones of that one well-remembered voice, how  many   glimpses   of the   form,   the   fluttering   dress,  the  hair   that   waved   so   gaily   in   the   wind - how   many   visions  of what had  been and  what  he  hoped was  yet to be – rose up before him in the old, dull, silent church! (D.)
  5.  It was not the monotonous days uncheckered by variety
    and  uncheered   by   pleasant   companionship,   it  was  not  the
    dark dreary evenings or the  long solitary nights, it was not
    the absence of every slight and easy pleasure for which young
    hearts  beat  high  or  the  knowing  nothing  of childhood  but
    its  weakness  and  its  easily  wounded  spirit,  that had wrung
    such tears from Nell. (D.)
  6.  Of all my old   association,    of all my old pursuits and
    hopes,  of all the  living and the  dead world, this  one  poor
    soul alone comes natural to me. (D.)
  7.  Corruption   could   not   spread   with   so   much   success,
    though  reduced  into  a  system,  and  though  some  ministers,
    with   equal   impudence   and  folly,  avowed  it  by   themselves
    and their advocates, to be the principal expedient by which
    they governed;   if a long and almost unobserved progression
    of causes and effects did not prepare the  conjuncture.  (Bol.)
  8.  I have  been accused of bad taste.  This has disturbed
    me   not  so  much  for  my  own   sake   (since   I  am  used  to


the slights and arrows of outrageous fortune) as for the sake . of criticism in general. (S. M.)

9. On,   on   he   wandered,   night   and  day,   beneath   the
blazing sun, and the cold pale moon;  through the dry heat
of  noon,   and   the   damp   cold   of night;   in   the   grey   light
of morn, and the red glare of eve. (D.)

  1.  Benny  Collan,  a  respected guy,  Benny  Collan  wants
    to marry her. An agent could ask for more?
    (Т. C.)
  2.  Women   are   not   made   for   attack.   Wait   they   must.
    (J. C.)
  3.  Out  came  the  chase-in  went  the  horses - on  sprang
    the boys - in got the travellers. (D.)
  4.  Then   he   said:   "You   think  it's   so?   She   was   mixed
    up in this lousy business? (J. B.)
  5.  And   she   saw   that   Gopher   Prairie   was   merely   an
    enlargement of all the hamlets which they had been passing.
    Only  to  the  eyes  of a  Kennicot  was  it  exceptional.  (S. L.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What syntactical stylistic devices dealing with arrangement
    of sentence members do you remember?
  2.  What types of inversion do you know? Which of them
    have you met more often and why?
  3.  What is suspense, how is it arranged and what is its
    function?
  4.  What do you know about detachment and punctuation
    used with detached sentence members?
  5.  What sentence members are most often detached?
  6.  Find  in  your reading  material  cases  of all  syntactical
    SDs based on the re-arrangement or intended specific arrange-
    ment of sentence members.

The second, somewhat smaller, group of syntactical SDs deals not so much with - specificities of the arrangement as with the completeness of sentence-structure. The most prom-inent place here belongs to ellipsis, or deliberate omission of at least one member of the sentence, as in the famous quotation from Macbeth:

What! all my pretty chickens and their dam At one fell swoop?

In contemporary prose ellipsis is mainly used  in dialogue where it is consciously employed  by the author to reflect the   natural   omissions   characterizing   oral   colloquial   speech.


Often ellipsis is met close to dialogue, in author's introductory remarks commenting the speech of the  characters. Elliptical remarks in prose resemble stage directions in drama. Both save only the most vital information letting out those bits of it which can be easily reassembled from the situation. It is the situational nature of our everyday speech which heavily relies on both speakers' awareness of the conditions and details of the communication act that promotes normative colloquial omissions. Imitation of these oral colloquial norms is created by the author through ellipsis with the main function of achieving the  authenticity and plausibility of fictitious dialogue.

Ellipsis is the basis of the so-called telegraphic style, in which connectives and redundant words are left out. In  the early twenties British railways had an inscription over luggage racks in the carriages: "The use of this rack for heavy and bulky packages involves risk of injury to passengers and is prohibited." Forty years later it was reduced to the elliptical: "For light articles only." The same progress from full com-pleted messages to clipped phrases was made in drivers' directions: "Please drive slowly" -  "Drive slowly"- "Slow".

The biggest contributors to the telegraphic style are one-member sentences, i.e. sentences consisting only of a nominal group, which is semantically and communicatively self-suf-ficient. Isolated verbs, proceeding from the ontological features of a verb as a part of speech, cannot be considered one-member sentences as they always rely on the context for their semantic fulfilment and are thus heavily ellipticized sentences. In creative prose one-member sentences are mostly used in descriptions (of nature, interior appearance, etc.), where they  produce the effect of a detailed but laconic picture foregrounding its main components; and as the background of dialogue, mentioning the emotions, attitudes, moods of the speakers.

In apokoinu constructions the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective creates a blend of the main and the subordinate clauses so that the predicative or the object of the first one is simultaneously used as the subject of the second one. Cf.: "There was a door led into the kitchen." (Sh. A.) "He was the man killed that deer." (R. W.) The double syntactical function played by one word produces the  general impression of clumsiness of speech and is used as a means of speech characteristics in dialogue, in reported speech and the type of narrative known as 'entrusted' in which the author   entrusts   the   telling   of  the   story   to   an   imaginary


narrator  who   is   either   an   observer   or  participant   of the described events.

The last SD which promotes the incompleteness of sentence structure is break (aposiopesis).  Break is also used mainly in the dialogue or in other  forms of narrative imitating spontaneous oral speech. It reflects the emotional or / and the psychological state of the speaker: a sentence may be broken because  the   speaker's  emotions  prevent  him from finishing  it.  Another cause  оf the  break is the desire to cut short   the   information   with   which the   sentence   began.   In   such cases there аrе usually special remarks  by the author, indicating the intentional abruptness of the end. (See examples in Exercise IV). In many cases break is the result of the speaker's uncertainty as to  what exactly he is to promise (to threaten, to beg).

To mark the break dashes and dots are used. It is only in cast-iron structures that full stops  may  also appear, as in the well-known phrases "Good intentions, but", or "It depends".

Exercise IV. Discuss different types of stylistic devices dealing with the completeness of the sentence:

  1.  In  manner,  close  and  dry.  In  voice,  husky  and  low. In face, watchful behind a blind. (D.)
  2.  Malay  Camp.  A  row  of streets  crossing  another  row of streets. Mostly narrow streets. Mostly   dirty streets. Mostly dark streets. (P. A.)
  3.  His forehead was narrow, his face wide, his head large, and his nose all on one side. (D.)
  4.  A solemn silence: Mr. Pickwick humorous, the old lady serious, the fat gentleman cautious and Mr. Miller timorous. (D.)
  5.  He, and the falling light and dying fire, the time-worn room,  the  solitude,  the  wasted life, and gloom, were all in fellowship. Ashes, and dust, and ruin! (D.)

   6. She merely looked at him weakly. The wonder of him! The beauty of love! Her desire toward him! (Dr.)

7. Ever  since   he   was  a  young   man,   the   hard  life   on Earth,  the  panic  of  2130,  the starvation,  chaos,  riot,  want. Then  bucking  through  the planets,  the  womanless,  loveless years, the alone years. (R. Br.)

8.  H.: The waves, how are the waves?

C.: The waves? Lead.

H.: And the sun?

C.: Zero.

H.: But it should be sinking. Look again.


С.: Damn the sun.

H.: Is it night already then?

С.: No.

H.: Then what is it?

C.: Grey! Grey! GREY!

H.: Grey! Did I hear you say grey?

C.: Light black. From pole to pole. (S. B.)

9. I'm   a   horse   doctor,   animal   man.   Do   some   farming, too. Near Tulip, Texas. (T. C.)

  1.  "I'll   go,   Doll!   I'll  go!"  This  from   Bead,   large   eyes larger than usual behind his hornrimmed glasses. (J.)
  2.  A   black   February   day.   Clouds   hewn   of  ponderous timber weighing  down  on  the  earth:  an  irresolute  dropping of snow  specks   upon  the   trampled  wastes.   Gloom  but  no veiling of angularity. The second day of Kennicott's absence. (S. L.)
  3.  And we got down at the bridge. White cloudy sky, with mother-of-pearl veins. Pearl rays shooting through, green and blue-white. River roughed by a breeze.  White as a new file in  the  distance.  Fish-white  streak  on  the  smooth  pin-silver upstream. Shooting new pins. (J. C.)
  4.  This   is   a   story   how   a  Baggins   had   an  adventure. He  may  have  lost the  neighbours'  respect,  but  he  gained- well,  you  will  see  whether he gained  anything in  the  end. (A. T.)
  5.  "People   liked   to   be   with   her.   And-"   She   paused
    again. "- and she was crazy about you." (R. W.)
  6.  What   I   had   seen   of  Patti   didn't   really   contradict
    Kitty's   view   of  her:   a  girl   who  means   well,   but.   (D. U.)
  7.  "He  was shouting out that he'd come back, that his
    mother had better have the money ready for him. Or else!
    That is what he said: 'Or else!' It was a threat." (Ch.)
  8.  "Listen,  I'll  talk  to  the   butler  over that phone  and
    he'll   know  my   voice.   Will   that  pass   me   in  or  do  I   have
    to ride on your back?"

"I just work here," he  said softly.  "If I  didn't-" he  let the rest hang in the air, and kept on smiling. (R. Ch.)

  1.  I   told   her,   "You've   always   acted   the   free   woman,
    you've   never   let   any   thing   stop   you   from-"   (He   checks
    himself,  goes  on  hurriedly).  "That made  her sore." (J. O'H.)
  2.  "Well, they'll get a chance now to show-" (Hastily):
    "I don't mean - But let's forget that." (O'N.)
  3.  And it was unlikely that anyone would trouble to look
    there - until - until - well. (Dr.)

There   was   no   breeze   came   through  the   door.   (H.)


  1.  I love Nevada. Why, they don't even have mealtimes
    here. I never met so many people didn't own a watch. (A. M.)
  2.  Go down to Lord and Taylors or someplace and get
    yourself   something   real   nice   to   impress   the   boy   invited
    you. (J. K.)
  3.  There  was a whisper in my family that it was  love
    drove him out and not love of the wife he married.  
    (J. St.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What  syntactical   stylistic   devices   deal  with  the   com-
    pleteness of sentence-structure?
  2.  What types of ellipses do you know and where is each
    of them used predominantly?
  3.  What member of the sentence represents "one-member
    sentences"?
  4.  Where are apokoinu constructions used?
  5.  What additional  information about the act of commu-
    nication and its participants is conveyed by the break?
  6.  What punctuation is used in the break?
  7.  Find examples with the above-mentioned SDs in your
    reading.

The arrangement of sentence members, the completeness of sentence structure necessarily involve various types of connection used within the sentence or between sentences. Repeated use of conjunctions is called polysyndeton; deliberate

omission of them  is, correspondingly, named asyndeton. Both

polysyndeton and asyndeton,   have  a  strong rhythmic impact.

Besides,  the   function of  polysyndeton  is  to strengthen the  idea of equal logical (emotive) importance of connected sentences, while asyndeton,  cutting off connecting  words, helps to create the effect of terse, energetic,  active prose.

These two types  of connection are more characteristic of the author's speech. The third type - attachment (gap-sentence link, annexation) on the contrary, is mainly to be found in various representations of the voice of the personage - dialogue, reported speech, entrusted narrative. In the attachment the second part of the utterance is separated from the first one by a full stop though their semantic and grammatical ties remain very strong. The second part appears as an after-thought and is often connected with the beginning of the utterance with the help of a conjunction which brings the latter into the foregrounded opening position. Cf.: "It wasn't his fault.  It was yours.  And mine.  I now humbly beg you


to give me the money with which to buy meals for you to eat. And hereafter do remember it: the next time I shan't beg. I shall simply starve." (S. L.); "Prison is where she belongs. And my husband agrees one thousand per cent." (T. C.)

Exercise V. Specify stylistic functions of the types of connection given below:

  1.  Then  from  the   town  pour  Wops  and  Chinamen  and
    Polaks,  men  and  women  in  trousers  and  rubber  coats  and
    oilcloth  aprons.   They   come   running  to  clean  and  cut  and
    pack  and  cook and  can  the  fish.  The  whole  street  rumbles
    and  groans   and   screams   and   rattles   while   the   silver  rivers
    of fish pour in out of the  boats and the  boats  rise  higher
    and higher in the water until they are empty. The canneries
    rumble  and  rattle  and  squeak  until  the  last  fish is  cleaned
    and   cut   and   cooked   and   canned   and   then   the   whistles
    scream again and the dripping smelly tired Wops and Chinamen
    and   Polaks,   men  and   women   struggle   out  and   droop   their
    ways  up  the  hill  into  the  town and Cannery  Row becomes
    itself again-quiet and magical. (J. St.)
  2.  "What sort of a place is Dufton exactly?"

"A lot of mills. And a chemical factory. And a Grammar school and a war memorial and a river that runs different colours each day. And a cinema and fourteen pubs. That's really all one can say about it." (J. Br.)

  1.  By   the   time   he   had   got   all   the   bottles   and   dishes
    and knives and forks and glasses and plates and spoons and
    things  piled  up  on  big  trays,  he  was  getting  very  hot,  and
    red in the face, and annoyed. (A. T.)
  2.  Bella soaped his face and rubbed his face, and soaped
    his   hands   and   rubbed   his   hands,   and   splashed   him,   and
    rinsed   him,   and   towelled   him,   until   he   was   as   red   as
    beetroot. (D.)
  3.  Secretly, after the nightfall, he visited the home of the
    Prime   Minister.   He   examined   it   from   top   to   bottom.   He
    measured all the doors and windows. He took up the flooring.
    He  inspected  the  plumbing.  He  examined the  furniture.  He
    found nothing. (L.)
  4.  With these hurried words Mr.  Bob Sawyer pushed the
    postboy   on   one   side,   jerked   his   friend   into   the   vehicle,
    slammed the door, put up the steps, wafered the bill on the
    street-door,  locked  it,  put  the  key  into  his pocket, jumped
    into the dickey, gave the word for starting. (D.)

7. "Well,  guess  it's  about time  to  turn in." He  yawned,
 


went out to look at the thermometer, slammed the door, patted her head, unbuttoned his waistcoat, yawned, wound the clock, went to look at the furnace, yawned and clumped upstairs to bed, casually scratching his thick woolen un-dershirt. (S. L.)

  1.  "Give  me an example," I said quietly.  "Of something
    that means something. In your opinion." (T. C.)
  2.  "I  got  a  small  apartment over  the  place.  And,  well,
    sometimes I stay over. In the apartment. Like the last few
    nights." (D. U.)

10. "He   is  a  very  deliberate,  careful  guy  and  we  trust
each other completely. With a few reservations." (D. U.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What types of connecting syntactical units do you know?
    Which   of  them   are   used   to   create   additional   information
    and achieve a specific effect?
  2.  Speak about asyndeton and its functions.
  3.  Discuss polysyndeton.  Give  some  examples  from your
    reading.
  4.  What is attachment? When and where is it used? Have
    you met it in your reading?

Lexico-Syntactical Stylistic Devices

Antithesis. Climax. Anticlimax. Simile. Litotes. Periphrasis

Syntactical stylistic devices add logical, emotive, expressive information to the utterance regardless of lexical meanings of sentence components. There are certain structures though, whose emphasis depends not only on the arrangement of sentence members but also on their construction, with definite demands on the lexico-semantic aspect of the utterance. They are known as lexico-syntactical SDs.

Antithesis is  a good example of them: syntactically antithesis is just another case of parallel constructions. But unlike parallelism, which is indifferent to the semantics of its com-ponents, the two рarts of an antithesis must be semantically opposed to each other, as in the sad maxim of O. Wilde: "Some people have much to live on, and  little to live for", where "much" and "little" present a  pair of antonyms, supported by the contextual opposition of postpositions "on" and "for". Another example: "If we don't know who gains by his death we do know who loses by it." (Ch.) Here, too, we have the leading   antonymous     pair   "gain-lose"   and   the   supporting


one, made stronger by the emphatic form of the affirmative construction - "don't know / do know".

Antithesis as a semantic opposition emphasized by its realization in similar structures, is often observed on lower levels of language hierarchy, especially on the morphemic level where two antonymous affixes create a powerful effect of contrast: "Their pre-money wives did not go together with their post-money daughters." (H.)

The main function of antithesis is to stress the hetero-geneity of the described phenomenon, to show that the latter is a dialectical unity of two (or more) opposing features.

Exercise I. Discuss the semantic centres and structural peculiarities of antithesis:

  1.  Mrs.  Nork  had  a  large   home  and  a  small  husband.
    (S.L.)
  2.  Don't use big words. They mean so little. (O. W.)
  3.  1 like big parties. They're so intimate. At small parties
    there isn't any privacy. (Sc. F.)
  4.  There   is  Mr.   Guppy, who was  at   first    as   open  as
    the   sun   at  noon,   but  who   suddenly  shut  up  as  close   as
    midnight. (D.)
  5.  Such  a  scene  as  there  was when  Kit came  in!  Such
    a confusion of tongues, before the circumstances were related,
    and the proofs disclosed! Such a dead silence when all was
    told! (D.)
  6.  Rup wished he could be swift, accurate, compassionate
    and stern instead of clumsy and vague and sentimental. (I. M.)
  7.  His  coat-sleeves  being a great deal  too  long, and his
    trousers a great deal too short, he appeared ill at ease in
    his clothes. (D.)
  8.  There was something eery about the apartment house,
    an  unearthly  quiet that was a  combination of overcarpeting
    and underoccupancy. (H. St.)
  9.  It  is   safer  to   be   married   to  the   man  you  can   be
    happy with than to the man you cannot be happy without.
    (E.)

  1.  Then   came   running   down   stairs   a   gentleman   with
    whiskers, out of breath. (D.)
  2.  It was the best of times, it was the worst of times,
    it  was the  age  of wisdom,  it  was  the  age  of foolishness,
    it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity,
    it was the  season of Light, it was the season of Darkness,
    it  was the   spring   of hope,   it  was   the   winter  of despair;


we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way - in short the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only. (D.)

