94827

Англійська мова для науковців

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

The word science originates from the Latin word «scientia», meaning knowledge. Science is simply a way of looking at the world. It consists of asking questions, proposing answers and testing them against the available evidence.

Английский

2015-09-17

2.08 MB

5 чел.

О. М. Ільченко

Англійська мова

для науковців

Рекомендовано Міністерством освіти України

Київ

1996


ББК 81.2 Анг - 923

Рецензенти:

доктор філологічних наук, професор Д.І. Квеселевич (Житомирський державний педагогічний інститут ім, I. Франка), доктор технічних наук, професор Новіков О.М., кандидат філологічних наук, доцент Височинський Ю.І. (Національний технічний університет України <<Київський політехнічний інститут>>), кандидат педагогічних наук, ст.науковий співробітник Полонська Т.К, (Академія педагогічних наук України).

Затвeрджено Вченою радою Центру наукових досліджень та викладання іноземних мов НАН України

Книга призначена для науковців, студентів старших курсів, аспірантів та пошукувачів, що мають складати кандидатський іспит з англійської мови, а також тих, хто готується до іспиту TOEFL.

Одинадцять розділів підручника містять тексти для читання з примітками та вправами на розуміння прочитаного, опанування лексики; граматичний матеріал (із зазначенням відмінностей американського та британського варіантів англійської мови), матеріали для розвитку навичок усного мовлення та реферування. Система вправ і тестів, а також графічна форма подачі матеріалів сприяють їх ефективному засвоєнню.

Усі розділи присвячені актуальним тенденціям розвитку сучасної науки і містять велику кількість неологізмів, які широко використовуються у науковому обігу США, але ще не зареєстровані у словниках.

Пізнавальний характер матеріалів та відсутність вузькофахової тематики мають зацікавити не лише зазначене коло фахівців, але й усіх, хто поглиблено вивчає англійську мову, в тому числі і самостійно.

© О.М, Ільченко, 1996

© О.М. Ільченко, С.Г. Сікорський. Обкладинка, 1996

ІSBN 5-7763-9272-1   © О.М. Ільченко, O.B. Мікляєв, Комп'ютерний макет, 1996


Introduction                                                                                                                              3

Від автора

У 1993 р. Міністерством освіти та ВАК України була запропонована нова програма підготовки до кандидатського іспиту з англійської мови, призначена для аспірантів, стажувальників, пошукувачів вченого ступеня кандидата наук. Характерною особливістю вказаної програми є перегляд окремих положень і змісту курсу англійської мови з тим, щоб він відповідав сучасним вимогам до науковців, які повинні мати високий рівень теоретичних знань, а також навички читання, письмового перекладу, анотування, співбесіди іноземною мовою з питань наукового дослідження і фаху. Орієнтиром рівня володіння англійською мовою для науковців, аспірантів і студентів є вимоги загальновідомого тесту ТОЕFL, елементи якого включені до структури кандидатського іспиту.

Дана книга має допомогти науковцям, аспірантам та студентам у підготовці до складання кандидатського іспиту на рівні зазначених вимог. Книга є певною мірою експериментальним підручником. За структурою кожен розділ містить матеріали для читання, відомості з граматики, вправи на розуміння прочитаного, тести з граматики і лексики, вправи на переклад та особливості словотвору. Частина граматичного матеріалу написана  за  функціонально-семантичним  принципом  із  широким залученням графічної форми викладу матеріалу. Для розвитку навичок усного мовлення пропонується низка вправ у формі проблемних запитань та тем для обговорення. Книга містить 11 розділів та додаток, у якому подаються рекомендації щодо написання анотацій наукової літератури, матеріали для участі у наукових конференціях тощо.

При створенні книги було використано матеріали періодичних видань США "Тhе Sсіепсеs" (Нью-Йоркська Академія наук), "Sресtrum", "Тhе Іnstitutе" (ІЕЕЕ) та інші.

При викладі матеріалу автор намагався уникнути вузькофахової лексики,  Бідтак  відсутність  вузькоспеціальних  термінів  дозволяє використовувати цю книгу фахівцям різних спецільностей. Завдяки системному підходу при викладі змісту, а також використаним актуальним матеріалам загальнонаукового характеру книга може зацікавити не лииіе зазначене коло фахівців, але й більш широку аудиторію. Матеріали книги було апробовано автором на протязі декількох років у Центрі наукових досліджень та викладання іноземних мов Національної Академії наук України.

Автор вважає приємним обов'язком висловити подяку своїм вчителям - професору Жлуктенку Ю.O., члену-кореспонденту НАН України Акуленку В.В., професору Стариковій O.М., які на різних етапах плідно сприяля формуванню автора як фахівця англійської мови..


