Практикум по стилистике английского языка
Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
70 per cent of our lifetime is spent in various forms of communication activities-oral (speaking, listening) or writen (reading, writing), so it is self-evident how important it is for a philologist to know the mechanics of relations between the non-verbal, extralinguistic denotational essence of the communicative act and its verbal...
В. А. Кухаренко
Практикум по стилистике английского языка
Министерством высшего и среднего
специального образования СССР
в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов филологических факультетов
университетов, институтов и факультетов
МОСКВА «ВЫСШАЯ ШКОЛА» 1986
ББК 81.2 Англ-9 К 95
кафедра английского языка Ленинградского государственного педаго-гического института им. А. И. Герцена (зав. кафедрой д-р филол. наук, проф. 3. Я. Тураева),
д-р филол. наук проф. И. Р. Гальперин
Кухаренко В. А.
К 95 Практикум по стилистике английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов филол. фак. ун-тов, ин-тов и фак. ин. яз. М.: Высш. шк., 1986. 144 с. На англ. яз.
Цель пособия помочь студентам применить теоретические знания по стилистике на практике. Основной объем пособия составляют упражнения и задания для самостоятельной работы. Разнообразие иллюстративного материала дает возможность выбора конкретных заданий для отработки каждой темы и каждой методики анализа.
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PRELIMINARY REMARKS 5
CHAPTER I. PHONO-GRAPHICAL LEVEL. MORPHOLOGICAL
Sound Instrumenting. Craphon. Graphical Means 10
Morphemic Repetition. Extension of Morphemic Valency .... 18
CHAPTER II. LEXICAL LEVEL. . 22
Word and its Semantic Structure. Connotational Meanings of a Word.
The Role of the Context in the Actualization of Meaning. ... 22
stylistic Differentiation of the Vocabulary 25
Literary Stratum of Words. Colloquial Words 25
Lexical Stylistic Devices 37
Metaphor. Metonymy. Synecdoche. Play on Words. Irony. Epithet.
Hyperbole. Understatement. Oxymoron 37
CHAPTER III. SYNTACTICAL LEVEL 66
Main Characteristics of the Sentence. Syntactical SDs. Sentence Length. One-Word Sentences. Sentence Structure. Punctuation. Arrangement of Sentence Members. Rhetorical Question. Types of Repetition. Parallel
Constructions. Chiasmus. Inversion. Suspense. Detachment. Com-pleteness of Sentence Structure. Ellipsis. One-Member Sentences. Apokoinu Constructions. Break. Types of Connection. Polysyndeton.
Asyndeton. Attachment 66
Lexico-Syntactical Stylistic Devices 84
Antithesis. Climax. Anticlimax. Simile. Litotes. Periphrasis. . . 84
CHAPTER IV. TYPES OF NARRATION . . 100
Author's Narrative. Dialogue. Interior Speech. Represented Speech.
Compositional Forms 100
CHAPTER V. FUNCTIONAL STYLES 108
Colloquial vs. Literary Type of Communication. Oral vs. Written Form
of Communication 108
Supplement 1. Samples of Stylistic Analysis 120
Supplement 2. Extracts for Comprehensive Stylistic Analysis. . . . 124
List of Authors Whose Texts Were Used in Exercises 140
Subject Index 141
Suggestions for Further Reading 144
Предлагаемое учебное пособие рассчитано на 16 часов аудиторных и 16 часов самостоятельных занятий и может быть использовано парал-лельно с лекционным курсом по стилистике современного английского языка или после него.
Цель пособия помочь студентам выработать навыки стилистического анализа конкретного языкового материала, научить их обнаруживать и правильно интерпретировать языковые явления разных уровней, несущие дополнительную информацию логического, эмоционального, изобрази-тельного и оценочного характера.
Пособие состоит из пяти глав. Каждая глава содержит теоретическое введение, задания для самоконтроля и упражнения. В качестве иллюстра-тивного материала использована англоязычная проза XIXXX вв. Объем и сложность фрагментов для анализа возрастают к концу каждой главы. Примерная схема анализа дана в приложении в конце пособия.
Пособие содержит тексты для развернутого комплексного стилисти-ческого анализа, предусматривающего использование навыков и умений, закрепленных на материале предыдущих глав.
В конце пособия имеются предметный указатель, список фамилий авторов, чьи произведения были использованы при составлении упраж-нений, и список рекомендуемой литературы.
Main Trends in Style Study. Functional Stylistics and Functional Styles.
Forms and Types of the Language. Stylistics of Artistic Speech. Individual
Style Study. Decoding Stylistics. Practical Stylistics. Levels of Linguistic
Analysis. Foregrounding. Aims of Stylistic Analysis
The term "stylistics" originated from the Greek "stylos" which means "a pen". In the course of time it developed sev-eral meanings, each one applied to a specific study of language elements and their use in speech.
It is no news that any propositional content-any "idea"-can be verbalized in several different ways. So, "May I offer you a chair?", "Take a seat, please", "Sit down"-have the same proposition (subject-matter) but differ in the manner of expression, which, in its turn, depends upon the situational conditions of the communication act.
70 per cent of our lifetime is spent in various forms of communication activities-oral (speaking, listening) or writen (reading, writing), so it is self-evident how important it is for a philologist to know the mechanics of relations between the non-verbal, extralinguistic denotational essence of the communicative act and its verbal, linguistic presentation. It is no surprise, then, that many linguists follow their famous French colleague Charles Bally, claiming that stylistics is primarily the study of synonymic language resources.
Representatives of the not less well-known Prague school-V. Mathesius, T. Vachek, J. Havranek and others focused their attention on the priority of the situational appropriateness in the choice of language varieties for their adequate func-tioning. Thus, functional stylistics, which became and remains an international, very important trend in style study, deals with sets, "paradigms" of language units of all levels or lan-guage hierarchy serving to accommodate the needs of certain typified communicative situations. These paradigms are known as functional styles of the language. Proceeding from the famous definition of the style of a language offered by V. V. Vinogradov more than three decades ago, we shall follow the understanding of a functional style formulated by I. R. Galperin as "a system of coordinated, interrelated and interconditioned language
means intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect."*
All scholars agree that a well developed language, such as English or Russian, is streamed into several functional styles. Their classifications, though, coincide only partially: most style theoreticians do not argue about the number of functional styles being five, but disagree about their nomen-clature. This manual offers one of the rather widely accepted classifications which singles out the following functional styles:
It is only the first three that are invariably recognized in all stylistic treatises. As to the newspaper style, it is often regarded as part of the publicist domain and is not always treated individually. But the biggest controversy is flaming around the belles-lettres style. The unlimited possibilities of creative writing, which covers the whole of the universe and makes use of all language resources led some scholars to the conviction that because of the liability of its contours it can be hardly qualified as a functional style. Still others claim that, regardless of its versatility, the belles-lettres style, in each of its concrete representations, fulfils the aesthetic function, which fact singles this style out of others and gives grounds to recognize, its systematic uniqueness, i. e. charges it with the status if an autonomous functional style. To compare different views on the number of functional styles and their classification see corresponding chapters in stylistic monographs and textbooks, listed on p. 144 of this book.
Each of the enumerated styles is exercized in two forms-written and oral, an article and a lecture are examples of the two forms of the scientific style, news broadcast, on the radio and TV or newspaper information materials-of the newspaper style; an essay and a public speech-of the publicist style, etc.
* Galperin, I. R. Stylistics. M., 1971, p. 253.
The number of functional styles and the principles of their differentiation change with time and reflect the state of the functioning language at a given period. So, only recently, most style classifications had also included the so called poetic style which dealt with verbal forms specific for poetry. But poetry, within the last decades, lost its isolated linguistic position, makes use of all the vocabulary and grammar offered by the language at large and there is hardly sense in singling out a special poetic style for the contemporary linguistic situation, though its relevance for the language of the seventeenth, eighteenth and even the biggest part of the nineteenth centuries cannot be argued.
Something similar can be said about the oratoric style, which, in Ancient Greece, was instrumental in the creation of "Rhetoric", where Aristotle, its author, elaborated the basics of style study, still relevant today. The oratoric skill though has lost its position in social and political life. Nowadays speeches are mostly written first, and so contain all the characteristic features of publicist writing, which made it unnecessary to specify oratoric style within the contemporary functional stratification of the language.
All the above-mentioned styles are specified within the literary type of the language. Their functioning is characterized by the intentional approach of the speaker towards the choice of language means suitable for a particular communicative situation and the official, formal, preplanned nature of the latter.
The colloquial type of the language, on the contrary, is characterized by the inofficiality, spontaneity, informality of the communicative situation. Sometimes the colloquial type of speech is labelled "the colloquial style" and entered into the classification of functional styles of the language, regardless of the situational and linguistic differences between the literary and colloquial communication, and despite the fact that a style of speech manifests a conscious, mindful effort in choosing and preferring certain means of expression for the given communicative circumstances, while colloquial speech is shaped by the immediacy, spontaneity, unpremeditativeness of the communicative situation. Alongside this consideration there exists a strong tendency to treat colloquial speech as an individual language system with its independent set of language units and rules of their connection.
Functional stylistics, dealing in fact with all the subdivisions of the language and all its possible usages, is the most all-embracing "global" trend in style study, and such specified
stylistics as the scientific prose study, or newspaper style study, or the like may be considered elaborations of certain fields of functional stylistics.
A special place here is occupied by the study of creative writing of the belles-lettres style, because in it, above all, we deal with stylistic use of language resources, i.e. with such a handling of language elements that enables them to carry not only the basic, logical, but also additional information of various types. So the stylistics of artistic speech, or belles-lettres style study, was shaped.
Functional stylistics at large and its specified directions proceed from the situationally stipulated language "paradigms" and concentrate primarily on the analysis of the latter. It is possible to say that the attention of functional stylistics is focused on the message in its correlation with the communicative situation.
The message is common ground for communicants in an act of communication, an indispensable element in the exchange of information between two participants of the communicative act- the addresser (the supplier of information, the speaker, the writer) and the addressee (the receiver of the information, the listener, the reader).
Problems, concerning the choice of the most appropriate language means and their organization into a message, from the viewpoint of the addresser, are the centre of attention of the individual style study, which puts particular emphasis on the study of an individual author's style, looking for correlations between the creative concepts of the author and the language of his works.
In terms of information theory the author's stylistics may be named the stylistics of the encoder: the language being viewed as the code to shape the information into the message, and the supplier of the information, respectively, as the encoder. The addressee in this case plays the part of the decoder of the information contained in the message, and the problems connected with adequate reception of the message without any informational losses or deformations, i. e., with adequate decoding, are the concern of decoding stylistics.
And, finally, the stylistics, proceeding from the norms of language usage at a given period and teaching these norms to language speakers, especially the ones, dealing with the language professionally (editors, publishers, writers, journal-ists, teachers, etc.) is called practical stylistics.
Thus, depending on the approach and the final aim there can be observed several trends in style study. Common to all
of them is the necessity to learn what the language can offer to serve the innumerable communicative tasks and purposes of language users; how various elements of the language participate in storing and transferring information, which of them carries which type of information, etc.
The best way to find answers to most of these and similar questions is to investigate informational values and possibil-ities of language units, following the structural hierarchy of language levels, suggested by a well-known Belgian linguist E. Benveniste more than two decades ago - at the IX Interna-tional Congress of Linguists in 1962, and accepted by most scholars today if not in its entirety, then at least as the basis for further elaboration and development.
E. Benveniste's scheme of analysis proceeds from the level of the phoneme - through the levels of the morpheme and the word to that of the sentence.
This book of practice is structured accordingly.
The resources of each language level become evident in action, i. e. in speech, so the attention of the learners is drawn to the behaviour of each language element in functioning, to its aptitude to convey various kinds of information.
The ability of a verbal element to obtain extra signifi-cance, to say more in a definite context was called by Prague linguists foregrounding: indeed, when a word (affix, sentence), automatized by the long use in speech, through context developments, obtains some new, additional features, the act resembles a background phenomenon moving into the front 1ine - foregrounding.
A contextually foregrounded element carries more informa-tion than when taken in isolation, so it is possible to say that in context it is loaded with basic information inherently belonging to it, plus the acquired, adherent, additional infor-mation. It is this latter that is mainly responsible for the well-known fact that a sentence means always more than the sum total of the meanings of its component-words, or a text means more than the sum of its sentences. So, stylistic analysis involves rather subtle procedures of finding the foregrounded element and indicating the chemistry of its contextual changes, brought about by the intentional, planned operations of the addresser, i.e. effected by the conscious stylistic use of the language.
For foreign language students stylistic analysis holds particular difficulties: linguistic intuition of a native speaker, which is very helpful in all philological activities, does not work in the case of foreign learners. Besides, difficulties may
arise because of the inadequate language command and the ensuing gaps in grasping the basic, denotational information. Starting stylistic analysis, thus, one should bear in mind that the understanding of each separate component of the message is an indispensable condition of satisfactory work with the message as a whole, of getting down to the core and essence of its meaning.
Stylistic analysis not only broadens the theoretical horizons of a language learner but it also teaches the latter the skill of competent reading, on the one hand, and proprieties of situational language usage, on the other.
Assignments for Self-Control
10. What is the ultimate goal of stylistic analysis of
a speech product?
CHAPTER I. PHONO-GRAPHICAL LEVEL. MORPHOLOGICAL LEVEL
Sound Instrumenting. Graphon. Graphical Means
As it is clear from the title of the chapter, the stylistic use of phonemes and their graphical representation will be viewed here. Dealing with various cases of phonemic and graphemic foregrounding we should not forget the unilateral nature of a phoneme: this language unit helps to differentiate meaningful lexemes but has no meaning of its own. Cf.: while unable to speak about the semantics of [ou], [ju:], we acknowledge
their sense-differentiating significance in "sew" [sou] шить and "sew" [sju:] спускать воду; or [au], [ou] in "bow" бант, поклон etc.
Still, devoid of denotational or connotational meaning a phoneme, according to recent studies,* has a strong associative and sound-instrumenting power. Well-known are numerous cases of onomatopoeia - the use of words whose sounds imitate those of the signified object or action, such as "hiss", "bowwow", "murmur", "bump", "grumble", "sizzle" and many more.
Imitating the sounds of nature, man, inanimate objects, the acoustic form of the word foregrounds the latter, inevitably emphasizing its meaning too. Thus the phonemic structure of the word proves to be important for the creation of expressive and emotive connotations. A message, containing an onomat-opoeic word is not limited to transmitting the logical informa-tion only, but also supplies the vivid portrayal of the situation described.
Poetry abounds in some specific types of sound-instrument-ing, the leading role belonging to alliteration - the repetition of consonants, usually in the beginning of words, and asson-ance - the repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed syllables. They both may produce the effect of euphony (a sense of ease and comfort in pronouncing or hearing) or cacophony (a sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing or hearing). As an example of the first may serve the famous lines of E. A. Poe:
...silken sad uncertain
rustling of each purple curtain...
An example of the second is provided by the unspeakable combination of sounds found in R. Browning:
Nor soul helps flesh now more than flesh helps soul.
To create additional information in a prose discourse sound-instrumenting is seldom used. In contemporary advertizing, mass media and, above all, creative prose sound is foregrounded mainly through the change of its accepted graphical repre-sentation. This intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word combination) used to reflect its pronunciation is called graphon.
* See, e.g. Воронин С. В. Основы фоносемантики. Л., 1982, where the author lays foundations for a new linguistic subject - phonosemantics, claiming symbolic relevance of sound for naming objects.
Graphons, indicating irregularities or carelessness of pronunciation were occasionally introduced into English novels and journalism as early as the beginning of the eighteenth century and since then have acquired an ever growing frequency of usage, popularity among writers, journalists, advertizers, and a continuously widening scope of functions. Graphon proved to be an extremely concise but effective means of supplying information about the speaker's origin, social and educational background, physical or emotional condition, etc. So, when the famous Thackeray's character-butler Yellowplush - impresses his listeners with the learned words pronouncing them as "sellybrated" (celebrated), "benny-violent" (benevolent), "illygitmit" (illegitimate), "jewinile" (juvenile), or when the no less famous Mr. Babbitt uses "pee-rading" (parading), "Eytalians" (Italians), "peepul" (people)-the reader obtains not only the vivid image and the social, cultural, educational characteristics of the personages, but also both Thackeray's and S. Lewis' sarcastic attitude to them.
On the other hand, "The b-b-b-b-bas-tud-he seen me c-c-c-c-com-ing" in R. P. Warren's Sugar Boy's speech or "You don't mean to thay that thith ith your firth time" (D.C.) show the physical defects of the speakers - the stumbling of one and the lisping of the other.
Graphon, thus individualizing the character's speech, adds to his plausibility, vividness, memorability. At the same time, graphon is very good at conveying the atmosphere of authentic live communication, of the informality of the speech act. Some amalgamated forms, which are the result of strong assimilation, became cliches in contemporary prose dialogue: "gimme" (give me), "lemme" (let me), "gonna" (going to), "gotta" (got to), "coupla" (couple of), "mighta" (might have), "willya" (will you), etc.
This flavour of informality and authenticity brought graphon
popularity with advertizers. Big and small eating places invite customers to attend their "Pik-kwik store", or "The Donut (doughnut) Place", or the "Rite Bread Shop", or the "Wok-in Fast Food Restaurant", etc. The same is true about newspaper, poster and TV advertizing: "Sooper Class Model" cars, "Knee-hi" socks, "Rite Aid" medicines. A recently published book on Cockney was entitled by the authors "The Muvver Tongue",* on back flaps of big freight-cars one can read "Folio me", etc. Graphical changes may reflect not only the peculiarities
* Baltrop, R., Wolveridge, J. The Muvver Tongue. London, 1980.
of pronunciation, but are also used to convey the intensity of the stress, emphasizing and thus foregrounding the stressed words. To such purely graphical means, not involving the viola-tions, we should refer all changes of the type (italics, capi-talization), spacing of graphemes (hyphenation, multiplication) and of lines. The latter was widely exercised in Russian poetry by V. Mayakovsky, famous for his "steps" in verse lines, or A. Voznesensky. In English the most often referred to "graphic-al imagist" was E. E. Cummings.
According to the frequency of usage, variability of functions, the first place among graphical means of foregrounding is occupied by italics. Besides italicizing words to add to their logical or emotive significance, separate syllables and morphemes may also be emphasized by italics (which is highly characteristic of D. Salinger or T. Capote). Intensity of speech (often in commands) is transmitted through the multiplication of a grapheme or capitalization of the word, as in Babbitt's shriek "Аlllll aboarrrrrd", or in the desperate appeal in A. Huxley's Brave New World-"Help. Help. HELP." Hyphena-tion of a word suggests the rhymed or clipped manner in which it is uttered as in the humiliating comment from Fl. O'Connor's story-"grinning like a chim-pan-zee".
Summing up the informational options of the graphical arrangement of a word (a line, a discourse), one sees their varied application for re-creating the individual and social peculiarities of the speaker, the atmosphere of the communi-cation act-all aimed at revealing and emphasizing the author's viewpoint.
Assignments for Self-Control
I. Indicate the causes and effects of the following cases of alliteration, assonance and onomatopoeia:
1. Streaked by a quarter moon, the Mediterranean shushed gently into the beach. (I. Sh.)
From a cheap and chippy chopper on a big black block. (W. C.)
"Those are not the correct epithets. She is-ог rather was surly, lustrous and sadistic." (E. W.)
"But I am whispering." This continual shushing an-noyed him. (A. H.)
12. Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky. (Ch. R.)
13. Dreadful young creatures-squealing and squawking. (C.)
II. Indicate the kind of additional information about the speaker supplied by graphon:
1. "Hey," he said, entering the library. "Where's the heart section?"
He had the thickest sort of southern Negro dialect and the only word that came clear to me was the one that sounded like heart.
"How do you spell it," I said.
"Heart, Man, pictures. Drawing books. Where you got them?"
"You mean art books? Reproductions?" He took my polysyllabic word for it. "Yea, they's them." (Ph. R.)
"Here, lemme handle this, kiddar," said Tiger. "Gorra maintain strength, you," said George. "Ah'm fightin' fit," said Tiger. (S. Ch.)
"Well, 'as' is a conjunction, and 'has' is a verb." "I know," said Kipps, "but when is 'has' a conjunction, and when is 'as' a verb?" (H. W.)
12. Wilson was a little hurt. "Listen, boy," he told him.
"Ah may not be able to read eve'thin' so good, but they ain't
a thing Ah can't do if Ah set mah mind to it." (N. M.)
* The affected manner of Lord Muttonhead's pronunciation was well preserved in the Russian translation of the Pickwick Papers: «...с гешеткой впегеди для кучега».
III. Think of the causes originating graphon (young age, a physical defect
of speech, lack of education, the influence of dialectal norms, affectation,
intoxication, carelessness in speech, etc.):
1. He began to render the famous tune "I lost my heart
in an English garden, Just where the roses of England grow"
with much feeling:
"Ah-ee last mah-ee hawrt een ahn Angleesh gawrden, Jost whahr thah rawzaz ahv Angland graw." (H. C.)
5. After a hum a beautiful Negress sings "Without a song,
the dahay would nehever end." (U.)
10. "Lookat him go. D'javer see him walk home from school?
You're French Canadian, aintcha?" (J. K.)
IV. State the function of graphon in captions, posters, advertisements,
etc. repeatedly used in American press, TV, roadside advertizing:
V. Analyse the following extract from Artemus Ward:*
"Sit down, my fren'; sed the man in black close; "yu mis
komprehend me. I meen that the perlitercal ellermunts are orecast with black klouds, 4 boden a friteful storm."
"Wall," replide I, "in regard to perlittercal ellerfunts i don't know as how but what they is as good as enny other kind of ellerfunts. But i maik bold to say thay is all a ornery set and unpleasant to hav round. They air powerful hevy eaters and take up a right smart chans of room."
The man in black close rusht up to me and sed, "How dair yu insult my neece, yu horey heded vagabone? Yu base exhibbiter of low wax figgers - you woolf in sheep's close," and sow 4th.
VI. State the functions and the type of the following graphical expressive means:
1. Piglet, sitting in the running Kanga's pocket, substi-
tuting the kidnapped Roo, thinks:
this shall take
"If is I never to
flying really it." (M.)
2. Kiddies and grown-ups too-oo-oo
We haven't enough to do-oo-oo. (R. K.)
Shall of ease,
* Artemus Ward is the pseudonym of C. F. Browne (1834-67), well known for his record of the imaginary adventures of an itinerant half-literate showman.
Whilst у seas? (M. T.)
10. "ALL our troubles are over, old girl," he said fondly.
"We can put a bit by now for a rainy day." (S. M.)
Morphemic Repetition. Extension of Morphemic Valency
The basic unit of this level being a morpheme we shall concentrate on examining the ways of foregrounding a morpheme so that the latter, apart from its inherent meaning, becomes vehicle of additional information-logical, emotive, expressive.
One important way of promoting a morpheme is its repeti-tion. Both root and affixational morphemes can be emphasized through repetition. Especially vividly it is observed in the repetition of affixational morphemes which normally carry the main weight of the structural and not of the denotational significance. When repeated they come into the focus of attention and stress either their logical meaning (e.g. that of contrast, negation, absence of a quality as in such prefixes like a-, -anti-, mis-; or of smallness as in suffixes -ling and -ette); their emotive and evaluative meaning, as in suffixes forming degrees of comparison; or else they add to the rhythmical effect and text unity.
The second, even more effective way of using a morpheme for the creation of additional information is extension of its normative valency which results in the formation of new words. They are not neologisms in the true sense for they are
created for special communicative situations only, and are not used beyond these occasions. This is why they are called occasional words and are characterized by freshness, originality, lucidity of their inner form and morphemic structure.