12. Cannery Row in Monterey in California is a poem, a stink, a grating noise, a quality of light, a tone, a habit, a nostalgia, a dream. Cannery Row is the gathered and scattered, tin and iron, and rust and splintered wood, chipped pavement and weedy lots and junk heaps, sardine canneries of corrugated iron, honky tonks, restaurants and whore houses and little crowded groceries and laboratories and flophouses. Its inhabitants are, as the man once said "Whores, pimps, gamblers and sons of bitches", by which he meant Everybody. Had the man looked through another peephole he might have said "Saints and angels and martyrs and holy men" and he would have meant the same thing. (J. St.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  Comment  on  linguistic  properties  of sentences  which
    arc foregrounded in lexico-syntactical stylistic devices.
  2.  What do you know about antithesis? Why is it viewed
    separately from parallel constructions?
  3.  Have   you   ever   met   in   your   home-reading   cases   of
    antithesis  in  which  the  structure  of a  word  was  also  used
    in the creation of the SD?

Another type of semantically complicated parallelism is presented  by  climax, in  which  each  next word  combination

(clause, sentence) is logically  more  important or emotionally

stronger and more explicit: "Better to borrow, better to beg, better to die!" (D.) " I am firm, thou art obstinate, he is pig-headed." (B. Ch.) If to create antithesis we use antonyms (or their contextual equivalents), in climax we deal with strings of synonyms or at least semantically related words belonging to the same thematic group.

The negative form of the structures participating in the formation of climax reverses the order in which climax-components are used, as in the following examples: "No tree, to shrub, no blade of grass that was not owned." (G.) It is the absence of substance or quality that is being emphasized by the negative form of the climax, this is why relative synonyms   are   arranged   not   in   the   ascending   but   in   the


descending order as to the expressed quality or quantity. Cf.: "Be careful," said Mr. Jingle. "Not a look." "Not a wink," said Mr. Tupman. "Not a syllable. Not a whisper." (D.)

Proceeding from the nature of the emphasized phenomenon it is possible  to speak of 1ogical, emotive or quantitative types of climax. The most widely spread model of climax is a three-step construction, in which intensification of, logical importance, of emotion or quantity (size, dimensions) is gradually rising from step to step. In emotive climax though, we rather often meet a two-step structure, in which the second part repeats the first one and is further strengthened by an intensifier, as in the following  instances: "He was so helpless, so very helpless." (W. D.) "She felt better, immensely better." (W. D.) "I have been so unhappy here, so very very unhappy." (D.)

Climax suddenly interrupted by an unexpected turn of the thought which defeats expectations of the reader (listener) and ends in complete semantic reversal of the emphasized idea, is called аnticlimax. То stress the abruptness of the change emphatic punctuation (dash, most often) is used between the ascending and the descending parts of the anticlimax. Quite a few paradoxes are closely connected with anticlimax.

Exercise II. Indicate the type of climax. Pay attention to its structure and the semantics of its components:

1. He  saw clearly that the  best thing was a cover story
or  camouflage.  As  he  wondered  and  wondered  what to do,
he  first  rejected  a  stop  as  impossible,  then  as  improbable,
then as quite dreadful. (W. G.)

2. "Is  it  shark?"   said  Brody.   The  possibility  that  he  at
last  was  going to  confront  the  fish - the  beast,  the  monster,
the nightmare - made Brady's heart pound. (P. B.)

3. If he   had  got into  the  gubernatorial  primary  on  his
own   hook,   he  would  have   taken  a  realistic  view.   But  this

was   different.   He   had   been  called.   He  had   been  touched.      He had been summoned. (R. W.)

4. We were all in all to one another, it was the morning
of life,  it  was   bliss,   it  was   frenzy,   it  was   everything  else
of that sort in the highest degree. (D.)

5. Like a well, like a vault, like a tomb, the prison had
no knowledge of the brightness outside. (D.)

6. "I shall  be sorry, I shall be truly sorry to leave you,
my friend." (D.)


  1.  "Of course it's important. Incredibly, urgently, desperately
    important." (D. S.)
  2.  "I  never  told  you  about  that  letter  Jane   Crofut  got
    from her minister when she was sick. He wrote Jane a letter
    and on the envelope the address was like this: Jane  Crofut;
    The   Crofut   Farm;   Graver's   Corners;   Sutton  County;   New
    Hampshire; United States of America." "What's funny about
    it?" "But listen, it's not finished: the United States of America;
    Continent of North America; Western Hemisphere; the Earth;
    the   Solar   System;   the   Universe;   the   Mind   of  God - that's what it said on the envelope." (Th. W.)
  3.  "You have heard of Jefferson Brick, I see, Sir," quoth
    the  Colonel  with  a  smile.  "England has  heard  of Jefferson
    Brick. Europe has heard of Jefferson Brick." (D.)

  1.  After so many  kisses  and promises  - the lie given to her dreams, her words, the lie given to kisses, hours, days, weeks, months of unspeakable bliss. (Dr.)
  2.  For  that one  instant  there  was  no  one  else  in the
    room, in the house, in the world, besides themselves. (M. W.)
  3.  In marriage the upkeep of woman is often the downfall
    of man. (Ev.)
  4.  Fledgeby  hasn't  heard  of anything.   "No,  there's  not
    a word of news," says Lammle. "Not a particle," adds Boots.
    "Not   an atom," chimes in Brewer. (D.)
  5.  Women have a wonderful instinct about things. They
    can discover everything except the obvious. (O. W.)

15. This was appalling - and soon forgotten. (G.)

  1.  He was unconsolable - for an afternoon. (G.)
  2.  In moments of utter crises my nerves act in the most
    extraordinary  way.  When  utter disaster seems  imminent  my
    whole  being is simultaneously braced to avoid it. I size up
    the  situation in a flash, set my teeth, contract my muscles,
    take   a  firm  grip   of myself,   and   without  a  tremor  always
    do the wrong thing." (B. Sh.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  Speak about the SD of climax and its types.
  2.  In what way does the. structure of an emotive climax
    differ from that of other types?
  3.  What   can   you   say   about   the   negative   form  of the
    climax?
  4.  What is an anticlimax?
  5.  Is every paradox expressed by a climax?


A structure of three components is presented in a stylistic device extremely popular at all times - simile.  Simile is an imaginative comparison of two unlike objects belonging to two different classes. The one which is  compared is called the tenor, the one with which it is compared, is called the vehicle. The tenor and the vehicle form the two semantic poles of the simile, which are connected by one of the following link words: "like", "as", "as though", "as like", "such as", "as ... as",  etc. Simile should  not be confused with simple (logical, ordinary) comparison. Structurally identical, consisting of the tenor,  the vehicle and the uniting formal element, they are semantically different: objects belonging to the same class are likened  in a simple comparison, while in a simile we deal  with the likening of objects  belonging to two different classes. So, "She is like her mother" is  a simple comparison, used  to state an evident fact. "She is like a rose" is a simile used for purposes of expressive evaluation, emotive explanation, highly individual description.

The tenor and the vehicle may be expressed in a brief "nucleus" manner, as in the above example, or may be extended. This last case of sustained expression of likeness is known as epic, or Homeric simile.

If you remember, in a metaphor two unlike objects (actions, phenomena) were identified on the grounds of possessing one common characteristic. In a simile two objects are compared on the grounds of similarity of some quality. This feature which is called foundation of a simile, may be explicitly mentioned as in: "He stood immovable like a rock in a torrent" (J. R.), or "His muscles are hard as rock". (Т. С.) You see that the "rock" which is the vehicle of two different similes offers two different qualities as their foundation-"immovable" in the first case, and "hard" in the second. When the foundation is not explicitly named, the simile is considered to be richer in possible associations, because the fact that a phenomenon can be qualified in multiple and varying ways allows to attach at least some of many qualities to the object of comparison. So "the rose" of the previous case allows to simultaneously foreground such features as "fresh, beautiful, fragrant, attractive", etc. Sometimes the foundation  of the simile is not  quite clear from the context, and the author supplies it with a key, where he explains which similarities led him to liken two different entities, and which in fact is an extended and detailed foundation. Cf.: "The conversations she began behaved like green logs: they fumed but would not fire." (Т. С.)


A simile, often repeated, becomes trite and adds to the stock of language phraseology. Most of trite similes have the foundation mentioned and conjunctions "as", "as ... as" used as connectives. Cf.: "as brisk as a bee", "as strong as a horse", "as live as a bird" and many many more.

Similes in which the link between the tenor and the vehicle is expressed by notional verbs such as "to resemble", "to seem", "to recollect", "to remember", "to look like", "to appear", etc. are called disguised, because the realization of the comparison is somewhat suspended, as the likeness between the objects seems less evident. Cf.: "His strangely taut, full-width grin made his large teeth resemble a dazzling miniature piano keyboard in the green light." (J.) Or: "The ball appeared to the batter to be a slow spinning planet looming toward the earth." (В. М.)

Exercise III. Discuss the following cases of simile. Pay attention to the semantics of the tenor and the vehicle, to the brief or sustained manner of their presentation. Indicate the foundation of the simile, both explicit and implicit Find examples of disguised similes, do not miss the link word joining the two parts of the structure:

  1.  The  menu  was  rather  less  than  a  panorama,  indeed,
    it was as repetitious as a snore. (O. N.)
  2.  The  topic  of the  Younger  Generation  spread  through
    the company like a yawn. (E. W.)
  3.  Penny-in-the-slot   machines   stood   there   like   so   many
    vacant faces,  their  dials  glowing  and  flickering - for nobody.
    (B.N.)

4. As wet as a fish - as dry as a bone;
As live as a bird - as dead as a stone;

As plump as a partridge - as crafty as a rat; As strong as a horse - as weak as a cat;

As hard as a flint - as soft as a mole;

As white as a lily - as black as coal;

As plain as a pike - as rough as a bear;

As tight as a drum - as free as the air;

As heavy as lead - as light as a feather;

As steady as time - uncertain as weather; As hot as an oven - as cold as a frog;

As gay as a lark - as sick as a dog;

As savage as a tiger - as mild as a dove;

As stiff as a poker-as limp as a glove;

As blind as a bat-as deaf as a post;

As cool as a cucumber - as warm as toast; As flat as a flounder - as round as a ball; As blunt as a hammer-as sharp as an awl;


As brittle as glass - as tough as gristle;

As neat as a pin - as clean as a whistle;

As red as a rose - as square as a box. (O. N.)

  1.  She has always been as live as a bird. (R. Ch.)
  2.  She  was  obstinate  as a mule,  always  had been, from
    a child. (G.)
  3.  Children!  Breakfast is just as good as any other meal
    and I won't have you gobbling like wolves. (Th. W.)
  4.  Six o'clock still found him in indecision. He had had
    no appetite for lunch and the muscles of his stomach fluttered
    as though a flock of sparrows was beating their wings against
    his insides. (Wr.)
  5.  And   the   cat,   released,   leaped   and   perched   on   her
    shoulder: his tail swinging like a baton, conducting rhapsodic
    music.
    (Т. С.)

  1.  He felt that his presence must, like a single drop of
    some   stain,   tincture   the   crystal   liquid   that   was   absolutely
    herself. (R. W.)
  2.  He     has   a   round   kewpie's   face.   He   looks   like   an
    enlarged,  elderly,  bald  edition  of the  village  fat boy,  a  sly
    fat boy, congenitally indolent, a practical joker, a born grafter
    and con merchant. (O'N.)
  3.  You   could   have   knocked   me   down   with  a  feather
    when he said all those things to me. I felt just like Balaam
    when his ass broke into light conversation. (S. M.)
  4.  Two footmen leant against the walls looking as waxen
    as   the   clumps   of   flowers   sent   up   that morning      from
    hothouses in the country. (E. W.)
  5.  The   Dorset   Hotel   was   built   in   the   early   eighteen
    hundreds and my room, like many an elderly lady, looks its
    best in subdued light. (J. Br.)
  6.  For a long while  -for many years in fact - he had not thought  of how  it  was   before   he   came   to  the   farm.   His memory of those times was like a house where no one lives  and where  the furniture has rotted away. But tonight it was as if lamps  had  been  lighted  through all  the gloomy  dead rooms. (T. C.)
  7.  It   was   an   unforgettable   face,   and  a   tragic   face.   Its
    sorrow welled out of it as purely, naturally and unstoppably
    as water out of a woodland spring. (J. F.)
  8.  He  ached from head to foot, all zones of pain seemingly
    interdependent.   He  was  rather  like  a  Christmas   tree  whose
    lights   wired   in   series,   must  all   go   out  if even  one   bulb
    is defective. (S.)
  9.  Indian summer is like a woman. Ripe, hotly passionate,


but fickle, she comes and goes as she pleases so that one is never sure whether she will come at all nor for how long she will stay. (Gr. M.)

  1.  You're   like   the   East,   Dinny.   One   loves   it  at  first
    sight or not at all and one never knows it any better.  (G.)
  2.  He felt like an old book: spine defective, covers dull,
    slight foxing, fly missing, rather shaken copy. (J. Br.)
  3.  Susan   at   her   piano   lesson,   playing   that   thing   of
    Scarlatti's.   The   sort   of  music,   it   struck   him,   that   would
    happen if the  bubbles in a magnum of champaign were to
    rush up rhythmically and as they reached the surface, burst
    into sound as dry and tangy as the wine from whose depth
    they  had  arisen.   The  simile  pleased  him  so  much.  (A. H.)
  4.  There was no moon, a clear dark, like some velvety
    garment,   was   wrapped   around   the   trees,   whose   thinned
    branches,    resembling   plumes,   stirred   in   the    still,   warm
    air. (G.)
  5.  There  are  in  every  large  chicken-yard  a  number  of
    old and indignant hens who resemble Mrs. Bogart and when
    they are served at Sunday noon dinner, as fricasseed chicken
    with thick dumplings,  they keep  up  the resemblance.  (S. L.)
  6.  H. G. Wells reminded her of the rice paddies in her
    native  California.  Acres and acres of shiny water but never
    more than two inches deep. (A. H.)
  7.  On  the  wall  hung an  amateur oil  painting  of what
    appeared to be a blind man's conception of fourteen whistling
    swan  landing  simultaneously  in  the  Atlantic  during a  half-
    gale. (Jn. B.)
  8.  Today  she   had   begun   by  watching  the   flood.   The
    water  would  crouch and  heave  at a  big  boulder fallen  off
    the   bluff-side   and   the   red-and-white   foam   would   fly.   It
    reminded her of the blood-streaked foam every heave would
    fling out of the nostrils of a windbroke horse. (R. W.)
  9.  I'm  not  nearly   hot  enough  to   draw  a  word-picture
    that   would   do  justice   to   that   extraordinarily   hefty   crash.
    Try to imagine the Albert Hall falling on the Crystal Palace
    and you will have got the rough idea. (P. G. W.)
  10.  Her startled glance  descended like a beam of light,
    and   settled   for   a   moment   on   the   man's   face.   He   was
    fortyish  and   rather  fat,   with  a  moustache   that  made   her
    think of the yolk of an egg, and a nose that spread itself.
    His face had an injected redness. (W. D.)
  11.  Huddled  in  her  grey  fur  against  the  sofa  cushions
    she   had   a  strange   resemblance   to  a  captive   owl   bunched
    in its soft feathers against the wires of a cage. The supple


erectness of her body was gone, as though she had been broken by cruel exercise, as though there were no longer any reason for being beautiful, and supple, and erect. (G.) 30. Someone might have observed in him a peculiar resemblance to those plaster reproductions of the gargoyles of Notre Dame which may be seen in the shop windows of artists' colourmen. (E. W.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What  is  a  simile  and  what  is  a  simple  comparison?
  2.  What semantic poles of a simile do you know?
  3.  Which  of the  link  words  have  you  met  most  often?
  4.  What is the foundation of the simile?
  5.  What is the key of the simile?
  6.  What is a trite simile? Give examples.
  7.  What is an epic simile?
  8.  What is a disguised simile?
  9.  What are the main functions of a simile?

10. Find examples of similes in your reading. State their
type, structure and functions.

 Litotes is a two-component structure in which two negations are joined to give a positive evaluation. Thus "not unkindly" actually means "kindly", though the positive effect is weakened and some lack of the speaker's confidence in his statement is implied. The first component of a litotes is always the negative particle "not",  while the second, always negative in semantics, varies in form from a negatively  affixed word (as above) to a negative phrase.

Litotes is especially expressive when the semantic centre of the whole structure is stylistically or / and emotionally coloured, as in the case of the following occasional creations: "Her face was not unhandsome" (A. H.) or "Her face was not unpretty". (К. K.)

The function of litotes has much in common with that of understatement - both weaken the effect of the utterance. The uniqueness of litotes lies in its specific "double negative" structure  and  in its  weakening only the positive evaluation.

The Russian term "литота " corresponds only to the English "understatement" as it has no structural or semantic limi-tations.

Exercise  IV.   Analyse  the  structure,   the  semantics   and  the  functions   of

litotes:

1. "To be a good actress, she must always work for the


truth  in what she's  playing,"  the man  said  in a voice  not empty of selflove. (N. M.)

  1.  "Yeah, what the hell," Anne said and looking at me,
    gave that not unsour smile. (R. W.)
  2.  It was not unnatural if Gilbert felt a certain embarrass-
    ment. (E. W.)
  3.  The  idea  was  not  totally  erroneous.  The  thought  did
    not displease me. (I. M.)
  4.  I   was   quiet,   but  not  uncommunicative;  reserved,   but
    not   reclusive;   energetic   at   times,   but   seldom   enthusiastic.
    (Jn. B.)
  5.  He   had   all   the   confidence   in   the   world,   and   not
    without reason. (J. O'H.)
  6.  Kirsten   said  not  without   dignity:   "Too  much  talking
    is unwise." (Ch.)
  7.  "No, I've had a profession and then a firm to cherish,"
    said Ravenstreet, not without bitterness. (P.)
  8.  I  felt  I  wouldn't  say  "no"  to  a  cup  of tea.   (К. М.)

  1.  I wouldn't say "no" to going to the movies. (E. W.)
  2.  "I don't think you've been too miserable, my dear." (P.)
  3.  Still  two  weeks  of success  is  definitely  not  nothing
    and  phone  calls  were  coming  in  from  agents  for  a  week.
    (Ph. R.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What is a litotes?
  2.  What is  there in common between litotes and under-
    statement?
  3.  Describe most frequently used structures of litotes.