4                                                                                                                               Introduction

То my Parents

Позначення, якi зустрiчаються у книзi

 * iдіоми та фразеологічні звороти

 У книзі подається opфoгpaфiя американського варіанту англійської мови, наприклад:

American English  British English

program    programme

favorable    favourable

color    colour

traveling    travelling

story (поверх)   storey

 При необхідності подаються обидва варіанти англійської мови.


Contents                                                                                                                                     5

CONTENTS

page

Introduction

Від автора . . . . . . . . . 3

Позначення, які зустрічаються у книзі  . . . . . 4

Chapters

Chapter 1 . . . . . . . . 7

Science and Scientists.

Steps to Better Reading

Grammar: Articles and Their Usage

Chapter 2 . . . . . . . . 23

The Importance of Science.

Scientific Prefixes

Grammar: Expression of Quantity

Chapter 3 . . . . . . . . 39

Science and Society.

Grammar: System of Tenses (Review)

Using Graphics

Chapter 4 . . . . . . . . 57

Hackers.

Grammar: Structure of English Sentence.

Chapter 5 . . . . . . . . 81

Truth and Theories.

Avoiding Sexist Language

Grammar: Mood. Expression of Conditions

Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . 97

INTERNET.

Acronyms and Initialisms

Grammar: Modal Verbs and Their Equivalents

Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . 117

Interactive Multimedia, English Suffixes Grammar: Passive Voice

Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . 131

Virtual Reality. Classifying Techno-Types Grammar: Verbals Participle

Chapter 9 . . . . . . . . 147

Energy Sources. Environment Grammar: Verbals Infinitive


6                                                                                                                                     Contents

Chapter 10 . . . . . . . . 165

Evolution of Manufacturing.

Intelligent Manufacturing

Grammar: Verbals Gerund

Chapter 11 . . . . . . . . 181

DOs and DON'Ts for Young Scientists.

On Innovators and Innovations

Grammar: Emphasis

Appendix

Appendix I . . . . . . . . 194

Useful Expressions for Discussion

Appendix II . . . . . . . . 195

About You

Appendix III . . . . . . . . 199

Abstract (a Short Summary of a Paper)

Appendix IV . . . . . . . . 200

Conference Mini-Vocabulary

Appendix V . . . . . . . . 204

Tips on Resume Writing

Appendix VI . . . . . . . . 205

Types of Questions

Appendix VII . . . . . . . . 207

Verbs Make and Do

Appendix VIII . . . . . . . . 208

Irregular Verbs

Appendix IX . . . . . . . . 210

Frequency Scale

Appendix X . . . . . . . . 210

Probability Scale

Appendix XI . . . . . . . . 221

TOEFL: First Steps

Final Test . . . . . . . . 220

Answer Key . . . . . . . . 234

Література . . . . . . . . . 241


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                   7

Chapter 1

Focus on:

Science and Scientists Steps to Better Reading

Grammar: Articles and Their Usage


8                                                                                                                                   Chapter 1

Text A Read the texts and be ready to answer the questions that follow.

(1)

The word science originates from the Latin word «scientia», meaning knowledge. Science is simply a way of looking at the world. It consists of asking questions, proposing answers and testing them against the available evidence.

A popular astronomer Carl Sagan wrote: «Science invites us to let the facts in, even when they don’t conform to our preconceptions. It counsels us to carry alternative hypotheses in our heads and see which best match the facts». Science is a human construct and human ability.

science — knowledge which can be made into a system укр. наука

available — укр. наявний

evidence — something, such as a fact, sign or object that gives proof or reasons to believe or agree with something укр. свідотство, факти

to conform - to obey or be in accordance with established rules укр. підкорятися

preconception — an opinion formed in advance, without actual knowledge укр. упереджене уявлення

to counsel — to advise as suitable course of action укр. радити

Types of Science Products

FACTS

— are specific verifiable pieces of information obtained through observation and measurement

CONCEPTS

are abstract ideas that are generalized from facts or specific relevant experience

PRINCIPLES

— are more complex ideas based on several related concepts

THEORIES

consist of broadly related principles that provide an explanation for a phenomenon

The purpose of a theory is to provide the best explanation based on evidence. Theories are used to explain, relate, and predict.

1. What is the origin of the word «science»?

2. What is specific about science according to Carl Sagan?

3. What basic types of science products do you know?

(2)

Students of science major in various fields of science. They take part in R&D at their institutions. The faculty and staff at the universities and institutes will help the students as they fulfill their academic and professional goals.

Research advisors — well- known scientists will help their students with research.