Very often occasional words are the result of morphemic repetition. Cf.: "I am an undersecretary in an underbureau." The stress on the insignificance of the occupation of I. Shaw's heroine brings forth both - the repetition of the prefix under-and the appearance, due to it, of the occasional word 'Hinder-bureau".
In case of repetition a morpheme gains much independence and bears major responsibility for the creation of additional information and stylistic effect. In case of occasional coinages an individual morpheme is only instrumental in bringing forth the impact of their combination, i. e. of new individual lexical unit.
Assignments for Self-Control
I. State the function of the following cases of morphemic repetition:
Mr. Aggs, Mr. Baggs, Mr. Caggs, Mr. Daggs, Mr. Faggs, Mr. Gaggs, Mr. Boffin, Yes, sir, quite right. You are a little before your time, sir." (D.)
5. Young Blight made another great show of changing the
volume, taking up a pen, sucking it, dipping it, and running
over previous entries before he wrote. As, "Mr. Alley, Mr.
Bailey, Mr. Calley, Mr. Dalley, Mr. Falley, Mr. Galley,
Mr. Halley, Mr. Lalley, Mr. Malley. And Mr. Boffin." (D.)
II. Analyze the morphemic structure and the purpose of creating the occasional words in the following examples:
"I'm un-asking him," the Boss replied. (R. W.)
9. He looked pretty good for a fifty-four-year-old former
college athlete who for years had overindulged and un-
derexercized. (D. U.)
13. "Mr. Hamilton, you haven't any children, have you?"
"Well, no. And I'm sorry about that, I guess. I am sorriest
about that." (J. St.)
III. Discuss the following cases of morphemic foregrounding:
He's no public offender, bless you, now! He's medalled
and ribboned, and starred, and crossed, and I don't know what all'd, like a born nobleman. (D.)
10. "I love you mucher."
"Plently mucher? Me tooer." (J. Br.)
CHAPTER II. LEXICAL LEVEL
Word and its Semantic Structure. Connotational Meanings of a Word. The Role of the Context in the Actualization of Meaning
The idea of previous chapters was to illustrate potential possibilities of linguistic units more primitive than the word, found at lower levels of language structure and yet capable of conveying additional information when foregrounded in a specially organized context.
The forthcoming chapter is going to be one of the longest and most important in this book, for it is devoted to a lin-
guistic unit of major significance - the word, which names, qualifies and evaluates the micro- and macrocosm of the sur- rounding world. The most essential feature of a word is that it expresses the concept of a thing, process, phenomenon, na-ming (denoting) them. Concept is a logical category, its linguistic counterpart is meaning. Meaning, as our outstanding scholar L. Vygotsky put it, is the unity of generalization, communication and thinking. An entity of extreme complexity, the meaning of a word is liable to historical changes, of which you know from the course of lexicology and which are responsible for the formation of an expanded semantic structure of a word. This structure is constituted of various types of lexical meanings, the major one being denotational, which informs of the subject of communication; and also including connotational, which informs about the participants and conditions of communication.
The list and specification of connotational meanings varies with different linguistic schools and individual scholars and includes such entries as pragmatic (directed at the perlocutionary effect of utterance), associative (connected, through individual psychological or linguistic associations, with related and non-related notions), ideological, or conceptual (revealing political, social, ideological preferences of the user), evaluative (stating the value of the indicated notion), emotive (revealing the emotional layer of cognition and perception),* expressive (aiming at creating the image of the object in question), stylistic, (indicating "the register", or the situation of the communication).
The above-mentioned meanings are classified as connotational not only because they supply additional (and not the logical / de-notational) information, but also because, for the most part, they are observed not all at once and not in all words either. Some of them are more important for the act of communication than the others. Very often they overlap. So, all words possessing an emotive meaning are also evaluative (e. g. "rascal", "ducky"), though this rule is not reversed, as we can find non-emotive, intellectual evaluation (e. g. "good", "bad"). Also, all emotive words (or practically all, for that matter) are also expressive, while there are hundreds of expressive words which cannot be treated as emotive (take, for example the so-called expressive
* Cf. the famous quotation from V. I. Lenin: «Нельзя «изучать дейст-вительное положение вещей», не квалифицируя, не оценивая его». Ленин В. И. Полн. собр. соч., т. 23, с. 240).
verbs, which not only denote some action or process but also create their image, as in "to gulp" = to swallow in big lumps, in a hurry; or "to sprint" = to run fast).
The number, importance and the overlapping character of connotational meanings incorporated into the semantic structure of a word, are brought forth by the context, i. e. a concrete speech act that identifies and actualizes each one. More than that: each context does not only specify the existing semantic (both denotational and connotational) possibilities of a word, but also is capable of adding new ones, or deviating rather considerably from what is registered in the dictionary. Because of that all contextual meanings of a word can never be exhausted or comprehensively enumerated. Compare the following cases of contextual use of the verb "to pop" in Stan Barstow's novel "Ask Me Tomorrow":
4. "I've no need to change or anything then."
"No, just pop your coat on and you're fine."
In semantic actualization of a word the context plays a dual role: on the one hand, it cuts off all meanings irrelevant for the given communicative situation. On the other, it foregrounds one of the meaningful options of a word, focusing the communicators' attention on one of the denotational or connonational components of its semantic structure.
The significance of the context is comparatively small in the field of stylistic connotations, because the word is labelled stylistically before it enters some context, i.e. in the dictionary: recollect the well-known contractions - vulg., arch., sl., etc., which make an indispensable part of a dictionary entry. So there is sense to start the survey of connotational meanings with the stylistic differentiation of the vocabulary.
Stylistic Differentiation of the Vocabulary
Literary Stratum of Words. Colloquial Words
The word-stock of any given language can be roughly divided into three uneven groups, differing from each other by the sphere of its possible use. The biggest division is made up of neutral words, possessing no stylistic connotation and suitable for any communicative situation, two smaller ones are literary and colloquial strata respectively.
Literary words serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, poetic messages, while the_colloquial ones are employed in non-official everyday communication. Though there is no immediate correlation between the written and the oral forms of speech on the one hand, and the literary and colloquial words, on the other, yet, for the most part, the first ones are mainly observed in the written form, as most literary messages appear in writing. And vice versa: though there are many examples of colloquialisms in writing (informal letters, diaries, certain passages of memoirs, etc.), their usage is associated with the oral form of communication.
Consequently, taking for analysis printed materials we shall find literary words in authorial speech, descriptions, considerations, while colloquialisms will be observed in the types of discourse, simulating (copying) everyday oral communication - i.e., in the dialogue (or interior monologue) of a prose work.
When we classify some speech (text) fragment as literary or colloquial it does not mean that all the words constituting it have a corresponding stylistic meaning. More than that: words with a pronounced stylistic connotation are few in any type of discourse, the overwhelming majority of its lexis being neutral. As our famous philologist L.V. Shcherba once said- a stylistically coloured word is like a drop of paint added to a glass of pure water and colouring the whole of it.
Each of the two named groups of words, possessing a styl-istic meaning, is not homogeneous as to the quality of the meaning, frequency of use, sphere of application, or the number and character of potential users. This is why each one is further divided into the general, i.e. known to and used by most native speakers in generalized literary (formal) or colloquial (informal) communication, and special bulks. The latter ones, in their turn, are subdivided into subgroups, each one serving a rather narrow, specified communicative purpose.
So, among special literary words, as a rule, at least two major subgroups are mentioned. They are:
Literary words, both general (also called learned, bookish, high-flown) and special, contribute to the message the tone of solemnity, sophistication, seriousness, gravity, learnedness. They are used in official papers and documents, in scientific communication, in high poetry, in authorial speech of creative prose.
Colloquial words, on the contrary, mark the message as in-formal, non-official, conversational. Apart from general collo-quial words, widely used by all speakers of the language in their everyday communication (e. g. "dad", "kid", "crony", "fan", "to pop", "folks"), such special subgroups may be mentioned:
1. Slang forms the biggest one. Slang words, used by most speakers in very informal communication, are highly emotive and expressive and as such, lose their originality rather fast and are replaced bу newer formations. This tendency to syno-nymic expansion results in long chains of synonyms of various degrees of expressiveness, denoting one and the same concept. So, the idea of a "pretty girl" is worded by more than one hundred ways in slang.
In only one novel by S. Lewis there are close to a dozen synonyms used by Babbitt, the central character, in reference to a girl: "cookie", "tomato", "Jane", "sugar", "bird", "cutie", etc.
The substandard status of slang words and phrases, through universal usage, can be raised to the standard colloquial: "pal", "chum," "crony" for "friend"; "heavies", "woolies" for "thick panties"; "booze" for "liquor"; "dough" for "money"; "how's tricks" for "how's life"; "beat it" for "go away" and many many more - are examples of such a transition.
2. Jargonisms stand close to slang, also being substandard, expressive and emotive, but, unlike slang they are used by limited groups of people, united either professionally (in this
case we deal with professional jargonisms, or professionalisms), or socially (here we deal with jargonisms proper). In distinction from slang, jargonisms of both types cover a narrow semantic field: in the first case it is that, connected with the technical side of some profession. So, in oil industry, e. g., for the terminological "driller" (буровик) there exist "borer", "digger", "wrencher", "hogger", "brake weight"; for "pipeliner" (тpyбonpoводчик) - "swabber", "bender", "cat", "old cat", "collar-pecker", "hammerman"; for "geologist"-"smeller", "pebble pup", "rock hound", "witcher", etc From all the examples at least two points are evident: professionalisms are formed according to the existing word-building patterns or present existing words in new meanings, and, covering the field of special professional knowledge, which is semantically limited, they offer a vast variety of synonymic choices for naming one and the same professional item
Jargonisms proper are characterized by similar linguistic features, but differ in function and sphere of application. They originated from the thieves' jargon (l'argo, cant) and served to conceal the actual significance of the utterance from the uninitiated. Their major function thus was to be cryptic, secretive. This is why among them there are cases of conscious deformation of the existing words. The so-called back jargon (or back slang) can serve as an example: in their effort to conceal the machinations of dishonest card-playing, gamblers used numerals in their reversed form: "ano" for "one", "owt" for "two", "erth" for "three".
Anglo-American tradition, starting with E. Partridge, a famous English lexicographer, does not differentiate between slang and jargonisms regarding these groups as one extensive stratum of words divided into general slang, used by all, or most, speakers and special slang, limited by the professional or social standing of the speaker . This debate appears to concentrate more on terminology than on essence. Indeed slang (general slang) and jargonisms (special slang) have much in common, are emotive, expressive, unstable, fluctuating, tending to expanded synonymity within certain lexico-semantic groups and limited to a highly informal, substandard communication So it seems appropriate to use the indicated terms as synonyms.
3. Vulgarisms are coarse words with a strong emotive mean-ing, mostly derogatory, normally avoided in polite conversa-tion. History of vulgarisms reflects the history of social ethics. So, in Shakespearean times people were much more lin-guistically frank and disphemistic in their communication than in the age of Enligtenment, or the Victorian era, famous for
its prudish and reserved manners. Nowadays words which were labelled vulgar in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are considered such no more. In fact, at present we are faced with the reverse of the problem: there are practically no words banned from use by the modern permissive society. Such intensifiers as "bloody", "damned", "cursed", "hell of, formerly deleted from literature and not allowed in conversation, are not only welcomed in both written and oral speech, but, due to constant repetition, have lost much of their emotive impact and substandard quality. One of the best-known American editors and critics Maxwell Perkins, working with the serialized 1929 magazine edition of Hemingway's novel A. Farewell to Arms found that the publishers deleted close to a dozen words which they considered vulgar for their publication. Preparing the hard-cover edition Perkins allowed half of them back ("son of a bitch", "whore", "whorehound," etc.). Starting from the late 'fifties no publishing house objected to any coarse or obscene expressions. Consequently, in contemporary West European and American prose all words, formerly considered vulgar for public use (including the four-letter words), are even approved by the existing moral and ethical standards of society and censorship.
4. Dialectal words are normative and devoid of any stylistic meaning in regional dialects, but used outside of them, carry a strong flavour of the locality where they belong. In Great Britain four major dialects are distinguished: Lowland Scotch, Northern, Midland (Central) and Southern. In the USA three major dialectal varieties are distinguished: New England, Southern and Midwestern (Central, Midland). These classifica-tions do not include many minor local variations. Dialects markedly differ on the phonemic level: one and the same pho-neme is differently pronounced in each of them. They differ also on the lexical level, having their own names for locally existing phenomena and also supplying locally circulating synonyms for the words, accepted by the language in general. Some of them have entered the general vocabulary and lost their dialectal status ("lad", "pet", "squash", "plaid").
Each of the above-mentioned four groups justifies its la-bel of special colloquial words as each one, due to varying reasons, has application limited to a certain group of people or to certain communicative situations.
Assignments for Self-Control
1. What can you say about the meaning of a word and its relation to the concept of an entity?
5. What registers of communication are reflected in the styl-
stic differentiation of the vocabulary?
What are the main subgroups of special literary words?
a) in the dictionary, specifying its stylistic mark ("label"); b) in
your reading material, specifying the type of discourse, where you found it - authorial speech (dialogue, narration), description, etc
I. State the type and function of literary words in the following examples:
1. "I must decline to pursue this painful discussion. It
is not pleasant to my feelings; it is repugnant to my feelings." (D.)
2. "I am not in favour of this modern mania for turning bad
people into good people at a moment's notice. As a man sows so
let him reap." (O. W.)
3. Isolde the Slender had suitors in plenty to do her
lightest hest. Feats of arms were done daily for her sake.
Tо win her love suitors were willing to vow themselves to perdi-tion. But Isolde the Slender was heedless of the court thus paid to her. (L.)
4. "He of the iron garment," said Daigety, entering, "is
bounden unto you, MacEagh, and this noble lord shall be
bounden also." (W. Sc.)
10. There wasn't a man-boy on this ground tonight did
not have a shield he cast, riveted or carved himself on his
way to his first attack, compounded of remote but nonetheless
firm and fiery family devotion, flag-blown patriotism and
cocksure immortality strengthened by the touchstone of very
real gunpowder, ramrod minnie-ball and flint. (R. Br.)
11. Into the organpipes and steeples
Of the luminous cathedrals,
Into the weathercocks' molten mouths Rippling in twelve-winded circles, Into the dead clock burning the hour Over the urn of sabbaths... Erupt, fountain, and enter to utter for ever Glory glory glory
The sundering ultimate kingdom of genesis' thunder.
12. If any dispassionate spectator could have beheld the
countenance of the illustrious man, whose name forms the
leading feature of the title of this work, during the latter part of this conversation, he would have been almost induced to wonder that the indignant fire that flashed from his eyes, did not melt the glasses of his spectacles - so majestic was his wrath. His nostrils dilated, and his fists clenched involuntarily, as he heard himself addressed by the villain. But he restrained himself again - he did not pulverize him.
"Here," continued the hardened traitor, tossing the licence at Mr. Pickwick's feet; "get the name altered - take home the lady-do for Tuppy." (D.)
II. Think of the type of additional information about the speaker or communicative situation conveyed by the following general and special colloquial words:
"No. I was never there. But I had a buddy at Myer was from Brooklyn." (J.)
...It's like a man of sixty looking down his nose at a youth of thirty and there's no such God-darned - pardon me - mistake as that. (G.)
9. "All those medical bastards should go through the ops
they put other people through. Then they wouldn't talk so much
bloody nonsense or be so damnably unutterably smug." (D. C.)
"Since eight this morning. Over twelve hours." "You didn't unbutton then? After twelve hours of it?" "Me? They got a lot of dancing to do before they'll get anything out of me." (Т. Н.)
"My God," my mother says wearily, "them under foot all day." (Sh. Gr.)
Thou's met me in an evil hour;
For I maun crush amang the stoure Thy slender stem:
To spare thee now is past my pow'r
Thou bonnie gem. (R. B.)
25. "That's so, my lord. I remember having tae du much the same thing, mony years since, in an inquest upon a sailing ves-sel that ran aground in the estuary and got broken up by bumping herself to bits in a gale. The insurance folk thocht that the accident wasna a'tegither straightforward. We tuk it upon oorsels tae demonstrate that wi' the wind and tide setti' as they did, the boat should ha' been wellaway fra' the shore if they started at the hour they claimed tae ha' done. We lost the case, but I've never altered my opeenion." D. S.)
Ш. Compare the neutral and the colloquial (or literary) modes of expression:
1. "Also it will cost him a hundred bucks as a retainer."
"Huh?" Suspicious again. Stick to basic English.
"Hundred dollars," I said. "Iron men. Fish. Bucks to
the number of one hundred. Me no money, me no come. Savvy?" I began to count a hundred with both hands. (R. Ch.)
2. "...some thief in the night boosted my clothes whilst
I slept. I sleep awful sound on the mattresses you have here."
"Pinched. Jobbed. Swiped. Stole," he says happily. (К. К.)
3. "Now take fried, crocked, squiffed, loaded, plastered,
blotto, tiddled, soaked, boiled, stinko, viled, polluted."
"Yes," I said.
"That's the next set of words I am decreasing my vocabulary by," said Atherton. "Tossing them all out in favor of-"
"Intoxicated?" I supplied.
"I favor fried," said Atherton. "It's shorter and monosyl-labic, even though it may sound a little harsher to the squeamish-minded."
"But there are degrees of difference," I objected. "Just being tiddled isn't the same as being blotto, or-"
"When you get into the vocabulary-decreasing business," he interrupted, "you don't bother with technicalities. You throw out the whole kit and caboodle - I mean the whole bunch," he hastily corrected himself. (P. G. W.)
4. "Do you talk?" asked Bundle. "Or are you just strong
"Talk?" said Anthony. "I babble. I murmur. I burble-
like a running brook, you know. Sometimes I even ask questions." (Ch.)
5. "So you'll both come to dinner? Eight fifteen. Dinny,
we must be back to lunch. Swallows," added Lady Mont round
the brim of her hat and passed out through the porch.
"There's a house-party," said Dinny to the young man's elevated eyebrows. "She means tails and a white tie." "Oh! Ah! Best bib and tucker, Jean." (G.)
6. "What do you really contemplate doing?"
"No Plaza? Not even when I'm in the chips?"
"Why are you so rich?" (J. O'H.)
10. "The scheme I would suggest cannot fail of success,
but it has what may seem to you a drawback, sir, in that it
requires a certain financial outlay."
"He means," I translated to Corky, "that he has a pippin of an idea but it's going to cost a bit." (P. G. W.)
Ask a teen-ager today what he thought of last night's rock show. If he liked it, it was "wicked" or "totally awesome". But if he didn't, it was "groady" or "harsh".
Young people punctuate their sentences with slang. They drop phrases that would make Professor Henry Higgins turn over in his grave. Twice.
"It's just like a dictionary that only teen-agers under-stand," said Michael Harris, 17, a high school student in Rich-mond, Va. "You go home and you have to spell it for your parents. They don't even know what you're talking about."
But this has been going on for years. Slang is as old as English itself, says Stuart Berg Flexner, editor-in-chief of the Random House Dictionary, author of the Dictionary of American Slang.
It offended puritan parents that their Pilgrim children look their traditional farewell-God be with you - and turned it into "good-bye", Flexner says.
Today's words are obsolete tomorrow.
"I may call somebody a jerk, but today they would call him a nerd," says Flexner, 54. "Each generation seems to want to have some of its own words."
"It's not so much to shut out adults - although that's a part of it. It gives them identity with their own age group. They sort of belong to their own club," he says.
There is valleytalk and preppyspeak, jocktalk and street language.
Take Moon Unit Zappa's Valley Talk. The daughter of famed rocker Frank Zappa was 14 years old when her dad sat her before a microphone and documented her language in a pop song.
"Gag me with a spoon," she says to show disgust. "Groady to the max."
Legions of youngsters across America picked it up. The song, and language, was a coast-to-coast hit. But that killed it.
"Valley Speak is out," reports Jane Segal, 16, a reformed Valley Girl at Santa Monica High School. "It went out after the song was played to death. It was really popular, and then eve-ryone got so sick of the stupid song they quit saying that stuff."
"No one ever says 'Gag me' anymore," she says. "'Totally' is still hanging on, and everyone uses 'like'. They say it everywhere, just sprinkle it in. I do it subconsciously, I use it like 'um."
Flexner considers slang a reflection of American pop culture. Words come and go like No. 1 hit songs. Once a word is widely known it may he dropped, relegated to the used-slang bin alongside "swell" from the '50s and "groovy" from the '60s.
Others stick around like golden oldies.
"There are classics. Once a good phrase comes along it's pretty hard to replace it," says Scott Wenger, 19, a New York University student. "'Flipped out' still means crazy and 'pulling an allnighter' still means to study hard until all hours of the morning for exams."
Teen-agers may dream up slang, but adults use it too. Julia Shields, 42, a high school English teacher in Charlottes-ville, Va., is an avowed user.
"I love slang, think it's colorful, wonderful, metaphoric. Some of it is quite clever," she says. "I hate it, but I call everything 'about It's such a horrible, vague, meaningless word. But I use it in every sentence."
Slang is not the talk of board rooms and diplomatic ses-sions. Because young people spend more time informally than adults, and slang is a product of relaxing the rules, high schools and college campuses are breeding grounds for it. (C. R.)
IV. Speak about the difference between the contextual and the dictionary meanings of italicized words:
"You may have drifted into it; but you will bounce out of it, my pettikins, if I am to have anything to do with it." (B. Sh.)
"Don't be an idiot, Bill. Things are happening." "What kind of things?" "Queer things." (Ch.)
Lexical Stylistic Devices
Metaphor. Metonymy. Synecdoche. Play on Words. Irony. Epithet. Hyperbole. Understatement. Oxymoron
You know by now that among multiple functions of the word the main one is to denote, denotational meaning thus being the major semantic characteristic of the word. In this paragraph we shall deal with the foregrounding of this particular function, i. e. with such types of denoting phenomena that create additional expressive, evaluative, subjective connotations. We shall deal in fact with the substitution of the existing names approved by long usage and fixed in dictionaries by new, occasional, individual ones, prompted by the speaker's subjective original view and evaluation of things. This act of name-exchange, of substitution is traditionally referred to as transference, for, indeed, the name of one object is transferred onto another, proceeding from their similarity (of shape, colour, function, etc.), or closeness (of material existence, cause/ effect, instrument/ result, part/ whole relations, etc.).
Each type of intended substitution results in a stylistic device (SD)* called also a trope. The most frequently used,
* For the elaboration of SDs see: Galperin I. R. Stylistics. M., 1971, esp. pp. 24-30 and part IV (pp. 132-190).
well known and elaborated among them is а transference of names based on the associated likeness be-tween two objects, as in the "pancake", or "ball", or "volcano" for the “sun”; “silver dust”, "sequins" for "stars"; "vault", "blanket", "veil" for the "sky".
From previous study you know that nomination - the process of naming reality by means of the language-proceeds from choosing one of the features characteristic of the object which is being named for the representative of the object. The con-nection between the chosen feature, representing the object, and the word is especially vivid in cases of transparent "in-ner form" when the name of the object can be easily traced to the name of one of its characteristics. Cf.: "railway", "chairman", "waxen". Thus the semantic structure of a word reflects, to a certain extent, characteristic features of the piece of reality which it denotes (names). So it is only natural that similarity between real objects or phenomena finds its reflection in the semantic structures of words denoting them: both words possess at least one common semantic component. In the above examples with the "sun" this common semantic component is "hot" (hence -"volcano", "pancake" which are also "hot"), or "round" ("ball", "pancake" which are also of round shape).
The expressiveness of the metaphor is promoted by the implic-it simultaneous presence of images of both objects - the one which is actually named and the one which supplies its own "legal" name. So that formally we deal with the name transfer-ence based on the similarity of one feature common to two different entities, while in fact each one enters a phrase in the complexity of its other characteristics. The wider is the gap between the associated objects the more striking and unexpected - the more expressive - is the metaphor.