Periphrasis   is  a very peculiar stylistic device which basically consists of using a roundabout form of expression instead of a simpler one, i.e. of using  a  more or less complicated syntactical structure instead of a word. Depending on the mechanism of this substitution, periphrases are classified into figurative (metonymic and metaphoric), and logical. The first group is made, in fact, of phrase-metonymies and phrase-metaphors, as you may well see from the following example: "The hospital was crowded with  the surgically interesting products of the fighting in Africa" (I. Sh.) where the extended metonymy stands for "the wounded".

Logical periphrases are phrases synonymic with the words which were substituted by periphrases: "Mr. Du Pont was dressed in the conventional disguise with  which Brooks Brothers


cover the shame of American "millionaires." (M. St.) "The con-ventional disguise" stands here for "the suit" and "the shame of American millionaires" - for "the paunch (the belly)". Because the direct nomination of the not too elegant feature of appearance was substituted by a roundabout description this periphrasis may be also considered euphemistic, as it offers a more polite qualification instead of a coarser one.

The main function of periphrases is to convey a purely individual perception  of the  described object. To achieve it the generally accepted nomination of the object is replaced by the description of one of  its features or qualities, which seems to the author most important for the characteristic of the object, and which thus becomes foregrounded.

The often repeated periphrases become trite and serve as universally accepted periphrastic synonyms: "the gentle (soft, weak) sex" (women); "my better half" (my spouse); "minions of Law" (police), etc.

Exercise V. Analyse the given periphrases from the viewpoint of their semantic type, structure, function and originality:

  1.  Gargantuan soldier named Dahoud picked Ploy by the
    head and scrutinized this convulsion of dungarees and despair
    whose feet thrashed a yard above the deck. (Th. P.)
  2.  His   face   was   red,   the   back  of  his   neck   overflowed
    his   collar  and  there  had  recently  been  published a  second
    edition of his chin. (P. G. W.)
  3.  His huge leather chairs were kind to the femurs. (R. W.)
  4.  "But Pickwick, gentlemen, Pickwick, this ruthless destroyer
    of this domestic oasis in the desert of Goswell street!" (D.)
  5.  He would make some money and then he would come
    back and marry his dream from Blackwood. (Dr.)
  6.  The   villages   were   full   of  women   who   did   nothing
    but  fight  against  dirt and  hunger and  repair  the  effects  of
    friction on clothes. (A. B.)
  7.  The habit of saluting the dawn with a bend of the elbow
    was a hangover from college fraternity days. (Jn. B.)
  8.  I took my obedient feet away from him. (W. G.)
  9.  I  got away  on  my  hot  adolescent feet  as  quickly as
    I could. (W. G.)

  1.  I   am   thinking   an   unmentionable   thing   about   your
    mother.
    (I. Sh.)
  2.  Jean nodded  without  turning  and  slid  between  two
    vermilion-coloured  buses  so  that  two  drivers  simultaneously
    used the same qualitative word. (G.)
  3.  During   the   previous   winter   I   had   become   rather


seriously  ill   with  one   of those   carefully  named  difficulties which are the whispers of approaching age. (J. St.)

  1.  A child had appeared among the palms, about a hundred
    yards along the  beach.  He was a boy of perhaps six years,
    sturdy and fair, his clothes torn, his face covered with a sticky
    mess of fruit. His trousers had been lowered for an obvious
    purpose   and   had   only   been   pulled   back  half-way.   (W. G.)
  2.  When   I   saw   him   again,   there   were   silver   dollars
    weighting down his eyes. (T. C.)
  3.  She was still fat after childbirth; the destroyer of her
    figure sat at the head of the table. (A. B.)
  4.  I participated in that delayed Teutonic migration known
    as the Great War. (Sc. F.)
  5.  "Did you see anything in Mr. Pickwick's manner and
    conduct towards  the  opposite  sex  to  induce  you  to  believe
    all this?" (D.)
  6.  Bill   went  with   him  and  they  returned  with  a  tray
    of glasses, siphons and other necessaries of life. (Ch.)
  7.  It was  the  American,  whom  later we  were  to learn
    to   know  and   love  as   the   Gin  Bottle   King,   because   of a
    great   feast   of  arms   performed   at   an   early   hour   in   the
    morning with a container of Mr. Gordon's celebrated product
    as his sole weapon. (H.)
  8.  Jane set her bathing-suited self to washing the lunch
    dishes. (Jn. B.)
  9.  Naturally, I jumped out of the tub, and before I had
    thought twice, ran out into the living room in my birthday
    suit.
    (В. М.)
  10.  For  a  single   instant,   Birch  was   helpless,   his  blood
    curdling in  his veins at the  imminence  of the  danger, and
    his   legs   refusing   their  natural   and  necessary   office.   (T.C.)

Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  Speak about semantic types of periphrasis.
  2.  In what cases can a logical or a figurative periphrasis
    be also qualified as euphemistic?
  3.  What are  the  main  stylistic  functions  of periphrases?
  4.  Which   type  of periphrasis,  in  your  opinion,  is  most
    favoured in contemporary prose and why?

Exercise VI. Now, after you have been acquainted with the semantics, structures and functions of major syntactical stylistic devices, you may proceed, in the summarizing form, to cases of their convergence, paying attention to each  SD  contributing  to  the  general  effect  and  of  course,   specifying  those


which  bear the  main  responsibility  for the  creation  of additional  information and the intensification of the basic one:

  1.  In  Paris  there  must  have  been  a  lot  of women  not
    unlike Mrs. Jesmond, beautiful women, clever women, cultured
    women, exquisite, long-necked, sweet smelling, downy rats. (P.)
  2.  The   stables - I   believe   they   have   been   replaced   by
    television   studios - were   on   West   Sixty-sixth   street   Holly
    selected   for   me   an   old   sway-back   black-and-white   mare:
    "Don't worry, she's safer than a cradle." Which, in my case,
    was   a   necessary   guarantee,   for   ten-cent   pony   rides   at
    childhood  carnivals  were   the   limit  of my   equestrian  expe-
    rience. (T. C.)
  3.  However, there was no time  to think more about the
    matter, for the fiddles and harp began in real earnest. Away
    went  Mr.   Pickwick-hands  across,   down   the   middle   to  the
    very  end of the  room, and half way up the chimney,  back
    again to the  door - poussette  everywhere - loud stamp  on  the ground - ready  for  the   next  couple - off again - all  the   figure over  once  more - another  stamp  to  beat out  the  time – next couple,  and  the  next,  and  the  next again - never  was  such going! (D.)
  4.  Think of the connotations of "murder", that awful word:
    the   loss   of   emotional   control,   the   hate,   the   spite,   the
    selfishness, the broken glass, the blood, the cry in the throat,
    the   trembling  blindness  that  results  in  the  irrevocable  act,
    the   helpless  blow.  Murder is  the  most limited of gestures.
    (J. H.)
  5.  There is an immensity of promenading on cratches and
    off,  with  sticks and  without;  and a great deal of conversa-
    tion, and liveliness and pleasantry. (D.)
  6.  We sat down at the table. The jaws got to work around
    the table. (R. W.)
  7.  Babbitt stopped smoking at least once a month. He did
    everything in fact except stop smoking. (S. L.)
  8.  I'm interested in any number of things, enthusiastic about
    nothing. Everything is significant and nothing is finally important.
    (Jn. B.)
  9.  Lord Tompson owns 148 newspapers in England and Canada.
    He is the most influential Fleet-Street personality. His fortune
    amounts to 300 mln. He explains his new newspaper purchases
    so: "I buy newspapers to make money. I make money to buy more
    newspapers. I buy more newspapers to make more money, etc.,
    etc. without end."
    (M. St.)

10. He illustrated these melodramatic morsels by handing the
tankard to himself with great humility, receiving it haughtily,


drinking from it thirstily, and smacking his lips fiercely. (D.)

  1.  The cigarette tastes rough, a noseful of straw. He puts it out.
    Never again. (U.)
  2.  The certain mercenary young person felt that she must not
    sell her sense of what was right and what was wrong, and what
    was true and what was false, and what was just and what was
    unjust, for any price that could be paid to her by any one alive.
    (J. F.)

  1.  A girl on a hilltop, credulous, plastic, young: drinking
    the air she longed to drink life. The eternal aching comedy of
    expectant youth. (S. L.)
  2.  I have made him my executor. Nominated, constituted
    and appointed him. In my will. (D.)
  3.  This is what the telegram said: Has Cyril called yet? On no
    account introduce him into theatrical circles. Vitally important.
    Letter follows. (P. G. W.)
  4.  In November a cold unseen stranger whom the doctors
    called Pneumonia, stalked about the colony touching one here and
    there with icy fingers. Mr. Pneumonia was not what you would call
    a chivalric old gentleman. (O'N.)

  1.  He  came  to   us,  you  see, about  three  months  ago.
    A skilled and experienced waiter. Has given complete satisfaction.
    He has been in England about five years. (Ch.)
  2.  If it had not been for these things, I might have lived
    out my life, talking at street corners to scorning men. I might have
    died, unmarked, unknown, a failure. Now we are not a failure.
    This is our career and our triumph. Never in our full life can we
    hope to  do  such  work  for tolerance, for justice, for man's
    understanding  of man, as  now  we  do  by an accident.  Our
    words - our lives - our pains - nothing! The taking of our lives-lives of a good shoe-maker and a poor fish-peddler - all! That last moment  belongs  to   us - that   agony  is  our  triumph!   (H. R.)

  1.  The main thought uppermost in Five's mind was that every-
    thing in the war was so organized, and handled with such matter-
    of-fact   dispatch.   Like   a   business.   Like   a   regular   business.
    And yet at the bottom of it was blood: blood, mutilation, death.
    It seemed weird, wacky to Five. (J.)
  2.  Constance had said: 'If ever I'm a widow, I won't wear
    them, positively," in the tone of youth; and Mrs. Baines had
    replied:  "I hope you won't, my dear." That was over twenty
    years ago, but Constance perfectly remembered. And now, she
    was a widow! How strange and how impressive was life! And she
    had kept her word; not without hesitations; for though times were
    changed, Bursley was still Bursley; but she had kept it. (A. B.)

The reasons why John Harmon should not come to life:


Because he has passively allowed these dear old faithful friends to pass into possession of the property. Because he sees them happy with it. Because they have virtually adopted Bella, and will provide for her. Because there is affection enough in her heart to develop into something enduringly good, under favourable conditions. Because her faults have been intensified by her place in my father's will and she is already growing better. Because her marriage with John Harmon, after what I have heard from her own lips, would be a shocking mockery. Because if John Harmon comes to life and does not marry her, the property falls into the very hands that hold it now. (D.)

  1.  In Arthur Calgary's fatigued brain the word seemed to
    dance on the wall. Money! Money! Money! Like a motif in an opera,
    he thought. Mrs. Argyle's money! Money put into trust! Money put
    into an annuity! Residual estate left to her husband! Money got
    from  the bank! Money in the bureau drawer!  Hester rushing
    out to her car with no money in her purse... Money found on
    Jacko, money that he swore his mother had given him. (Ch.)
  2.  Mr. Pickwick related, how he had first met Jingle; how
    he had eloped with Miss Wardle; how he had cheerfully resigned
    the lady for pecuniary considerations; how he had entrapped
    him into a lady's boarding school; and how he, Mr. Pickwick,
    now felt it his duty to expose his assumption for his present name
    and   rank. (D.)
  3.  "And with a footman up behind, with a bar across, to keep
    his legs from being poled! And with a coachman up in front sinking
    down into a seat big enough for three of him, all covered with
    upholstery in green and white! And with two bay horses tossing
    their heads and stepping higher than they trot long-ways! And with
    you and me leaning back inside, as grand as ninepence!" (D.)

25. I looked at him. I know I smiled. His face looked as though it were plunging into water. I couldn't touch him. I wanted so to touch him I smiled again and my hands got wet on the telephone and then for the moment I couldn't see him at all and I shook my head and my face was wet and I said, "I'm glad. I'm glad. Don't you worry. I'm glad." (J. B.)

26.       What is this life if, full of care,

We have no time to stand and stare.

No time to stand beneath the boughs,

And stare as long as sheep and cows.

No time to see when woods we pass,

Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass.

No time to see in broad day light,

Streams full of stars like skies at night.

No time to turn at Beauty's glance,


And watch her feet, how they can dance.

No time to wait till her mouth can

Enrich that smile her eyes began.

A poor life this if, full of care

We have no time to stand and stare. (W. H. D.)

CHAPTER IV. TYPES OF NARRATION

Author's  Narrative.  Dialogue.  Interior  Speech.  Represented Speech.  Compositional  Forms

A work of creative prose is never homogeneous as to the form and essence of the information it carries. Both very much depend on the viewpoint of the addresser, as the author and  his personages may offer different angles of perception of  the same object. Natu-rally, if is the author  who organizes this effect of polyphony, but we, the readers, while reading the text, identify various views with various personages, not attributing them directly to the writer. The latter's views, and emotions are most explicitly expressed in the  author's  speech (or the author's narrative). The unfolding of the plot is mainly concentrated hеrе, personages are given characteris-tics, the time and the place of action are also described here, as the author sees them. The author's narrative supplies the reader with direct  information about the author's preferences and objections, beliefs and contradictions, i. e. serves the major source of shaping up the author's image.

In contemporary prose, in an effort to make his writing more plausible, to impress the reader with the effect of authenticity of the described events, the writer entrusts some fictitious character (who might also participate in the narrated events) with the task of story-telling. The writer himself thus hides behind the figure of the narrator, рrеsents  all the events of the story from the latter's viewpoint and only sporadically emerges in the narrative with  his own considerations which may reinforce, or contradict those expressed by the narrator. This form of the author's speech is  called entrusted narrative. The structure of the entrusted narrative is much more complicated  than that of the author's narrative proper, because instead of one commanding, organizing image of the author, we have the hierarchy of the narrator's image seemingly arranging the pros and  contras of the related problem and, looming above the narrator's image, there stands the image of the author, the true and actual creator of it all, responsible for all


the views and evaluations of the text and serving the major and predominant force of textual cohesion and unity.*

Entrusted narrative can be carried out in the 1st person singular, when the narrator proceeds with his story openly and explicitly, from his own name, as, e.g., in The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, or The Great Gatsby by Sc. Fitzgerald, or All the King's Men by R. P. Warren. In the first book Holden Caulfield himself retells about the crisis in his own life which makes the focus of the novel. In the second book Nick Carraway tells about Jay Gatsby, whom he met only occasionally, so that to tell Gatsby's life-story he had to lean on the knowledge of other personages too. And in the third book Jack Burden renders the dramatic career of Willie Stark, himself being one of the closest associates of the man. In the first case the narration has fewer deviations from the main line, than in the other two in which the narrators have to supply the reader also with the information about themselves and their connection with the protagonist.

Entrusted narrative may also be anonymous. The narrator does not openly claim responsibility for the views and evaluations but the manner of presentation, the angle of description very strongly suggest that the story is told not by the author himself but by some of his factotums, which we see, e. g., in the prose of Fl. O'Connor, С. McCullers, E. Hemingway, E. Caldwell.

The narrative, both the author's and the entrusted, is not the
only type of narration observed in creative prose. A very important
place Here is occupied by
dialogue, where personages express their
minds in the form of uttered speech. In their exchange of remarks
the participants of the dialogue, while discussing other people and
their actions, expose themselves too. So dialogue is one of the
most significant forms of the personage's  self-characterization,
which allows the author to seemingly eliminate himself from the
process.

Another form, which obtained a position of utmost significance in contemporary prose, is interior speech of the personage, which allows the author (and the readers) to peep  into the inner world     of the character, to observe his ideas and views in the  making.

* Cf. the famous quotation from L. Tolstoy: «Люди мало чуткие к искусству думают часто, что художественное произведение составляет одно целое, потому что в нем действуют одни и те же лица, потому что все  построено на одной завязке или описывает жизнь одного человека. Это несправедливо. Это только так кажется поверхностному наблюдателю: цемент, который связывает всякое художественное произведение в одно целое и оттого производит иллюзию отражения жизни, есть не единство лиц и положений, а единство самобытного нравственного отношения автора к предмету». (Толстой Л. Н. Полн. собр. соч. в 90 т. М., 1928-1958, т. 30, с. 18-19).


Interior speech is best known in the form of  interior monologue,. a rather lengthy piece of the text (half a page and over) dealing with one major topic of the character's thinking, offering causes for his past, present or future actions. Short  insets of interior speech present immediate mental and emotional  reactions of the personage to this remark or action of other characters.

The results of the work of our brain are not intended for communication and are, correspondingly, structured in their own unique way. The imaginative reflection of mental processes, presented in the form of interior speech, being a part of the text one  of the major functions of which is communicative, necessarily undergoes some linguistic structuring to make it understandable for the readers. In extreme cases, though, this desire to be understood by others is outshadowed by the author's effort to portray the disjointed, purely associative manner of thinking, which makes interior speech almost or completely incomprehensible. These cases exercise the so-called stream-of-consciousness technique which is especially popular with representatives of  modernism in contemporary literature.     

So the personage's viewpoint can be realized in the uttered (dialogue) and inner (interior speech) forms. Both are introduced into the text by the author's remarks containing indication of the personage (his_name or the_name-substitute) and of the act of speaking (thinking) expressed by such verbs  as "to say", "to think" and their numerous synonyms.

To separate and individualize the sphere of the personage, language means employed in the dialogue and interior speech differ from those used in the author's narrative and, in their unity and combination, they constitute the personage's speech characteristic which is indispensable in the creation of his image in  the novel.

The last - the fourth - type of narration observed in artistic prose is a peculiar blend of the viewpoints and language  spheres  of both the author and the character. It was first observed and   analysed almost a hundred years ago, with the term represented (reported) speech attached to it. Represented speech serves to show either the mental reproduction оf а once uttered remark, or the character's thinking. The first case is known as represented uttered speech, the second one as represented inner speech.  The latter is close to the personage's interior speech in essence, but differs from it in form: it is rendered in the third person singular and may have the author's qualitative words, i. e. it reflects the presence of the author's viewpoint alongside that of the character, while interior speech belongs to the personage completely, formally too, which is materialized through the first-person


pronouns  and  the  language   idiosyncrasies   of the  character.