Graduate students spend most of their time in independent study and original rsearch. Fоr example, graduate studies in the USA can be divided into two phases:

to major (in) — to study as the chief subject(s) when doing a university degree укр. спеціалізуватися

field of science — a branch of knowledge or area of activity. Synonyms: sphere, area, branch, domain, realm укр. галузь, сфера

R&D — research and development рус. научно-исследовательская робота

faculty and staff - all of teachers and other profetional workers of a university or college укр. професорсько-викладацький склад

goal — one s aim or purpose — укр. мета

Compare: objective — an aim that must be worked towards over a long period укр. стратегічна мета

research advisor – укр. науковий кервник

well-known — укр. вiдомий Synonyms: famous, prominent, eminent, renowned, celebrated

research — serious and detailed study of a subject, укр. дослiдженя Synonyms: study, investigation

scientist — a person who works in science укр. науковець, вчений Compare: scholar — a person with great knowledge of, and skill in studying the subject


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                   9

Phase I leads to Master's degree and consists of lecture-type coursework. This degree is usually required in fields such as engineering, library science etc. The MBA, or Master of   Business Administration usually takes two years.

These degrees are considered stepping stones toward a PhD. Normally few, if any laboratory courses are offered. A thesis, calling for significant research and/or design effort may be required.

Phase II leads to doctoral degree — PhD (doctorate). Students who are enrolled in a doctoral program are known as PhD candidates. They will spend some time in class, but the most important work is spent in first-hand research. It may take three years or more to earn a PhD Degree. This degree normally requires four to six years of study beyond the Bachelor's degree, culminating in lengthy, in-depth, original research of a specific topic, which may be both theoretical and applied, or purely theoretical.

Usually, doctoral studies focus very heavily on developing advanced scientific skills.

A PhD dissertation is considered a unique, original contribution    to  human knowledge. This paper must contain views, research or

degree — a title given by a university to a student who has completed a course of study укр. ступінь Bachelor's Degree (baccalaureate) — ступінь бакалавра (бакалаврат) Master's Degree — ступінь магістра PhD — ступінь доктора філософії

to require — to demand by right with the expectation that it will be obeyed укр. вимагати; requirement — укр. вимога required — укр. обов'язковий Synonyms: — mandatory, obligatory required reading — обов'язкова литература.

to earn — to get, to gain, to obtain — укр. отримати

in-depth — a thorough and giving careful attention to detail

укр. глибокий, детальний

to focus (on) — to direct one's attention to something

укр. зосереджувати увагу

skill(s) — special ability to do something well, esp. as gained by learning

and practice укр. навички

technique — method of doing something that needs skill

укр. методика, метод

procedure — a set of actions necessary for doing something

укр.. методика

approach, way — a method of doing something or dealing with the

problem укр. підхід, метод.

method — a planned way of doing something укр. метод

methodology — the set of methods used for study of a particular

subject укр. методологія

issue — a subject to be talked about, argued about, укр. питання, проблема

relevant — directly connected with the subject Synonyms: pertaining to (pertinent), dealing with, regarding, concerning, relating to, touching upon, having bearing on, bearing relation to укр. релевантний, той, що має відношення, стосується

to meet the requirements — укр. відповідати вимогам

board — an official body or group that has responsibility for a particular

organization or activity укр. рада

in many cases — often укр. у багатьох випадках, часто-густо

devoted — showing great fondness, caring a great deal. Compare: dedicated — very interested in or working very hard for an idea, purpose; committed укр. відданий

to be involved — to take part, to be engaged in, to participate укр. бути залученим, брати участь

aspect — a particular side of many-sided idea, plan etc. укр. аспект, бік

Synonym: facet укр. грань

designs that have not been previously published.

The best and the most suitable methods, techniques, approaches and procedures should be used.

Several research publications on issues relevant to the investigation should be prepared. Most universities awarding the PhD Degree also require doctoral candidates to have a reading knowledge of two foreign languages, to pass a qualifying examination that officially admits candidates to the PhD program, and to pass an oral examination on the same topic as the dissertation.

If the dissertation meets all the requirements it will be accepted and approved by a special board of academics after oral defense.

Most scientists spend many years studying and working in laboratories. Scientists can work individually or in a team. In many cases, scientists are devoted to their work and may find little time to do other things. Usually scientists are involved in studying various aspects of their fields,


10                                                                                                                                    Chapter

and work on one or two major projects at one time.

A good example of a dedicated scientist and researcher is U.S. neurosurgeon Benjamin Carson. Speaking to young people around the country, Carson always concludes with the same message:

«Think big!» He explains the meaning of each letter:

Т — is for talent. Recognize your God-given talent.

H — is for hope. Anticipate good things and watch for them.

I — stands for insight. Learn from people who have been where you want to go.