If a metaphor involves likeness between inanimate and animate objects, we deal with personification, as in "the face of London", or "the pain of the ocean".
Metaphor, as all other SDs, is fresh, original, genuine, when first used, and trite, hackneyed, stale when often repeated. In the latter case it gradually loses its expressiveness becoming just another entry in the dictionary, as in the "leg of a table" or the "sunrise", thus serving a very important source of enriching the vocabulary of the language.
Metaphor can be expressed by all notional parts of speech, and functions in the sentence as any of its members.
When the speaker (writer) in his desire to present an elaborated image does not limit its creation to a single meta-phor but offers a group of them, each supplying another feature
of the described phenomenon, this cluster creates a sustained (prolonged) metaphor.
Exercise I. Analyse the given cases of metaphor from all sides mentioned above semantics, originality, expressiveness, syntactic function, vividness and elaboration of the created image. Pay attention to the manner in which two objects (actions) are identified: with both named or only one the metaphorized one-presented explicitly:
I am your opportunity to practice what you have learned during the last twelve months about life.
All that you sought the past year and failed to find is hidden in me; I am waiting for you to search it out again and with more determination.
All the good that you tried to do for others and didn't achieve last year is mine to grant - providing you have fewer selfish and conflicting desires.
In me lies the potential of all that you dreamed but didn't dare to do, all that you hoped but did not perform, all you prayed for but did not yet experience. These dreams slumber lightly, waiting to be awakened by the touch of an enduring purpose. I am your opportunity. (Т. Н.)
19. Autumn comes
And trees are shedding their leaves, And Mother Nature blushes Before disrobing. (N. W.)
20. He had hoped that Sally would laugh at this, and she
did, and in a sudden mutual gush they cashed into the silver
of laughter all the sad secrets they could find in their
Metonymy, another lexical SD, - like metaphor - on losing its originality also becomes instrumental in enriching the vocabulary of the language, though metonymy is created by a different semantic process and is based on contiguity (nearness) of objects or phenomena. Transference of names in metonymy does not involve a necessity for two different words to have a common component in their semantic structures, as is the case with metaphor, but proceeds from the fact that two objects (phenomena) have common grounds of existence in reality. Such words as "cup" and "tea" have no linguistic (semantic) nearness, but the first one may serve the container of the second, hence - the conversational cliche "Will you have another cup?", which is a case of metonymy, once original, but due to long use, no more accepted as a fresh SD.
"My brass will call your brass," says one of the characters of A. Hailey's Airport to another, meaning "My boss will call your boss." The transference of names is caused by both bosses ] being officers, wearing uniform caps with brass cockades.
The scope of transference in metonymy is much more limited than that of metaphor, which is quite understandable:
the scope of human imagination identifying two objects (phenomena, actions )on the grounds of commonness of one of their innumerable characteristics is boundless while actual relations between objects are more limited. This is why metonymy, on the whole, is a less frequently observed SD, than metaphor.
Similar to singling out one particular type of metaphor into the self-contained SD of personification, one type of metony-my - namely, the one, which is based on the relations between the part and the whole - is often viewed independently as synecdoche.
As a rule, metonymy is expressed by nouns (less frequently -by substantivized numerals)* and is used in syntactical functions characteristic of nouns (subject, object, predicative).
Exercise II. Indicate metonymies, state the type of relations between the object named and the object implied, which they represent, also pay attention to the degree of their originality, and to their syntactical function:
"What's the matter?"
"Your satin. The skirt'll be a mass of wrinkles in the back." (E. F.)
* Cases of adjectival metonymies are considered to be closer to qualifying SDs and will be discussed later, in the section dealing with epithets.
9. "It was easier to assume a character without having to tell
too many lies and you brought a fresh eye and mind to
the job." (P.)
10. "Some remarkable pictures in this room, gentlemen.
A Holbein, two Van Dycks and if I am not mistaken,
a Velasquez. I am interested in pictures." (Ch.)
11. "You have nobody to blame but yourself."
"The saddest words of tongue or pen." (I. Sh.)
As you must have seen from the brief outline and the examples of metaphor and metonymy, the first one operates on the linguistic basis (proceeding from the similarity of semantic components of a word), while the latter one rests solely on the extralinguistic, actually existing relations between the phenomena denoted by the words.
Our next concern is a cluster of SDs, which are united into a small group as they have much in common both in the
mechanism of their formation and in their functioning. They are pun (also referred to as paronomasia), zeugma, violation of phraseological units, semantically false chains, and nonsense of non-sequence. In the stylistic tradition of the English-speaking countries only the first two are widely discussed. The latter, two, indeed, may be viewed as slight variations of the first ones for, basically, the foursome perform the same stylistic function in speech, and operate on the same linguistic mechanism. Namely, one word-form is deliberately used in two meanings. The effect of these SDs is humorous. Contextual conditions leading to the simultaneous realization of two meanings and to the formation of pun may vary: it can be misinterpretation of one speaker's utterance by the other, which results in his remark dealing with a different meaning of the misinterpreted word or its homonym, as in the famous case from the Pickwick Papers. When the fat boy, Mr. Wardle's servant, emerged from the corridor, very pale, he was asked by his master: "Have you been seeing any spirits?" "Or taking any?"-added Bob Allen. The first "spirits" refers to supernatural forces, the second one -to strong drinks.
Punning may be the result of the speaker's intended violation of the listener's expectation, as in the jocular quotation from B. Evans: "There comes a period in every man's life, but she is just a semicolon in his." Here we expect the second half of the sentence to unfold the content, proceeding from "period" understood as "an interval of time", while the author has used the word in the meaning of "punctuation mark" which becomes clear from the "semicolon", following it.
Misinterpretation may be caused by. the phonetic similarity of two homonyms, such as in the crucial case of O. Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest.
In very many cases polysemantic verbs that have a practically unlimited lexical valency and can be combined with nouns of most varying semantic groups, are deliberately used with two or more homogeneous members, which are not connected semantically, as in such examples from Ch. Dickens: "He took his hat and his leave", or "She went home in a flood of tears and a sedan chair". This is a classical zeugma, highly characteristic of English prose of previous centuries, and contemporary, too.
When the number of homogeneous members, semantically disconnected, but attached to the same verb, increases, we deal with semantically false chains, which are thus a variation of zeugma. As a rule, it is the last member of the chain that falls out of the thematic group, defeating our expectancy and produc-
ing humorous effect. The following case from St. Leacock may serve an example: "A Governess wanted. Must possess knowledge of Rumanian, Russian, Italian, Spanish, German, Music and Mining Engineering."
As you have seen from the examples of classical zeugma the ties between the verb on the one hand and each of the dependent members, on the other, are of different intensity and stability. In most cases one of them, together with the verb, form a рhra-seological unit or a cliche, in which the verb loses some of its semantic independence and strength (Cf.: "to take one's leave" and "to take one's hat"). Zeugma restores the literal original meaning of the word, which also occurs in violation of phraseological units of different syntactical patterns, as in Galsworthy's remark: "Little Jon was born with a silver spoon in his mouth which was rather curly and large." The word "mouth", with its content, is completely lost in the phraseological unit which means "to have luck, to be born lucky". Attaching to the unit the qualification of the mouth, the author revives the meaning of the word and offers a very fresh, original and expressive description.
Sometimes the speaker (writer) interferes into the structure of the word attributing homonymous meanings to individual morphemes as in these jocular definitions from Esar's dictionary: professorship - а ship full of professors; relying - telling the same story again; beheld - to have somebody hold you, etc.*
It is possible to say thus that punning can be realized on most levels of language hierarchy. Indeed, the described violation of word-structure takes place on the morphological level; zeugma and pun-on the lexical level; violation of phraseological units includes both lexical and syntactical levels; semantically false chains and one more SD of this group-nonsense of non-sequence - on the syntactical level.
Nonsense of non-sequence rests on the extension of syntactical valency and results in joining two semantically disconnected clauses into one sentence, as in: "Emperor Nero played the fiddle, so they burnt Rome." (E.) Two disconnected statements are forcibly linked together by cause / effect relations.
Exercise III. Analyse various cases of play on words, indicate which type is used, how it is created, what effect it adds to the utterance:
1. After a while and a cake he crept nervously to the door of the parlour. (A. T.)
* Cf. with the popular pseudo-etymological studies on the last, humorous page of «Литературная газета»: тычинка указательный палец; экстаз бывший таз; табуретка небольшой запрет.
"His sins were scarlet, but his books were read." (H. B.)
"I'm a pancreas," she said. "I'm a- " and she kissed the absurd game away. (Ph. R.)
10. "Someone at the door," he said, blinking.
"Some four, I should say by the sound," said Fili. (A. T.)
"What do you mean?" Brody said. He thought to himself, give her what? A kiss? A box of chocolates? A punch in the nose?
"A present. It's nothing, really." (P. B.)
18. Some writer once said: "How many times you can call yourself a Man depends on how many languages you know." (M. St.)
Assignments for Self-Control
In all previously discussed lexical SDs we dealt with various transformations of the logical (denotational) meaning of words, which participated in the creation of metaphors, metonymies, puns, zeugmas, etc. Each of the SDs added expressiveness and originality to the nomination of the object. Evaluation of the named concept was often present too, but it was an optional characteristic, not inherent in any of these SDs. Their subjectivity relies on the new and fresh look at the object mentioned, which shows the latter from a new and unexpected side. In irony, which is our next item of consideration, subjectivity lies in the evaluation of
the phenomenon named. The essence of this SD consists in the foregrounding not of the logical but of the evaluative meaning. The context is arranged so that the qualifying word in irony reverses the direction of the evaluation, and the word positively charged is understood as a negative qualifi-cation and (much-much rarer) vice versa. Irony thus is a stylistic device in which the contextual evaluative meaning of a word is directly opposite to its dictionary meaning. So, like all other SDs irony does not exist outside the context, which varies from the minimal - a word combination, as in J. Steinbeck's "She turned with the sweet smile of an alli-gator,"- to the context of a whole book, as in Ch. Dickens, where one of the remarks of Mr. Micawber, known for his complex, highly bookish and elaborate style of speaking about the most trivial things, is introduced by the author's words "...Mr. Micawber said in his usual plain manner".
In both examples the words "sweet" and "plain" reverse their positive meaning into the negative one due to the context, micro- in the first, macro- in the second case.
In the stylistic device of irony it is always possible to indicate the exact word whose contextual meaning diametric-ally opposes its dictionary meaning. This is why this type of irony is called verbal irony. There are very many cases, though, which we regard as irony, intuitively feeling the reversal of the evaluation, but unable to put our finger on the exact word in whose meaning we can trace the contra-diction between the said and the implied. The effect of irony in such cases is created by a number of statements, by the whole of the text. This type of irony is called sustained, and it is formed by the contradiction of the speaker's (writer's) considerations and the generally accepted moral and ethical codes. Many examples of sustained irony are supplied by D. Defoe, J. Swift, by such contemporary writers as S. Lewis, K. Vonnegut, E. Waugh and others.
Exercise IV. In the following excerpts you will find mainly examples of verbal irony. Explain what conditions made the realization of the opposite evaluation possible. Pay attention to the part of speech which is used in irony, also its syntactical function:
1. The book was entitled Murder at Milbury Manor and was a whodunit of the more abstruse type, in which everything turns on whether a certain character, by catching the three-forty-three train at Hilbury and changing into the four-sixteen at Milbury, could have reached Silbury by five-twenty-seven, which would have given him just time to disguise himself
and be sticking knives into people at Bilbury by six-thirty-eight.'' (P. G. W.)
9. "Well. It's shaping up into a lovely evening, isn't it?"
"Great," he said.
"And if I may say so, you're doing everything to make it harder, you little sweet." (D. P.)
Assignments for Self-Control
Antonomasia is a lexical SD in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun or vice versa, i.e. a SD, in which the nominal meaning of a proper name is suppressed by its logical meaning or the logical meaning acquires the new-nominal-component. Logical meaning, as you know, serves to denote concepts and thus to classify individual objects into groups (classes). Nominal meaning has no classifying power for it applies to one single individual object with the aim not of classifying it as just another of a number of objects constituting a definite group, but, on the contrary, with the aim of singling it out of the group of similar objects, of individualizing one particular object. Indeed, the word "Mary" does not indicate whether the denoted object refers to the class of women, girls, boats, cats, etc., for it singles out without denotational classification. But in Th. Dreiser we read: "He took little satisfaction in telling each Mary, shortly after she arrived, something... ." The attribute "each", used with the name, turns it into a common noun denoting any woman. Here we deal with a case of anto- nomasia of the first type.
Another type of antonomasia we meet when a common noun serves as an individualizing name, as in D. Cusack: "There are three doctors in an illness like yours. I don't mean only myself, my partner and the radiologist who does your X-rays, the three I'm referring to are Dr. Rest, Dr. Diet and Dr. Fresh Air."
Still another type of antonomasia is presented by the so-called "speaking names" - names whose origin from common nouns is still clearly perceived. So, in such popular English surnames as Mr. Smith or Mr. Brown the etymology can be restored but no speaker of English today has it in his mind that the first one used to mean occupation and the second one - color. While such names from Sheridan's School for Scandal as Lady Teazle or Mr. Surface immediately raise associations with certain human qualities due to the denota-tional meaning of the words "to tease" and "surface". The double role of the speaking names, both to name and to qualify, is sometimes preserved in translation. Cf. the list of names from another of Sheridan's plays, The Rivals: Miss Languish Мисс Томнэй; Mr. Backbite М-р Клеветаун; Mr. Credulous М-р Доверч; Mr. Snake М-р Гад, etc. Or from F. Cooper: Lord Chatterino Лорд Балаболо; John Jaw Джон Брех; Island Leap-High - Остров Высокопрыгия.
Antonomasia is created mainly by nouns, more seldom by attributive combinations (as in "Dr. Fresh Air") or phrases
(as in "Mr. What's-his name"). Common nouns used in the second type of antonomasia are in most cases abstract, though there are instances of concrete ones being used too.
Exercise V. Analyse the following cases of antonomasia. State the type of meaning employed and implied; indicate what additional information is created by the use of antonomasia; pay attention to the morphological and semantic characteristics of common nouns used as proper names:
"Don't ask me," said Mr. Owl Eyes washing his hands of the whole matter. (Sc. F.)
3. To attend major sports event most parents have arrived. A Colonel Sidebotham was standing next to Prendergast, firmly holding the tape with "FINISH". "Capital," said Mr. Prendergast, and dropping his end of the tape, he sauntered to the Colonel. "I can see you are a fine judge of the race, sir. So was I once. So's Grimes. A capital fellow, Grimes; a bounder, you know, but a capital fellow. Bounders can be capital fellows; don't you agree, Colonel Slidebottom... I wish you'd stop pulling at my arm, Pennyfeather. Colonel Shybottom and I are just having a most interesting conver- sation." (E. W.)
4. I keep six honest serving-men
(They taught me all I know);
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who.
I send them over land and sea,
I send them east and west;
But after they have worked for me
I give them all a rest.
I let them rest from nine till five,
For I am busy then,
As well as breakfast, lunch, and tea,
For they are hungry men.
But different folk have different views.
I know a person small
She keeps ten million serving-men,
Who get no rest at all.
She sends 'em abroad on her own affairs,
From the second she opens her eyes-
One million Hows, two million Wheres,
And seven million Whys. (R. K.)
5. "Her mother is perfectly unbearable. Never met such a Gorgon."
"I don't really know what a Gorgon is like, but I am quite sure, that Lady Bracknell is one. In any case, she is a monster without being a myth." (O. W.)
"I respect history: don't you know that Detroit was founded by Sir Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, French fur trader." (J. O'H.)
9. Now let me introduce you - that's Mr. What's-his-name, you remember him, don't you? And over there in the corner, that's the Major, and there's Mr. What-d'you-call-him, and that's an American. (E. W.)
Assignments for Self-Control
1. What is antonomasia? What meanings interact in its formation?
Epithet is probably as well known to you as metaphor, because it is widely mentioned by the critics, scholars, teachers, and students discussing a literary work. Epithet expresses a characteristic of an object, both existing and imaginary. Its basic feature is its emotiveness and subjectivity: the characteristic attached to the object to qualify it is always chosen by the speaker himself. Our speech ontologi-cally being always emotionally coloured, it is possible to say that in epithet it is the emotive meaning of the word that is foregrounded to suppress the denotational meaning of the latter.
Epithet has remained over the centuries the most widely used SD, which is understandable - it offers ample opportunities of qualifying every object from the author's partial and subjective viewpoint, which is indispensable in creative prose, publicist style, and everyday speech. Through long and repeated use epithets become fixed. Many fixed epithets are closely connected with folklore and can be traced back to folk ballads (e.g. "true love", "merry Christmas", etc.).* A number of them have originated in euphemistic writing of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (e.g. "a valiant youth", "a trembling maiden", "dead silence", etc.). Those which were first found in Homer's poetry and have been repeated since, are known as Homeric epithets (e.g. "swift-footed Achilles", "rosy-fingered dawn").
The structure and semantics of epithets are extremely variable which is explained by their long and wide use. Semantically, there should be differentiated two main groups, the biggest of them being affective (or emotive proper). These epithets serve to convey the emotional evaluation of the object by the speaker. Most of the qualifying words found in the dictionary can be and are used as affective epithets (e.g. "gorgeous", "nasty", "magnificent", "atrocious", etc.).
The second group - figurative, or transferred, epithets-is formed of metaphors, metonymies and similes (which will
* Cf. with fixed epithets of Russian folklore «красна девица», «удалой молодец», «чисто поле», etc.
be discussed later) expressed by adjectives. E.g. "the smiling sun", "the frowning cloud", "the sleepless pillow", "the tobacco-stained smile", "a ghost-like face", "a dreamlike experience". Like metaphor, metonymy and simile, corresponding epithets are also based on similarity of characteristics of two objects in the first case, on nearness of the qualified objects in the second one, and on their comparison in the third.
In the overwhelming majority of examples epithet is expressed by adjectives or qualitative adverbs (e.g. "his triumphant look" = he looked triumphantly).* Nouns come next. They are used either as exclamatory sentences (You, ostrich!) or as postpositive attributes ("Alonzo the Clown", "Richard of the Lion Heart").
Epithets are used singly, in pairs, in chains, in two-step structures, and in inverted constructions, also as phrase-attri-butes. All previously given examples demonstrated single epithets. Pairs are represented by two epithets joined by a conjunction or asyndetically as in "wonderful and incomparable beauty" (O. W.) or "a tired old town". (H. L.) Chains (also called strings) of epithets present a group of homogeneous attributes varying in number from three up to sometimes twenty and even more. E.g. "You're a scolding, unjust, abusive, aggravating, bad old creature." (D.) From the last example it is evident that if a logical attribute (which in our case is the word "old") is included into the chain of epithets it begins to shine with their reflected light, i.e. the sub-jectivity of epithets irradiates onto the logical attribute and adapts it for expressive purposes, along with epithets proper.
Two-step epithets are so called because the process of qualifying seemingly passes two stages: the qualification of the object and the qualification of the qualification itself, as in "an unnaturally mild day" (Hut.), or "a pompously majestic female". (D.) As you see from the examples, two-step epithets have a fixed structure of Adv + Adj model.
Phrase-epithets always produce an original impression. Cf.: "the sunshine-in-the-breakfast-roqm smell" (J. В.), or "a move-if-you-dare expression". (Gr.) Their originality proceeds from rare repetitions of the once coined phrase-epithet which, in its turn, is explained by the fact that into a phrase-epithet
* Don't fall into the trap of regarding all attributes as epithets. Such attributes as in "a round table", "a tall man" reflect objective features of entities and not their subjective qualification which is the leading characteristic of an epithet. Those adjectives (adverbs, nouns) which offer objective represen-tation of the features and qualities of an object form the group of logical attributes.
is turned a semantically self-sufficient word combination or even a whole sentence, which loses some of its independence and self-sufficiency, becoming a member of another sentence, and strives to return to normality. The forcible manner of this syntactical transformation is the main obstacle for repeated use of such phrasally-structured epithets.
A different linguistic mechanism is responsible for the emergence of one more structural type of epithets, namely, inverted epithets. They are based on the contradiction between the logical and the syntactical: logically defining becomes syntactically defined and vice versa. E.g. instead of "this devilish woman", where "devilish" is both logically and syntactically defining, and "woman", also both logically and syntactically defined, W. Thackeray says "this devil of a woman". Here "of a woman" is syntactically an attribute, i.e. the defining, and "devil" - the defined, while the logical relations between the two remain the same as in the previous example - "a woman" is defined by "the devil".
All inverted epithets are easily transformed into epithets of a more habitual structure where there is no logico-syntactical contradiction, Cf.: "the giant of a man" (a gigantic man); "the prude of a woman" (a prudish woman), etc. When meeting an inverted epithet do not mix it up with an ordinary of-phrase. Here the article with the second noun will help you in doubtful cases: "the toy of the girl" (the toy belonging to the girl); "the toy of a girl" (a small, toylike girl), or "the kitten of the woman" (the cat belong-ing to the woman); "the kitten of a woman" (a kittenlike woman).
Exercise VI. Discuss the structure and semantics of epithets in the following examples. Define the type and function of epithets:
year-old-pot-shot patriots, have worn out their welcome in Italy. (H.)
Assignments for Self-Control
Hyperbole-a stylistic device in which emphasis is achieved through deliberate exaggeration, - like epithet relies on the foregrounding of the emotive meaning. The feelings and emotions of the speaker are so ruffled that he resorts in his speech to intensifying the quantitative or the qualitative aspect of the mentioned object. E.g.: In his famous poem "To His Coy Mistress" Andrew Marvell writes about love: "My vegetable love should grow faster than empires."
Hyperbole is one of the most common expressive means of our everyday speech. When we describe our admiration or anger and say "I would gladly see this film a hundred times", or "I have told it to you a thousand times"-we use trite language hyperboles which, through long and repeated use, have lost their originality and remained signals of the speaker's roused emotions.
Hyperbole may be the final effect of another SD - metaphor, simile, irony, as we have in the cases "He has the tread of a rhinoceros" or "The man was like the Rock of Gibraltar".
Hyperbole can be expressed by all notional parts of speech. There are words though, which are used in this SD more often than others. They are such pronouns as "all", "every",
"everybody" and the like. Cf.: "Calpurnia was all angles and bones" (H. L.); also numerical nouns ("a million", "a thousand"), as was shown above, and adverbs of time ("ever", "never").
Outstanding Russian philologist A. Peshkovsky once stressed the importance of both communicants clearly perceiving that the exaggeration, used by one of them is intended as such and serves not to denote actual quality or quantity but signals the emotional background of the utterance. If this reciprocal understanding of the intentional nature of the overstatement is absent, hyperbole turns into a mere lie.
Hyperbole is aimed at exaggerating quantity or quality. When it is directed the opposite way, when the size, shape, dimensions, characteristic features of the object are not overrated, but intentionally underrated, we deal with under-statement. The mechanism of its creation and functioning is identical with that of hyperbole, and it does not signify the actual state of affairs in reality, but presents the latter through the emotionally coloured perception and rendering of the speaker. It is not the actual diminishing or growing of the object that is conveyed by a hyperbole or understatement. It is a transient subjective impression that finds its realization in these SDs. They differ only in the direction of the flow of roused emotions. English is well-known for its preference for understatement in everyday speech- "I am rather annoyed" instead of "I'm infuriated", "The wind is rather strong" instead of "There's a gale blowing outside" are typical of British polite speech, but are less characteristic of American English.