The four types of narration briefly described above are singled out on the basis of the viewpoint commanding the organization of each one: If it is semantics of the text that is taken as the foundation of the classification then we shall deal with the three narrative compositional forms traditionally analysed in poetics and stylistics. They are: narrative proper where the unfolding of the plot is concentrated. This is the most dynamic compositional form of the text. Two other forms - description and argumentation - are static. The former supplies the details of the appearance of people and things "populating" the book, of the place and time of action, the latter offers causes and effects of the personage's behaviour, his (or the author's) considerations about moral, ethical, ideological and other issues. It is rather seldom that any of these compositional forms is used in a "pure", uninterrupted way. As a rule they intermingle even within the boundaries of a paragraph.

All the compositional forms can be found in each of the types of narration but with strongly varying frequences.

Exercise. Find examples of various types of narration and narrative compositional forms. Pay attention to language means used in each one. State their functions. Discuss correlations existing between the type of narration, compositional form and the language of the discourse:

  1.  Novelists write for countless different reasons: for money,
    for fame, for reviewers, for parents, for friends, for loved ones;
    for vanity, for pride, for curiosity, for amusement; as skilled
    furniture-makers enjoy making furniture, as drunkards like drinking,
    as judges like judging, as Sicilians like emptying a shotgun into
    an enemy's back. I could fill a book with reasons, and they would
    all be true, though not true of all. Only one same reason is
    shared by all of us: we wish to create worlds as  real as,
    but other than the world that is. Or was. This is
    why we cannot plan. We know a world is an organism, not a
    machine. We also know that a genuinely created world must be
    independent of its creator: a planned world (a world that fully
    reveals  its planning)  is a  dead  world.  It  is only when our
    characters  and events begin to disobey us that they begin to live.
    (J. F.)
  2.  He refused a taxi. Exercise, he thought, and no drinking at
    least a month. That's what does it. The drinking. Beer, martinis,
    have another. And the way your head felt in the morning. (I. Sh.)
  3.  Now she come my room, he thought. "What you want?" he
    demanded.

"May I come in?"

"This house," he said slowly, "she yours." (R. W.)


  1.  "Tell me your name," she said. "You," he burst out. This  long time and  no  know my name - and no ask! What my name? Who me? You no care." (R. W.)
  2.  His mind gathered itself out of the wreckage of little things:
    out of all that the world had shown or taught him he could
    remember now only the great star above the town, and the light
    that had swung over the hill, and the fresh sod upon Ben's grave
    and the wind, and the far sounds and music, and Mrs. Pert.

Wind pressed the boughs, the withered leaves were shaking. A star was shaking. A light was waking. Wind was quaking. The star was far. The night, the light. The light was bright. A chant, a song, the slow dance of the little things within him. The star over the town, the light over the hill, the sod over Ben, night all over. His mind fumbled with little things. Over us all is some thing. Star night, earth, light... light... О lost!... a stone... a leaf... a door... О ghost!... a light... a song... a light... a light... a light awnings over the hill... over us all... a star shines over the town... over us all... a light.

We shall not come again. We never shall come back again. But over us all over us all... is - something.

A light swings over the hill. (We shall not come again.) And over the town a star. (Over us all, over us all that shall not come again.) And over the day the dark. But over the darkness - what?

We shall not come again. We never shall come back again.

Over the dawn a lark. (That shall not come again.) And wind and music far. О lost! (It shall not come again.) And over your mouth the earth. О ghost! But over the darkness - what? (T. W.)

6. "Honestly. I don't feel anything. Except ashamed."
"Please. Are you sure? Tell me the truth. You might have been

killed."

"But I wasn't. And thank you. For saving my life. You're wonderful. Unique. I love you." (Т. С.)

7. "What's your Christian name, Sir?" angrily inquired the
little Judge.

"Nathaniel, Sir."

"Daniel - any other name?"

"Nathaniel, Sir - my Lord, I mean."

"Nathaniel Daniel or Daniel Nathaniel?" "No, my Lord, only Nathaniel - not Daniel at all."

"What did  you tell me  it was Daniel for then, Sir?" inquired the Judge. (D.)

8. "Now I know you lying," Sam was emphatic.

"You lying as fast as a dog can trot," Fishbelly said. "You trying to pull wool over our eyes," Tony accused. (Wr.)

9. "She thought he could be persuaded to come home."


"You mean a dinge?"

"No, a Greek."

"Okey," Nulty said and spit into the wastebasket. "Okey. You met the  big guy how? You seem to pick up awful easy."

"All right," I said. "Why argue? I've seen the guy and you haven't.  In the morning I was a well man again." (R. Ch.)

10. "She's home. She's lying down."

"She all right?" "She's tired. She went to see Fonny."

"How's Fonny taking it?"

"Taking it."

"She see Mr. Hayword?"

"No. She's seeing him on Monday."

"You going with her?"

"I think I better." (J. B.)

11. "Ah, fine place," said the stranger, "glorious pile - frowning
walls -  tottering   arches -  dark   nooks -  crumbling   staircases -  old cathedral too - earthy smell - pilgrim's feet worn away the old steps - little Saxon doors - confessionals like money-taker's boxes at theatres - queer    customers    those    monks - Popes    and    Lord Treasurers and all sort of old fellows, with great red faces, and broken noses turning up every day - buff jerkins  too - match-locks – Sarcophagus - fine place - old legends too - strange stories:capital." (D.)

12. "She's a model at Bergdorf Goodman's."
"She French?"

"She's about as French as you are-"

“That's more French than you think." (J. O'H.)

  1.  ...and the wineshops open at night and the castanets and
    the night we missed the boat at Algeciras the watchman going
    about with his lamp and
    О that awful deepdown torrent О and the sea
    crimson sometimes like fire and the glorious sunsets and the
    figtrees in the Alameda gardens yes and all the queer little
    streets and pink and blue and yellow houses and the rosegardens
    and the jessamine and geraniums and cactuses and Gibraltar
    as a girl where I was a flower of the mountains yes when I put
    the rose in my hair like the Andalusian girls used or shall I wear
    a red yes how he kissed me under the Moorish wall and I thought
    well as well him as another and then I asked him with my eyes to ask
    again yes and then he asked me would I yes to say yes my
    mountain flower and first I put my arms around him yes and drew
    him down to me yes... . (J. J.)
  2.  ...Thou lost one. All songs on that theme. Yet more Bloom
    stretched his string. Cruel it seems. Let people get fond of each
    other: lure them on. Then tear asunder. Death. Explos. Knock on
    head. Outohellout of that. Human life. Dignam. Ugh, that rat's tail


wriggling! Five bob I gave. Corpus paradisum. Corncrake croaker: belly like a poisoned pup. Gone. Forgotten. I too. And one day she with. Leave her: get tired. Suffer then. Snivel. Big Spanishy eyes goggling at nothing. Her wavyavyeavyheavyeavyevyevy hair un-combed. (J. J.)

  1.  The young man's name was Eddy Little John, but over
    dinner he said, look here, would they call him Ginger: everyone
    else  did.   So  they   began  to  call  him  Ginger, and  he   said
    wouldn't it be a good idea if they had another bottle of fizz, and
    Nina and Adam said yes, it would, so they had a magnum and
    got very friendly. (E. W.)
  2.  Every morning she was up betimes to get the fire lit in
    her gentlemen's sitting room so that they needn't eat their break-
    fasts  simply  perishin'  with the  cold,  my  word  it's  bitter  this
    morning. (S. M.)
  3.  The girl noted the change for what she deemed the better.
    He was so nice now, she thought, so white-skinned and clear-
    eyed and keen. (Dr.)
  4.  But in any case, in her loving she was also re-creating
    herself, and she had gone upstairs to be in the dark. While down-
    stairs Adam and I sat in the swing on the gallery, not saying a word.
    That was the evening Adam got counted out for all the other
    evenings,  and  out  you  go,  you  dirty  dishrag,  you.   (R. W.)
  5.  And then he laughed at himself. He was getting nervy and
    het up like everybody else in the house. (Ch.)

  1.  Sometimes he wondered if he'd ever really known his
    father. Then out of the past would come that picture of a lithe,
    active young feller who was always good for an argument, always
    ready to bring company home, especially the kind of company that
    gives food for thought in return for a cup of tea and something to go
    with it. (St. B.)
  2.  Well, I'll tell you. A man I know slightly, he was one of
    the smartest traders in Wall Street. You wouldn't know his name,
    because I don't think I ever had occasion to mention it except
    perhaps to your mother and it wouldn't have interested you. He was
    a real plunger, that fellow. The stories they told downtown about
    him, they were sensational. Well, as I say he's always been a pretty
    smart trader. They say he was the only one that called the turn in
    1929. He got out of the market in August 1929, at the peak.
    Everybody told him, why, you're crazy, they said. Passing up
    millions. Millions, they told him. Sure, he said. Well, I'm willing to
    pass them up and keep what I have, he told them, and of course they
    all laughed when he told them he was going to retire and sit back
    and watch the ticker from a cafe in Paris. Retire and only thirty-
    eight years of age? Huh. They never heard such talk, the wisenhei-


mers downtown. Him retire? No, it was in his blood, they said. He'd be back. He'd go to France and make a little whoopee, but he'd be back and in the market just as deeply as ever. But he fooled them. He went to France all right, and I suppose he made whoopee because I happen to know he has quite a reputa-tion that way. And they were right saying he'd be back, but not the way they thought. He came back first week in November, two years ago, right after the crash. Know what he did? He bought a Rolls-Royce Phantom that originally cost eighteen thousand dollars, he bought that for a thousand-dollar bill. He bought a big place out on Long Island. I don't know exactly what he paid for it, but one fellow told me he got it for not a cent more than the owner paid for one of those big indoor tennis courts they have out there. For that he got the whole estate, the land house proper, stables, garages, everything. Yacht landing. Oh, almost forget. A hundred and eighty foot yacht for eighteen thousand dollars. The figure I do know because I remember hearing a hundred dollars a foot was enough for any yacht. And mind you, the estate was with all the furniture. And because he got out in time and had the cash. Everything he had was cash. Wouldn't lend a cent. Not one red cent for any kind of interest. Just wasn't interested, he said. Buy, yes. He bought cars, houses, big estates, paintings worth their weight in radium, practically, but lend money? No. He said it was his way of getting even with the wisenheimers that laughed at him the summer before when he said he was going to retire. (J. O'H.)

22. Holmes was certainly not a difficult man to live with. He was quiet in his ways and his habits were regular. It was rare for him to be up after ten at night and he had invariably breakfasted and gone out before I rose in the morning. His very person and appearance were such as to strike the attention of the most casual observer. In height he was rather over six feet and so excessively lean that he seemed to be considerably taller. His eyes were sharp and piercing save during those intervals of torpor to which I have alluded; and his thin hawklike nose gave his whole expression an air of alertness and decision. His chin, too, had the prominence and squareness which mark the man of determination. (C. D.)

Assignments for Self-Control

1. Indicate the types of narration which you know.

2. What is the  difference  between the author's narrative
proper and the entrusted narrative?

3. What forms of entrusted narrative do you know?


  1.  Comment on the main functions of the image of the
    author.
  2.  How is a speech characteristic of a personage formed?
  3.  What forms of interior speech do you remember?
  4.  What is represented speech and which of its types have
    you met more often?
  5.  What is stream of consciousness? Have you ever observed it
    in your reading?
  6.  What narrative compositional forms are mainly represented
    in a prose work?

10. Which compositional forms are considered static and why?

CHAPTER V. FUNCTIONAL STYLES

Colloquial   vs.  Literary Type of Communication.  Oral  vs.  Written Form   of Communication

Language means which we choose for communication depend on several factors, the most important among them being the situation of the communication act. Indeed, depending on the situation (which includes the purpose of the communication and its participants) we adhere either to informal, or to formal manner. The former is observed in everyday non-official communication which is known as colloquial speech. Colloquial speech occupies a prominent place in our lives, and is viewed by some linguists as a system of language means so strongly differing from those pre-sented in the formal (literary) communication that it can be classified as an independent entity with its own peculiar units and rules of their structuring. (See the works of O. Lapteva, O. Sirotinina, L. Zemskaya.)

The literary communication, most often (but not always) materialized in the written form, is not homogeneous, and pro-ceeding from its function (purpose) we speak of different functional styles. As the whole of the language itself, functional styles are also changeable. Their quantity and quality change in the course of their development. At present most scholars differentiate such functional styles: scientific, official, publicist, newspaper, belles-lettres.*

Scientific style is employed in professional communication. Its most conspicuous feature is the abundance of terms denoting objects, phenomena and processes characteristic of some particular field of science and technique. Scientific style is also known

* See pp. 5 - 6 of this manual.


for its precision, clarity and logical cohesion which is responsible for the repeated use of such_cliches as: "Proceeding from..."; "As it was said above..."; "In connection with..." and other lexico-syntactical forms emphasizing the logical connection and interdependence of consecutive parts of the discourse,

Official style, or the style of official documents, is the most conservative one. It preserves cast-iron forms of structuring and uses syntactical constructions and words long known as archaic and not observed anywhere else. Addressing documents and official letters, signing them, expressing the reasons and considerations leading to the subject of the document (letter)-all this is strictly regulated both lexically and syntactically. All emotiveness and subjective modality  are completely banned out of this style.

Publicist style  is a perfect example of the historical change-ability of stylistic differentiation of discourses. In ancient Greece, e.g., it was practiced mainly in its oral form and was best known as oratoric style, within which views and sentiments of the addresser (orator) found their expression. Nowadays political, ideological, ethical, social beliefs and statements of the addresser are prevailingly expressed in the written form,  which was labelled publicist in accordance with the name of the correspond-ing genre and its practitioners. Publicist style is  famous for its explicit pragmatic function of persuasion directed at influencing the reader and shaping his  views, in accordance with the argumentation of the author. Correspondingly,  we find in publi-cist style a blend of the rigorous logical reasoning, reflecting the objective state of things, and a strong subjectivity reflecting the author's personal feelings and emotions towards the discussed subject.

Newspaper style, as it is evident from its name, is found in newspapers. You should not conclude though that everything published in a newspaper should be referred to the newspaper style. The paper contains vastly varying materials, some of them being publicist essays, some - feature articles, some - scientific reviews, some - official stock-exchange accounts etc., so that a daily (weekly) newspaper also offers a variety of styles. When we mention "newspaper style", we mean informative materials, characteristic of newspaper only and not found in other  publi-cations. To attract the reader's attention to the news, special graphical  means are used. British and American  papers are notor-ious fоr  the  change of type, specific  headlines, space ordering, etc. We find here a large proportion of dates and personal names of countries, territories, institutions, individuals. To achieve the effect of objectivity and impartiality in rendering some fact or event, most of newspaper information is published anonymously,


without the name of the newsman who supplied it, with little or no subjective modality. But the position and attitude of the paper, nonetheless, become clear from the choice not only of subject-matter but also of words denoting international or domestic issues.

Belles-lettres style,  or the style of creative literature may be called the richest register of communication: besides its own language means which are not used in any other sphere of commu-nication, belles-lettres style makes ample use of other styles too, for in numerous works of literary art we find elements of scientific, official and other functional types of speech. Besides informative and persuasive functions, also found in other functional styles, the belles-lettres style has a unique task to impress the reader aesthetically. The form becomes meaningful and carries additional information as you must have seen from previous chapters. Boundless possibilities of expressing one's thoughts and feelings make the belles-lettres style a highly attractive field of investigation for a linguist.

Speaking of belles-lettres style most scholars almost automati-cally refer to it prose works, regarding poetry the domain of a special poetic style. Viewed diachronically this opinion does not seem controversial, for poems of previous centuries, indeed, adhered to a very specific vocabulary and its ordering. But poetry of the twentieth century does not show much difference from prosaic vocabulary, its subjects are no more limited to several specific "poetic" fields but widely cover practically all spheres of existence of contemporary man. So it is hardly relevant to speak of a separate poetic style meaning contemporary literature.

Finishing this brief outline of functional styles observed in modern English, it is necessary to stress again, two points. The first one concerns the dichotomy - written::oral, which is not synonymous to the dichotomy-literary-colloquial, the former opposition meaning the form of presentation, the latter - the choice of language means. There are colloquial messages in the written form (such as personal letters, informal notes, diaries and journals) and vice versa, we have examples of literary discourses in the oral form (as in a recital, lecture, report, paper read at a conference, etc.).

The second point deals with the flexibility of style boundaries: the borders within which a style presumably functions are not rigid and allow various degrees of overlapping and melting into each other. It is not accidental that rather often we speak of inter-mediate cases such as the popular scientific style which combines the features of scientific and belles-lettres styles, or the style


of new journalism which is a combination of publicist, newspaper and belles-lettres styles, etc.

Exercise. Analyse the peculiarities of functional styles in the following examples:

  1.  Nothing could be more obvious, it seems to me, than that
    art should
     be moral and that the first business of criticism, at
    least some of the time, should be to judge works of literature
    (or painting or even music) on grounds of the production's
    moral worth. By "moral" I do not mean some such timid evasion
    as "not too blatantly immoral". It is not enough to say, with the
    support of mountains of documentation from sociologists, psychi-
    atrists, and the New York City Police Department, that television
    is a bad influence when it actively encourages pouring gasoline
    on people and setting fire to them. On the contrary, television -
    or any other more or less artistic medium - is good (as opposed to pernicious or vacuous) only when it has a clear positive moral effect, presenting  valid  models  for  imitation, eternal  verities worth keeping in mind, and a benevolent vision of the possible which can inspire and incite human beings towards virtue, towards life   affirmation   as   opposed   to   destruction  or   indifferences. This obviously does not mean that art should hold up
     cheap or cornball models of behaviour, though even those do more good in the short run than does, say, an attractive bad model like the quick-witted cynic so endlessly celebrated in light-hearted films about   voluptuous  women  and  international   intrigue. In  the long run, of course, cornball morality leads to  rebellion and the loss of faith. (J. G.)
  2.  In tagmemics we make a crucial theoretical difference
    between  the  grammatical  hierarchy  and  the  referential  one
    In a normal instance of reporting a single event in time, the two
    are potentially isomorphic with coterminous borders. But when
    simultaneous, must be sequenced in the report. In some cases, a
    chronological or logical sequence can in English be partially or
    completely changed in presentational order (e. g. told backwards);
    when this is done, the referential structure of the tale is unaffected,
    rut the grammatical structure of the telling is radically altered.
    Grammatical order is necessarily linear (since words come out
    of the mouth one at a time), but referential order is at least poten-
    tially simultaneous.