N — is for nice. Be nice to people — all people.

К — represents knowledge. Knowledge is the

Key to your dreams, hopes and aspirations.

В — is for books. We develop our minds by reading. I — equals in-depth learning, where acquired knowledge becomes part of you.

G — stands for God. Never drop God out of your life.

«If you can learn to think big, nothing on earth will keep you from being successful in whatever you choose to do», says Carson. And eminent American astronomer Vera Rubin has given the following piece of advice to young scientists:

«Don't give up. Remember that science is ever so vast; learn one thing very well. Doing so ... gives you great confidence, allows you to share knowledge with colleagues. It helps if you know

to anticipate — to expect, to guess or imagine in advance укр. очiкувати, передбачати, передчувати

insight — the power of using one's mind to see or understand the true nature of a situation укр. проникливiсть

aspiration — a strong desire to do something or have something, esp. something great or important. Synonym: longing укр. прагнення, поривання

*to give up = to give in укр. здаватися

vast — very large and wide, great in amount укр. широкий, величезний

to allow — to permit, to enable укр. дозволяти

to share — to have use, pay or take part in (something) with others or among the group укр. роздiляти, дiлитися

curiosity — the desire to know or learn укр. допитливість

curious — eager to know or learn. Synonym: inquisitive укр. допитливий

what you really want to do. Work hard. Learn to give good talks. Be imaginative. If you are interested in science you must have a fundamental curiosity».

1. What is the subject under discussion?

2. What are primary responsibilities of graduate students?

3. What is specific about each phase of graduate studies?

4. Why is it important to «think big»? 

5. Why is Vera Rubin's message important specifically for young scientists?

NOTE

*as for...

When it conies to...

що стосується

As far as ... is/are concerned...

As for

When it comes to

me — Що стосується мене (щодо мене)

As far as science is concerned, ... — що стосується науки, ...

to be about

It is about the new method. Це стосується нового метода.

to have to do (with) — стосуватися, мати відношення

The issue has little to do with science— Це питания не стосується (не має відношення до) науки.


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 11

Exercise 1. Give English equivalents for:

спеціалізуватися у галузі науки; науковий керівник; стратегічні цілі, досягати мети; відомий науковець (вчений); самостійне дослідження; детальне вивчення; теоретичні та прикладні аспекти; навички наукової роботи; Вчена Рада, унікальний внесок; питання, що стосуються дослідження; оригинальна методика; брати участь у науково-дослідній роботі; одночасно працювати над кількома проектами; бути відданим науці; не здаватися; ділитися знаннями з колегами, бути надзвичайно допитливим.

Exercise 2. Identify characteristics of a scientist by matching the two columns. The  first one is done for you: 1-F.

I.

1. intelligent

2. objective

3. creative

4. open-minded

5. curious

6. talented

7. dedicated

8. persistent

A receptive of arguments and ideas

В remaining at a task for a long amount of time to complete a task or project

C making observations and decisions based upon evidence, not personal opinion or hearsay

D very interested in working very hard, devoting a lot of time to complete a task or project

E producing new and original ideas and things, inventive

F having a high degree of mental capacity

G having or showing special abilities for a particular type of work

H eager to know or learn

II.

1. decision-maker

2. communicator

3. designer

4. inventor

A searching for new discoveries

В being able to make important choices or/and judgements

С creating new models or designs

D making opinions and information known and understood by others, sharing and exchanging opinions.

Exercise 3.  Give Ukrainian equivalents for:

a positive approach to failure; open-mindedness, cooperation with others; tolerance for other opinions, explanations, or points of view; avoidance of broad generalizations when evidence is limited; demand for verification, longing to know and to understand; respect for logic;

consideration for consequences.


12                                                                                                                                 Chapter 1

Exercise 4. Prepare an oral presentation about characteristics of true scientists based on Text 1 and Exercises 1-3. Tell your colleagues about yourself (see Appendix II).

Exercise 5. Place steps of scientific research in correct order.

— Deciding how to solve a problem

— Choosing a topic

— Selecting an approach

— Identifying a problem

— Choosing the best solution of those available

— Expressing all ideas clearly

— Presenting materials and information correctly and clearly

— Developing a plan and time line

— Evaluating good and bad points

— Carrying out the plan on schedule

— Sharing the results with other people

— Generating ideas and methods

— Arriving at conclusions

Exercise 6. Translate Ukrainian sentences into English. Then match the two columns.