Some hyperboles and understatements (both used individually and as the final effect of some other SD) have become fixed, as we have in "Snow White", or "Liliput", or "Gargantua".*
Trite hyperboles and understatements, reflecting their use in everyday speech, in creative writing are observed mainly in dialogue, while the author's speech provides us with examples of original SDs, often rather extended or demanding a considerable fragment of the text to be fully understood.
Exercise VII. In the following examples concentrate on cases of hyperbole and understatement. Pay attention to their originality or stateness, to ether SDs promoting their effect, to exact words, containing the foregrounded emotive meaning:
* Cf. with Russian мальчик-с-пальчик, Дюймовочка, мужичок-с-ноготок.
7. Her family is one aunt about a thousand years old. (Sc. F.)
10. She was very much upset by the catastrophe that had befallen the Bishops, but it was exciting, and she was tickled to death to have someone fresh to whom she could tell all about it. (S. M.)
11. Babbitt's preparations for leaving the office to its feeble self during the hour and a half of his lunch-period were somewhat less elaborate than the plans for a general European War. (S. M.)
16. And if either of us should lean toward the other, even a fraction of an inch, the balance would be upset. (O. W.)
Assignments for Self-Control
Oxymoron is stylistic device the syntactic and semantic structures of which come to clashes. In Shakespearian defi-nitions of love, much quoted from his Romeo and Juliet, perfectly correct syntactically, attributive combinations present a strong semantic discrepancy between their members. Cf.: "O brawling love! О loving hate! О heavy lightness! Serious vanity! Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health!"
As is clearly seen from this string of oxymorons, each one of them is a combination of two semantically contradictory notions, that help to emphasize contradictory qualities as a dialectal unity simultaneously existing in the described phe-nomenon. As a rule, one of the two members of oxymoron illuminates the feature which is universally observed and acknowledged while the other one offers a purely subjective individual perception of the object. Thus in an oxymoron we also deal with the foregrounding of emotive meaning, only of a different type than the one observed in previously discussed SDs. The most widely known structure of oxymoron is attributive, so it is easy to believe that the subjective part of the oxymoron is embodied in the attribute-epithet, especially because the latter also proceeds from the foregrounding of the emotive meaning. But there are also others, in which verbs are employed. Such verbal structures as "to shout mutely" (I. Sh.) or "to cry silently" (M. W.) seem to strengthen the idea, which leads to the conclusion that oxymoron is a specific type of epithet. But the peculiarity of an oxymoron lies in the fact that the speaker's (writer's) subjective view can be expressed through either of the members of the word combination.
Originality and specificity of oxymoron becomes especially evident in non-attributive structures which also, not infrequently, are used to express semantic contradiction, as in "the street damaged by improvements" (О. Н.) or "silence was louder than thunder" (U.).
Oxymorons rarely become trite, for their components, linked forcibly, repulse each other and oppose repeated use. There are few colloquial oxymorons, all of them showing a high degree of the speaker's emotional involvement in the situation, as in "damn nice", "awfully pretty".*
Exercise VIII. In the following sentences pay attention to the structure and semantics of oxymorons. Also indicate which of their members conveys the individually viewed feature of the object and which one reflects its generally accepted characteristic:
* Some often repeated Russian titles form a group of trite oxymorons as in «Живой труп», «Живые мощи», «Песня без слов», «Оптимистическая трагедия».
cannot quite compete with the paid models in the fashion magazine but who yet catches our eye? (Jn. H.)
Assignments for Self-Control
After you have learnt individual lexical stylistic devices and the linguistic mechanism which operates in each of them, we may pass on to general stylistic analysis on the lexical level.* Your main task is to indicate how and through what lexical means additional logical, emotive, expressive informa-tion is created. In many cases you will see a number of lexical units used in convergence to still more enhance the expressiveness and emphasis of the utterance.
Exercise IX. Pay attention to the stylistic function of various lexical expressive means used individually and in convergence:
* Samples of the general stylistic analysis on the lexical level are given in Supplement 1 on p. 180.
about it?" for they were both of them as it happened, gossip writers for the daily papers. (E. W.)
12. The fog comes
on little cat feet.
It sits looking
over harbor and city
on silent haunches
and then moves on. (K. S.)
16. Some say the world will end in fire,
Some say in ice,
From what I've tasted of desire
I hold with those who favor fire. But if it had to perish twice
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice
Is also great
And would suffice. (R. Fr.)
side of the edge, waiting for him to peer into it late at night or whenever he was alone and the show of work had stopped, was illimitable unpopulated darkness, a greenland night; and only his continuing heart beats kept him from disappearing into it. Moving along this edge, doing whatever the day demanded, or the night offered, grimly observant (for he was not without fortitude), he noticed much that has escaped him before. He found he was attending a comedy, a show that would have been very funny indeed if there had been life outside the theatre instead of darkness and dissolution. (P.)
Taking up a tarnished knife and fork, he pushed aside the underbrush of onions and came face to face with his steak.
First impressions are important, and Bob Eden knew at once that this was no meek, complacent opponent that confronted him. The steak looked back at him with, an air of defiance that was amply justified by what followed. After a few moments of unsuccessful battling, he summoned the sheik. "How about a steel knife?" inquired Bob.
"Only got three and they're all in use," the waiter replied.
Bob Eden resumed the battle, his elbows held close, his muscles swelling. With set teeth and grim face he bore down and cut deep. There was. a terrible screech as his knife skidded along the platter, and to his horror he saw the steak rise from its bed of gravy and onions and fly from him. It travelled the grimy counter for a second then dropped on to the knees of the girl and thence to the floor.
Eden turned to meet her blue eyes filled with laughter.
"Oh, I'm sorry," he said. "I thought it was a steak, and it seems to be a lap dog." (D. B.)
CHAPTER III. SYNTACTICAL LEVEL
Main Characteristics of the Sentence. Syntactical SDs. Sentence Length. One-Word Sentences. Sentence Structure. Punctuation. Arrangement of Sentence Members. Rhetorical Question. Types of Repetition. Parallel Constructions. Chiasmus. Inversion. Suspense. Detachment Completeness of Sentence Structure. Ellipsis. One-Member Sentences. Apokoinu Constructions. Break. Types of Connection. Polysyndeton. Asyndeton. Attachment
Stylistic study of the syntax begins with the study of the length and the structure of a sentence. It appears, the length of any language unit is a very important factor in informa-tion exchange, for the human brain can receive and transmit
information only if the latter is punctuated by pauses.
Theoretically speaking a sentence can be of any length, as there are no linguistic limitations for its growth, so even monstrous constructions of several hundred words each, technically should be viewed as sentences.
Indeed, psychologically no reader is prepared to perceive as a syntactical whole those sentences in which the punc-tuation mark of a full stop comes after the 124th word (Joyce Carol Oates. Expensive People), or 128th word (E. Hemingway. "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber"), or 256th word (T. Pynchon. The Crying of Lot 49), or 631st word (N. Mailer. Why Are We in Vietnam?), or even after 45 whole pages of the text (J. Joyce. Ulysses).
Unable to specify the upper limit of sentence length we definitely know its lower mark to be one word. One-word sentences possess a very strong emphatic impact, for their only word obtains both the word and the sentence-stress. The word constituting a sentence also obtains its own sentence-intonation which, too, helps to foreground the content. Cf.: "They could keep the Minden Street Shop going until they got the notice to quit; which mightn't be for two years. Or they could wait and see what kind of alternative premises were offered. If the site was good. If. Or. And, quite inev-itably, borrowing money." (J. Br.) As you see, even synsemantic conjunctions, receiving the status of sentences are noticeably promoted in their semantic and expressive value.
Abrupt changes from short sentences to long ones and then back again, create a very strong effect of tension and
suspense for they serve to arrange a nervous, uneven, ragged rhythm of the utterance. There is no direct__or immediate correlation between the length and the structure of a sentence: short sentences may be structurally complicated, while the Jong ones, on the contrary, may have only one subject-predicate pair. Cf.: "Through the windows of the drug-store Eighth street looked extremely animated with families trooping toward the center of the town, flags aslant in children's hands, mother and pa in holiday attire and sweating freely, with patriarchal automobiles of neighbouring farmers full of starched youngsters and draped with bunting." (J. R.) Almost 50 words of this sentence cluster around one subject-predicate centre "Eighth street looked animated".
At the same time very short sentences may boast of two and more clauses, i.e. may be complex, as we observe in the following cases: "He promised he'd come if the cops leave." (J. B.) "Their father who was the poorest man in town kept turning to the same jokes when he was treated to a beer or two." (A. S.) Still, most often bigger lengths go together with complex structures.
Not only the clarity and understandability of the sentence but also its expressiveness depend on the position of clauses, constituting it. So, if a sentence opens with_ the main clause, which is followed by dependent units, such a structure is called loose, is less emphatic and is highly characteristic of informal writing and conversation. Periodic sentences, on the contrary, open with subordinated clauses, absolute and participial constructions, the main clause being withheld until the end. Such structures are known for their emphasis and are used mainly in creative prose. Similar structuring of the beginning of the sentence and its end produces balanced sentences known for stressing the logic and reasoning of the content and thus preferred in publicist writing.
A word leaving the dictionary to become a member of the sentence normally loses its polysemy and actualizes only one of its meanings in the context. The same is true about the syntactical valency: a member of the sentence fulfils one syntactical function. There are cases, though, when syn-tactical ambivalence is preserved by certain members of a sentence which fact creates semantic ambiguity for it allows at least two different readings of the sentence. In the now famous quotation from N. Chomsky "The shooting of the hunters..." the second part may be regarded both as an attribute ("whose shooting" = who was shooting) and as an
object ("whose shooting" = who was shot). Another sentence, composed by Yu. Apresyan to prove the effectiveness of transformational procedures, shows a much bigger syntactical ambivalence, for practically each of its members can be viewed as playing more than one syntactical role, which brings the total number of possible readings of the sentence to 32 semantic variants. Here it is: «Приглашение рабочих бригад вызвало осуждение товарища Иванова».
Sometimes syntactical ambivalence, like the play on words on the lexical level, is intentional and is used to achieve a humorous effect. Cf.: "Do you expect me to sleep with you in the room?" (B. Sh.) Depending on the function of "with you" the sentence may be read "to sleep with you || in the room" (and not in the field, or in the garden) or "to sleep || with you in the room" (and not alone, or with my mother). The solution lies with the reader and is explicated in oral communication by the corresponding pausation and. intonation. To convey them in the written form of speech order of words and punctuation are used.
The possibilities of intonation are much richer than those of punctuation. Indeed, intonation alone may create, add, change, reverse both the logical and the emotional information of an utterance. Punctuation is much poorer and it is used not alone, but substantiating the lexical and syntactical meanings of sentence-components. Points of exclamation and of interrogation, dots, dashes help to specify the meaning of the written sentence which in oral speech would be conveyed by the intonation. It is not only the emphatic types of punctuation listed above that may serve as an additional source of information, but also more conventional commas, semicolons and full stops. E.g.: "What's your name?" "John Lewis." "Mine's Liza. Watkin." (К. К.) The full stop between the name and the surname shows there was a pause between them and the surname came as a response to the reaction (surprise, amusement, roused interest) of John Lewis at such an informal self-introduction.
Exercise 1. Comment on the length, the structure, the communicative type and punctuation of sentences, indicating connotations created by them:
and although she didn't really love Fonny, only thought that she was supposed to because she had spasmed him into this world, already, Fonny's mother didn't like me. (J. B.)
dust, body wastes - it made him sick to look, but he had to look. (Th. P.)
12. "Jesus Christ! Look at her face!" Surprise.
"Her eyes is closed!" Astonishment.
"She likes it!" Amazement.
"Nobody could take my picture doing that!" Moral
"Them goddam white folks!" Fascinated fear. (Wr.)
Transformed from chronic to acute and bloody? (R. Fr.)
fierce concentration, held his breath, forced one... single... more... inch... of ... curve... Then his feathers ruffled, he stalled and fell. (Rch. B.)
Assignments for Self-Control
Punctuation also specifies the communicative type of the sentence. So, as you well know a point of interrogation marks a question and a full stop signals a statement. There are cases though when a statement is crowned with a question mark. Often this punctuation-change is combined with the change of word-order, the latter following the pattern of question. This peculiar interrogative construction which semantically remains a statement is a rhetorical question. Unlike an ordinary question the rhetorical question does not demand any information but serves to express the emotions of the speaker and also to call the attention of listeners. Rhetorical questions make an indispensable part of oratoric speech for they very successfully emphasize the orator's ideas. In fact the speaker knows the answer himself and gives it immediately after the question is asked. The interrogative intonation and/or punctuation draw the attention of listeners (readers) to the focus of the utterance. Rhetorical
questions are also often asked in "unanswerable" cases, as when in distress or anger we resort to phrases like "What have I done to deserve..." or "What shall I do when...". The artificiality of question-form of such constructions is further stressed by exclamation marks which, alongside points of interrogation, end rhetorical questions.
The effect of the majority of syntactical stylistic devices depends on either the completeness of the structure or on the arrangement of its members. The order, in which words (clauses) follow each other is of extreme importance not only for the logical coherence of the sentence but also for its connotational meanings. The following sprawling rambling sentence from E. Waugh's novel Vile Bodies, with clauses heaping one over another, testifies to the carelessness, talka-tiveness and emotionality of the speaker: "Well, Tony rang up Michael and told him that I'd said that William thought Michael had written the review because of the reviews I had written of Michael's book last November, though, as a matter of fact, it was Tony himself who wrote it." (E. W.) More examples showing the validity of the syntactical pattern were shown in Exercise I on p. 69.
One of the most prominent places among the SDs dealing with arrangement of members of the sentence decidedly belongs to repetition. We have already seen the repetition of a phoneme (as in alliteration), of a morpheme (as in rhyming, or plain morphemic repetition). As a syntactical SD repetition is recurrence of the same word, word combination, phrase for two and more times. According to the place which the repeated unit occupies in a sentence (utterance), repetition is classified into several types:
1. anaphora: the beginning of some successive sentences
(clauses) is repeated- a..., a..., a... . The main stylistic
function of anaphora is not so much to emphasize the
repeated unit as to create the background for the nonre-
peated unit, which, through its novelty, becomes foregrounded.
The background-forming function of anaphora is also evident
from the kind of words which are repeated anaphorically.
Pay attention to their semantics and syntactical function in
the sentence when working with. Exercise II on pp. 73-74.
2. epiphora: the end of successive sentences (clauses) is
repeated - ...a, ...a, ...a. The main function of epiphora is to add stress to the final words of the sentence.
3. framing: the beginning of the sentence is repeated in
the end, thus forming the "frame" for the non-repeated part
of the sentence (utterance) - a... a. The function of framing
is to elucidate the notion mentioned in the beginning of the sentence. Between two appearances of the repeated unit there comes the developing middle part of the sentence which explains and clarifies what was introduced in the beginning, so that by the time it is used for the second time its semantics is concretized and specified.
4. catch repetition (anadiplosis): the end of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following one - ...a, a... . Specification of the semantics occurs here too, but on a more modest level.
5. chain repetition presents several successive anadiploses -...a, a...b, b...c, c... . The effect is that of the smoothly developing logical reasoning.
6. ordinary repetition has no definite place in the sentence and the repeated unit occurs in various positions - ...a, ...a..., a... . Ordinary repetition emphasizes both the logical and the emotional meanings of the reiterated word (phrase).
7. successive repetition is a string of closely following each other reiterated units - ...а, a, a... . This is the most emphatic type of repetition which signifies the peak of emotions of the speaker.
As you must have seen from the brief description, repe-tition is a powerful means of emphasis. Besides, repetition adds rhythm and balance to the utterance. The latter function is the major one in parallel constructions which may be viewed as a purely syntactical type of repetition for here we deal with the reiteration of the structure of' several successive sentences (clauses), and not of their lexical "flesh". True enough, parallel constructions almost always include some type of lexical repetition too, and such a convergence pro-duces a very strong effect, foregrounding at one go logical, rhythmic, emotive and expressive aspects of the utterance.
Reversed parallelism is called chiasmus. The second part of a chiasmus is, in fact, inversion of the first construction. Thus; if the first sentence (clause) has a direct word order -SPO, the second one will have it inverted - OPS.
Exercise II. From the following examples you will get a better idea of the functions of various types of repetition, and also of parallelism and chiasmus:
practice, the prohibition of alcohol; he praised, though he did not obey, the laws against motor-speeding. (S. L.)
16. He ran away from the battle. He was an ordinary human being that didn't want to kill or be killed. So he ran away from the battle. (St. H.)
19. Living is the art of loving.
Loving is the art of caring.
Caring is the art of sharing.
Sharing is the art of living. (W. H. D.)
Assignments for Self-Control
Inversion which was briefly mentioned in the definition of
chiasmus is very often used as an independent SD in which
the direct word order is changed either completely so that
the predicate (predicative) precedes the subject, or partially
so that the object precedes the subject-predicate pair. Cor-
respondingly, we differentiate between a partial and a complete
The stylistic device of inversion should not be confused with grammatical inversion which is a norm in interrogative constructions. Stylistic inversion deals with the rearrangement of the normative word order. Questions may also be rearranged: "Your mother is at home?" asks one of the characters of J. Baldwin's novel. The inverted question presupposes the answer with more certainty than the normative one. It is the assuredness of the speaker of the positive answer that con-stitutes additional information which is brought into the question by the inverted word order. Interrogative constructions with the direct word order may be viewed as cases of two-step (double) inversion: direct w / о - grammatical inversion -direct w / o.
Still another SD dealing with the arrangement of members of the sentence is suspense - a deliberate postponement of the completion of the sentence. The term "suspense" is also used in literary criticism to denote an expectant uncertainty about the outcome of the plot. To hold the reader in suspense means to keep the final solution just out of sight. Detective and adventure stories are examples of suspense fiction. The theme, that which is known, and the rheme, that which is new, of the sentence are distanced from each other and the new information is withheld, creating the tension of expecta-tion. Technically, suspense is organized with the help of embedded clauses (homogeneous members) separating the predicate from the subject and introducing less important facts and details first, while the expected information of major importance is reserved till the end of the sentence (utterance).
A specific arrangement of sentence members is observed in detachment, a stylistic device based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of punc-tuation (intonation). The word-order here is not violated, but secondary members obtain their own stress and intonation
because they are detached from the rest of the sentence by commas, dashes or even a full stop as in the following cases: "He had been nearly killed, ingloriously, in a jeep accident." (I. Sh.) "I have to beg you for money. Daily." (S. L.) Both "ingloriously" and "daily" remain adverbial modi-fiers, occupy their proper normative places, following the modified verbs, but-due to detachment and the ensuing additional pause and stress - are foregrounded into the focus of the reader's attention.
Exercise III. Find and analyse cases of detachment, suspense and inversion. Comment on the structure and functions of each:
the slights and arrows of outrageous fortune) as for the sake . of criticism in general. (S. M.)
9. On, on he wandered, night and day, beneath the
blazing sun, and the cold pale moon; through the dry heat
of noon, and the damp cold of night; in the grey light
of morn, and the red glare of eve. (D.)
Assignments for Self-Control
The second, somewhat smaller, group of syntactical SDs deals not so much with - specificities of the arrangement as with the completeness of sentence-structure. The most prom-inent place here belongs to ellipsis, or deliberate omission of at least one member of the sentence, as in the famous quotation from Macbeth:
What! all my pretty chickens and their dam At one fell swoop?
In contemporary prose ellipsis is mainly used in dialogue where it is consciously employed by the author to reflect the natural omissions characterizing oral colloquial speech.
Often ellipsis is met close to dialogue, in author's introductory remarks commenting the speech of the characters. Elliptical remarks in prose resemble stage directions in drama. Both save only the most vital information letting out those bits of it which can be easily reassembled from the situation. It is the situational nature of our everyday speech which heavily relies on both speakers' awareness of the conditions and details of the communication act that promotes normative colloquial omissions. Imitation of these oral colloquial norms is created by the author through ellipsis with the main function of achieving the authenticity and plausibility of fictitious dialogue.
Ellipsis is the basis of the so-called telegraphic style, in which connectives and redundant words are left out. In the early twenties British railways had an inscription over luggage racks in the carriages: "The use of this rack for heavy and bulky packages involves risk of injury to passengers and is prohibited." Forty years later it was reduced to the elliptical: "For light articles only." The same progress from full com-pleted messages to clipped phrases was made in drivers' directions: "Please drive slowly" - "Drive slowly"- "Slow".
The biggest contributors to the telegraphic style are one-member sentences, i.e. sentences consisting only of a nominal group, which is semantically and communicatively self-suf-ficient. Isolated verbs, proceeding from the ontological features of a verb as a part of speech, cannot be considered one-member sentences as they always rely on the context for their semantic fulfilment and are thus heavily ellipticized sentences. In creative prose one-member sentences are mostly used in descriptions (of nature, interior appearance, etc.), where they produce the effect of a detailed but laconic picture foregrounding its main components; and as the background of dialogue, mentioning the emotions, attitudes, moods of the speakers.
In apokoinu constructions the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective creates a blend of the main and the subordinate clauses so that the predicative or the object of the first one is simultaneously used as the subject of the second one. Cf.: "There was a door led into the kitchen." (Sh. A.) "He was the man killed that deer." (R. W.) The double syntactical function played by one word produces the general impression of clumsiness of speech and is used as a means of speech characteristics in dialogue, in reported speech and the type of narrative known as 'entrusted' in which the author entrusts the telling of the story to an imaginary
narrator who is either an observer or participant of the described events.
The last SD which promotes the incompleteness of sentence structure is break (aposiopesis). Break is also used mainly in the dialogue or in other forms of narrative imitating spontaneous oral speech. It reflects the emotional or / and the psychological state of the speaker: a sentence may be broken because the speaker's emotions prevent him from finishing it. Another cause оf the break is the desire to cut short the information with which the sentence began. In such cases there аrе usually special remarks by the author, indicating the intentional abruptness of the end. (See examples in Exercise IV). In many cases break is the result of the speaker's uncertainty as to what exactly he is to promise (to threaten, to beg).
To mark the break dashes and dots are used. It is only in cast-iron structures that full stops may also appear, as in the well-known phrases "Good intentions, but", or "It depends".
Exercise IV. Discuss different types of stylistic devices dealing with the completeness of the sentence:
6. She merely looked at him weakly. The wonder of him! The beauty of love! Her desire toward him! (Dr.)
7. Ever since he was a young man, the hard life on Earth, the panic of 2130, the starvation, chaos, riot, want. Then bucking through the planets, the womanless, loveless years, the alone years. (R. Br.)
8. H.: The waves, how are the waves?
C.: The waves? Lead.
H.: And the sun?
H.: But it should be sinking. Look again.
С.: Damn the sun.
H.: Is it night already then?
H.: Then what is it?
C.: Grey! Grey! GREY!
H.: Grey! Did I hear you say grey?
C.: Light black. From pole to pole. (S. B.)
9. I'm a horse doctor, animal man. Do some farming, too. Near Tulip, Texas. (T. C.)
"I just work here," he said softly. "If I didn't-" he let the rest hang in the air, and kept on smiling. (R. Ch.)
There was no breeze came through the door. (H.)
Assignments for Self-Control
The arrangement of sentence members, the completeness of sentence structure necessarily involve various types of connection used within the sentence or between sentences. Repeated use of conjunctions is called polysyndeton; deliberate
omission of them is, correspondingly, named asyndeton. Both
polysyndeton and asyndeton, have a strong rhythmic impact.
Besides, the function of polysyndeton is to strengthen the idea of equal logical (emotive) importance of connected sentences, while asyndeton, cutting off connecting words, helps to create the effect of terse, energetic, active prose.