Describing a static situation presents problems parallel to nose of presenting an event involving change or movement. Both static and dynamic events are made linear in grammatical presentation even if the items or events are, referentially speaking, simultaneous in space or time. (K. Pk.)


3. Techniques of comparison form a natural part of the
literary critic's analytic and evaluative process: in discussing one
work, critics frequently have in mind, and almost as frequently
appeal to, works in the same or another language. Comparative
literature systematically extends this latter tendency, aiming to
enhance awareness of the qualities of one work by using the
products of another linguistic culture as an illuminating context;
or studying some broad topic or theme as it is realized ("trans-
formed") in the literatures of different languages. It is worth
insisting on comparative literature's kinship with criticism in gen-
eral, for there is evidently a danger that its exponents may
seek to  argue an unnatural distinctiveness in their activities
(this urge to establish a distinct identity is the source of many
unfruitfully abstract justifications of comparative literature); and on
the other hand a danger that its opponents may regard the
discipline as nothing more than demonstration of "affinities"
and "influences" among different literatures - an activity which is not critical at all, belonging rather to the categorizing spirit of literary history. (R. F.)

4. Caging men as a means of dealing with the problem of crime
is a modern refinement of man's ancient and limitless inhumanity,
as well as his vast capacity for self-delusion.  Murderers and
felons used to be hanged, beheaded, flogged, tortured, broken
on the rack, blinded, ridden out of town on a rail, tarred and
feathered, or arrayed in the stocks. Nobody pretended that such
penalties were anything other than punishment and revenge.
Before   nineteenth-century  American  developments,  dungeons
were mostly for the convenient custody of political prisoners,
debtors, and those awaiting trial. American progress with many
another gim "advance", gave the world the penitentiary.

In 1787, Dr. Benjamin Rush read to a small gathering in the Philadelphia home of Benjamin Franklin a paper in which he said that the right way to treat offenders was to cause them to repent of their crimes. Ironically taken up by gentle Quakers, Rush's notion was that offenders should be locked alone in cells, day and night, so that in such awful solitude they would have nothing to do but to ponder their acts, repent, and reform. To this day, the American liberal-progressive-idea persists that there is some way to make people repent and reform. Psychiatry, if not solitude will provide perfectability.

Three years after Rush proposed it, a single-cellular peniten-tiary was established in the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia. By the 1830s, Pennsylvania had constructed two more state penitentiaries, that followed the Philadelphia reform idea. Mean-while, in New York, where such reforms as the lock-step had


been devised, the "Auburn system" evolved from the Pennsylvania program. It provided for individual cells and total silence, but added congregate employment in shops, fields, or quarries during a long, hard working day. Repressive and undeviating routine, unremitting labor, harsh subsistence conditions, and frequent floggings complemented the monastic silence; so did striped uniforms and the great wall around the already secure fortress. The auburn system became the model for American penitentiaries in most of the states, and the lofty notions of the Philadelphians soon were lost in the spirit  expressed by Elam Lynds, the first warden of Sing Sing (built in 1825): "Reformation of the criminal could not possibly be effected until the spirit of the criminal was broken."

The nineteenth-century penitentiary produced more mental break-downs, suicides, and deaths than repentance. "I believe," wrote Charles Dickens, after visiting such an institution, "that very few men are capable of estimating the immense amount of torture and agony which this dreadful punishment, prolonged for years, inflicts upon the sufferers." Yet, the idea persisted that men could be reformed (now we say "rehabilitated") in such hellholes - a grotesque derivation from the idea that man is not only perfectable but rational enough to determine his behavior through self-interest.

A later underpinning of the nineteenth-century prison was its profitability. The sale and intraprison use of prison-industry prod-ucts fitted right into the productivity ethic of a growing nation. Convicts, moreover, could be and were in some states rented out like oxen to upright businessmen. Taxpayers were happy, cheap labor was available, and prison officials, busily developing their bureaucracies, saw their institutions entrenched. The American prison system - a design to reform criminals by caging humans -found a permanent place in American society and flourished largely unchanged into the twentieth century. In 1871, a Virginia court put the matter in perspective when it ruled that prisoners were "slaves of the state". (Wic.)

5. Winter was coming on  - the terrible Russian winter. I heard business men speak of it so: "Winter was always Russia's best friend. Perhaps now it will rid us of Revolution." On the freezing front miserable armies continued to starve and die, without enthusiasm. The railways were breaking down, food lessening, factories closing. The desperate masses cried out that the bour-geoisie was sabotaging the life of the people, causing defeat on the Front. Riga had been surrendered just after General Kornilov said publicly, "Must we pay with Riga the price of bringing the country to a sense of its duty?"


To Americans it is incredible that the class war should develop to such a pitch. But I have personally met officers on the Northern Front who frankly preferred' military disaster to cooperation with the Soldiers' Committees. The secretary of the Petrograd branch of the Cadet party told me that the break-down of the country's economic life was part of a campaign to discredit the Revolution. An Allied diplomat, whose name I promised not to mention, confirmed this from his own knowledge. I know of certain coal-mines near Kharkov which were fired and flooded by their owners, of textile factories at Moscow whose engineers put the machinery out of order when they left, of railroad official caught by the workers in the act of crippling locomotives.

A large section of the propertied classes preferred the Germans to the Revolution - even to the Provisional Government  - and didn't hesitate to say so. In the Russian household where I lived, the subject of conversation at the dinner-table was almost invariably the coming of the Germans, bringing "law and order". One evening I spent at the house of a Moscow merchant; during tea we asked the eleven people at the table whether they preferred "Wilhelm or the Bolsheviki". The vote was ten for Wilhelm.

The speculators took advantage of the universal disorganiza-tion to pile up fortunes, and to spend them in fantastic revelry or the corruption of Government officials. Foodstuff and fuel were hoarded, or secretly sent out of the country to Sweden. In the first four months of the Revolution, for example, the reserve foodsupplies were almost openly looted from the great Municipal warehouses of Petrograd, until the two-years provision of grain had fallen to less than enough to feed the city for one month. According to the official report of the last Minister of Supplies in the Provisional Government, coffee was bought wholesale in Vladivostok for two roubles a pound and the consumer in Petrograd paid thirteen. In all the stores of the large cities were tons of food and clothing; but only the rich could buy them. (J. R.)

6. Professor W. H. Leeman

79 Rigby Drive London

Dorset, Merseyside 10th March 19...

Dear Sir!

Contributed papers accepted for the Conference will be presented in oral sessions or in poster sessions, each type of presentation being considered of equal importance for the success of the conference. The choice between the one or the other way of presentation will be made  by the Programme Committee.


The first is a ten-minute talk in a conventional session, followed by a poster presentation in a poster area. In the poster period (about two hours) authors will post visual material about their work on a designated board and will be prepared to present details and answer questions relating to their paper. The second mode of presentation is the conventional format of twenty-minute talks without poster periods. This will be used for some sessions, particularly those for which public discussion is especially important or for which there is a large well-defined audience.

Sincerely T. W. Thomas, Chairman.

7. My Lord, February 7th, 1755

I have been lately informed, by the proprietor of 'The World", that two papers, in which my "Dictionary" is recommended to the public, were written by your Lordship. To be so distinguished is an honour, which, being very little accustomed to favours from the great, I know not well how to receive or in what terms to acknowledge.

When, with some slight encouragement, I first visited your Lordship, I was overpowered, like the rest of mankind, by the en-chantment of your address, and could not forbear to wish that I might boast myself "Le vainqueur du vainqueur de la terre",-that I might obtain that regard for which I saw the world contending; but I found my attendance so little encouraged that neither pride nor modesty would suffer me to continue it. When I had once addressed your Lordship in public, I had exhausted all the art of pleasing which a retired and uncourtly scholar can possess. I had done all that I could; and no man is well pleased to have his all neglected, be it ever so little.

Seven years, My Lord, have now passed since I waited in your outward rooms or was repulsed from your door; during which time I have been pushing on my work through difficulties, of which it is useless to complain, and have brought it at last to the verge of publication, without one act of assistance, one word of encouragement, or one smile of favour. Such treatment I did not expect, for I never had a patron before. The shepherd in Virgil grew at last acquainted with love, and found him a native of the rocks. Is not a patron, My Lord, one, who looks with unconcern on a man struggling for life in water, and when he has reached ground, encumbers him with help?

The notice you have been pleased to take of my labours, had it been early, had been kind; but it has been delayed till I am indifferent, and cannot enjoy it; till I am solitary and cannot impart it; till I am known and do not want it. I hope it is no very

 


cynical asperity, not to confess obligations when no benefit has been received; or to be unwilling that the public should consider me as owing that to a patron, which Providence has enabled me to do for myself.

Having carried on my work thus far with so little obligation to any favourer of learning, I shall now be disappointed though I should conclude it, if less be possible, with less; for I have been long wakened from that dream of hope in which I once boasted myself with so much exultation,

My Lord

Your Lordship's most humble, most obedient Servant Sam Jonson. Liverpool, 17th July 19... .

8. Messrs. M. Worthington & Co., Ltd., Oil Importers, c/o Messrs. Williams & C; Ship Agents, 17 Fenchurch Street, London, E., C, England Dear Sirs,

Re: 9500 tons of Edible Oil under. В/LNos.: 2732, 3734, 4657 m/t Gorky ar'd 16.07.

In connection with your request to start discharging the above cargo first by pumping out bottom layer into barges and then to go on with pumping the rest of the cargo into shore tanks I wish to point out the following.

As per clause of the Bill of Lading "Weight, quantity and quality unknown to me" the carrier is not responsible for the quantity and quality of the goods, but it is our duty to deliver the cargo in the same good order and conditions as located, it means that we are to deliver the cargo in accordance with the measurements taken after loading and in conformity with the samples taken from each tank on completion of loading.

Therefore if you insist upon such a fractional layer discharging of this cargo, I would kindly ask you to send your representative to take joint samples and measurements of each tank, on the understanding that duplicate samples, jointly taken and sealed, will be kept aboard our ship for further reference. The figures, obtained from these measurements and analyses will enable you to give us clean receipts for the cargo in question, after which we shall immediately start discharging the cargo in full compliance with your instructions.

It is, of course, understood, that, inasmuch as such discharging is not in strict compliance with established practice, you will bear all the responsibility, as well as the expenses and / or consequences arising therefrom, which please confirm.


Yours faithfully С. I. Sh....

Master of the m / t Gorky 2.38 p. m.

9. Speech  of Viscount   Simon  of the  House   of Lords:

Defamation Bill 3.12 p.m.

The noble and learned Earl, Lord Jowitt, made a speech of much persuasiveness on the second reading raising this point, and today as is natural and proper, he has again presented with his usual skill, and I am sure with the greatest sincerity, many of the same considerations. I certainly do not take the view that the argument in this matter is all on the side. One could not possibly say that when one considers that there is considerable academic opinion at the present time in favour of this change and in view of the fact that there are other countries under the British Flag where, I understand, there was a change in the law, to a greater or less degree, in the direction which the noble and learned Earl so earnestly recommends to the House. But just as I am very willing to accept the view that the case for resisting the noble Earl's Amendment is not overwhelming, so I do not think it reasonable that the view should be taken that the argument is practically and considerably the other way. The real truth is that, in framing statuary provisions about the law of defamation, we have to choose the sensible way between two principles, each of which is greatly to be admired but both of which run into some conflict. (July 28, 1952.)

10. DEPENDENT

STUDENTS who want a bigger say in the running of univer-sities will be reindorced in their view by the latest effort of the vice-chancellor of Liverpool University and some other academics.

Today these allegedly wise and learned individuals issue, under the patronage of the Right-Wing Institute of Economic Affairs a statement of the "urgency of establishing an   inde-pendent university".

By "independent" they mean one which is dependent on finance from rich private individuals and Big Business, instead of from the Government.

It is a monstrous misuse of the English language to claim that such a university would be independent. It would depend entirely on the good will of the rich, and would find its finances cut off immediately if it displeased them.

Universities already have to rely too much on Big Business sources of finance, including from US and other firms engaged in war  preparations.


Whatever criticisms there may be about the Government's part in their finance at any rate there is some possibility of democratic control over the public money allocated to the universities.

There would be none if it all came as a result of boardroom decisions (M. St.)

11. Great March for Black-White Solidarity

Britain's labour movement embarked in united force on the fight against racism when 25,000 people demonstrated in London yesterday to affirm their solidarity with black workers.

Their march from Hyde Park to Trafalgar Square gave a sample of the massive strength which the movement can mobilize to crash an evil which one speaker warned had become "almost institutionalized" in Britain.

The broad array of speakers in the square and of mass organi-zations on the march also showed this movement's potential might when it acts in unity.

It was the same point made four days earlier by another in London in which 80,000 people demonstrated against government cuts in public spending.

A hundred Labour Party, TUC and black people's leaders were at the front of yesterday's, as it headed out of the park behind a "United Against Racism" banner.

As the head of the column reached Piccadilly Circus, marchers six and eight abreast were still leaving the park. A vast number of red, white and gold union and other banners, too many to list, glinted in the sun.

Among them, too, came student branches from many colleges and universities, Labour and Communist Party organizations.

Various Indian workers' associations, the standing Conference of Pakistanis, The South African Congress of Trade Unions, and many other bodies were also represented on the march. (M. St.)

12. In most countries, foreign languages have traditionally
been taught for a small number of hours per week, but for
several years on end. Modern thought on this matter suggests that
telescoping language courses brings a number of unexpected
advantages. Thus it seems that a course of 500 hours spread over
five years is much less effective than the same course spread
over one year, while if it were concentrated into six months it
might produce outstanding results. One crucial factor here is the
reduction in opportunities for forgetting; however, quite apart
from the difficulty of making the time in school time-tables when
some other subject would inevitably have to be reduced, there is
a limit to the intensity of language teaching which individuals can
tolerate over a protracted period. It is clear that such a limit


exists; it is not known in detail how the limit varies for different individuals, nor for different age-groups, and research into these factors is urgently needed. At any rate, a larger total number of hours per week and a tendency towards more frequent teaching periods are the two aspects of intensity which are at present being tried out in many places, with generally encouraging results (P. St.)

13. I   deal with farmers, things like dips and feed.
Every third month I book myself in at

The Hotel in ton for three days.

The boots carries my lean old leather case

Up to a single, where I hang my hat.

One   beer,  and  then  "the  dinner",  at  which  I   read

The shire Times from soup to stewed pears.

Births,  deaths.   For  sale.   Police   court.   Motor   spares

Afterwards, whisky in the Smoke Room:.Clough,

Margetts, the Captain, Dr. Watterson:

Who makes ends meet, who's taking the knock,

Government tariffs, wages, price of stock.

Smoke hangs under the light. The pictures on

The walls are comic-hunting, the trenches, stuff

Nobody minds or notices.  A sound

Of dominoes from the Bar.  I  stand a round.  (Ph. L.)

14. Between my finger and my thumb
The squat pen rests; snug as a gun.
Under my window, a clean rasping sound
When the spade sinks into gravelly ground:
My father, digging, I look down.

Till his straining rump among the flowerbeds Bends low, comes up twenty years away Stooping in rhythm through potato drills Where he was digging.

The coarse boot nestled on the lug, the shaft

Against the inside knee was levered firmly.

He rooted out tall tops, buried the bright edge deep

To scatter new potatoes that we picked

Loving their cool hardness in our hands.

My God, the old man could handle a spade. Just like his old man. (S. H.)


Assignments for Self-Control

  1.  What types of language communication do you know?
  2.  What are the main characteristics of oral speech?

3. Enumerate  functional styles  of contemporary English.

  1.  What do you know about the scientific style?
  2.  Characterize the official style.
  3.  Discuss the peculiarities of the newspaper style.
  4.  What are the main features of the publicist style?

  1.  What is the status of belles-lettres style among other
    functional styles?
  2.  What dichotomies between the types and the forms of
    language  communication do  you  know? Do they correlate?

10. Can you think of any intermediate styles, boasting of
qualities of two or even more "regular" styles?

Now, after you have learnt the intricacies of stylistic func-tioning of language units of different linguistic levels, we can try and analyze their convergence, which enhances and strengthens the given information and - still more important - creates the new, additional meaning of the message.

Starting on the road of stylistic analysis you should keep in mind at least three basic essentials:

  1.  Read the passage given for analysis to the end.
  2.  Be sure you understand not only its general content but
    every single word and construction, too.

3. Paying due respect to linguistic  intuition which is an
indispensable part of all linguistic work, be sure to look for
the source of your "feeling of the text" in the material reality
of the latter.

SUPPLEMENT  1. SAMPLES OF STYLISTIC ANALYSIS

1. My dad had a small insurance agency in Newport. He had moved there because his sister had married old Newport money and was a big wheel in the Preservation Society. At fifteen I'm an orphan, and Vic moves in. "From now on you'll do as I tell you," he says. It impressed me. Vic had never really shown any muscle before. (N. T.)


The first person singular pronouns indicate that we deal either with the entrusted narrative or with the personage's uttered monologue.

The communicative situation is highly informal. The vocab-ulary includes not only standard colloquial words and expressions such as "dad", "to show muscle" (which is based on metonymy), the intensifying, "really", but also the substandard metaphor-"a big wheel". The latter also indicates the lack of respect of the speaker towards his aunt, which is further sustained by his metonymical qualification of her husband ("old Newport money").

The syntax, too, participates in conveying the atmosphere of colloquial informality - sentences are predominantly short. Structures are either simple or, even when consisting of two clauses,  offer  the  least  complicated   cases  of subordination.

The change of tenses registers changes in the chronology of narrated events. Especially conspicuous is the introduction of Pres-ent Indefinite (Simple) Tense, which creates the effect of immediacy and nearness of some particular moment, which, in its turn, signifies the importance of this event, thus foregrounding it, bringing it into the limelight - and making it the logical and emotional centre of the discourse.