  1.  Я не фахівець у цій галузі.
  2.  Яка мета вашего дослідження?
  3.  Вона спеціалізується у галузі прикладного мовознавства.
  4.  Якою галуззю науки ви цікавитесь?
  5.  Це питания стосується вашого дослідження.
  6.  Якою наукою ви займаєтесь?
  7.  Його дисертація відповідає усім необхідним вимогам.
  8.  Вони беруть участь у науково-дослідній роботі.
  9.  Мій науковий керівник – відомий вчений.
  10.  Вони дійшли цікавих висновків.

A What field of science are you interested in?

В This issue deals with your investigation.

С His dissertation meets all the necessary requirements.

D What science are you doing?

E That's outside my field.

F She majors in linguistics.

G What is the objective of your research?

H My research advisor is a well-known scientist.

I They've arrived at interesting conclusions.

J They are involved in R&D.


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 13

GRAMMAR: ARTICLES AND THEIR USAGE

There exist definite (the), indefinite (a, an) and zero (Ш) articles in English.

The definite articles «the» are used with specific nouns (when the listener or reader knows what specific thing or person the speaker is talking about: Where is the dictionary? (that I gave you). Де словник? (той, що я вам дав). The method was used before. Цей метод, використовувався раніше. «The» is used when the noun is unique — «only one»: The sun is shining» (There is only one sun).

The indefinite articles «a», «an» are used with singular countable nouns that are non-specific: I need a pencil — Мені потрібен олівець.

For plural count and non-count nouns that are indefinite, we use «some» instead of «a»: I need some pencils. — Мені пoтpiбні олівці. Would you care for some coffee? Чи хочете кави?

Ø is used for plural count and non-count nouns that are indefinite and when the speaker talks about the things in general: When Ø people can communicate with each other they get along better. Коли люди спілкуються, їм легше порозумітися.

It is useful to remember three so-called «golden rules» (with some exceptions to them):

1. Do not use the definite article «the» with non-count nouns denoting substances, abstract nouns, or when you talk about things in general: Ø Life is hard. Життя важке. Ø Tea is popular beverage. Чай популярний напій. Ø Literature and Ø music are called «the fine arts». Література та музика називаються витонченим мистецтвом.

But:

The life of the scientist was hard. Життя вченого було важким. They lived a happy life. Вони жили щасливо. The tea I drank today was Chinese. Сьогодні вранці я пив китайський чай. Please, pass the salt. Будь ласка, передайте сіль.

2. Use either definite or indefinite articles with singular countable nouns: He is going to buy a dictionary. Biн збираеться придбати словник. Where is the dictionary you spoke about? Де той словник, про який ви згадували?

3. Use indefinite article with the names of professions: He is a mathematician. Він математик. She is an engineer. Вона інженер.

But:

They are Ø doctors. Вони лікарі. They are Ø engineers. Вони інженери.

GENERAL USAGE OF ARTICLES:

Nouns

Articles

a

the

Ø

single countable

a book

the book

plural countable

the books

books

uncountable

the water

water


14                                                                                                                                 Chapter 1

ARTICLES USED WITH CERTAIN EXPRESSIONS

a

the

Ш

a couple of

a dozen

a pair of

at/to the office

to the movies

to the theater

at work

at home

at/to school

a lot of

a great deal

a great many

a host of

the first

the second(...)

the last

the ...est

(the best, the biggest; the most...)

part of

in stable condition

according to contract

in rush hour

a hundred

a thousand

two times

a day

an hour

by bus/car/train

on foot

what

such

a + countable noun

face to face

arm in arm

such

what

a promising approach!

(the) so-called from beginning to end

ARTICLES WITH PROPER NAMES

Ш

the

a

Cities, states

Paris, London, New Jersey, Ohio

Exception: the Hague

Streets, squares, avenues, roads, boulevards

Green Street, First Avenue, Peach Boulevard

Exception: the Strand

Countries (use «the» when they have a plural name and are viewed as unions)

Canada, France, Ukraine

the Philippines, the United Kingdom

(the) USA

Geographic areas (regions)

the Orient, the Middle East, the Crimea

Continents

Europe, Asia, South America, Africa

Mountains, mountain peaks

Mount Everest

Exception: the Matterhorn

Mountain ranges

the Rocky Mountains, the Alps

Lakes

Lake Michigan

Lakes when they form a set

the Great Lakes

Rivers

the Danube

Oceans and seas

the Atlantic Ocean,

the Black Sea

Gulfs

the Gulf of Mexico

Bays

San Francisco Bay


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 15

Canals

the Erie canal

Planets

Mars, Venus

Exceptions: the Sun, the Moon, (the) Earth

Separate islands

Jamaica

Chains of islands

the Canary Islands

Deserts

the Gobi desert

Parks

Central Park

Tourist attractions, famous buildings, monuments,

Exception: Disneyland

the White House, the National Gallery,

Museums, libraries

the Library of Congress

with universities, colleges, schools beginning with a proper noun

Harvard University, Lambton college

with universities, colleges, schools beginning with «university», «school», «college»

the University of Virginia, the college of arts and sciences

Names of magazines

Time magazine

Names of historic documents

the Treaty of Geneva

Names of wars (except World Wars)

World War I

the War of Independence

names of ships, Trains, airplanes

the Orient express

names of scientific methods: a) well-known and established (the) b) those still not recognized by everyone (Ш)

Green method

the Montessori method

proper names a) denoting family as a whole (the) as opposed To separate name (Ш) b) specifying maiden name (a)

Ann Johnson

the Johnsons

She was a Brown before marriage.

Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with «the», «a», «an», or leave blank.

1. May I have a look at ___ book that I brought yesterday?

2. She is ___ chemist.

3. John likes __ rice.

4. Ann has decided to become ___ engineer, while Mike and Andrew would rather become __ geographers.

5. Where is ___ coffee that we bought last week?

6. ___ teachers want ___ students to succeed.

7. ___ water is essential for life.

8. Please pass ___ pepper.

9. ___ word processors can check ___ spelling.

10. In 1816 a Scottish natural philosopher invented ___ kaleidoscope.


16            Chapter 1

Exercise 8. Insert correct article or leave blank.

___ Oriental Art Museum, ____ Asia, _____ Great Lakes, __ Tampa Bay, __ Green Park, ___ Capitol, _____ Amazon River, ______ Andes, _____ White Street, _____ Netherlands, ___ John Hopkins University, __ Discovery Park, ___ Great Salt Lake, _____ Old Dominion University ___ Washington monument, __ Mediterranean Sea, ____ Golden Gate Bridge, ____ Greece ____ California, ___ University of Washington, _____ Philadelphia,

Exercise 9. Fill in the blanks with appropriate article or leave blank.

1. ___ Coal is second major natural resource found in large quantities.

2. ____ Abraham Lincoln was President of ___ USA during ___ Civil War.

3. Such mighty rivers as ___ Mississippi, ___ Ohio, __ Hudson and __ Colorado irrigate the croplands.

4. Jane wants to study ___ business at ____ University of Illinois.

5. ___ Panama Canal was under American control from 1904 to 1978.

6. He has graduated from ____ Ohio State University.

7. ____ Rhode Island is the smallest state in ___ USA.

8. Puerto Rico is an island of about 9,000 square kilometers in ____ Caribbean Sea.

9. Among the University's undergraduate schools are ___ College of Arts and Sciences, _____ School of Engineering and Applied Science, ___ School of Nursing.

Text B. Read the text and answer the questions that follow. Steps to better reading

Step 1. Preview

Good readers preview the text first, i.e. look over the whole passage for a moment. This helps to make them good and fast readers.

A. Read the title. The first thing to do when previewing is to read the title. Titles not only announce the subject, but also make the reader think.

В. Anticipate and predict. Anticipation and prediction are two basic reading skills that are used to guess or predict how the passage will develop. We anticipate before we read a passage, and we predict after the passage begins. Our anticipation is therefore related to our own personal background knowledge on the subject. After a passage begins we find "clues" that help us predict what is going to come next. These clues may be in the meaning or in the grammatical structure of a sentence or its vocabulary.

whole — the complete amount, entire укр. увесь, цілий

to predict — to see or describe in advance as a result of knowledge, experience. Synonyms: to foretell, to forecast, to foresee, to make prognosis укр. прогнозувати

clue — something, such as an object or a piece of information that helps to find an answer to the question:

«I'll never guess the answer — give me another clue!» укр. підказ, ключ, інформація

C. Read the opening paragraph. Some writers may announce what they hope. to tell you, or why they are writing. Some writers just try to get the reader's attention — they may ask a provocative question.

D. Read the closing paragraph. Writers may have something important to say in the end. Some writers repeat the main idea once more, some draw a conclusion or summarize.

E. Glance through. Skim and scan the selection. When you're skimming, go through a passage quickly in order to get a general idea of what it is about. When you're scanning you look for specific piece of information (a figure, a date, a name) that you need.


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 17

Step 2. Read for meaning.

Individual words do not tell us much. They must be combined with other words, and readers should see words in meaningful combinations. Read in «thought groups» (or message units) — try to group the words into phrases which have natural relationship to each other.

Step 3. Grasp paragraph sense.

The paragraph is the basic unit of meaning. If you can understand the main point of each paragraph, you can comprehend the author's message.