These two types of connection are more characteristic of the author's speech. The third type - attachment (gap-sentence link, annexation) on the contrary, is mainly to be found in various representations of the voice of the personage - dialogue, reported speech, entrusted narrative. In the attachment the second part of the utterance is separated from the first one by a full stop though their semantic and grammatical ties remain very strong. The second part appears as an after-thought and is often connected with the beginning of the utterance with the help of a conjunction which brings the latter into the foregrounded opening position. Cf.: "It wasn't his fault. It was yours. And mine. I now humbly beg you
to give me the money with which to buy meals for you to eat. And hereafter do remember it: the next time I shan't beg. I shall simply starve." (S. L.); "Prison is where she belongs. And my husband agrees one thousand per cent." (T. C.)
Exercise V. Specify stylistic functions of the types of connection given below:
"A lot of mills. And a chemical factory. And a Grammar school and a war memorial and a river that runs different colours each day. And a cinema and fourteen pubs. That's really all one can say about it." (J. Br.)
7. "Well, guess it's about time to turn in." He yawned,
went out to look at the thermometer, slammed the door, patted her head, unbuttoned his waistcoat, yawned, wound the clock, went to look at the furnace, yawned and clumped upstairs to bed, casually scratching his thick woolen un-dershirt. (S. L.)
10. "He is a very deliberate, careful guy and we trust
each other completely. With a few reservations." (D. U.)
Assignments for Self-Control
Lexico-Syntactical Stylistic Devices
Antithesis. Climax. Anticlimax. Simile. Litotes. Periphrasis
Syntactical stylistic devices add logical, emotive, expressive information to the utterance regardless of lexical meanings of sentence components. There are certain structures though, whose emphasis depends not only on the arrangement of sentence members but also on their construction, with definite demands on the lexico-semantic aspect of the utterance. They are known as lexico-syntactical SDs.
Antithesis is a good example of them: syntactically antithesis is just another case of parallel constructions. But unlike parallelism, which is indifferent to the semantics of its com-ponents, the two рarts of an antithesis must be semantically opposed to each other, as in the sad maxim of O. Wilde: "Some people have much to live on, and little to live for", where "much" and "little" present a pair of antonyms, supported by the contextual opposition of postpositions "on" and "for". Another example: "If we don't know who gains by his death we do know who loses by it." (Ch.) Here, too, we have the leading antonymous pair "gain-lose" and the supporting
one, made stronger by the emphatic form of the affirmative construction - "don't know / do know".
Antithesis as a semantic opposition emphasized by its realization in similar structures, is often observed on lower levels of language hierarchy, especially on the morphemic level where two antonymous affixes create a powerful effect of contrast: "Their pre-money wives did not go together with their post-money daughters." (H.)
The main function of antithesis is to stress the hetero-geneity of the described phenomenon, to show that the latter is a dialectical unity of two (or more) opposing features.
Exercise I. Discuss the semantic centres and structural peculiarities of antithesis:
we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way - in short the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only. (D.)
12. Cannery Row in Monterey in California is a poem, a stink, a grating noise, a quality of light, a tone, a habit, a nostalgia, a dream. Cannery Row is the gathered and scattered, tin and iron, and rust and splintered wood, chipped pavement and weedy lots and junk heaps, sardine canneries of corrugated iron, honky tonks, restaurants and whore houses and little crowded groceries and laboratories and flophouses. Its inhabitants are, as the man once said "Whores, pimps, gamblers and sons of bitches", by which he meant Everybody. Had the man looked through another peephole he might have said "Saints and angels and martyrs and holy men" and he would have meant the same thing. (J. St.)
Assignments for Self-Control
Another type of semantically complicated parallelism is presented by climax, in which each next word combination
(clause, sentence) is logically more important or emotionally
stronger and more explicit: "Better to borrow, better to beg, better to die!" (D.) " I am firm, thou art obstinate, he is pig-headed." (B. Ch.) If to create antithesis we use antonyms (or their contextual equivalents), in climax we deal with strings of synonyms or at least semantically related words belonging to the same thematic group.
The negative form of the structures participating in the formation of climax reverses the order in which climax-components are used, as in the following examples: "No tree, to shrub, no blade of grass that was not owned." (G.) It is the absence of substance or quality that is being emphasized by the negative form of the climax, this is why relative synonyms are arranged not in the ascending but in the
descending order as to the expressed quality or quantity. Cf.: "Be careful," said Mr. Jingle. "Not a look." "Not a wink," said Mr. Tupman. "Not a syllable. Not a whisper." (D.)
Proceeding from the nature of the emphasized phenomenon it is possible to speak of 1ogical, emotive or quantitative types of climax. The most widely spread model of climax is a three-step construction, in which intensification of, logical importance, of emotion or quantity (size, dimensions) is gradually rising from step to step. In emotive climax though, we rather often meet a two-step structure, in which the second part repeats the first one and is further strengthened by an intensifier, as in the following instances: "He was so helpless, so very helpless." (W. D.) "She felt better, immensely better." (W. D.) "I have been so unhappy here, so very very unhappy." (D.)
Climax suddenly interrupted by an unexpected turn of the thought which defeats expectations of the reader (listener) and ends in complete semantic reversal of the emphasized idea, is called аnticlimax. То stress the abruptness of the change emphatic punctuation (dash, most often) is used between the ascending and the descending parts of the anticlimax. Quite a few paradoxes are closely connected with anticlimax.
Exercise II. Indicate the type of climax. Pay attention to its structure and the semantics of its components:
1. He saw clearly that the best thing was a cover story
or camouflage. As he wondered and wondered what to do,
he first rejected a stop as impossible, then as improbable,
then as quite dreadful. (W. G.)
2. "Is it shark?" said Brody. The possibility that he at
last was going to confront the fish - the beast, the monster,
the nightmare - made Brady's heart pound. (P. B.)
3. If he had got into the gubernatorial primary on his
own hook, he would have taken a realistic view. But this
was different. He had been called. He had been touched. He had been summoned. (R. W.)
4. We were all in all to one another, it was the morning
of life, it was bliss, it was frenzy, it was everything else
of that sort in the highest degree. (D.)
5. Like a well, like a vault, like a tomb, the prison had
no knowledge of the brightness outside. (D.)
6. "I shall be sorry, I shall be truly sorry to leave you,
my friend." (D.)
15. This was appalling - and soon forgotten. (G.)
Assignments for Self-Control
A structure of three components is presented in a stylistic device extremely popular at all times - simile. Simile is an imaginative comparison of two unlike objects belonging to two different classes. The one which is compared is called the tenor, the one with which it is compared, is called the vehicle. The tenor and the vehicle form the two semantic poles of the simile, which are connected by one of the following link words: "like", "as", "as though", "as like", "such as", "as ... as", etc. Simile should not be confused with simple (logical, ordinary) comparison. Structurally identical, consisting of the tenor, the vehicle and the uniting formal element, they are semantically different: objects belonging to the same class are likened in a simple comparison, while in a simile we deal with the likening of objects belonging to two different classes. So, "She is like her mother" is a simple comparison, used to state an evident fact. "She is like a rose" is a simile used for purposes of expressive evaluation, emotive explanation, highly individual description.
The tenor and the vehicle may be expressed in a brief "nucleus" manner, as in the above example, or may be extended. This last case of sustained expression of likeness is known as epic, or Homeric simile.
If you remember, in a metaphor two unlike objects (actions, phenomena) were identified on the grounds of possessing one common characteristic. In a simile two objects are compared on the grounds of similarity of some quality. This feature which is called foundation of a simile, may be explicitly mentioned as in: "He stood immovable like a rock in a torrent" (J. R.), or "His muscles are hard as rock". (Т. С.) You see that the "rock" which is the vehicle of two different similes offers two different qualities as their foundation-"immovable" in the first case, and "hard" in the second. When the foundation is not explicitly named, the simile is considered to be richer in possible associations, because the fact that a phenomenon can be qualified in multiple and varying ways allows to attach at least some of many qualities to the object of comparison. So "the rose" of the previous case allows to simultaneously foreground such features as "fresh, beautiful, fragrant, attractive", etc. Sometimes the foundation of the simile is not quite clear from the context, and the author supplies it with a key, where he explains which similarities led him to liken two different entities, and which in fact is an extended and detailed foundation. Cf.: "The conversations she began behaved like green logs: they fumed but would not fire." (Т. С.)
A simile, often repeated, becomes trite and adds to the stock of language phraseology. Most of trite similes have the foundation mentioned and conjunctions "as", "as ... as" used as connectives. Cf.: "as brisk as a bee", "as strong as a horse", "as live as a bird" and many many more.
Similes in which the link between the tenor and the vehicle is expressed by notional verbs such as "to resemble", "to seem", "to recollect", "to remember", "to look like", "to appear", etc. are called disguised, because the realization of the comparison is somewhat suspended, as the likeness between the objects seems less evident. Cf.: "His strangely taut, full-width grin made his large teeth resemble a dazzling miniature piano keyboard in the green light." (J.) Or: "The ball appeared to the batter to be a slow spinning planet looming toward the earth." (В. М.)
Exercise III. Discuss the following cases of simile. Pay attention to the semantics of the tenor and the vehicle, to the brief or sustained manner of their presentation. Indicate the foundation of the simile, both explicit and implicit Find examples of disguised similes, do not miss the link word joining the two parts of the structure:
4. As wet as a fish - as dry as a bone;
As live as a bird - as dead as a stone;
As plump as a partridge - as crafty as a rat; As strong as a horse - as weak as a cat;
As hard as a flint - as soft as a mole;
As white as a lily - as black as coal;
As plain as a pike - as rough as a bear;
As tight as a drum - as free as the air;
As heavy as lead - as light as a feather;
As steady as time - uncertain as weather; As hot as an oven - as cold as a frog;
As gay as a lark - as sick as a dog;
As savage as a tiger - as mild as a dove;
As stiff as a poker-as limp as a glove;
As blind as a bat-as deaf as a post;
As cool as a cucumber - as warm as toast; As flat as a flounder - as round as a ball; As blunt as a hammer-as sharp as an awl;
As brittle as glass - as tough as gristle;
As neat as a pin - as clean as a whistle;
As red as a rose - as square as a box. (O. N.)
but fickle, she comes and goes as she pleases so that one is never sure whether she will come at all nor for how long she will stay. (Gr. M.)
erectness of her body was gone, as though she had been broken by cruel exercise, as though there were no longer any reason for being beautiful, and supple, and erect. (G.) 30. Someone might have observed in him a peculiar resemblance to those plaster reproductions of the gargoyles of Notre Dame which may be seen in the shop windows of artists' colourmen. (E. W.)
Assignments for Self-Control
10. Find examples of similes in your reading. State their
type, structure and functions.
Litotes is a two-component structure in which two negations are joined to give a positive evaluation. Thus "not unkindly" actually means "kindly", though the positive effect is weakened and some lack of the speaker's confidence in his statement is implied. The first component of a litotes is always the negative particle "not", while the second, always negative in semantics, varies in form from a negatively affixed word (as above) to a negative phrase.
Litotes is especially expressive when the semantic centre of the whole structure is stylistically or / and emotionally coloured, as in the case of the following occasional creations: "Her face was not unhandsome" (A. H.) or "Her face was not unpretty". (К. K.)
The function of litotes has much in common with that of understatement - both weaken the effect of the utterance. The uniqueness of litotes lies in its specific "double negative" structure and in its weakening only the positive evaluation.
The Russian term "литота " corresponds only to the English "understatement" as it has no structural or semantic limi-tations.
Exercise IV. Analyse the structure, the semantics and the functions of
1. "To be a good actress, she must always work for the
truth in what she's playing," the man said in a voice not empty of selflove. (N. M.)
Assignments for Self-Control
Periphrasis is a very peculiar stylistic device which basically consists of using a roundabout form of expression instead of a simpler one, i.e. of using a more or less complicated syntactical structure instead of a word. Depending on the mechanism of this substitution, periphrases are classified into figurative (metonymic and metaphoric), and logical. The first group is made, in fact, of phrase-metonymies and phrase-metaphors, as you may well see from the following example: "The hospital was crowded with the surgically interesting products of the fighting in Africa" (I. Sh.) where the extended metonymy stands for "the wounded".
Logical periphrases are phrases synonymic with the words which were substituted by periphrases: "Mr. Du Pont was dressed in the conventional disguise with which Brooks Brothers
cover the shame of American "millionaires." (M. St.) "The con-ventional disguise" stands here for "the suit" and "the shame of American millionaires" - for "the paunch (the belly)". Because the direct nomination of the not too elegant feature of appearance was substituted by a roundabout description this periphrasis may be also considered euphemistic, as it offers a more polite qualification instead of a coarser one.
The main function of periphrases is to convey a purely individual perception of the described object. To achieve it the generally accepted nomination of the object is replaced by the description of one of its features or qualities, which seems to the author most important for the characteristic of the object, and which thus becomes foregrounded.
The often repeated periphrases become trite and serve as universally accepted periphrastic synonyms: "the gentle (soft, weak) sex" (women); "my better half" (my spouse); "minions of Law" (police), etc.
Exercise V. Analyse the given periphrases from the viewpoint of their semantic type, structure, function and originality:
seriously ill with one of those carefully named difficulties which are the whispers of approaching age. (J. St.)
Assignments for Self-Control
Exercise VI. Now, after you have been acquainted with the semantics, structures and functions of major syntactical stylistic devices, you may proceed, in the summarizing form, to cases of their convergence, paying attention to each SD contributing to the general effect and of course, specifying those
which bear the main responsibility for the creation of additional information and the intensification of the basic one:
10. He illustrated these melodramatic morsels by handing the
tankard to himself with great humility, receiving it haughtily,
drinking from it thirstily, and smacking his lips fiercely. (D.)
The reasons why John Harmon should not come to life:
Because he has passively allowed these dear old faithful friends to pass into possession of the property. Because he sees them happy with it. Because they have virtually adopted Bella, and will provide for her. Because there is affection enough in her heart to develop into something enduringly good, under favourable conditions. Because her faults have been intensified by her place in my father's will and she is already growing better. Because her marriage with John Harmon, after what I have heard from her own lips, would be a shocking mockery. Because if John Harmon comes to life and does not marry her, the property falls into the very hands that hold it now. (D.)
25. I looked at him. I know I smiled. His face looked as though it were plunging into water. I couldn't touch him. I wanted so to touch him I smiled again and my hands got wet on the telephone and then for the moment I couldn't see him at all and I shook my head and my face was wet and I said, "I'm glad. I'm glad. Don't you worry. I'm glad." (J. B.)
26. What is this life if, full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare.
No time to stand beneath the boughs,
And stare as long as sheep and cows.
No time to see when woods we pass,
Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass.
No time to see in broad day light,
Streams full of stars like skies at night.
No time to turn at Beauty's glance,
And watch her feet, how they can dance.
No time to wait till her mouth can
Enrich that smile her eyes began.
A poor life this if, full of care
We have no time to stand and stare. (W. H. D.)
CHAPTER IV. TYPES OF NARRATION
Author's Narrative. Dialogue. Interior Speech. Represented Speech. Compositional Forms
A work of creative prose is never homogeneous as to the form and essence of the information it carries. Both very much depend on the viewpoint of the addresser, as the author and his personages may offer different angles of perception of the same object. Natu-rally, if is the author who organizes this effect of polyphony, but we, the readers, while reading the text, identify various views with various personages, not attributing them directly to the writer. The latter's views, and emotions are most explicitly expressed in the author's speech (or the author's narrative). The unfolding of the plot is mainly concentrated hеrе, personages are given characteris-tics, the time and the place of action are also described here, as the author sees them. The author's narrative supplies the reader with direct information about the author's preferences and objections, beliefs and contradictions, i. e. serves the major source of shaping up the author's image.
In contemporary prose, in an effort to make his writing more plausible, to impress the reader with the effect of authenticity of the described events, the writer entrusts some fictitious character (who might also participate in the narrated events) with the task of story-telling. The writer himself thus hides behind the figure of the narrator, рrеsents all the events of the story from the latter's viewpoint and only sporadically emerges in the narrative with his own considerations which may reinforce, or contradict those expressed by the narrator. This form of the author's speech is called entrusted narrative. The structure of the entrusted narrative is much more complicated than that of the author's narrative proper, because instead of one commanding, organizing image of the author, we have the hierarchy of the narrator's image seemingly arranging the pros and contras of the related problem and, looming above the narrator's image, there stands the image of the author, the true and actual creator of it all, responsible for all
the views and evaluations of the text and serving the major and predominant force of textual cohesion and unity.*
Entrusted narrative can be carried out in the 1st person singular, when the narrator proceeds with his story openly and explicitly, from his own name, as, e.g., in The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, or The Great Gatsby by Sc. Fitzgerald, or All the King's Men by R. P. Warren. In the first book Holden Caulfield himself retells about the crisis in his own life which makes the focus of the novel. In the second book Nick Carraway tells about Jay Gatsby, whom he met only occasionally, so that to tell Gatsby's life-story he had to lean on the knowledge of other personages too. And in the third book Jack Burden renders the dramatic career of Willie Stark, himself being one of the closest associates of the man. In the first case the narration has fewer deviations from the main line, than in the other two in which the narrators have to supply the reader also with the information about themselves and their connection with the protagonist.
Entrusted narrative may also be anonymous. The narrator does not openly claim responsibility for the views and evaluations but the manner of presentation, the angle of description very strongly suggest that the story is told not by the author himself but by some of his factotums, which we see, e. g., in the prose of Fl. O'Connor, С. McCullers, E. Hemingway, E. Caldwell.
The narrative, both the author's and the entrusted, is not the
only type of narration observed in creative prose. A very important
place Here is occupied by dialogue, where personages express their
minds in the form of uttered speech. In their exchange of remarks
the participants of the dialogue, while discussing other people and
their actions, expose themselves too. So dialogue is one of the
most significant forms of the personage's self-characterization,
which allows the author to seemingly eliminate himself from the
Another form, which obtained a position of utmost significance in contemporary prose, is interior speech of the personage, which allows the author (and the readers) to peep into the inner world of the character, to observe his ideas and views in the making.
* Cf. the famous quotation from L. Tolstoy: «Люди мало чуткие к искусству думают часто, что художественное произведение составляет одно целое, потому что в нем действуют одни и те же лица, потому что все построено на одной завязке или описывает жизнь одного человека. Это несправедливо. Это только так кажется поверхностному наблюдателю: цемент, который связывает всякое художественное произведение в одно целое и оттого производит иллюзию отражения жизни, есть не единство лиц и положений, а единство самобытного нравственного отношения автора к предмету». (Толстой Л. Н. Полн. собр. соч. в 90 т. М., 1928-1958, т. 30, с. 18-19).
Interior speech is best known in the form of interior monologue,. a rather lengthy piece of the text (half a page and over) dealing with one major topic of the character's thinking, offering causes for his past, present or future actions. Short insets of interior speech present immediate mental and emotional reactions of the personage to this remark or action of other characters.
The results of the work of our brain are not intended for communication and are, correspondingly, structured in their own unique way. The imaginative reflection of mental processes, presented in the form of interior speech, being a part of the text one of the major functions of which is communicative, necessarily undergoes some linguistic structuring to make it understandable for the readers. In extreme cases, though, this desire to be understood by others is outshadowed by the author's effort to portray the disjointed, purely associative manner of thinking, which makes interior speech almost or completely incomprehensible. These cases exercise the so-called stream-of-consciousness technique which is especially popular with representatives of modernism in contemporary literature.
So the personage's viewpoint can be realized in the uttered (dialogue) and inner (interior speech) forms. Both are introduced into the text by the author's remarks containing indication of the personage (his_name or the_name-substitute) and of the act of speaking (thinking) expressed by such verbs as "to say", "to think" and their numerous synonyms.
To separate and individualize the sphere of the personage, language means employed in the dialogue and interior speech differ from those used in the author's narrative and, in their unity and combination, they constitute the personage's speech characteristic which is indispensable in the creation of his image in the novel.
The last - the fourth - type of narration observed in artistic prose is a peculiar blend of the viewpoints and language spheres of both the author and the character. It was first observed and analysed almost a hundred years ago, with the term represented (reported) speech attached to it. Represented speech serves to show either the mental reproduction оf а once uttered remark, or the character's thinking. The first case is known as represented uttered speech, the second one as represented inner speech. The latter is close to the personage's interior speech in essence, but differs from it in form: it is rendered in the third person singular and may have the author's qualitative words, i. e. it reflects the presence of the author's viewpoint alongside that of the character, while interior speech belongs to the personage completely, formally too, which is materialized through the first-person
pronouns and the language idiosyncrasies of the character.
The four types of narration briefly described above are singled out on the basis of the viewpoint commanding the organization of each one: If it is semantics of the text that is taken as the foundation of the classification then we shall deal with the three narrative compositional forms traditionally analysed in poetics and stylistics. They are: narrative proper where the unfolding of the plot is concentrated. This is the most dynamic compositional form of the text. Two other forms - description and argumentation - are static. The former supplies the details of the appearance of people and things "populating" the book, of the place and time of action, the latter offers causes and effects of the personage's behaviour, his (or the author's) considerations about moral, ethical, ideological and other issues. It is rather seldom that any of these compositional forms is used in a "pure", uninterrupted way. As a rule they intermingle even within the boundaries of a paragraph.
All the compositional forms can be found in each of the types of narration but with strongly varying frequences.
Exercise. Find examples of various types of narration and narrative compositional forms. Pay attention to language means used in each one. State their functions. Discuss correlations existing between the type of narration, compositional form and the language of the discourse:
"May I come in?"
"This house," he said slowly, "she yours." (R. W.)
Wind pressed the boughs, the withered leaves were shaking. A star was shaking. A light was waking. Wind was quaking. The star was far. The night, the light. The light was bright. A chant, a song, the slow dance of the little things within him. The star over the town, the light over the hill, the sod over Ben, night all over. His mind fumbled with little things. Over us all is some thing. Star night, earth, light... light... О lost!... a stone... a leaf... a door... О ghost!... a light... a song... a light... a light... a light awnings over the hill... over us all... a star shines over the town... over us all... a light.
We shall not come again. We never shall come back again. But over us all over us all... is - something.
A light swings over the hill. (We shall not come again.) And over the town a star. (Over us all, over us all that shall not come again.) And over the day the dark. But over the darkness - what?
We shall not come again. We never shall come back again.
Over the dawn a lark. (That shall not come again.) And wind and music far. О lost! (It shall not come again.) And over your mouth the earth. О ghost! But over the darkness - what? (T. W.)
6. "Honestly. I don't feel anything. Except ashamed."
"Please. Are you sure? Tell me the truth. You might have been
"But I wasn't. And thank you. For saving my life. You're wonderful. Unique. I love you." (Т. С.)
7. "What's your Christian name, Sir?" angrily inquired the
"Daniel - any other name?"
"Nathaniel, Sir - my Lord, I mean."
"Nathaniel Daniel or Daniel Nathaniel?" "No, my Lord, only Nathaniel - not Daniel at all."
"What did you tell me it was Daniel for then, Sir?" inquired the Judge. (D.)
8. "Now I know you lying," Sam was emphatic.
"You lying as fast as a dog can trot," Fishbelly said. "You trying to pull wool over our eyes," Tony accused. (Wr.)
9. "She thought he could be persuaded to come home."
"You mean a dinge?"
"No, a Greek."
"Okey," Nulty said and spit into the wastebasket. "Okey. You met the big guy how? You seem to pick up awful easy."
"All right," I said. "Why argue? I've seen the guy and you haven't. In the morning I was a well man again." (R. Ch.)
10. "She's home. She's lying down."
"She all right?" "She's tired. She went to see Fonny."
"How's Fonny taking it?"
"She see Mr. Hayword?"
"No. She's seeing him on Monday."
"You going with her?"
"I think I better." (J. B.)