2. He had heard everything the Boy said however - was
waiting for the right moment to wrap up his silence, roll
it into a weapon and hit Matty over the head with it.
He did so now. (W. Gl.)

In this short extract from W. Golding's Darkness Visible the appearance of a person who was an unnoticed witness to a conver-sation is described. The unexpectedness of his emergence is identified with the blow in the sustained metaphor which consists of three individual verb metaphors showing stages of an aggressive action.

The abrupt change of sentence length and structure contributes to the expressiveness of the passage.

3. And out of the quiet it came to Abramovici that the
battle was over, it had left him alive; it had been a battle -
a battle! You know where people go out and push little
buttons and pull  little triggers and  figure out targets
and aim with the intention to kill, to tear your guts,
to blow out your brains, to put great ragged holes in the
body you've been taking care of and feeding and washing
all your life, holes out of which your blood comes pouring,
more blood than you ever could wash off, hold back, stop
with all the bandages in the world! (St. H.)


Here we deal with the change of the type of narration: from the author's narrative, starting the paragraph, to represented inner speech of the character. The transition tells on the vocabulary which becomes more colloquial (cf. "guts") and more emotional (cf. the hyperbole "all the bandages in the world"); on the syntax brimming with parallelisms; on the punctuation passing on to the emphatic points of exclamation and dashes; on the morphology. "Naive" periphrases are used to describe the act of firing and its deadly effect. Third person pronouns give way to the second person ("you", "your") embracing both communicants - the personage (author) and the reader, establishing close links between them, involving the reader into the feelings and sentiments of the character.

Very important is repetition. Besides syntactical repetition (parallelism) mentioned above, pay attention to the repetition of "battle", because it is this word which on the one hand, actually marks the shift from one type of narration to another (the first "battle" bringing in the author's voice, the last two - that of Abramovici). On the other hand, the repetition creates continuity and cohesion and allows the two voices merge, making the transition smooth and almost imperceptible.

4. “This is Willie Stark, gents. From up home at Mason
City. Me and Willie was in school together. Yeah, and
Willie, he was a bookworm, and he was teacher's pet.
Wuzn't you, Willie?" And Alex nudged the teacher's
pet in the ribs. (R. W.)

Alex's little speech gives a fair characteristic of the speaker. The substandard "gents", colloquial "me", irregularities of grammar ("me and Willie was"), pronunciation (graphon "wuzn't"), syntax ("Willie, he was"), abundance of set phrases ("he was a bookworm", "he was a teacher's pet", "from up home") - all this shows the low educational and cultural level of the speaker.

It is very important that such a man introduces the beginning politician to his future voters and followers. In this way R. P. War-ren stresses the gap between the aspiring and ambitious, but very common and run-of-the-mill young man starting on his political career, and the false and ruthless experienced politician in the end of this road.

Note the author's sympathy towards the young Stark which is seen from the periphrastic nomination of the protagonist ("teacher's pet") in the author's final remark.

5. From that day on, thundering trains loomed in his
dreams - hurtling, sleek, black monsters whose stack pipes


belched gobs of serpentine smoke, whose seething fireboxes coughed out clouds of pink sparks, whose pushing pistons sprayed jets of hissing steam - panting trains that roared yammeringly over farflung, gleaming rails only to come to limp and convulsive halts-long, fearful trains that were hauled brutally forward by red-eyed locomotives that you loved watching as they (and you trembling) crashed past (and you longing to run but finding your feet strangely glued to the ground). (Wr.)

This paragraph from Richard Wright is a description into which the character's voice is gradually introduced first through the second person pronoun "you", later also graphically and syntactically - through the so-called embedded sentences, which explicitly describe the personage's emotions.

The paragraph is dominated by the sustained metaphor "trains" = "monsters". Each clause of this long (the length of this one sentence, constituting a whole paragraph, is over 90 words) structure contains its own verb-metaphor - "belched", "coughed out", "sprayed", etc., metaphorical epithets contributing to the image of the monster - "thundering", "hurtling", "seething", "pushing", "hissing", etc. Their participial form also helps to convey the effect of dynamic motion. The latter is inseparable from the deafening noise, and besides "roared", "thundering", "hissing", there is onomatopoeic "yammeringly".

The paragraph abounds in epithets - single (e. g. "serpentine smoke"), pairs (e. g. "farflung, gleaming rails"), strings ("hurtling, sleek, black monsters"), expressed not only by the traditional adjectives  and participles but also by qualitative adverbs ("brutally", "yammeringly"). Many epithets, as it was mentioned before, are metaphorical, included into the formation of the sustained metaphor. The latter besides the developed central image of the monstrous train, consists of at least two minor ones-"red-eyed locomotives", "limp and convulsive halts".

The syntax of the sentence-paragraph shows several groups of parallel constructions, reinforced by various types of repetitions (morphological - of the -ing-suffix, caused by the use of eleven participles; anaphoric - of "whose"; thematic - of the word "train"). All the parallelisms and repetitions create a definitely perceived rhythm of the passage which adds to the general effect of dynamic motion.

Taken together, the abundance of verbs and verbals denoting fast and noisy action, having a negative connotation, of onomat-opoeic words, of repetitions - all of these phonetic, morpholo-gical, lexical and syntactical means create a threatening and


formidable image of the description, which both frightens and fascinates the protagonist.

SUPPLEMENT 2. Extracts for Comprehensive Stylistic Analysis

  1.  As various aids to recovery were removed from him and he
    began to speak more, it was observed that his relationship to
    language was unusual. He mouthed. Not only did he clench his
    fists with the effort of speaking, he squinted. It seemed that a
    word was an object, a material object, round and smooth some-
    times, a golf-ball of a thing that he could just about manage
    to get through his mouth, though it deformed his face in the
    passage. Some words were jagged and these became awful passages
    of pain and struggle that made the other children laugh. Patience
    and silence seemed the greater part of his nature. Bit by bit he
    learnt to control the anguish of speaking until the golf-balls
    and jagged  stones, the toads and jewels passed through his
    mouth with not much more than the normal effort. (W. Gl.)
  2.  "Is anything wrong?" asked the tall well-muscled manager
    with menacing inscrutability, arriving to ensure that nothing in
    his restaurant ever would go amiss. A second contender for the
    world karate championship glided noiselessly up alongside  in
    formidable allegiance (Js. H.)
  3.  As Prew listened the mobile face before him melted to a
    battle-blackened skull as though a flamethrower had passed over
    it, kissed it lightly, and moved on. The skull talked on to him
    about his health. (J.)

4. Scobie turned up James Street past the Secretariat. With its long balconies it has always reminded him of a hospital. For fifteen years he had watched the arrival of a succession of patients;  periodically at the end of eighteen months certain patients were sent home, yellow and nervy and others took their place-Colonial Secretaries, Secretaries of Agriculture, Treasurers and Directors of Public Works. He watched their -temperature charts every one - the first outbreak of unreasonable temper, the drink too many, the sudden attack for principle after a year of acquiescence. The black clerks carried their bedside manner like doctors down the corridors; cheerful and respectful they put up with any insult. The patient was always right. (Gr. Gr.)

5. In a very few minutes an ambulance came, the team was told all the nothing that was known about the child and he was driven away, the ambulance bell ringing, unnecessarily. (W. Gl.)


  1.  This area took Matty and absorbed him. He received pocket
    money. He slept in a long attic. He ate well. He wore a thick
    dark-grey suit and grey overalls. He carried things. He became
    the Boy. (W. Gl.)
  2.  We have all seen those swinging gates which, when their
    swing    is considerable, go to and fro without locking. When
    the swing has declined, however, the latch suddenly drops to its
    place, the gate is held and after a short rattle the motion is all over.
    We have to explain an effect something like that. When the two
    atoms meet, the repulsions of their electron shells usually cause
    them to recoil; but if the motion is small and the atoms spend a
    longer time in each other's neighbourhood, there is time for
    something to happen in the internal arrangements of both atoms,
    like the drop of the latch-gate into its socket, and the atoms are
    held. (W. Br.)
  3.  We marched on, fifteen miles a day, till we came to the
    maze of canals and streams which lead the Euphrates into the
    Babylonian cornfields. The bridges are built high for the floods of
    winter. Sometimes the ricefields spread their tassled lakes, off
    which the morning sun would glance to blind us. Then one noon,
    when the glare had shifted, we saw ahead the great black walls
    of Babylon, stretched on the low horizon against the heavy sky.
    Not that its walls were near; it was their height that let us see them.
    When at last we passed between the wheatfields yellowing for the
    second harvest, which fringed the moat, and stood below, it was
    like being under mountain cliffs. One could see the bricks and
    bitumen; yet it seemed impossible this could be the work of
    human hands.   Seventy-five feet stand the walls of Babylon; more
    than thirty thick; and each side of the square they form measure
    fifteen miles. We saw no sign of the royal army; there was room for
    it all to encamp within, some twenty thousand foot and fifty
    thousand horse.

The walls have a hundred gates of solid bronze. We went in by the Royal Way, lined with banners and standards, with Magi holding fire-altars, with trumpeters and praise-singers, with satraps and commanders. Further on was the army; the walls of Babylon enclose a whole countryside. All its parks can grow grain in case of siege; it is watered from the Euphrates. An impregnable city.

The King entered in his chariot. He made a fine figure, overtopping by half a head his charioteer, shining in white and purple. The Babylonians roared their acclamation, as he drove off with a train of lords and satraps to show himself to the army. ( M.R.)


9. You know a lot of trouble has been caused by memoirs.
Indiscreet revelations, that sort of thing. People who have been
close as an oyster all their lives seem positively to relish causing
trouble when they themselves will be comfortably dead. It gives
them a kind of malicious glee. (Ch.)

  1.  "Call Elizabeth Cluppins," said Sergeant Buzfuz. The near-
    est usher called for Elizabeth Tuppins, another one, at a little
    distance of, demanded Elizabeth Jupkins; and a third rushed in a
    breathless state into Ring Street and screamed for Elizabeth
    Muffins till he was hoarse. (D.)
  2.  "You're the last person I wanted to see. The sight of you
    dries up all my plans and hopes. I wish I were back at war
    still, because  it's easier to fight you than to live with you.
    War's a pleasure do you hear me? - War's a pleasure compared to what faces us how: trying to build up a peacetime with you in the middle of it."

"I'm not going to be a part of any peacetime of yours. I'm going a long way from here and make my own world that's fit for a man to live in. Where a man can be free, and have a chance, and do what he wants to do in his own way," Henry said.

"Henry, let's try again."

“Try what? Living here? Speaking polite down to all the old men like you? Standing like sheep at the street corner until  - the red light turns to green? Being a good boy and a good sheep, like all the stinking ideas you get out your books? Oh, no! I'll make a world, and I'll show you." (Th. W.)

12. I began to think how little I had saved, how long a time it took to save at all, how short a time I might have at my age to live, and how she would be left to the rough mercies of the world. (D.)

13. She was sitting down with the "Good Earth" in front of her.
She put it aside the moment she made her decision, got up and
went to the closet where perched on things that looked like huge
wooden collar-buttons. She took two hats, tried on both of them,
and went back to the closet and took out a third, which she kept
on. Gloves, purse, cigarette extinguished, and she was ready to
go. (J.O'H.)

14. "How  long  have  you  known  him? What's he  like?"
"Since Christmas. He's from Seattle and he spent Christmas

with friends of mine in Greenwich is how I happened to meet him. I sat next to him at dinner the night after Christmas, and he was the quiet type, I thought. He looked to be the quiet type. So I found out what he did and I began talking about gastroentero-


stomies and stuff and he just sat there and nodded all the time I was talking. You know, when I was going to be a nurse a year before last. Finally I said something to him. I asked him if by any chance he was listening to what I was saying, or bored, or what? 'No, not bored,' he said. 'Just cockeyed.' And he was. Cockeyed. It seems so long ago and so hard to believe we were ever strangers like that, but that's how I met him, or my first conver-sation with him. Actually he's very good. His family have loads of money from the lumber business and I've never seen anything like the way he spends money. But only when it doesn't interfere with his work at P. and S. He has a Packard that he keeps in Greenwich and hardly ever uses except when he comes to see me. He was a marvellous basket-ball player at Dartmouth and two weeks ago when he came up to our house he hadn't had a golf stick in his hands since last summer and he went out and shot an eighty-seven. He's very homely, but he has this dry sense of humor that at first you don't quite know whether he's even listening to you, but the things he says. Sometimes I think - oh, not really, but a stranger overhearing him might suggest sending him to an alienist." (J. O'H.)

  1.  My appointment with the Charters Electrical Company
    wasn't until afternoon, so I spent the morning wandering round
    the town. There was a lot of dirty snow and slush about, and
    the sky was grey and sagging with another load of the stuff, but
    the morning was fine enough for a walk. Gretley in daylight
    provided no surprise. It was one of those English towns that seem
    to have  been  built  simply to  make money for people who
    don't even condescend to live in them. (P.)
  2.  This constant succession of glasses produced considerable
    effect upon Mr. Pickwick; his countenance beamed with the most
    sunny smiles, laughter played around his lips, and good-humoured
    merriment twinkled  in his eyes.  Yielding by degrees to the
    influence of the exciting liquid rendered more so by the heat,
    Mr. Pickwick expressed a strong desire to recollect a song which
    he had heard in his infancy, and the attempt proving abortive,
    sought to stimulate his memory with more glasses of punch,
    which appeared to have quite a contrary effect; for, from forgetting
    the words of the song, he began to forget how to articulate any
    words at all; and finally, after rising to his legs to address the
    company in an eloquent speech, he fell into the barrow, and fast
    asleep, simultaneously. (D.)
  3.  Mr. Topper turned from the tree and wormed himself
    into the automobile. And the observer, had he been endowed with
    cattish curiosity would have noted by the laborings of Topper's


body that he had not long been familiar with the driving seat of an automobile. Once, in, he relaxed, then, collecting his scattered members, arranged his feet and hands as Mark had patiently instructed him. (Th. S.)

18. It was   a marvellous day in late August, and Wimsey's
soul purred within him as he pushed the car along. The road from
Kirkcudbright to Newton-Stuart is of a varied loveliness hard to
surpass, and with the sky full of bright sun and rolling cloud-banks,
hedges filled with flowers, a well-made road, a lively engine and
a prospect of a good corpse at the end of it, Lord Peter's cup of
happiness was full. He was a man who loved simple pleasures.

He passed through Gatehouse, waving a cheerful hand to the proprietor of Antworth Hotel, climbed up beneath the grim blackness of Cardoness Castle, drank in for the thousandth time the strange Japanese beauty of Mossyard Farm, set like a red jewel under its tufted trees on the blue sea's rim, and the Italian loveliness of Kirkdale, with its fringe of thin and twisted trees and the blue coast gleaming across the way. (D. S.)

  1.  The two transports had sneaked up from the South in the.
    first graying  flush  of dawn, their  cumbersome  mass cutting
    smoothly through the water whose still greater mass bore them
    silently, themselves as gray as the dawn which camouflaged them.
    Now, in the fresh early morning of a lovely tropic day they lay
    quietly at anchor in the channel, nearer to the one island than to
    the other which was only a cloud on the horizon. To their crews,
    this was a routine mission and one they knew well: that of delivering
    fresh reinforcement troops. But to the men who comprised the
    cargo of infantry this trip was neither routine nor known and was
    composed of a mixture of dense anxiety and tense excitement. (J.)
  2.  I am always drawn back to places where I have lived, the
    houses and their neighbourhoods. For instance, there is a brown-
    stone in the East Seventies where, during the early years of the war,
    I had my first New York apartment. It was one room crowded
    with attic furniture, a sofa and fat chairs upholstered in that itchy,
    particular red velvet that one associates with hot days on a train.
    The walls were  stucco, and a color rather like tobacco-spit.
    Everywhere, in the bathroom too, there were prints of Roman
    ruins freckled, brown with age. The single window looked out on
    the fire escape. Even so, my spirits heightened whenever I felt
    in my pocket the key to this apartment; with all its gloom, it was
    still a place of my own, the first, and my books were there, and
    jars of pencils to sharpen, everything I needed, so I felt, to become
    the writer I wanted to be. (T. C.)


21. He leaned his elbows on the porch ledge and stood looking
down through the screens at the familiar scene of the barracks
square laid out below with the tiers of porches dark in the faces
of the three-story concrete  barracks  fronting on the  square.
He was feeling a half-sheepish affection for his vantage point that
he was leaving.

Below him under the blows of the February Hawaiian sun the quadrangle gasped defencelessly, like an exhausted fighter. Through the heat haze the thin midmorning film of the parched red dust came up a muted orchestra of sounds: the clanking of steel-wheeled carts bouncing over brick, the slappings of oiled leather sling-straps, the shuffling beat of shoesoles, the hoarse expletive of irritated noncoms. (J.)

22. Around noon the last shivering wedding guest arrived at
the farmhouse: then for all the miles around nothing moved on
the  gale-haunted  moors - neither carriage, wagon, nor human figure. The road wound emptily over the low hills. The gray day turned still colder, and invisible clouds of air began to stir slowly in great icy swaths, as if signalling some convulsive change beyond the sky. From across the downs came the boom of surf against the island cliffs. Within an hour the sea wind rose to a steady moan, and then within the next hour rose still more to become a screaming ocean of air.

Ribbons of shouted laughter and music - wild waltzes and reels streamed thinly from the house, but all the wedding sounds were engulfed, drowned and then lost in the steady roar of the gale. Finally, at three o'clock, spits of snow became a steady swirl of white that obscured the landscape more thoroughly than any fog that had ever rolled in from the sea. (M. W.)

23. There was an area east of the Isle of Dogs in London which
was an unusual mixture even for those surroundings. Among the
walled-off rectangles of water, the warehouses, railway lines and
travelling cranes, were two streets of mean houses with two pubs
and two shops among them. The bulks of tramp steamers hung
over the houses where there had been as many languages spoken
as families that lived there. But just now not much was being
said, for the whole area had been evacuated officially and even
a ship that was hit and set on fire had few spectators near it.
There was a kind of tent in the sky over London, which was
composed of the faint white beams of searchlights, with barrage
balloons dotted here and there. The barrage balloons were all that
the searchlights discovered in the sky, and the bombs came down,
it seemed, mysteriously out of emptiness. They fell round the
great fire.