A. Find the topic sentence. The topic sentence, the sentence containing the main idea, is often the first

sentence of a paragraph. It is followed by other sentences which support, develop or explain the main idea. Sometimes a topic sentence comes at the end of a

eventually — at last, finally, ultimatly - укр. зрeштою

paragraph (then the supporting details come first). Sometimes following the dominant noun through its repetitions and transformations into synonyms will eventually lead you to the main idea. Some paragraphs do not have a topic sentence. Such paragraphs usually create a mood or feeling, rather than present information.

B. Understand paragraph structure. Just as readers read for different reasons, writers write for different reasons. What purposes may an author have for writing?

1. Inform — give facts or information about a subject.

2. Define — provide definitions on a subject.

3. Describe — give an account of a subject in words.

4. Persuade — influence a person's opinion or behavior about something.

5. Explain — make plain or understandable, give the reason for or cause of.

6. Entertain — interest or please.

7. Illustrate, compare, contrast and so on.

to blur — to make less clear or noticeable укр. зливатися, ставати нечітким

to imply — to express, show or mean indirectly укр. мати на увазі, розуміти під

Sometimes distinctions among these types are blurred, but the purpose should always relate to the main idea. If the main idea is not stated somewhere within a paragraph, it must be inferred, or figured out from important details of the paragraph. A good reader is able to infer the things that the author implies.

Step 4. Organize facts.

Understanding how the facts all fit together to deliver a message, is, after all, the reason for reading. Good readers organize facts as they read, they discover the writer's plan by looking for a clue or signal word early in the text which might reveal the author's structure. Every writer has a plan or outline which he follows. Sometimes the author gives you obvious signals. If he says «There are four reasons...» a good reader looks for a listing of four items. As you read the selection, keep the information in mind and relate it to the title.

to reveal — to show, to make known

укр. виявляти

obvious — easy to see and understand, clear

укр. очевидний

1. What is the subject of the passage?

2. What is meant by anticipation and prediction?

3. What is the difference between skimming and scanning?

4. What is the main idea of a paragraph?

5. What should you look for when you're trying to determine the main idea of a paragraph which is implied?


18           Chapter 1

Exercise 10. Read each passage and answer the questions that follow. Use context clues to determine the meaning of the unknown words.

NOTE

Some hints for dealing with multiple choice (MC) questions.

You have to choose the one correct answer out of several options given. Remember that only one of them is fully correct, the other are incorrect, although they may well contain some words or ideas from the passage or sentence, but all incorrect options are either too vague and general, or only partly true, or irrelevant to the question (see Appendix XI).

A. Throughout the history of civilization there have been three great inventions in the field of communication. The first was the invention of writing. It enabled people to communicate with others and also to leave a written record for the future. The invention of printing allowed information to reach a wide audience. The invention of electronic communication devices has enabled people separated by vast distances to communicate. Today people can communicate by telephone to almost anyone in the world via satellite.

1. What is the main idea of the passage?

a. The importance of communication

b. Three great inventions in communication

c. How people communicate

d. The invention of the telegraph

B. The largest animal alive is the blue whale. Fully grown, these great creatures reach a length of over 30 meters. The heart of a blue whale is more than a meter in diameter. The blue whale is not a fish, even though it spends its entire life in the sea. While fish are cold-blooded, whales are warm-blooded, and they have lungs and breathe air. For all its size, a blue whale feeds mainly on tiny shrimp.

1. What is the main topic of the passage?

a. Shrimp and whales

b. Types of whales

c. The largest living animal

d. The difference between fish and mammals

C. Throughout history, gold has been precious metal, eagerly sought and cherished. It was probably the first metal to be mined because beautiful objects could be made from it — even with primitive tools. The value of gold has always been known, even before gold was used in coinage. It remains the only universally recognized standard of value in international monetary exchange. Most of the world's refined gold is absorbed by governments and central banks to provide backing for paper currency. In addition to its use for jewelry, its special properties have led to many applications in modern science and technology. The largest gold mine is located in South Africa. The largest producing gold mine in United States is the Homestake mine in South Dakota, which yields about 570,000 ounces of gold each year. Often mines throughout the world produce even larger amount of this highly prized metal.

1. With what topic is the passage mainly concerned?

a. The value of gold

b. Primitive tools

c. Arts and industry

d. Beautiful minerals

2. The author implies that

a. the United States is the largest producer of gold in the world

b. governments control the production of gold

c. the production of gold increased rapidly

d. ancient people mined gold in large quantities


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 19

3. We can conclude that

a. gold supplies are coming to the end

b. most of world's gold is used for circulating coinage

c. gold has always been considered valuable

d. more gold is used for expensive jewelry

Exercise 11. Choose the correct word and fill in the blanks.