11. "Ah, fine place," said the stranger, "glorious pile - frowning
walls - tottering arches - dark nooks - crumbling staircases - old cathedral too - earthy smell - pilgrim's feet worn away the old steps - little Saxon doors - confessionals like money-taker's boxes at theatres - queer customers those monks - Popes and Lord Treasurers and all sort of old fellows, with great red faces, and broken noses turning up every day - buff jerkins too - match-locks Sarcophagus - fine place - old legends too - strange stories:capital." (D.)
12. "She's a model at Bergdorf Goodman's."
"She's about as French as you are-"
“That's more French than you think." (J. O'H.)
wriggling! Five bob I gave. Corpus paradisum. Corncrake croaker: belly like a poisoned pup. Gone. Forgotten. I too. And one day she with. Leave her: get tired. Suffer then. Snivel. Big Spanishy eyes goggling at nothing. Her wavyavyeavyheavyeavyevyevy hair un-combed. (J. J.)
mers downtown. Him retire? No, it was in his blood, they said. He'd be back. He'd go to France and make a little whoopee, but he'd be back and in the market just as deeply as ever. But he fooled them. He went to France all right, and I suppose he made whoopee because I happen to know he has quite a reputa-tion that way. And they were right saying he'd be back, but not the way they thought. He came back first week in November, two years ago, right after the crash. Know what he did? He bought a Rolls-Royce Phantom that originally cost eighteen thousand dollars, he bought that for a thousand-dollar bill. He bought a big place out on Long Island. I don't know exactly what he paid for it, but one fellow told me he got it for not a cent more than the owner paid for one of those big indoor tennis courts they have out there. For that he got the whole estate, the land house proper, stables, garages, everything. Yacht landing. Oh, almost forget. A hundred and eighty foot yacht for eighteen thousand dollars. The figure I do know because I remember hearing a hundred dollars a foot was enough for any yacht. And mind you, the estate was with all the furniture. And because he got out in time and had the cash. Everything he had was cash. Wouldn't lend a cent. Not one red cent for any kind of interest. Just wasn't interested, he said. Buy, yes. He bought cars, houses, big estates, paintings worth their weight in radium, practically, but lend money? No. He said it was his way of getting even with the wisenheimers that laughed at him the summer before when he said he was going to retire. (J. O'H.)
22. Holmes was certainly not a difficult man to live with. He was quiet in his ways and his habits were regular. It was rare for him to be up after ten at night and he had invariably breakfasted and gone out before I rose in the morning. His very person and appearance were such as to strike the attention of the most casual observer. In height he was rather over six feet and so excessively lean that he seemed to be considerably taller. His eyes were sharp and piercing save during those intervals of torpor to which I have alluded; and his thin hawklike nose gave his whole expression an air of alertness and decision. His chin, too, had the prominence and squareness which mark the man of determination. (C. D.)
Assignments for Self-Control
1. Indicate the types of narration which you know.
2. What is the difference between the author's narrative
proper and the entrusted narrative?
3. What forms of entrusted narrative do you know?
10. Which compositional forms are considered static and why?
CHAPTER V. FUNCTIONAL STYLES
Colloquial vs. Literary Type of Communication. Oral vs. Written Form of Communication
Language means which we choose for communication depend on several factors, the most important among them being the situation of the communication act. Indeed, depending on the situation (which includes the purpose of the communication and its participants) we adhere either to informal, or to formal manner. The former is observed in everyday non-official communication which is known as colloquial speech. Colloquial speech occupies a prominent place in our lives, and is viewed by some linguists as a system of language means so strongly differing from those pre-sented in the formal (literary) communication that it can be classified as an independent entity with its own peculiar units and rules of their structuring. (See the works of O. Lapteva, O. Sirotinina, L. Zemskaya.)
The literary communication, most often (but not always) materialized in the written form, is not homogeneous, and pro-ceeding from its function (purpose) we speak of different functional styles. As the whole of the language itself, functional styles are also changeable. Their quantity and quality change in the course of their development. At present most scholars differentiate such functional styles: scientific, official, publicist, newspaper, belles-lettres.*
Scientific style is employed in professional communication. Its most conspicuous feature is the abundance of terms denoting objects, phenomena and processes characteristic of some particular field of science and technique. Scientific style is also known
* See pp. 5 - 6 of this manual.
for its precision, clarity and logical cohesion which is responsible for the repeated use of such_cliches as: "Proceeding from..."; "As it was said above..."; "In connection with..." and other lexico-syntactical forms emphasizing the logical connection and interdependence of consecutive parts of the discourse,
Official style, or the style of official documents, is the most conservative one. It preserves cast-iron forms of structuring and uses syntactical constructions and words long known as archaic and not observed anywhere else. Addressing documents and official letters, signing them, expressing the reasons and considerations leading to the subject of the document (letter)-all this is strictly regulated both lexically and syntactically. All emotiveness and subjective modality are completely banned out of this style.
Publicist style is a perfect example of the historical change-ability of stylistic differentiation of discourses. In ancient Greece, e.g., it was practiced mainly in its oral form and was best known as oratoric style, within which views and sentiments of the addresser (orator) found their expression. Nowadays political, ideological, ethical, social beliefs and statements of the addresser are prevailingly expressed in the written form, which was labelled publicist in accordance with the name of the correspond-ing genre and its practitioners. Publicist style is famous for its explicit pragmatic function of persuasion directed at influencing the reader and shaping his views, in accordance with the argumentation of the author. Correspondingly, we find in publi-cist style a blend of the rigorous logical reasoning, reflecting the objective state of things, and a strong subjectivity reflecting the author's personal feelings and emotions towards the discussed subject.
Newspaper style, as it is evident from its name, is found in newspapers. You should not conclude though that everything published in a newspaper should be referred to the newspaper style. The paper contains vastly varying materials, some of them being publicist essays, some - feature articles, some - scientific reviews, some - official stock-exchange accounts etc., so that a daily (weekly) newspaper also offers a variety of styles. When we mention "newspaper style", we mean informative materials, characteristic of newspaper only and not found in other publi-cations. To attract the reader's attention to the news, special graphical means are used. British and American papers are notor-ious fоr the change of type, specific headlines, space ordering, etc. We find here a large proportion of dates and personal names of countries, territories, institutions, individuals. To achieve the effect of objectivity and impartiality in rendering some fact or event, most of newspaper information is published anonymously,
without the name of the newsman who supplied it, with little or no subjective modality. But the position and attitude of the paper, nonetheless, become clear from the choice not only of subject-matter but also of words denoting international or domestic issues.
Belles-lettres style, or the style of creative literature may be called the richest register of communication: besides its own language means which are not used in any other sphere of commu-nication, belles-lettres style makes ample use of other styles too, for in numerous works of literary art we find elements of scientific, official and other functional types of speech. Besides informative and persuasive functions, also found in other functional styles, the belles-lettres style has a unique task to impress the reader aesthetically. The form becomes meaningful and carries additional information as you must have seen from previous chapters. Boundless possibilities of expressing one's thoughts and feelings make the belles-lettres style a highly attractive field of investigation for a linguist.
Speaking of belles-lettres style most scholars almost automati-cally refer to it prose works, regarding poetry the domain of a special poetic style. Viewed diachronically this opinion does not seem controversial, for poems of previous centuries, indeed, adhered to a very specific vocabulary and its ordering. But poetry of the twentieth century does not show much difference from prosaic vocabulary, its subjects are no more limited to several specific "poetic" fields but widely cover practically all spheres of existence of contemporary man. So it is hardly relevant to speak of a separate poetic style meaning contemporary literature.
Finishing this brief outline of functional styles observed in modern English, it is necessary to stress again, two points. The first one concerns the dichotomy - written::oral, which is not synonymous to the dichotomy-literary-colloquial, the former opposition meaning the form of presentation, the latter - the choice of language means. There are colloquial messages in the written form (such as personal letters, informal notes, diaries and journals) and vice versa, we have examples of literary discourses in the oral form (as in a recital, lecture, report, paper read at a conference, etc.).
The second point deals with the flexibility of style boundaries: the borders within which a style presumably functions are not rigid and allow various degrees of overlapping and melting into each other. It is not accidental that rather often we speak of inter-mediate cases such as the popular scientific style which combines the features of scientific and belles-lettres styles, or the style
of new journalism which is a combination of publicist, newspaper and belles-lettres styles, etc.
Exercise. Analyse the peculiarities of functional styles in the following examples:
Describing a static situation presents problems parallel to nose of presenting an event involving change or movement. Both static and dynamic events are made linear in grammatical presentation even if the items or events are, referentially speaking, simultaneous in space or time. (K. Pk.)
3. Techniques of comparison form a natural part of the
literary critic's analytic and evaluative process: in discussing one
work, critics frequently have in mind, and almost as frequently
appeal to, works in the same or another language. Comparative
literature systematically extends this latter tendency, aiming to
enhance awareness of the qualities of one work by using the
products of another linguistic culture as an illuminating context;
or studying some broad topic or theme as it is realized ("trans-
formed") in the literatures of different languages. It is worth
insisting on comparative literature's kinship with criticism in gen-
eral, for there is evidently a danger that its exponents may
seek to argue an unnatural distinctiveness in their activities
(this urge to establish a distinct identity is the source of many
unfruitfully abstract justifications of comparative literature); and on
the other hand a danger that its opponents may regard the
discipline as nothing more than demonstration of "affinities"
and "influences" among different literatures - an activity which is not critical at all, belonging rather to the categorizing spirit of literary history. (R. F.)
4. Caging men as a means of dealing with the problem of crime
is a modern refinement of man's ancient and limitless inhumanity,
as well as his vast capacity for self-delusion. Murderers and
felons used to be hanged, beheaded, flogged, tortured, broken
on the rack, blinded, ridden out of town on a rail, tarred and
feathered, or arrayed in the stocks. Nobody pretended that such
penalties were anything other than punishment and revenge.
Before nineteenth-century American developments, dungeons
were mostly for the convenient custody of political prisoners,
debtors, and those awaiting trial. American progress with many
another gim "advance", gave the world the penitentiary.
In 1787, Dr. Benjamin Rush read to a small gathering in the Philadelphia home of Benjamin Franklin a paper in which he said that the right way to treat offenders was to cause them to repent of their crimes. Ironically taken up by gentle Quakers, Rush's notion was that offenders should be locked alone in cells, day and night, so that in such awful solitude they would have nothing to do but to ponder their acts, repent, and reform. To this day, the American liberal-progressive-idea persists that there is some way to make people repent and reform. Psychiatry, if not solitude will provide perfectability.
Three years after Rush proposed it, a single-cellular peniten-tiary was established in the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia. By the 1830s, Pennsylvania had constructed two more state penitentiaries, that followed the Philadelphia reform idea. Mean-while, in New York, where such reforms as the lock-step had
been devised, the "Auburn system" evolved from the Pennsylvania program. It provided for individual cells and total silence, but added congregate employment in shops, fields, or quarries during a long, hard working day. Repressive and undeviating routine, unremitting labor, harsh subsistence conditions, and frequent floggings complemented the monastic silence; so did striped uniforms and the great wall around the already secure fortress. The auburn system became the model for American penitentiaries in most of the states, and the lofty notions of the Philadelphians soon were lost in the spirit expressed by Elam Lynds, the first warden of Sing Sing (built in 1825): "Reformation of the criminal could not possibly be effected until the spirit of the criminal was broken."
The nineteenth-century penitentiary produced more mental break-downs, suicides, and deaths than repentance. "I believe," wrote Charles Dickens, after visiting such an institution, "that very few men are capable of estimating the immense amount of torture and agony which this dreadful punishment, prolonged for years, inflicts upon the sufferers." Yet, the idea persisted that men could be reformed (now we say "rehabilitated") in such hellholes - a grotesque derivation from the idea that man is not only perfectable but rational enough to determine his behavior through self-interest.
A later underpinning of the nineteenth-century prison was its profitability. The sale and intraprison use of prison-industry prod-ucts fitted right into the productivity ethic of a growing nation. Convicts, moreover, could be and were in some states rented out like oxen to upright businessmen. Taxpayers were happy, cheap labor was available, and prison officials, busily developing their bureaucracies, saw their institutions entrenched. The American prison system - a design to reform criminals by caging humans -found a permanent place in American society and flourished largely unchanged into the twentieth century. In 1871, a Virginia court put the matter in perspective when it ruled that prisoners were "slaves of the state". (Wic.)
5. Winter was coming on - the terrible Russian winter. I heard business men speak of it so: "Winter was always Russia's best friend. Perhaps now it will rid us of Revolution." On the freezing front miserable armies continued to starve and die, without enthusiasm. The railways were breaking down, food lessening, factories closing. The desperate masses cried out that the bour-geoisie was sabotaging the life of the people, causing defeat on the Front. Riga had been surrendered just after General Kornilov said publicly, "Must we pay with Riga the price of bringing the country to a sense of its duty?"
To Americans it is incredible that the class war should develop to such a pitch. But I have personally met officers on the Northern Front who frankly preferred' military disaster to cooperation with the Soldiers' Committees. The secretary of the Petrograd branch of the Cadet party told me that the break-down of the country's economic life was part of a campaign to discredit the Revolution. An Allied diplomat, whose name I promised not to mention, confirmed this from his own knowledge. I know of certain coal-mines near Kharkov which were fired and flooded by their owners, of textile factories at Moscow whose engineers put the machinery out of order when they left, of railroad official caught by the workers in the act of crippling locomotives.
A large section of the propertied classes preferred the Germans to the Revolution - even to the Provisional Government - and didn't hesitate to say so. In the Russian household where I lived, the subject of conversation at the dinner-table was almost invariably the coming of the Germans, bringing "law and order". One evening I spent at the house of a Moscow merchant; during tea we asked the eleven people at the table whether they preferred "Wilhelm or the Bolsheviki". The vote was ten for Wilhelm.
The speculators took advantage of the universal disorganiza-tion to pile up fortunes, and to spend them in fantastic revelry or the corruption of Government officials. Foodstuff and fuel were hoarded, or secretly sent out of the country to Sweden. In the first four months of the Revolution, for example, the reserve foodsupplies were almost openly looted from the great Municipal warehouses of Petrograd, until the two-years provision of grain had fallen to less than enough to feed the city for one month. According to the official report of the last Minister of Supplies in the Provisional Government, coffee was bought wholesale in Vladivostok for two roubles a pound and the consumer in Petrograd paid thirteen. In all the stores of the large cities were tons of food and clothing; but only the rich could buy them. (J. R.)
6. Professor W. H. Leeman
79 Rigby Drive London
Dorset, Merseyside 10th March 19...
Contributed papers accepted for the Conference will be presented in oral sessions or in poster sessions, each type of presentation being considered of equal importance for the success of the conference. The choice between the one or the other way of presentation will be made by the Programme Committee.
The first is a ten-minute talk in a conventional session, followed by a poster presentation in a poster area. In the poster period (about two hours) authors will post visual material about their work on a designated board and will be prepared to present details and answer questions relating to their paper. The second mode of presentation is the conventional format of twenty-minute talks without poster periods. This will be used for some sessions, particularly those for which public discussion is especially important or for which there is a large well-defined audience.
Sincerely T. W. Thomas, Chairman.
7. My Lord, February 7th, 1755
I have been lately informed, by the proprietor of 'The World", that two papers, in which my "Dictionary" is recommended to the public, were written by your Lordship. To be so distinguished is an honour, which, being very little accustomed to favours from the great, I know not well how to receive or in what terms to acknowledge.
When, with some slight encouragement, I first visited your Lordship, I was overpowered, like the rest of mankind, by the en-chantment of your address, and could not forbear to wish that I might boast myself "Le vainqueur du vainqueur de la terre",-that I might obtain that regard for which I saw the world contending; but I found my attendance so little encouraged that neither pride nor modesty would suffer me to continue it. When I had once addressed your Lordship in public, I had exhausted all the art of pleasing which a retired and uncourtly scholar can possess. I had done all that I could; and no man is well pleased to have his all neglected, be it ever so little.
Seven years, My Lord, have now passed since I waited in your outward rooms or was repulsed from your door; during which time I have been pushing on my work through difficulties, of which it is useless to complain, and have brought it at last to the verge of publication, without one act of assistance, one word of encouragement, or one smile of favour. Such treatment I did not expect, for I never had a patron before. The shepherd in Virgil grew at last acquainted with love, and found him a native of the rocks. Is not a patron, My Lord, one, who looks with unconcern on a man struggling for life in water, and when he has reached ground, encumbers him with help?
The notice you have been pleased to take of my labours, had it been early, had been kind; but it has been delayed till I am indifferent, and cannot enjoy it; till I am solitary and cannot impart it; till I am known and do not want it. I hope it is no very
cynical asperity, not to confess obligations when no benefit has been received; or to be unwilling that the public should consider me as owing that to a patron, which Providence has enabled me to do for myself.
Having carried on my work thus far with so little obligation to any favourer of learning, I shall now be disappointed though I should conclude it, if less be possible, with less; for I have been long wakened from that dream of hope in which I once boasted myself with so much exultation,
Your Lordship's most humble, most obedient Servant Sam Jonson. Liverpool, 17th July 19... .
8. Messrs. M. Worthington & Co., Ltd., Oil Importers, c/o Messrs. Williams & C; Ship Agents, 17 Fenchurch Street, London, E., C, England Dear Sirs,
Re: 9500 tons of Edible Oil under. В/LNos.: 2732, 3734, 4657 m/t Gorky ar'd 16.07.
In connection with your request to start discharging the above cargo first by pumping out bottom layer into barges and then to go on with pumping the rest of the cargo into shore tanks I wish to point out the following.
As per clause of the Bill of Lading "Weight, quantity and quality unknown to me" the carrier is not responsible for the quantity and quality of the goods, but it is our duty to deliver the cargo in the same good order and conditions as located, it means that we are to deliver the cargo in accordance with the measurements taken after loading and in conformity with the samples taken from each tank on completion of loading.
Therefore if you insist upon such a fractional layer discharging of this cargo, I would kindly ask you to send your representative to take joint samples and measurements of each tank, on the understanding that duplicate samples, jointly taken and sealed, will be kept aboard our ship for further reference. The figures, obtained from these measurements and analyses will enable you to give us clean receipts for the cargo in question, after which we shall immediately start discharging the cargo in full compliance with your instructions.
It is, of course, understood, that, inasmuch as such discharging is not in strict compliance with established practice, you will bear all the responsibility, as well as the expenses and / or consequences arising therefrom, which please confirm.
Yours faithfully С. I. Sh....
Master of the m / t Gorky 2.38 p. m.
9. Speech of Viscount Simon of the House of Lords:
Defamation Bill 3.12 p.m.
The noble and learned Earl, Lord Jowitt, made a speech of much persuasiveness on the second reading raising this point, and today as is natural and proper, he has again presented with his usual skill, and I am sure with the greatest sincerity, many of the same considerations. I certainly do not take the view that the argument in this matter is all on the side. One could not possibly say that when one considers that there is considerable academic opinion at the present time in favour of this change and in view of the fact that there are other countries under the British Flag where, I understand, there was a change in the law, to a greater or less degree, in the direction which the noble and learned Earl so earnestly recommends to the House. But just as I am very willing to accept the view that the case for resisting the noble Earl's Amendment is not overwhelming, so I do not think it reasonable that the view should be taken that the argument is practically and considerably the other way. The real truth is that, in framing statuary provisions about the law of defamation, we have to choose the sensible way between two principles, each of which is greatly to be admired but both of which run into some conflict. (July 28, 1952.)
STUDENTS who want a bigger say in the running of univer-sities will be reindorced in their view by the latest effort of the vice-chancellor of Liverpool University and some other academics.
Today these allegedly wise and learned individuals issue, under the patronage of the Right-Wing Institute of Economic Affairs a statement of the "urgency of establishing an inde-pendent university".
By "independent" they mean one which is dependent on finance from rich private individuals and Big Business, instead of from the Government.
It is a monstrous misuse of the English language to claim that such a university would be independent. It would depend entirely on the good will of the rich, and would find its finances cut off immediately if it displeased them.
Universities already have to rely too much on Big Business sources of finance, including from US and other firms engaged in war preparations.
Whatever criticisms there may be about the Government's part in their finance at any rate there is some possibility of democratic control over the public money allocated to the universities.
There would be none if it all came as a result of boardroom decisions (M. St.)
11. Great March for Black-White Solidarity
Britain's labour movement embarked in united force on the fight against racism when 25,000 people demonstrated in London yesterday to affirm their solidarity with black workers.
Their march from Hyde Park to Trafalgar Square gave a sample of the massive strength which the movement can mobilize to crash an evil which one speaker warned had become "almost institutionalized" in Britain.
The broad array of speakers in the square and of mass organi-zations on the march also showed this movement's potential might when it acts in unity.
It was the same point made four days earlier by another in London in which 80,000 people demonstrated against government cuts in public spending.
A hundred Labour Party, TUC and black people's leaders were at the front of yesterday's, as it headed out of the park behind a "United Against Racism" banner.
As the head of the column reached Piccadilly Circus, marchers six and eight abreast were still leaving the park. A vast number of red, white and gold union and other banners, too many to list, glinted in the sun.
Among them, too, came student branches from many colleges and universities, Labour and Communist Party organizations.
Various Indian workers' associations, the standing Conference of Pakistanis, The South African Congress of Trade Unions, and many other bodies were also represented on the march. (M. St.)
12. In most countries, foreign languages have traditionally
been taught for a small number of hours per week, but for
several years on end. Modern thought on this matter suggests that
telescoping language courses brings a number of unexpected
advantages. Thus it seems that a course of 500 hours spread over
five years is much less effective than the same course spread
over one year, while if it were concentrated into six months it
might produce outstanding results. One crucial factor here is the
reduction in opportunities for forgetting; however, quite apart
from the difficulty of making the time in school time-tables when
some other subject would inevitably have to be reduced, there is
a limit to the intensity of language teaching which individuals can
tolerate over a protracted period. It is clear that such a limit
exists; it is not known in detail how the limit varies for different individuals, nor for different age-groups, and research into these factors is urgently needed. At any rate, a larger total number of hours per week and a tendency towards more frequent teaching periods are the two aspects of intensity which are at present being tried out in many places, with generally encouraging results (P. St.)
13. I deal with farmers, things like dips and feed.
Every third month I book myself in at
The Hotel in ton for three days.
The boots carries my lean old leather case
Up to a single, where I hang my hat.
One beer, and then "the dinner", at which I read
The shire Times from soup to stewed pears.
Births, deaths. For sale. Police court. Motor spares
Afterwards, whisky in the Smoke Room:.Clough,
Margetts, the Captain, Dr. Watterson:
Who makes ends meet, who's taking the knock,
Government tariffs, wages, price of stock.
Smoke hangs under the light. The pictures on
The walls are comic-hunting, the trenches, stuff
Nobody minds or notices. A sound
Of dominoes from the Bar. I stand a round. (Ph. L.)
14. Between my finger and my thumb
The squat pen rests; snug as a gun.
Under my window, a clean rasping sound
When the spade sinks into gravelly ground:
My father, digging, I look down.
Till his straining rump among the flowerbeds Bends low, comes up twenty years away Stooping in rhythm through potato drills Where he was digging.
The coarse boot nestled on the lug, the shaft
Against the inside knee was levered firmly.
He rooted out tall tops, buried the bright edge deep
To scatter new potatoes that we picked
Loving their cool hardness in our hands.
My God, the old man could handle a spade. Just like his old man. (S. H.)
Assignments for Self-Control
3. Enumerate functional styles of contemporary English.
10. Can you think of any intermediate styles, boasting of
qualities of two or even more "regular" styles?
Now, after you have learnt the intricacies of stylistic func-tioning of language units of different linguistic levels, we can try and analyze their convergence, which enhances and strengthens the given information and - still more important - creates the new, additional meaning of the message.
Starting on the road of stylistic analysis you should keep in mind at least three basic essentials:
3. Paying due respect to linguistic intuition which is an
indispensable part of all linguistic work, be sure to look for
the source of your "feeling of the text" in the material reality
of the latter.