The men at the edge of the fire could only watch it burn, out of control. The drone of the bombers was dying away. The five-mile-high tent of chalky lights had disappeared, been struck all at once, but the light of the great fire was bright as ever, brighter perhaps. Now the pink aura of it had spread. Saffron and ochre turned to blood-colour. The shivering of the white heart of the fire had quickened beyond the capacity of the eye to analyse it into an outrageous glare. High above the glare and visible now for the first time between two pillars of lighted smoke was the steely and untouched round of the full moon - the lover's, hunter's, poet's moon; and now - an ancient and severe goddess credited with a new function and a new title - the bomber's moon. She was Artemis of the bombers, more pitiless than ever before. (W. Gl.)

  1.  There is no month in the whole year, in which nature wears a more beautiful appearance than in the month of August; Spring has many beauties, and May is a fresh and blooming month: but the charms of this time of year are enhanced by their contrast with the winter season. August has no such advantage. It comes when we remember nothing but clear skies, green fields, and sweet-smelling flowers - when the recollection of snow, and ice, and bleak winds, has faded from our minds as completely  as they have disappeared from the earth - and yet what a pleasant time it is. Orchards and cornfields ring with the hum of labour;trees bend beneath the thick clusters of rich fruit which bow their branches to the ground; and the corn, piled in graceful sheaves, or waving in every light breath that sweeps above it, as if it wooed the sickle, tinges the landscape   with a golden hue. A  mellow   softness  appears  to   hang  over  the  whole  earth; the influence of the season seems to extend itself to the very wagon, whose slow motion across the wellreaped field is perceptible only to the eye, but strikes with no harsh sound upon the ear. (D.)
  2.  They say you never hear the one that hits you. That is
    true of bullets because if you hear them they are already past.
    I heard the last shell that hit this hotel. Heard it start from the
    battery, then come with a whistling incoming roar like a subway
    train, to crash against a cornice and shower the room with broken
    glass and plaster. And while the glass still tinkled down and you
    listened for the next one to start, you realized that now finally
    you were back in Madrid.

Madrid is quiet now. Aragon is the active front. There is little fighting around Madrid except mining and countermining, trench raiding, trench mortar strafing and sniping in the stalemate of constant siege warfare going on in Carabanchel, Usera and Univer-


sity City. The cities are shelled very little. Some days there is no shelling and the weather is beautiful and the streets crowded. Shops full of clothing, jewelry stores, camera shops, picture dealers, antiquarians are all open and cafes and bars are crowded. Beer is scarce and whisky is almost unobtainable. The store windows are full of Spanish imitations of all cordials, whiskys, vermouths. These are not recommended for internal use though I am employing something called Milords Ecosses Whisky on my face after shaving. It swarts a little but feels very hygienic. I believe it would be a possible cure for athlete's foot, but one must be very careful not to spill it on one's clothes because it eats wool.

The crowds are cheerful and the sandbagged-fronted cinemas are crowded every afternoon. The nearer one gets to the front, the more cheerful and optimistic the people are. At the front itself optimism reaches such a point that, very much against my good judgement, I was induced to go swimming in a small river forming No Man's Land on the Guenca. The river was a fast flowing stream, very chilly and completely dominated by the Fascist positions, which made me even chiller. I became so chilly at the idea of swimming in the river at all under the circum-stances that when I actually entered the water it felt rather pleasant. But it felt even pleasanter to get out of the water and behind a tree. At this moment a Government officer, who was a member of the optimistic swimming party shot a watersnake with his pistol, hitting it on the third shot. This brought a reprimand from another not so completely optimistic officer member who asked what he wanted to do with that shooting, get the machine-guns turned on us? We shot no more snakes that day but I saw three trout in the stream which would weigh over four pound apiece. Heavy old deep-sided ones that rolled up to take the grasshoppers I threw them, making swirls in the water as deep as though you had dropped a paving stone into the stream. All along the stream where no road ever led until the war you could see trout, small ones in the shallows and the bigger kind in the pools and in the shadows of the bank. It is a river worth fighting for, but just a little cold for swimming.

At this moment a shell has just alighted on a house up the street from the hotel where I am typing this. A little boy is crying in the street. A Militiaman has picked him and is comforting him. There is no one killed in our street and the people who started to run slowed down and grin nervously. The one who never started to run at all looks at the others in a very superior way, and the town we are living in now is called Madrid. (H.)


26. And then he remembered that he did not love Gloria. He could not love a common thief. She was a common thief, too. You could see that in her face. There was something in her face, some unconventional thing along with the rest of her beauty, her mouth and eyes and nose - somewhere around the eyes, perhaps, or was it the mouth? - she did not have the conventional look. Emily, yes, Emily had it. He could look at Emily dispassionately, impersonally, as though he did not know her - objectively? wasn't it called? He could look at her and see how much she looked like dozens of girls who had been born and brought up as she had been. You saw them at the theatres, at the best cabarets and speakeasies, at the good clubs on Long Island - and then you saw the same girls, the same women, dressed the same, differing only in the accent of their speech, at clubs in other cities, at horse shows and football games and dances, at Junior League conventions. Emily, he decided after eighteen years of marriage, was a type. And he knew why she was a type, or he knew the thing that made the difference in the look of a girl like Gloria. Gloria led a certain kind of life, a sordid life; drinking and sleeping with men and God knows what all, and had seen more of "life" than Emily ever possibly would see. Whereas Emily had been brought up a certain way, always accustomed to money and the good ways of spending it. In other words, all her life Emily had been looking at nice things, nice houses, cars, pictures, grounds, clothes, people. Things that were easy to look at, and people that were easy to look at: with healthy complexions and good teeth, people who had had pasturized milk to drink and proper food all their lives from the time they were infants; people who lived in houses that were kept clean, and painted when paint was needed, who took care of their minds, were taken care of: and they got the look that Emily and girls-women like her had. Whereas Gloria - well, take for instance the people she was with the night he saw her two nights ago, the first night he went out with her. The man that liked to eat, for instance. Where did he come from? He might have come from the Ghetto. Ligget happened to know that there were places in the slums where eighty families would use the same outside toilet. A little thing, but imagine what it must look like! Imagine having spent your formative years living like, well, somewhat the way you lived in the Army. Imagine what effect that would have on your mind. And of course a thing like that didn't only affect your mind: it showed in your face, absolutely. Not that it was so obvious in Gloria's case. She had good teeth and a good complexion and a healthy body but there was something wrong somewhere. She had not gone to the very best schools, for instance. A little thing perhaps, but important.


Her family - he didn't know anything about them; just that she lived with her mother and her mother's brother. Maybe she was a bastard. That was possible. She could be a bastard. That can happen in this country. Maybe her mother was never married. Sure, that could happen in this country. He never heard of it except among poor people and Gloria's family were not poor. But why couldn't it happen in this country? The first time he and Emily ever stayed together they took a chance on having children, and in those days people didn't know as much about not getting caught as they do today. Gloria was even older than Ruth so maybe her mother had done just what Emily had done, with no luck. Maybe Gloria's father was killed in a railroad accident or something, intending to marry Gloria's mother, but on the night he first stayed with her, maybe on his way home he was killed by an automobile or a hold-up man, or something. It could happen. There was a fellow in New Haven that was very mysterious about his family. His mother was on the stage, and nothing was ever said about his father. Liggett wished now that he had known the fellow better. Now he couldn't remember the fellow's name, but some of the fellows in Liggett's crowd had wondered about this What's-His-Name. He drew for the "Record". An artist. Well, bastards were always talented people. Some of the most famous men in history were bastards. Not bastards in any de-rogatory sense of the word, but love children. (How awful to be a love child. It'd be better to be a bastard. If I were a bastard I'd rather be called a bastard than a love child.) Now Gloria, she drew or painted. She was interested in art. And she certainly knew a lot of funny people. She knew that bunch of kids from New Haven, young Billy and those kids. But anybody could meet them, and anybody could meet Gloria. God damn it! That was the worst of it! Anybody could meet Gloria. He thought that all through dinner, looking at his wife, his two daughters, seeing in their faces the thing he had been thinking about a proper upbringing and looking at nice things and what it does to your face. He saw them, and he thought of Gloria, and that anybody could meet Gloria, and any-body, somebody she picked up in a speakeasy somewhere, probably was with her now, this minute.

"I  don't  think  I'll  wait  for  dessert,"  he   said.  (J.  O'H.)

27. But by the time he had said that, Matty was rapt, gazing at the glass on the three other walls. It was all mirror, even the backs of the doors, and it was not just plain minors, it distorted so that Matty saw himself half a dozen times, pulled out sideways and squashed down from above; and Mr. Hanrahan was the shape of a sofa.


"Ha," said Mr. Hanrahan. "You're admiring my bits of glass I see. Isn't that a good idea for a daily mortification of sinful pride? Mrs. Hanrahan! Where are you?"

Mrs. Hanrahan appeared as if materialized, for what with the window and the mirrors a door opening here or there was little more than a watery conflux of light. She was thinner than Matty, shorter than Mr. Hanrahan and had an air of having been used up.

"What is it, Mr. Hanrahan?"

"Here he is, I've found him!"

"Oh the poor man with his mended face!"

"I'll teach them, the awesome frivolity of it, wanting a man about the place! Girls! Come here, the lot of you!"

Then there was a watery conflux in various parts of the wall, some darkness and here and there a dazzle of light.

"My seven girls," cried Mr. Hanrahan, counting them busily. "You wanted a man about the place, did you? Too many females were there? Not a young man for a mile! I'll teach you! Here's the new man about the place! Take a good look at him!"

The girls had formed into a semicircle. There were the twins Francesca and Teresa, hardly out of the cradle, but pretty. Matty instinctively held his hand so that they should not be frightened by his left side which they could see. There was Bridget, rather taller and pretty and peering short-sightedly, and there was Berna-dette who was taller and prettier and wholly nubile, and there was Cecilia who was shorter and just as pretty and nubiler if anything, and there was Gabriel Jane, turner-of-heads-in-the-street, and there was the firstborn, dressed for a barbecue, Mary Michael: and whoever looked on Mary Michael was lost. (W. Gl.)

28. Never had there been so full an assembly, for mysteriously united in spite of all their differences, they had taken arms against a common peril. Like cattle when a dog comes into the field, they stood head to head and shoulder to shoulder, prepared to run upon and trample the invader to death. They had come, too, no doubt, to get some notion of what sort of presents they would ultimately be expected to give; for though the question of wedding gifts was usually graduated in this way - "What are you givin'? Nicholas is givin' spoons!" - so very much depended on the bridegroom. If he were sleek, well-brushed, prosperous-looking, it was more necessary to give him nice things; he would expect them. In the end each gave exactly what was right and proper, by a species of family adjustement arrived at as prices are arrived at on the Stock Exchange - the exact niceties being regulated at Timothy's commodious, red-brick residence in Bayswater, over-looking the Park, where dwelt Aunts Ann, Juley and Hester.


The uneasiness of the Forsyte family has been justified by the simple mention of the hat. How impossible and wrong would it have been for any family, with the regard for appearances which should ever characterize the great upper-middle class to feel otherwise than uneasy!

The author of the uneasiness stood talking to June by the further door; his curly hair had a rumpled appearance as though he found what was going on around him unusual. He had an air, too, of having a joke all to himself.

George, speaking aside to his brother Eustace, said: "looks as if he might make a bolt of it - the dashing Buccaneer!" This "very singular-looking man", as Mrs. Small afterwards called him, was of medium height and strong build with a pale, brown face, a dust coloured moustache, very prominent cheekbones, and hollow cheeks. His forehead sloped back towards the crown of his head, and bulged out in bumps over the eyes, like forehead seen in the lion-house at the Zoo. He had cherry-coloured eyes, disconcertingly inattentive at times. Old Jolyon's coachman, after driving June and Bosinney to the theatre, had remarked to the butler:

"I dunno what to make of'im. Looks to me for all the world like an—'alf-tame leopard."

And every now and then a Forsyte would come up, sidle round, and take a look at him. June stood in front, fending off this idle curiosity  - a little bit of a thing, as somebody once said, "all hair and spirit", with fearless blue eyes, a firm jaw, and a bright colour, whose face and body seemed too slender for her crown of red-gold hair.

A tall woman, with a beautiful figure, which some member of the family had once compared to a heathen goddess, stood looking at these with a shadowy smile. Her hands, gloved in French grey, were crossed one over the other, her grave, charming face held to one side, and the eyes of all men near were fastened on it. Her figure swayed, so balanced that the very air seemed to set it moving. There was warmth, but little colour, in her cheeks; her large, dark eyes were soft. But it was at her lips - asking a question, giving an answer, with that shadowy smile  -that men looked; they were sensitive lips, sensuous and sweet, and through them seemed to come warmth and perfume of a flower.

The engaged couple thus scrutinized were unconscious of this passive goddess. (G.)

29. Tom told them of another famous escaped slavewoman. "She named Harriet Tubman. Ain't no tellin' how many times


she come back South an' led out different whole bunches o' folks like us to freedom up Nawth on sump'n dey's callin' de "Unnergroun' Rairoad". Fac', she done it so much dey claims by now white folks got out forty thousand dollars' worth o' rewards fo' her, alive or dead."

"Lawd have mercy, wouldn't o' thought white folks pay dat much  to   catch   no  nigger  in  de  worl!"   said   Sister  Sarah.

He told them that in a far-distant state called California, two white men were said to have been building a sawmill when they discovered an unbelievable wealth of gold in the ground, and thousands of people were said to be rushing in in wagons, on mules, even afoot to reach the place where it was claimed that gold could be dug up by the shovelful.

He said finally that in the North great debates on the subject of slavery were being held between two white men named Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln.

"Which one 'em for de niggers?" asked Gran'mammy Kizzy.

"Well, soun' like de Massa Lincoln, leas'ways de bes' I can tell," said Tom.

"Well, praise de Lawd an' give 'im stren'th" said Kizzy.

Sucking his teeth, Chicken George got up patting his ample belly and turned to Tom. "Looka here, boy, why'n't you'n me stretch our legs, walk off some dat meal?"

"Yassuh, Pappy," Tom almost stammered, scarcely able to conceal his amazement and trying to act casual.

The women, who were no less startled, exchanged quizzical, significant glances when Chicken George and Tom set off together down the road. Sister Sarah exclaimed softly, 'Lawd, y'all realize dat boy done growed nigh as his daddy!" James and Lewis stared after their father and older brother nearly sick with envy, but they knew better than to invite themselves along. But the two younger girls, L'il Kizzy and Mary, couldn't resist leaping up and happily starting  to  hop-skip  along  eight  or ten  steps  behind  them.

Without even looking back at them, Chicken George ordered, "Git on back younder an' he'p y'all's mammy wid dem dishes'."

"Aw, Pappy," they whined in unison.

"Git, done tol' you."

Half turning around his eyes loving his little sisters, Tom chided them gently, "Ain't y'all hear Pappy? We see you later on."

With the girls' complaining sounds behind them, they walked on in silence for a little way and Chicken George spoke almost gruffly. "Looka here, reckon you know I ain't meant no harm jes'teasin' you a l'il at dinner."

"Aw,   nawsuh,"   Tom   said,  privately  astounded   at   what


amounted to an apology from his father. "I knowed you was jes' teasin'."

Grunting, Chicken George said, "What say we head on down an' look in on dem chickens? See what keepin' dat nocount L'il George down dere so long. All I knows, he mighta cooked an' et up some dem chickens fo' his Thankagivin' by now."

Tom laughed. "L'il George mean well, Pappy. He jes' a l'il slow. He done tol' me he jes' don' love dem birds like you does." Tom paused, then decided to venture his accompanying thought. "I 'speck nobody in de worl' loves dem birds like you does."

But Chicken George agreed readily enough. "Nobody in dis fa-mily, anyways. I done tried 'em all 'ceptin 'you. Seem like all de res' my boys willin' to spend dey lives draggin' from one end of a fiel' to de other, lookin' up a mule' butt'." He considered for a moment. "Yo' blacksmithin', wouldn't 'zackly call dat no high livin' neither-nothin' like gamecoclin' - but leas' ways it's a man's work."

Tom wondered if his father ever seriously respected anything excepting fighting chickens. He felt deeply grateful that somehow he had escaped into the solid, stable trade of blacksmithing. But he expressed his thoughts in an oblique way. "Don't see nothin' wrong wid farmin', Pappy. If some folks wasn't farming, 'speck nobody wouldn't be eatin'. I jes' took to blacksmithin' same as you wid gamecoclin', 'cause I loves it, an' de Lawd gimme a knack fo' it. Jes' ever'body don' love de same things."

"Well, leas' you an' me got sense to make money doin' what we likes," said Chicken George. (Al. H.)

30. It was a flaking three-storey house in the ancient part of the city, a century old if it was a day, but like all houses it had been given a thin fireproof plastic sheath many years ago, and this preservative shell seemed to be the only thing holding it in the sky.

"Here we are."

The engine slammed to a stop. Beatty, Stoneman and Black ran up the sidewalk, suddenly odious and fat in the plump fireproof slickers. Montag followed.

They crashed the front door and grabbed at a woman, though she was not running, she was not trying to escape. She was only standing, weaving from side to side, her eyes fixed upon a nothingness in the wall as if they had struck her a terrible blow upon the head. Her tongue was moving in her mouth, and her eyes seemed to be trying to remember something.

Next thing they were up in musty blackness, swinging silver hatchets at doors that were, after all, unlocked, tumbling through


like boys all rollic and shout. "Hey!" A fountain of books sprang down upon Montag as he climbed shuddering up the sheer stair-well. How inconvenient! Always before it had been like snuffing a candle. The police went first and adhesive-taped the victim's mouth and bandaged him off into their glittering beetle cars, so when you arrived you found an empty house. You weren't hurting anyone, you were hurting only things! And since things really couldn't be hurt, since things felt nothing, and things don't scream and cry out, there was nothing to tease your conscience later. You were simply cleaning up. Janitorial work, essentially. Everything to its proper place. Quick with the kerosene! Who's got a match?