SUPPLEMENT 1. SAMPLES OF STYLISTIC ANALYSIS
1. My dad had a small insurance agency in Newport. He had moved there because his sister had married old Newport money and was a big wheel in the Preservation Society. At fifteen I'm an orphan, and Vic moves in. "From now on you'll do as I tell you," he says. It impressed me. Vic had never really shown any muscle before. (N. T.)
The first person singular pronouns indicate that we deal either with the entrusted narrative or with the personage's uttered monologue.
The communicative situation is highly informal. The vocab-ulary includes not only standard colloquial words and expressions such as "dad", "to show muscle" (which is based on metonymy), the intensifying, "really", but also the substandard metaphor-"a big wheel". The latter also indicates the lack of respect of the speaker towards his aunt, which is further sustained by his metonymical qualification of her husband ("old Newport money").
The syntax, too, participates in conveying the atmosphere of colloquial informality - sentences are predominantly short. Structures are either simple or, even when consisting of two clauses, offer the least complicated cases of subordination.
The change of tenses registers changes in the chronology of narrated events. Especially conspicuous is the introduction of Pres-ent Indefinite (Simple) Tense, which creates the effect of immediacy and nearness of some particular moment, which, in its turn, signifies the importance of this event, thus foregrounding it, bringing it into the limelight - and making it the logical and emotional centre of the discourse.
2. He had heard everything the Boy said however - was
waiting for the right moment to wrap up his silence, roll
it into a weapon and hit Matty over the head with it.
He did so now. (W. Gl.)
In this short extract from W. Golding's Darkness Visible the appearance of a person who was an unnoticed witness to a conver-sation is described. The unexpectedness of his emergence is identified with the blow in the sustained metaphor which consists of three individual verb metaphors showing stages of an aggressive action.
The abrupt change of sentence length and structure contributes to the expressiveness of the passage.
3. And out of the quiet it came to Abramovici that the
battle was over, it had left him alive; it had been a battle -
a battle! You know where people go out and push little
buttons and pull little triggers and figure out targets
and aim with the intention to kill, to tear your guts,
to blow out your brains, to put great ragged holes in the
body you've been taking care of and feeding and washing
all your life, holes out of which your blood comes pouring,
more blood than you ever could wash off, hold back, stop
with all the bandages in the world! (St. H.)
Here we deal with the change of the type of narration: from the author's narrative, starting the paragraph, to represented inner speech of the character. The transition tells on the vocabulary which becomes more colloquial (cf. "guts") and more emotional (cf. the hyperbole "all the bandages in the world"); on the syntax brimming with parallelisms; on the punctuation passing on to the emphatic points of exclamation and dashes; on the morphology. "Naive" periphrases are used to describe the act of firing and its deadly effect. Third person pronouns give way to the second person ("you", "your") embracing both communicants - the personage (author) and the reader, establishing close links between them, involving the reader into the feelings and sentiments of the character.
Very important is repetition. Besides syntactical repetition (parallelism) mentioned above, pay attention to the repetition of "battle", because it is this word which on the one hand, actually marks the shift from one type of narration to another (the first "battle" bringing in the author's voice, the last two - that of Abramovici). On the other hand, the repetition creates continuity and cohesion and allows the two voices merge, making the transition smooth and almost imperceptible.
4. “This is Willie Stark, gents. From up home at Mason
City. Me and Willie was in school together. Yeah, and
Willie, he was a bookworm, and he was teacher's pet.
Wuzn't you, Willie?" And Alex nudged the teacher's
pet in the ribs. (R. W.)
Alex's little speech gives a fair characteristic of the speaker. The substandard "gents", colloquial "me", irregularities of grammar ("me and Willie was"), pronunciation (graphon "wuzn't"), syntax ("Willie, he was"), abundance of set phrases ("he was a bookworm", "he was a teacher's pet", "from up home") - all this shows the low educational and cultural level of the speaker.
It is very important that such a man introduces the beginning politician to his future voters and followers. In this way R. P. War-ren stresses the gap between the aspiring and ambitious, but very common and run-of-the-mill young man starting on his political career, and the false and ruthless experienced politician in the end of this road.
Note the author's sympathy towards the young Stark which is seen from the periphrastic nomination of the protagonist ("teacher's pet") in the author's final remark.
5. From that day on, thundering trains loomed in his
dreams - hurtling, sleek, black monsters whose stack pipes
belched gobs of serpentine smoke, whose seething fireboxes coughed out clouds of pink sparks, whose pushing pistons sprayed jets of hissing steam - panting trains that roared yammeringly over farflung, gleaming rails only to come to limp and convulsive halts-long, fearful trains that were hauled brutally forward by red-eyed locomotives that you loved watching as they (and you trembling) crashed past (and you longing to run but finding your feet strangely glued to the ground). (Wr.)
This paragraph from Richard Wright is a description into which the character's voice is gradually introduced first through the second person pronoun "you", later also graphically and syntactically - through the so-called embedded sentences, which explicitly describe the personage's emotions.
The paragraph is dominated by the sustained metaphor "trains" = "monsters". Each clause of this long (the length of this one sentence, constituting a whole paragraph, is over 90 words) structure contains its own verb-metaphor - "belched", "coughed out", "sprayed", etc., metaphorical epithets contributing to the image of the monster - "thundering", "hurtling", "seething", "pushing", "hissing", etc. Their participial form also helps to convey the effect of dynamic motion. The latter is inseparable from the deafening noise, and besides "roared", "thundering", "hissing", there is onomatopoeic "yammeringly".
The paragraph abounds in epithets - single (e. g. "serpentine smoke"), pairs (e. g. "farflung, gleaming rails"), strings ("hurtling, sleek, black monsters"), expressed not only by the traditional adjectives and participles but also by qualitative adverbs ("brutally", "yammeringly"). Many epithets, as it was mentioned before, are metaphorical, included into the formation of the sustained metaphor. The latter besides the developed central image of the monstrous train, consists of at least two minor ones-"red-eyed locomotives", "limp and convulsive halts".
The syntax of the sentence-paragraph shows several groups of parallel constructions, reinforced by various types of repetitions (morphological - of the -ing-suffix, caused by the use of eleven participles; anaphoric - of "whose"; thematic - of the word "train"). All the parallelisms and repetitions create a definitely perceived rhythm of the passage which adds to the general effect of dynamic motion.
Taken together, the abundance of verbs and verbals denoting fast and noisy action, having a negative connotation, of onomat-opoeic words, of repetitions - all of these phonetic, morpholo-gical, lexical and syntactical means create a threatening and
formidable image of the description, which both frightens and fascinates the protagonist.
SUPPLEMENT 2. Extracts for Comprehensive Stylistic Analysis
4. Scobie turned up James Street past the Secretariat. With its long balconies it has always reminded him of a hospital. For fifteen years he had watched the arrival of a succession of patients; periodically at the end of eighteen months certain patients were sent home, yellow and nervy and others took their place-Colonial Secretaries, Secretaries of Agriculture, Treasurers and Directors of Public Works. He watched their -temperature charts every one - the first outbreak of unreasonable temper, the drink too many, the sudden attack for principle after a year of acquiescence. The black clerks carried their bedside manner like doctors down the corridors; cheerful and respectful they put up with any insult. The patient was always right. (Gr. Gr.)
5. In a very few minutes an ambulance came, the team was told all the nothing that was known about the child and he was driven away, the ambulance bell ringing, unnecessarily. (W. Gl.)
The walls have a hundred gates of solid bronze. We went in by the Royal Way, lined with banners and standards, with Magi holding fire-altars, with trumpeters and praise-singers, with satraps and commanders. Further on was the army; the walls of Babylon enclose a whole countryside. All its parks can grow grain in case of siege; it is watered from the Euphrates. An impregnable city.
The King entered in his chariot. He made a fine figure, overtopping by half a head his charioteer, shining in white and purple. The Babylonians roared their acclamation, as he drove off with a train of lords and satraps to show himself to the army. ( M.R.)
9. You know a lot of trouble has been caused by memoirs.
Indiscreet revelations, that sort of thing. People who have been
close as an oyster all their lives seem positively to relish causing
trouble when they themselves will be comfortably dead. It gives
them a kind of malicious glee. (Ch.)
"I'm not going to be a part of any peacetime of yours. I'm going a long way from here and make my own world that's fit for a man to live in. Where a man can be free, and have a chance, and do what he wants to do in his own way," Henry said.
"Henry, let's try again."
“Try what? Living here? Speaking polite down to all the old men like you? Standing like sheep at the street corner until - the red light turns to green? Being a good boy and a good sheep, like all the stinking ideas you get out your books? Oh, no! I'll make a world, and I'll show you." (Th. W.)
12. I began to think how little I had saved, how long a time it took to save at all, how short a time I might have at my age to live, and how she would be left to the rough mercies of the world. (D.)
13. She was sitting down with the "Good Earth" in front of her.
She put it aside the moment she made her decision, got up and
went to the closet where perched on things that looked like huge
wooden collar-buttons. She took two hats, tried on both of them,
and went back to the closet and took out a third, which she kept
on. Gloves, purse, cigarette extinguished, and she was ready to
14. "How long have you known him? What's he like?"
"Since Christmas. He's from Seattle and he spent Christmas
with friends of mine in Greenwich is how I happened to meet him. I sat next to him at dinner the night after Christmas, and he was the quiet type, I thought. He looked to be the quiet type. So I found out what he did and I began talking about gastroentero-
stomies and stuff and he just sat there and nodded all the time I was talking. You know, when I was going to be a nurse a year before last. Finally I said something to him. I asked him if by any chance he was listening to what I was saying, or bored, or what? 'No, not bored,' he said. 'Just cockeyed.' And he was. Cockeyed. It seems so long ago and so hard to believe we were ever strangers like that, but that's how I met him, or my first conver-sation with him. Actually he's very good. His family have loads of money from the lumber business and I've never seen anything like the way he spends money. But only when it doesn't interfere with his work at P. and S. He has a Packard that he keeps in Greenwich and hardly ever uses except when he comes to see me. He was a marvellous basket-ball player at Dartmouth and two weeks ago when he came up to our house he hadn't had a golf stick in his hands since last summer and he went out and shot an eighty-seven. He's very homely, but he has this dry sense of humor that at first you don't quite know whether he's even listening to you, but the things he says. Sometimes I think - oh, not really, but a stranger overhearing him might suggest sending him to an alienist." (J. O'H.)
body that he had not long been familiar with the driving seat of an automobile. Once, in, he relaxed, then, collecting his scattered members, arranged his feet and hands as Mark had patiently instructed him. (Th. S.)
18. It was a marvellous day in late August, and Wimsey's
soul purred within him as he pushed the car along. The road from
Kirkcudbright to Newton-Stuart is of a varied loveliness hard to
surpass, and with the sky full of bright sun and rolling cloud-banks,
hedges filled with flowers, a well-made road, a lively engine and
a prospect of a good corpse at the end of it, Lord Peter's cup of
happiness was full. He was a man who loved simple pleasures.
He passed through Gatehouse, waving a cheerful hand to the proprietor of Antworth Hotel, climbed up beneath the grim blackness of Cardoness Castle, drank in for the thousandth time the strange Japanese beauty of Mossyard Farm, set like a red jewel under its tufted trees on the blue sea's rim, and the Italian loveliness of Kirkdale, with its fringe of thin and twisted trees and the blue coast gleaming across the way. (D. S.)
21. He leaned his elbows on the porch ledge and stood looking
down through the screens at the familiar scene of the barracks
square laid out below with the tiers of porches dark in the faces
of the three-story concrete barracks fronting on the square.
He was feeling a half-sheepish affection for his vantage point that
he was leaving.
Below him under the blows of the February Hawaiian sun the quadrangle gasped defencelessly, like an exhausted fighter. Through the heat haze the thin midmorning film of the parched red dust came up a muted orchestra of sounds: the clanking of steel-wheeled carts bouncing over brick, the slappings of oiled leather sling-straps, the shuffling beat of shoesoles, the hoarse expletive of irritated noncoms. (J.)
22. Around noon the last shivering wedding guest arrived at
the farmhouse: then for all the miles around nothing moved on
the gale-haunted moors - neither carriage, wagon, nor human figure. The road wound emptily over the low hills. The gray day turned still colder, and invisible clouds of air began to stir slowly in great icy swaths, as if signalling some convulsive change beyond the sky. From across the downs came the boom of surf against the island cliffs. Within an hour the sea wind rose to a steady moan, and then within the next hour rose still more to become a screaming ocean of air.
Ribbons of shouted laughter and music - wild waltzes and reels streamed thinly from the house, but all the wedding sounds were engulfed, drowned and then lost in the steady roar of the gale. Finally, at three o'clock, spits of snow became a steady swirl of white that obscured the landscape more thoroughly than any fog that had ever rolled in from the sea. (M. W.)
23. There was an area east of the Isle of Dogs in London which
was an unusual mixture even for those surroundings. Among the
walled-off rectangles of water, the warehouses, railway lines and
travelling cranes, were two streets of mean houses with two pubs
and two shops among them. The bulks of tramp steamers hung
over the houses where there had been as many languages spoken
as families that lived there. But just now not much was being
said, for the whole area had been evacuated officially and even
a ship that was hit and set on fire had few spectators near it.
There was a kind of tent in the sky over London, which was
composed of the faint white beams of searchlights, with barrage
balloons dotted here and there. The barrage balloons were all that
the searchlights discovered in the sky, and the bombs came down,
it seemed, mysteriously out of emptiness. They fell round the
The men at the edge of the fire could only watch it burn, out of control. The drone of the bombers was dying away. The five-mile-high tent of chalky lights had disappeared, been struck all at once, but the light of the great fire was bright as ever, brighter perhaps. Now the pink aura of it had spread. Saffron and ochre turned to blood-colour. The shivering of the white heart of the fire had quickened beyond the capacity of the eye to analyse it into an outrageous glare. High above the glare and visible now for the first time between two pillars of lighted smoke was the steely and untouched round of the full moon - the lover's, hunter's, poet's moon; and now - an ancient and severe goddess credited with a new function and a new title - the bomber's moon. She was Artemis of the bombers, more pitiless than ever before. (W. Gl.)
Madrid is quiet now. Aragon is the active front. There is little fighting around Madrid except mining and countermining, trench raiding, trench mortar strafing and sniping in the stalemate of constant siege warfare going on in Carabanchel, Usera and Univer-
sity City. The cities are shelled very little. Some days there is no shelling and the weather is beautiful and the streets crowded. Shops full of clothing, jewelry stores, camera shops, picture dealers, antiquarians are all open and cafes and bars are crowded. Beer is scarce and whisky is almost unobtainable. The store windows are full of Spanish imitations of all cordials, whiskys, vermouths. These are not recommended for internal use though I am employing something called Milords Ecosses Whisky on my face after shaving. It swarts a little but feels very hygienic. I believe it would be a possible cure for athlete's foot, but one must be very careful not to spill it on one's clothes because it eats wool.
The crowds are cheerful and the sandbagged-fronted cinemas are crowded every afternoon. The nearer one gets to the front, the more cheerful and optimistic the people are. At the front itself optimism reaches such a point that, very much against my good judgement, I was induced to go swimming in a small river forming No Man's Land on the Guenca. The river was a fast flowing stream, very chilly and completely dominated by the Fascist positions, which made me even chiller. I became so chilly at the idea of swimming in the river at all under the circum-stances that when I actually entered the water it felt rather pleasant. But it felt even pleasanter to get out of the water and behind a tree. At this moment a Government officer, who was a member of the optimistic swimming party shot a watersnake with his pistol, hitting it on the third shot. This brought a reprimand from another not so completely optimistic officer member who asked what he wanted to do with that shooting, get the machine-guns turned on us? We shot no more snakes that day but I saw three trout in the stream which would weigh over four pound apiece. Heavy old deep-sided ones that rolled up to take the grasshoppers I threw them, making swirls in the water as deep as though you had dropped a paving stone into the stream. All along the stream where no road ever led until the war you could see trout, small ones in the shallows and the bigger kind in the pools and in the shadows of the bank. It is a river worth fighting for, but just a little cold for swimming.
At this moment a shell has just alighted on a house up the street from the hotel where I am typing this. A little boy is crying in the street. A Militiaman has picked him and is comforting him. There is no one killed in our street and the people who started to run slowed down and grin nervously. The one who never started to run at all looks at the others in a very superior way, and the town we are living in now is called Madrid. (H.)
26. And then he remembered that he did not love Gloria. He could not love a common thief. She was a common thief, too. You could see that in her face. There was something in her face, some unconventional thing along with the rest of her beauty, her mouth and eyes and nose - somewhere around the eyes, perhaps, or was it the mouth? - she did not have the conventional look. Emily, yes, Emily had it. He could look at Emily dispassionately, impersonally, as though he did not know her - objectively? wasn't it called? He could look at her and see how much she looked like dozens of girls who had been born and brought up as she had been. You saw them at the theatres, at the best cabarets and speakeasies, at the good clubs on Long Island - and then you saw the same girls, the same women, dressed the same, differing only in the accent of their speech, at clubs in other cities, at horse shows and football games and dances, at Junior League conventions. Emily, he decided after eighteen years of marriage, was a type. And he knew why she was a type, or he knew the thing that made the difference in the look of a girl like Gloria. Gloria led a certain kind of life, a sordid life; drinking and sleeping with men and God knows what all, and had seen more of "life" than Emily ever possibly would see. Whereas Emily had been brought up a certain way, always accustomed to money and the good ways of spending it. In other words, all her life Emily had been looking at nice things, nice houses, cars, pictures, grounds, clothes, people. Things that were easy to look at, and people that were easy to look at: with healthy complexions and good teeth, people who had had pasturized milk to drink and proper food all their lives from the time they were infants; people who lived in houses that were kept clean, and painted when paint was needed, who took care of their minds, were taken care of: and they got the look that Emily and girls-women like her had. Whereas Gloria - well, take for instance the people she was with the night he saw her two nights ago, the first night he went out with her. The man that liked to eat, for instance. Where did he come from? He might have come from the Ghetto. Ligget happened to know that there were places in the slums where eighty families would use the same outside toilet. A little thing, but imagine what it must look like! Imagine having spent your formative years living like, well, somewhat the way you lived in the Army. Imagine what effect that would have on your mind. And of course a thing like that didn't only affect your mind: it showed in your face, absolutely. Not that it was so obvious in Gloria's case. She had good teeth and a good complexion and a healthy body but there was something wrong somewhere. She had not gone to the very best schools, for instance. A little thing perhaps, but important.
Her family - he didn't know anything about them; just that she lived with her mother and her mother's brother. Maybe she was a bastard. That was possible. She could be a bastard. That can happen in this country. Maybe her mother was never married. Sure, that could happen in this country. He never heard of it except among poor people and Gloria's family were not poor. But why couldn't it happen in this country? The first time he and Emily ever stayed together they took a chance on having children, and in those days people didn't know as much about not getting caught as they do today. Gloria was even older than Ruth so maybe her mother had done just what Emily had done, with no luck. Maybe Gloria's father was killed in a railroad accident or something, intending to marry Gloria's mother, but on the night he first stayed with her, maybe on his way home he was killed by an automobile or a hold-up man, or something. It could happen. There was a fellow in New Haven that was very mysterious about his family. His mother was on the stage, and nothing was ever said about his father. Liggett wished now that he had known the fellow better. Now he couldn't remember the fellow's name, but some of the fellows in Liggett's crowd had wondered about this What's-His-Name. He drew for the "Record". An artist. Well, bastards were always talented people. Some of the most famous men in history were bastards. Not bastards in any de-rogatory sense of the word, but love children. (How awful to be a love child. It'd be better to be a bastard. If I were a bastard I'd rather be called a bastard than a love child.) Now Gloria, she drew or painted. She was interested in art. And she certainly knew a lot of funny people. She knew that bunch of kids from New Haven, young Billy and those kids. But anybody could meet them, and anybody could meet Gloria. God damn it! That was the worst of it! Anybody could meet Gloria. He thought that all through dinner, looking at his wife, his two daughters, seeing in their faces the thing he had been thinking about a proper upbringing and looking at nice things and what it does to your face. He saw them, and he thought of Gloria, and that anybody could meet Gloria, and any-body, somebody she picked up in a speakeasy somewhere, probably was with her now, this minute.
"I don't think I'll wait for dessert," he said. (J. O'H.)
27. But by the time he had said that, Matty was rapt, gazing at the glass on the three other walls. It was all mirror, even the backs of the doors, and it was not just plain minors, it distorted so that Matty saw himself half a dozen times, pulled out sideways and squashed down from above; and Mr. Hanrahan was the shape of a sofa.
"Ha," said Mr. Hanrahan. "You're admiring my bits of glass I see. Isn't that a good idea for a daily mortification of sinful pride? Mrs. Hanrahan! Where are you?"
Mrs. Hanrahan appeared as if materialized, for what with the window and the mirrors a door opening here or there was little more than a watery conflux of light. She was thinner than Matty, shorter than Mr. Hanrahan and had an air of having been used up.
"What is it, Mr. Hanrahan?"
"Here he is, I've found him!"
"Oh the poor man with his mended face!"
"I'll teach them, the awesome frivolity of it, wanting a man about the place! Girls! Come here, the lot of you!"
Then there was a watery conflux in various parts of the wall, some darkness and here and there a dazzle of light.
"My seven girls," cried Mr. Hanrahan, counting them busily. "You wanted a man about the place, did you? Too many females were there? Not a young man for a mile! I'll teach you! Here's the new man about the place! Take a good look at him!"
The girls had formed into a semicircle. There were the twins Francesca and Teresa, hardly out of the cradle, but pretty. Matty instinctively held his hand so that they should not be frightened by his left side which they could see. There was Bridget, rather taller and pretty and peering short-sightedly, and there was Berna-dette who was taller and prettier and wholly nubile, and there was Cecilia who was shorter and just as pretty and nubiler if anything, and there was Gabriel Jane, turner-of-heads-in-the-street, and there was the firstborn, dressed for a barbecue, Mary Michael: and whoever looked on Mary Michael was lost. (W. Gl.)
28. Never had there been so full an assembly, for mysteriously united in spite of all their differences, they had taken arms against a common peril. Like cattle when a dog comes into the field, they stood head to head and shoulder to shoulder, prepared to run upon and trample the invader to death. They had come, too, no doubt, to get some notion of what sort of presents they would ultimately be expected to give; for though the question of wedding gifts was usually graduated in this way - "What are you givin'? Nicholas is givin' spoons!" - so very much depended on the bridegroom. If he were sleek, well-brushed, prosperous-looking, it was more necessary to give him nice things; he would expect them. In the end each gave exactly what was right and proper, by a species of family adjustement arrived at as prices are arrived at on the Stock Exchange - the exact niceties being regulated at Timothy's commodious, red-brick residence in Bayswater, over-looking the Park, where dwelt Aunts Ann, Juley and Hester.
The uneasiness of the Forsyte family has been justified by the simple mention of the hat. How impossible and wrong would it have been for any family, with the regard for appearances which should ever characterize the great upper-middle class to feel otherwise than uneasy!
The author of the uneasiness stood talking to June by the further door; his curly hair had a rumpled appearance as though he found what was going on around him unusual. He had an air, too, of having a joke all to himself.
George, speaking aside to his brother Eustace, said: "looks as if he might make a bolt of it - the dashing Buccaneer!" This "very singular-looking man", as Mrs. Small afterwards called him, was of medium height and strong build with a pale, brown face, a dust coloured moustache, very prominent cheekbones, and hollow cheeks. His forehead sloped back towards the crown of his head, and bulged out in bumps over the eyes, like forehead seen in the lion-house at the Zoo. He had cherry-coloured eyes, disconcertingly inattentive at times. Old Jolyon's coachman, after driving June and Bosinney to the theatre, had remarked to the butler:
"I dunno what to make of'im. Looks to me for all the world like an'alf-tame leopard."