But now, tonight, someone had slipped. This woman was spoiling the ritual. The men were making too much noise, laughing, joking to cover her terrible accusing silence below. She made the empty rooms roar with accusation and shake down a fine dust of guilt that was sucked in their nostrils as they plunged about. It was neither cricket nor correct. Montag felt an immense irritation. She shouldn't be here, on top of everything!

Books bombarded his shoulders, his arms, his upturned face. A book alighted, almost obediently, like a white pigeon, in his hands, wings fluttering. In the dim, wavering light, a page hung open and it was like a snowy feather, the words delicately painted thereon. In all the rush and fervour, Montag had only an instant to read a line, but it blazed in his mind for the next minute as if stamped there with fiery steel. 'Time has fallen asleep in the. afternoon sunshine." He dropped the book. Immediately, another fell into his arms.

"Montag, up here!"

Montag's hand closed like a mouth, crushed the book with wild devotion, with an insanity of mindlessness to his chest. The men above were hurling shovelfuls of magazines into the dusty air. They fell like slaughtered birds and the woman stood below, like a small girl, among the bodies.

Montag had done nothing. His hand had done it all, his hand, with a brain of its own, with a conscience and a curiosity in each trembling finger, had turned thief. Now, it plunged the book back under his arm, pressed it tight to sweating armpit, rushed out empty, with a magician's flourish! Look here! Innocent! Look!

He gazed, shaken, at that white hand. He held it way out, as if he were far-sighted. He held it close, as if he were blind.

"Montag!"

He jerked about.

"Don't stand there, idiot!"

The books lay like great mounds of fishes left to dry. The men


danced and slipped and fell over them. Titles glittered their golden eyes falling, gone.

"Kerosene!"

They pumped the cold fluid from the numbered 451 tanks strapped to their shoulders. They coated each book, they pumped rooms full of it.

They hurried downstairs, Montag staggered after them in the kerosene fumes.

"Come on, woman!"

The woman knelt among the books, touching the drenched leather and cardboard, reading the gilt titles with her fingers while her eyes accused Montag.

"You can't ever have my books," she said.

"You know the law," said Beatty. "Where's your common sense? None of those books agree with each other. You've been locked up here for years with a regular damned Tower of Babel. Snap out of it. The people in those books never lived. Come on now!"

She shook her head.

"The whole house is going up," said Beatty.

The men walked clumsily to the door. They glanced back at Montag; who stood near the woman.

"You're not leaving her here?" he protested.

"She won't come."

"Force her, then!"

Beatty raised his hand in which was concealed the igniter. "We're due back at the house. Besides, these fanatics always try suicide; the pattern's familiar."

Montag placed his hand on the woman's elbow. "You can come with me."

"No," she said. 'Thank you, anyway."

"I'm counting to ten," said Beatty. "One. Two."

"Please," said Montag.

"Go on," said the woman.

Three. Four."

"Here." Montag pulled at the woman.

The woman replied quietly. "I want to stay here."

"Five. Six."

"You can't stop counting," she said. She opened the fingers of one hand slightly and in the palm of the hand was a single slender object.

An ordinary kitchen match.

The sight of it rushed the men out and down away from the house. Captain Beatty, keeping his dignity, backed slowly through the front door, his pink face burnt and shiny from a thousand


fires and night excitements. God, thought Montag, how true! Always at night the alarm comes. Never by day! Is it because the fire is prettier by night? More spectacle, a better show? The pink face of Beatty now showed the faintest panic in the door. The woman's hand twitched on the single matchstick. The fumes of kerosene bloomed up about her. Montag felt the hidden book pound like a heart against his chest. (R. Br.)

LIST  OF AUTHORS  WHOSE  TEXTS  WERE  USED  IN  EXERCISES

A. B. - A. Bennett

A. C. — A. Cronin

A. Cl. - A. Clarke

A. Col. - A. Collins

A. H. - A. Huxley

A. Hl. - A. Hailey

A. M. - A. Miller

A. S. - A. Saxton

A. T. - A. Tolkien

A. W. - A. Wesker
AI. H. - A. Haley
AI.-M.
 - A. Maltz

B. - G. G. Byron

B. Ch. - B. Charlestone

B. D.- B. Davidson

B. Db. - B. Dobree

B. M. - B. Malamud

B. N. - Bev. Nichols
B.-Sh
. - B. Shaw
Bark.
 - A. Barker
Bol
. - D. Bolingbroke
Br
. B. - Br. Behan

C. - D. Carter

С D. - A. Conan Doyle

С H. - С Holmes

С R. - С Rosenberg

Ch. - A. Christie

Ch. Br. - Ch. Bronte

Ch. R. - Children's Rhymes

Ch. T. - Ch. Taylor

D. - Ch. Dickens

D. B. - D. Barthelme

D. С - D. Cusack

D. D. - D. Defoe

D. du M. - D. du Maurier

D. H. L. - D. H. Lawrence

D. L. - D. Lessing

D. P. - D. Parker

D. S. - D. Sayers

D. Th. - D. Thomas

D. U. - D. Uhnak
Dr. - Th. Dreiser

E. - Y. Esar

E. A. - E. Albey

 Е. Вг. - Е. Bronte

Е. С. - Е. Caldwell

Е. D. В. - Е. D. Biggers Е. F. - Е. Ferber

Е. L. - Е. Lear

Е. М. - Е. Maurer

E. W. - Е. Waugh
Ev. - S. Evans

F. - H. Fielding

Fl. O'C. - Fl. O'Connor Fr. B. - Fr. Bullen

Fr. Вас. - Fr. Bacon

Fr. N. - Fr. Norris

G. - J. Galsworthy

G. K. Ch. - G. K. Chesterton

G. M. - G. Markey

Gr. - J. Greenwood

Gr. Gr. - Gr. Green

Gr. M. - Gr. Metalious

H. - E. Hemingway

H. B. - H. Belloc

H. С - H. Caine

H. L. - H. Lee

H. R. - H. Reed

H. St. - H. Stezar

H. W. - H. G. Wells

Hut. - A. Hutchinson

I. M. - I. Murdoch

I. Sh. - I. Shaw

J. - J. Jones

J. A. - J. Aldridge

J. B. - J. Baldwin

J. Br. - J. Braine

J. С - J. Conrad

J. Car. - J. Сагу

J. D. P. - J. Dos Passos

J. E. - J. Eszterhas

J. F. - J. Fowles

J. G. - J. Gardner

J. J. - J. Joyce

J. K. - J. Kerouac

J. L. - J. Lindsay

J. O'H. - J. O'Hara

J. R. - J. Reed


J. Rod. - J. Rodker

J. St. - J. Steinbeck

J. Sw. - J. Swift

Jn. B. - J. Barth

Jn. Bn. - J. Bunyan

Jn. C. - J. Carson

Jn. H. - J. Hawkes

Js. H. - J. Heller

K. - J. Kilty

K. A. P. - K. A. Porter

K. K. - K. Kesey

K. M. - K. Mansfield

K. P. - K. S. Prichard

K. Pk. - K. Pike

K. S. - K. Sandburg

L. - St. Leacock

L. Ch. - L. Charteris

Luc. - S. Lucas

M. - A. Milne

M. G. - M. Gold

M. R. - M. Renault

M. S. - M. Spillane

M. Sp. - M. Spark

M. St. - Morning Star

M. T. - M. Twain

M. W. - M. Wilson

N. - Naval Aviation News

N. M. - N. Mailer

N. T. - N. Travis

N. W. - N. West

Ng. M. - Ng. Marsh

O. - J. Osborne

O'C. - S. O'Casey

O. H. - O. Henry

O'N. - E. O'Neill

O. N.- O. Nash

O. W. - O. Wilde

P. - J. B. Priestley

P. A. - P. Abrahams

P. B. - P. Benchley

P. Ch. - P. Cheyney

P. G. W. - P. G. Wodehouse

P. M. - P. la Murre

P. Q. - P. Quentin

P. St. - P. Strevens

Ph. L. - Ph. Larkin

Ph. R. - Ph. Roth

Ph. S. - Ph. Sydney

R. A. - R. Aldington

R. B. - R. Burns

 R. Br. - R. Bradburry

R. Ch. - R. Chandler

R. F. - R. Fowler

R. Fr. - R. Frost

R. K. - R. Kipling

R. Sh. - R. Sheridan

R. W. - R. P. Warren

Rch. B. - R. Bach

S. - J. D. Salinger

S. B. - S. Beckett

S. С - S. T. Coleridge

S. Ch. - S. Chaplin

S. H. - S. Heaney

S. L. - S. Lewis

S. M. - S. Maugham

Sc. F. - Sc. Fitzgerald

Sh. A. - Sh. Anderson

Sh. D. - Sh. Delaney

Sh. Gr. - Sh. A. Grau

Shel. - P. B. Shelley

St. B. - St. Barstow

St. H. - St. Heym

T. - A. Tennyson

Т. С - T. Capote

Т. Н. - T. Howard

T. R. - T. Rawson

T. W. - Th. Wolfe

Th. -  W. Thackeray

Th. M. - Th. B. Macaulay

Th. P. - Th. Pynchon

Th. S. - Th. Smith

Th. W. - Th. Wilder

U. - J. Updike

V. - G. H. Vallins

V. W. -V. Woolf

W. - O. Wadsley

W. Br. - W. Bragg

W. С - W. Fr. Collier

W. D. - W. Deeping

W. G. - W. S. Gilbert

W. Gl. - W. Golding

W. H. D. - V. H. Davies

W. I. - W. Irwing

W. S. - W. Sansom

W. Sc. - W. Scott

W. Sh. - W. Shakespeare

W. Q. - W. Queux

Wic. - Th. Wicker

Wr. - R. Wright


SUBJECT INDEX

addressee (decoder, receiver) - 8 addresser (encoder, transmitter) - 8, 9,

100, 109

alliteration - 11, 72

ambiguity - 67

ambivalence  - 67, 68,71

anadiplosis (catch repetition)

  pl.   anadiploses   

 -see repetition

anaphora   - see  repetition

anticlimax  - 84, 87, 88

antithesis,  pl   antitheses

- 84, 85, 86 antonomasia -  50, 51,52, 53

apokoinu construction - 66, 79, 82 aposiopesis (break) -66, 80, 82

archaic forms - 26, 29, 109

 archaic words proper - 26, 29, 109 archaism - 26

argumentation (consideration) - 25, 109 assonance - 11

asyndeton - 66, 82, 84

attachment - 66, 82, 84

authorial   (author's)   speech - 25,   26,

29, 58, 82, 100

author's image - 100, 108

author's remark - 79, 80, 102, 122 belles-lettres style (the style of creative,

imaginative literature) — see style cacophony - 11

capitalization - 13

chain repetition — see repetition chiasmus  - 63, 73, 75

climax   - 84,   86,   87,   88

cognition - 23

colloquial speech - 6, 78, 108, 121, 122 colloquial words - 25, 29, 121 communicative type (of the sentence) -

68, 71

comparison - 89, 90, 93

concept - 46, 50

connotation - 37

connotational   meaning — see   meaning consideration — see argumentation convergence - 62, 73, 96, 120

creative (imaginative) writing - 53, 58,

67, 79, 100, 101, 110
defeated expectancy - 43, 87
denotational     (logical)     meaning - see

meaning

 description - 25, 29, 79, 89, 95,  101,

103, 123

dialectal  words - 28, 29

dialogue - 25, 29, 58, 78, 79,

80, 82, 100, 101, 102

discourse  - 11, 25, 29, 103, 109, 110,121

ellipsis  pl. ellipses  - 66, 78, 79, 82

entrusted narrative — see narrative epiphora  —see repetition

epithet - 37, 53, 54, 55, 57,60, 123

affective (emotive proper) e. - 53

chain (string) of e. - 54, 123

figurative (transferred) e. - 53

fixed e. - 53

Homeric e. - 53

inverted e. - 54, 55

pair e. - 54, 123

phrase e. - 54

two-step e. - 54

euphony - 11

figure of speech— see stylistic device,

trope foregrounding - 9,  37, 47,  53,  57,  58,60, 62, 72,  73, 77, 79, 82, 95,121

forms of discourse  — see narrative compositional form

framing —see repetition

functional style — see style

genuine  stylistic device - 38

graphon - 11, 12, 122

historical words - 26

hyperbole   - 37,   57,   58,60, 122

hyphenation - 13

inner form - 38

interior monologue -25, 102

interior   speech - 100,   101,   102,   108

short in-sets of i.s. - 102

inversion - 66, 73, 76, 77,78

complete i. - 76

partial i. - 76

irony - 37, 46, 49, 57

sustained i. - 47

verbal i. – 47

italics - 13

jargonism    - 26,   27,   29

literary words - 25, 29


litotes - 84, 93, 94

meaning - 22,  23,  29,  46, 49,  52,  57, 60, 62, 67, 68, 84

associative m. - 23

connotational  m. — 11, 22, 23, 24,29, 72

contextual m. - 24, 46, 47

denotational   (logical)   m. - 11,  23,

37, 46, 47, 50, 53

emotive m. - 23, 53, 57, 58, 60

evaluative m. — 23, 47

expressive m. — 23

ideological m. - 23

nominal m. — 50

pragmatic m. — 23

stylistic m. - 23, 25

metaphor    - 37,   38,   41,   42,

46, 53, 54, 57, 89, 121

prolonged  (sustained)  m. — 39,   121,

123

metonymy   — 37,   40,   41,

42, 46, 53, 54, 121

multiplication - 13

narration   - 29,   100,   101,

102, 103, 107, 122

narrative   n    -  79,   80,   101

author's  n. - 100, 101, 102, 107, 122

entrusted n. - 79, 82,  100, 101, 107,

121

narrative a - 103, 108

narrative compositional form — 100, 103,

108;  see  argumentation, description

narrator - 80, 100, 101

newspaper style —see style

nomination - 38, 46, 95, 122

nonsense of non-sequence — 43, 46 occasional (nonce) words — 19

official style - see style

one-member   sentences — see   sentence onomatopoeia - 11, 123

overstatement — 58

oxymoron — 37,  60, 61, 62,   paradigm — 5, 8

paradox - 87, 88

parallelism      (parallel

constructions) - 66,   73,   75,   84,   86,

122, 123

paronomasia    —see

pun

perception - 23, 58, 60, 95, 100 periphrasis,  pl. periphrases

- 84,   94,  95,   96,   122

euphemistic  p. — 95, 96

figurative p. - 94, 95

logical p. - 94, 96

personification -38, 41

play on words — 37, 46, 68

poetical words — 26

polysyndeton   - 66,  82, 84

professionalism    - 27, 29

publicist    style — see  style

pun - 43, 46

punctuation  — 66,   68,

71, 76, 78, 82, 87, 122

register of communication - 23, 29, 110 repetition    - 18,   49,   66,

72, 73, 73, 76, 122, 123
anadiplosis (catch r.) — 73
anaphora - 72, 123
chain r. - 73

epiphora — 72

framing - 72, 73

ordinary r. — 73

successive r. — 73

reported (represented) speech — 79, 82,

100, 102, 108

r. inner s. - 102, 122

r. uttered s. - 102

rheme  (the new, the unknown) -76

rhetorical  question — 66, 71,

72, 75

scientific style — see style

semantically false  chains — 43,  44, 46 sentence - 66, 67, 68, 71,  72,  73, 76,77, 78, 80, 82, 84, 86, 121, 123

balanced s. — 67

loose s. - 67

one-member s. - 66, 79, 82

one-word s. — 66, 71

periodic s. — 67

 simile    - 53, 54, 57, 84, 89, 90, 93

disguised s. - 90, 93

epic (Homeric) s. - 89, 93

foundation of a s. - 89, 90, 91

key to a s. - 89, 93

link words of a s. - 89, 90, 93

tenor of a s. - 89, 90

vehicle  of a s. - 89, 90

slang - 26, 29

professional s. —see jargonism

speaking names — 51, 53

stream of consciousness — 102, 108

s.-of-c. technique - 102 style - 5, 6, 108, 110

belles-lettres  s. - 6, 8, 108,

110, 111, 120

functional  s. -   6,  108,   110,  111,

120

newspaper s. - 6, 108, 109, 111, 120

official s. - 6, 25, 108,, 109, 110, 12 oratoric s.  -7, 71, 108

poetic s. - 7, 25, 110 

publicist  s. - 6,  53,  67,   108,   109,

111, 120

scientific  s. - 6,  25,   108,   110,   120

telegraphic s. - 79

stylistic device (SD) -

37, 40, 41, 46, 47, 50, 53,  57, 58,

60, 62,  66, 72, 76, 78, 80,  82, 84,

86, 88, 89, 94, 96

stylistics  - 5, 103

decoding s. — 8

functional s. — 5, 7, 8

practical s. — 8

s. of artistic speech — 8

s.   of  individual   (artistic)   style – 8

 suspense - 66, 67, 76, 77, 78 synecdoche      - 37, 41

telegraphic style — see style

term - 26, 29, 108 theme  (the given, the known) -76 

trite - 38,   57,  60,  61,  62,  90,

93,95

trope see stylistic device understatement — 37,

58, 60, 93, 94

unilateral - 10

violation   of  phraseological  units — 43,

44,46

vulgarism - 27, 29

zeugma - 43, 46

 SUGGESTIONS FOR  FURTHER READING

Арнольд И. В. Стилистика современного английского языка. Стилистика декодирования. 2-е изд., Л, 1981.

Кухаренко В. А. Лингвистическое исследование английской художественной речи. Одесса, 1973.

Мороховский А. Н., Воробьева А. О., Лихошерст Н. И. Стилистика англий-ского языка. Киев, 1984.

Пелевина Н. Ф. Стилистический анализ художественного текста. Л., 1980.

Скребнев Ю. М. Очерк   теории стилистики. Горький, 1975.

Солганик Г. Я. Синтаксическая стилистика. М., 1973.

Crystal D., Davy D. Investigating English Style. London, 1979.

Darbyshire A. E. A Grammar of Style. London, 1971.

Galperin I. R. An Essay in Stylistic Analysis. M., 1968.

Galperin I. R. Stylistics. M., 1977.

Riffaterre M. Criteria for Style Analysis. Word. 1959, Vol. XV, No. 1.

Riffaterre M. Stylistic Context. Word. 1960, Vol. XVI, No. 2.

Sosnovskaya V. B. Analytical Reading. M., 1974.


 

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