And every now and then a Forsyte would come up, sidle round, and take a look at him. June stood in front, fending off this idle curiosity - a little bit of a thing, as somebody once said, "all hair and spirit", with fearless blue eyes, a firm jaw, and a bright colour, whose face and body seemed too slender for her crown of red-gold hair.
A tall woman, with a beautiful figure, which some member of the family had once compared to a heathen goddess, stood looking at these with a shadowy smile. Her hands, gloved in French grey, were crossed one over the other, her grave, charming face held to one side, and the eyes of all men near were fastened on it. Her figure swayed, so balanced that the very air seemed to set it moving. There was warmth, but little colour, in her cheeks; her large, dark eyes were soft. But it was at her lips - asking a question, giving an answer, with that shadowy smile -that men looked; they were sensitive lips, sensuous and sweet, and through them seemed to come warmth and perfume of a flower.
The engaged couple thus scrutinized were unconscious of this passive goddess. (G.)
29. Tom told them of another famous escaped slavewoman. "She named Harriet Tubman. Ain't no tellin' how many times
she come back South an' led out different whole bunches o' folks like us to freedom up Nawth on sump'n dey's callin' de "Unnergroun' Rairoad". Fac', she done it so much dey claims by now white folks got out forty thousand dollars' worth o' rewards fo' her, alive or dead."
"Lawd have mercy, wouldn't o' thought white folks pay dat much to catch no nigger in de worl!" said Sister Sarah.
He told them that in a far-distant state called California, two white men were said to have been building a sawmill when they discovered an unbelievable wealth of gold in the ground, and thousands of people were said to be rushing in in wagons, on mules, even afoot to reach the place where it was claimed that gold could be dug up by the shovelful.
He said finally that in the North great debates on the subject of slavery were being held between two white men named Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln.
"Which one 'em for de niggers?" asked Gran'mammy Kizzy.
"Well, soun' like de Massa Lincoln, leas'ways de bes' I can tell," said Tom.
"Well, praise de Lawd an' give 'im stren'th" said Kizzy.
Sucking his teeth, Chicken George got up patting his ample belly and turned to Tom. "Looka here, boy, why'n't you'n me stretch our legs, walk off some dat meal?"
"Yassuh, Pappy," Tom almost stammered, scarcely able to conceal his amazement and trying to act casual.
The women, who were no less startled, exchanged quizzical, significant glances when Chicken George and Tom set off together down the road. Sister Sarah exclaimed softly, 'Lawd, y'all realize dat boy done growed nigh as his daddy!" James and Lewis stared after their father and older brother nearly sick with envy, but they knew better than to invite themselves along. But the two younger girls, L'il Kizzy and Mary, couldn't resist leaping up and happily starting to hop-skip along eight or ten steps behind them.
Without even looking back at them, Chicken George ordered, "Git on back younder an' he'p y'all's mammy wid dem dishes'."
"Aw, Pappy," they whined in unison.
"Git, done tol' you."
Half turning around his eyes loving his little sisters, Tom chided them gently, "Ain't y'all hear Pappy? We see you later on."
With the girls' complaining sounds behind them, they walked on in silence for a little way and Chicken George spoke almost gruffly. "Looka here, reckon you know I ain't meant no harm jes'teasin' you a l'il at dinner."
"Aw, nawsuh," Tom said, privately astounded at what
amounted to an apology from his father. "I knowed you was jes' teasin'."
Grunting, Chicken George said, "What say we head on down an' look in on dem chickens? See what keepin' dat nocount L'il George down dere so long. All I knows, he mighta cooked an' et up some dem chickens fo' his Thankagivin' by now."
Tom laughed. "L'il George mean well, Pappy. He jes' a l'il slow. He done tol' me he jes' don' love dem birds like you does." Tom paused, then decided to venture his accompanying thought. "I 'speck nobody in de worl' loves dem birds like you does."
But Chicken George agreed readily enough. "Nobody in dis fa-mily, anyways. I done tried 'em all 'ceptin 'you. Seem like all de res' my boys willin' to spend dey lives draggin' from one end of a fiel' to de other, lookin' up a mule' butt'." He considered for a moment. "Yo' blacksmithin', wouldn't 'zackly call dat no high livin' neither-nothin' like gamecoclin' - but leas' ways it's a man's work."
Tom wondered if his father ever seriously respected anything excepting fighting chickens. He felt deeply grateful that somehow he had escaped into the solid, stable trade of blacksmithing. But he expressed his thoughts in an oblique way. "Don't see nothin' wrong wid farmin', Pappy. If some folks wasn't farming, 'speck nobody wouldn't be eatin'. I jes' took to blacksmithin' same as you wid gamecoclin', 'cause I loves it, an' de Lawd gimme a knack fo' it. Jes' ever'body don' love de same things."
"Well, leas' you an' me got sense to make money doin' what we likes," said Chicken George. (Al. H.)
30. It was a flaking three-storey house in the ancient part of the city, a century old if it was a day, but like all houses it had been given a thin fireproof plastic sheath many years ago, and this preservative shell seemed to be the only thing holding it in the sky.
"Here we are."
The engine slammed to a stop. Beatty, Stoneman and Black ran up the sidewalk, suddenly odious and fat in the plump fireproof slickers. Montag followed.
They crashed the front door and grabbed at a woman, though she was not running, she was not trying to escape. She was only standing, weaving from side to side, her eyes fixed upon a nothingness in the wall as if they had struck her a terrible blow upon the head. Her tongue was moving in her mouth, and her eyes seemed to be trying to remember something.
Next thing they were up in musty blackness, swinging silver hatchets at doors that were, after all, unlocked, tumbling through
like boys all rollic and shout. "Hey!" A fountain of books sprang down upon Montag as he climbed shuddering up the sheer stair-well. How inconvenient! Always before it had been like snuffing a candle. The police went first and adhesive-taped the victim's mouth and bandaged him off into their glittering beetle cars, so when you arrived you found an empty house. You weren't hurting anyone, you were hurting only things! And since things really couldn't be hurt, since things felt nothing, and things don't scream and cry out, there was nothing to tease your conscience later. You were simply cleaning up. Janitorial work, essentially. Everything to its proper place. Quick with the kerosene! Who's got a match?
But now, tonight, someone had slipped. This woman was spoiling the ritual. The men were making too much noise, laughing, joking to cover her terrible accusing silence below. She made the empty rooms roar with accusation and shake down a fine dust of guilt that was sucked in their nostrils as they plunged about. It was neither cricket nor correct. Montag felt an immense irritation. She shouldn't be here, on top of everything!
Books bombarded his shoulders, his arms, his upturned face. A book alighted, almost obediently, like a white pigeon, in his hands, wings fluttering. In the dim, wavering light, a page hung open and it was like a snowy feather, the words delicately painted thereon. In all the rush and fervour, Montag had only an instant to read a line, but it blazed in his mind for the next minute as if stamped there with fiery steel. 'Time has fallen asleep in the. afternoon sunshine." He dropped the book. Immediately, another fell into his arms.
"Montag, up here!"
Montag's hand closed like a mouth, crushed the book with wild devotion, with an insanity of mindlessness to his chest. The men above were hurling shovelfuls of magazines into the dusty air. They fell like slaughtered birds and the woman stood below, like a small girl, among the bodies.
Montag had done nothing. His hand had done it all, his hand, with a brain of its own, with a conscience and a curiosity in each trembling finger, had turned thief. Now, it plunged the book back under his arm, pressed it tight to sweating armpit, rushed out empty, with a magician's flourish! Look here! Innocent! Look!
He gazed, shaken, at that white hand. He held it way out, as if he were far-sighted. He held it close, as if he were blind.
He jerked about.
"Don't stand there, idiot!"
The books lay like great mounds of fishes left to dry. The men
danced and slipped and fell over them. Titles glittered their golden eyes falling, gone.
They pumped the cold fluid from the numbered 451 tanks strapped to their shoulders. They coated each book, they pumped rooms full of it.
They hurried downstairs, Montag staggered after them in the kerosene fumes.
"Come on, woman!"
The woman knelt among the books, touching the drenched leather and cardboard, reading the gilt titles with her fingers while her eyes accused Montag.
"You can't ever have my books," she said.
"You know the law," said Beatty. "Where's your common sense? None of those books agree with each other. You've been locked up here for years with a regular damned Tower of Babel. Snap out of it. The people in those books never lived. Come on now!"
She shook her head.
"The whole house is going up," said Beatty.
The men walked clumsily to the door. They glanced back at Montag; who stood near the woman.
"You're not leaving her here?" he protested.
"She won't come."
"Force her, then!"
Beatty raised his hand in which was concealed the igniter. "We're due back at the house. Besides, these fanatics always try suicide; the pattern's familiar."
Montag placed his hand on the woman's elbow. "You can come with me."
"No," she said. 'Thank you, anyway."
"I'm counting to ten," said Beatty. "One. Two."
"Please," said Montag.
"Go on," said the woman.
"Here." Montag pulled at the woman.
The woman replied quietly. "I want to stay here."
"You can't stop counting," she said. She opened the fingers of one hand slightly and in the palm of the hand was a single slender object.
An ordinary kitchen match.
The sight of it rushed the men out and down away from the house. Captain Beatty, keeping his dignity, backed slowly through the front door, his pink face burnt and shiny from a thousand
fires and night excitements. God, thought Montag, how true! Always at night the alarm comes. Never by day! Is it because the fire is prettier by night? More spectacle, a better show? The pink face of Beatty now showed the faintest panic in the door. The woman's hand twitched on the single matchstick. The fumes of kerosene bloomed up about her. Montag felt the hidden book pound like a heart against his chest. (R. Br.)
LIST OF AUTHORS WHOSE TEXTS WERE USED IN EXERCISES
A. B. - A. Bennett
A. C. A. Cronin
A. Cl. - A. Clarke
A. Col. - A. Collins
A. H. - A. Huxley
A. Hl. - A. Hailey
A. M. - A. Miller
A. S. - A. Saxton
A. T. - A. Tolkien
A. W. - A. Wesker
AI. H. - A. Haley
AI.-M. - A. Maltz
B. - G. G. Byron
B. Ch. - B. Charlestone
B. D.- B. Davidson
B. Db. - B. Dobree
B. M. - B. Malamud
B. N. - Bev. Nichols
B.-Sh. - B. Shaw
Bark. - A. Barker
Bol. - D. Bolingbroke
Br. B. - Br. Behan
C. - D. Carter
С D. - A. Conan Doyle
С H. - С Holmes
С R. - С Rosenberg
Ch. - A. Christie
Ch. Br. - Ch. Bronte
Ch. R. - Children's Rhymes
Ch. T. - Ch. Taylor
D. - Ch. Dickens
D. B. - D. Barthelme
D. С - D. Cusack
D. D. - D. Defoe
D. du M. - D. du Maurier
D. H. L. - D. H. Lawrence
D. L. - D. Lessing
D. P. - D. Parker
D. S. - D. Sayers
D. Th. - D. Thomas
D. U. - D. Uhnak
Dr. - Th. Dreiser
E. - Y. Esar
E. A. - E. Albey
Е. Вг. - Е. Bronte
Е. С. - Е. Caldwell
Е. D. В. - Е. D. Biggers Е. F. - Е. Ferber
Е. L. - Е. Lear
Е. М. - Е. Maurer
E. W. - Е. Waugh
Ev. - S. Evans
F. - H. Fielding
Fl. O'C. - Fl. O'Connor Fr. B. - Fr. Bullen
Fr. Вас. - Fr. Bacon
Fr. N. - Fr. Norris
G. - J. Galsworthy
G. K. Ch. - G. K. Chesterton
G. M. - G. Markey
Gr. - J. Greenwood
Gr. Gr. - Gr. Green
Gr. M. - Gr. Metalious
H. - E. Hemingway
H. B. - H. Belloc
H. С - H. Caine
H. L. - H. Lee
H. R. - H. Reed
H. St. - H. Stezar
H. W. - H. G. Wells
Hut. - A. Hutchinson
I. M. - I. Murdoch
I. Sh. - I. Shaw
J. - J. Jones
J. A. - J. Aldridge
J. B. - J. Baldwin
J. Br. - J. Braine
J. С - J. Conrad
J. Car. - J. Сагу
J. D. P. - J. Dos Passos
J. E. - J. Eszterhas
J. F. - J. Fowles
J. G. - J. Gardner
J. J. - J. Joyce
J. K. - J. Kerouac
J. L. - J. Lindsay
J. O'H. - J. O'Hara
J. R. - J. Reed
J. Rod. - J. Rodker
J. St. - J. Steinbeck
J. Sw. - J. Swift
Jn. B. - J. Barth
Jn. Bn. - J. Bunyan
Jn. C. - J. Carson
Jn. H. - J. Hawkes
Js. H. - J. Heller
K. - J. Kilty
K. A. P. - K. A. Porter
K. K. - K. Kesey
K. M. - K. Mansfield
K. P. - K. S. Prichard
K. Pk. - K. Pike
K. S. - K. Sandburg
L. - St. Leacock
L. Ch. - L. Charteris
Luc. - S. Lucas
M. - A. Milne
M. G. - M. Gold
M. R. - M. Renault
M. S. - M. Spillane
M. Sp. - M. Spark
M. St. - Morning Star
M. T. - M. Twain
M. W. - M. Wilson
N. - Naval Aviation News
N. M. - N. Mailer
N. T. - N. Travis
N. W. - N. West
Ng. M. - Ng. Marsh
O. - J. Osborne
O'C. - S. O'Casey
O. H. - O. Henry
O'N. - E. O'Neill
O. N.- O. Nash
O. W. - O. Wilde
P. - J. B. Priestley
P. A. - P. Abrahams
P. B. - P. Benchley
P. Ch. - P. Cheyney
P. G. W. - P. G. Wodehouse
P. M. - P. la Murre
P. Q. - P. Quentin
P. St. - P. Strevens
Ph. L. - Ph. Larkin
Ph. R. - Ph. Roth
Ph. S. - Ph. Sydney
R. A. - R. Aldington
R. B. - R. Burns
R. Br. - R. Bradburry
R. Ch. - R. Chandler
R. F. - R. Fowler
R. Fr. - R. Frost
R. K. - R. Kipling
R. Sh. - R. Sheridan
R. W. - R. P. Warren
Rch. B. - R. Bach
S. - J. D. Salinger
S. B. - S. Beckett
S. С - S. T. Coleridge
S. Ch. - S. Chaplin
S. H. - S. Heaney
S. L. - S. Lewis
S. M. - S. Maugham
Sc. F. - Sc. Fitzgerald
Sh. A. - Sh. Anderson
Sh. D. - Sh. Delaney
Sh. Gr. - Sh. A. Grau
Shel. - P. B. Shelley
St. B. - St. Barstow
St. H. - St. Heym
T. - A. Tennyson
Т. С - T. Capote
Т. Н. - T. Howard
T. R. - T. Rawson
T. W. - Th. Wolfe
Th. - W. Thackeray
Th. M. - Th. B. Macaulay
Th. P. - Th. Pynchon
Th. S. - Th. Smith
Th. W. - Th. Wilder
U. - J. Updike
V. - G. H. Vallins
V. W. -V. Woolf
W. - O. Wadsley
W. Br. - W. Bragg
W. С - W. Fr. Collier
W. D. - W. Deeping
W. G. - W. S. Gilbert
W. Gl. - W. Golding
W. H. D. - V. H. Davies
W. I. - W. Irwing
W. S. - W. Sansom
W. Sc. - W. Scott
W. Sh. - W. Shakespeare
W. Q. - W. Queux
Wic. - Th. Wicker
Wr. - R. Wright
addressee (decoder, receiver) - 8 addresser (encoder, transmitter) - 8, 9,
alliteration - 11, 72
ambiguity - 67
ambivalence - 67, 68,71
anadiplosis (catch repetition)
anaphora - see repetition
anticlimax - 84, 87, 88
antithesis, pl antitheses
- 84, 85, 86 antonomasia - 50, 51,52, 53
apokoinu construction - 66, 79, 82 aposiopesis (break) -66, 80, 82
archaic forms - 26, 29, 109
archaic words proper - 26, 29, 109 archaism - 26
argumentation (consideration) - 25, 109 assonance - 11
asyndeton - 66, 82, 84
attachment - 66, 82, 84
authorial (author's) speech - 25, 26,
29, 58, 82, 100
author's image - 100, 108
author's remark - 79, 80, 102, 122 belles-lettres style (the style of creative,
imaginative literature) see style cacophony - 11
capitalization - 13
chain repetition see repetition chiasmus - 63, 73, 75
climax - 84, 86, 87, 88
cognition - 23
colloquial speech - 6, 78, 108, 121, 122 colloquial words - 25, 29, 121 communicative type (of the sentence) -
comparison - 89, 90, 93
concept - 46, 50
connotation - 37
connotational meaning see meaning consideration see argumentation convergence - 62, 73, 96, 120
creative (imaginative) writing - 53, 58,
67, 79, 100, 101, 110
defeated expectancy - 43, 87
denotational (logical) meaning - see
description - 25, 29, 79, 89, 95, 101,
dialectal words - 28, 29
dialogue - 25, 29, 58, 78, 79,
80, 82, 100, 101, 102
discourse - 11, 25, 29, 103, 109, 110,121
ellipsis pl. ellipses - 66, 78, 79, 82
entrusted narrative see narrative epiphora see repetition
epithet - 37, 53, 54, 55, 57,60, 123
affective (emotive proper) e. - 53
chain (string) of e. - 54, 123
figurative (transferred) e. - 53
fixed e. - 53
Homeric e. - 53
inverted e. - 54, 55
pair e. - 54, 123
phrase e. - 54
two-step e. - 54
euphony - 11
figure of speech see stylistic device,
trope foregrounding - 9, 37, 47, 53, 57, 58,60, 62, 72, 73, 77, 79, 82, 95,121
forms of discourse see narrative compositional form
framing see repetition
functional style see style
genuine stylistic device - 38
graphon - 11, 12, 122
historical words - 26
hyperbole - 37, 57, 58,60, 122
hyphenation - 13
inner form - 38
interior monologue -25, 102
interior speech - 100, 101, 102, 108
short in-sets of i.s. - 102
inversion - 66, 73, 76, 77,78
complete i. - 76
partial i. - 76
irony - 37, 46, 49, 57
sustained i. - 47
verbal i. 47
italics - 13
jargonism - 26, 27, 29
literary words - 25, 29
litotes - 84, 93, 94
meaning - 22, 23, 29, 46, 49, 52, 57, 60, 62, 67, 68, 84
associative m. - 23
connotational m. 11, 22, 23, 24,29, 72
contextual m. - 24, 46, 47
denotational (logical) m. - 11, 23,
37, 46, 47, 50, 53
emotive m. - 23, 53, 57, 58, 60
evaluative m. 23, 47
expressive m. 23
ideological m. - 23
nominal m. 50
pragmatic m. 23
stylistic m. - 23, 25
metaphor - 37, 38, 41, 42,
46, 53, 54, 57, 89, 121
prolonged (sustained) m. 39, 121,
metonymy 37, 40, 41,
42, 46, 53, 54, 121
multiplication - 13
narration - 29, 100, 101,
102, 103, 107, 122
narrative n - 79, 80, 101
author's n. - 100, 101, 102, 107, 122
entrusted n. - 79, 82, 100, 101, 107,
narrative a - 103, 108
narrative compositional form 100, 103,
108; see argumentation, description
narrator - 80, 100, 101
newspaper style see style
nomination - 38, 46, 95, 122
nonsense of non-sequence 43, 46 occasional (nonce) words 19
official style - see style
one-member sentences see sentence onomatopoeia - 11, 123
oxymoron 37, 60, 61, 62, paradigm 5, 8
paradox - 87, 88
constructions) - 66, 73, 75, 84, 86,
perception - 23, 58, 60, 95, 100 periphrasis, pl. periphrases
- 84, 94, 95, 96, 122
euphemistic p. 95, 96
figurative p. - 94, 95
logical p. - 94, 96
personification -38, 41
play on words 37, 46, 68
poetical words 26
polysyndeton - 66, 82, 84
professionalism - 27, 29
publicist style see style
pun - 43, 46
punctuation 66, 68,
71, 76, 78, 82, 87, 122
register of communication - 23, 29, 110 repetition - 18, 49, 66,
72, 73, 73, 76, 122, 123
anadiplosis (catch r.) 73
anaphora - 72, 123
chain r. - 73
framing - 72, 73
ordinary r. 73
successive r. 73
reported (represented) speech 79, 82,
100, 102, 108
r. inner s. - 102, 122
r. uttered s. - 102
rheme (the new, the unknown) -76
rhetorical question 66, 71,
scientific style see style
semantically false chains 43, 44, 46 sentence - 66, 67, 68, 71, 72, 73, 76,77, 78, 80, 82, 84, 86, 121, 123
balanced s. 67
loose s. - 67
one-member s. - 66, 79, 82
one-word s. 66, 71
periodic s. 67
simile - 53, 54, 57, 84, 89, 90, 93
disguised s. - 90, 93
epic (Homeric) s. - 89, 93
foundation of a s. - 89, 90, 91
key to a s. - 89, 93
link words of a s. - 89, 90, 93
tenor of a s. - 89, 90
vehicle of a s. - 89, 90
slang - 26, 29
professional s. see jargonism
speaking names 51, 53
stream of consciousness 102, 108
s.-of-c. technique - 102 style - 5, 6, 108, 110
belles-lettres s. - 6, 8, 108,
110, 111, 120
functional s. - 6, 108, 110, 111,
newspaper s. - 6, 108, 109, 111, 120
official s. - 6, 25, 108,, 109, 110, 12 oratoric s. -7, 71, 108
poetic s. - 7, 25, 110
publicist s. - 6, 53, 67, 108, 109,
scientific s. - 6, 25, 108, 110, 120
telegraphic s. - 79
stylistic device (SD) -
37, 40, 41, 46, 47, 50, 53, 57, 58,
60, 62, 66, 72, 76, 78, 80, 82, 84,
86, 88, 89, 94, 96
stylistics - 5, 103
decoding s. 8
functional s. 5, 7, 8
practical s. 8
s. of artistic speech 8
s. of individual (artistic) style 8
suspense - 66, 67, 76, 77, 78 synecdoche - 37, 41
telegraphic style see style
term - 26, 29, 108 theme (the given, the known) -76
trite - 38, 57, 60, 61, 62, 90,
trope see stylistic device understatement 37,
58, 60, 93, 94
unilateral - 10
violation of phraseological units 43,
vulgarism - 27, 29
zeugma - 43, 46
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING
Арнольд И. В. Стилистика современного английского языка. Стилистика декодирования. 2-е изд., Л, 1981.
Кухаренко В. А. Лингвистическое исследование английской художественной речи. Одесса, 1973.
Мороховский А. Н., Воробьева А. О., Лихошерст Н. И. Стилистика англий-ского языка. Киев, 1984.
Пелевина Н. Ф. Стилистический анализ художественного текста. Л., 1980.
Скребнев Ю. М. Очерк теории стилистики. Горький, 1975.
Солганик Г. Я. Синтаксическая стилистика. М., 1973.
Crystal D., Davy D. Investigating English Style. London, 1979.
Darbyshire A. E. A Grammar of Style. London, 1971.
Galperin I. R. An Essay in Stylistic Analysis. M., 1968.
Galperin I. R. Stylistics. M., 1977.
Riffaterre M. Criteria for Style Analysis. Word. 1959, Vol. XV, No. 1.
Riffaterre M. Stylistic Context. Word. 1960, Vol. XVI, No. 2.
Sosnovskaya V. B. Analytical Reading. M., 1974.
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