product (produce)                        producer (s)

production                                  productive

to produce                                     productivity

1. We had a very ___ meeting last week.

2. The two lasers combline ___ a powerful cutting tool.

3. The country's main ___ is oil.

4. New __ methods have led to increased __ .

5. This country is one of the world's leading oil ___ .

6. The wine bottle was marked «___ of France».

to predict            prediction            predictable

7. The economists ___ an increase in the rate of inflation.

8. You're so ___ !

9. It is hard ___ when it will happen.

10. His ___ turned out to be correct.

science               scientific             scientist

11. I'm fond of reading ___ fiction.

12. He is a famous ___ .

13. I don't need any ___ proof.

to apply             applied           application(s)

14. This rule does not ___ in your particular case.

15. A new discovery has a number of industrial ___ .

16. Her research is both theoretical and __ .

(to) require          requirement(s)          required

17. To carry out this plan would ___ increasing our staff by 20 %.

18. This monograph is ____ reading for our course.

19. Candidates who fail to meet these __ will not be admitted to the university.

curious                          curiosity

20. There was an intense ___ about their plans.

21. I'm ___ about what happened.

(to) imagine       imagination        imaginative

22. You can't ___ how surprised I was.

23. She has a vivid ___ .

24. Be ___ !


20           Chapter 1

(to) develop              development

25. This was an important stage in country's ___ .

26. I'd like ___ my idea.

Exercise 12. Read the text and answer the questions about it.

Alfred Nobel, the famous Swedish chemist, was born in a family where research and experimentation were almost second nature. His father tested the theories of explosives in a laboratory setup in their house. He was out of work, down and out, and he failed to apply his inventive spirit to establishing a prosperous endeavor.

Alfred Nobel acquired his father's knowledge of and enthusiasm for chemistry. Aside from developing dynamite commercially, Alfred claimed 355 patents including nitrocellulose and substitutes for leather and rubber, developed new methods for the production of synthetic silk. Alfred Nobel was a dedicated scientist who became very rich applying his knowledge of chemistry. He founded the Nobel prize, just two weeks before his death, because he preferred not to be remembered as an inventor of a potentially deadly material — dynamite. So he left some of his money to reward individuals who made substantial and valuable contribution to certain areas of science, and to the good of humanity. The Nobel prizes are awarded annually in six different fields: physics, chemistry, physiology, medicine, literature, economics (which was added later), and the cause of world peace. Nobel had set up a fund of over nine million dollars and from its interest every year on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel death, prizes of about $40,000 are awarded for important inventions and discoveries.

1. What is the best title for the passage?

a. Alfred Nobel's heritage.

b. The history of great inventions.

c. Awards presented to the winners.

d. Important contributions to chemistry.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that Alfred Nobel later viewed his invention of dynamite

a. as the most valuable achievement

b. with much concern for its negative effects on humanity

c. as his father's contribution to chemistry

d. as a natural result of studying explosives

3. According to the passage, why was Nobel prize established?

a. to save money

b. to recognize worthwhile contributions to science

c. to unite scientists

d. to lay emphasis on individual research

4. It can be inferred from the passage that originally the prizes were awarded in how many fields?

a. 6

b. 7

c. 5

d. 8


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 21

Exercise 13 Choose the one word or phrase that best keeps the meaning of the original  sentence if it is substituted for the underlined word or phrase.

1. There are obvious disadvantages to this plan.

a. well-known

b. serious

c. clear

d. fundamental

2. I tried to anticipate the kind of questions they were likely to ask me at the interview.

a. solve

b. guess

c. remember

d. discuss

3. The problem would interest the entire community.

a. whole

b. large

c. engineering

d. small

4. It is not easy to predict this trend.

a. cause

b. create

c. forecast

d. test

5. The author discusses all facets of most engineering fields.

a. prospects

b. aspects

c. issues

d. forms

6. Eventually, they have worked out the basic concepts.

a. lately

b. spontaneously

c. finally

d. gradually

7. Most of our meetings were devoted to discussing scientific problems.

a. dedicated

b. confined

c. conformed

d. introduced

8. The vast land stretches for hundreds of miles.

a. very small

b. narrow

c. very large

d. spectacular

9. Is there any evidence for believing that?

a. proof

b. tendency

c. opposition

d. chance


22           Chapter 1

10. He employed the one basic technique.

a. process

b. procedure

c. task

d. objective

11. She is very dedicated to her work.

a. interested in

b. committed to

c. tired of

d. disappointed with

12. They devoted a lot of time for the in-depth study of botany.

a. independent

b. individual

c. thorough

d. careful

13. He made no endeavor to help us.

a. effort

b. decision

c. plan

d. prediction

14. Human beings are much more intelligent than animals.

a. invaluable

b. realistic

c. curious

d. clever

15. Hopefully, I'll earn this degree in a year.

a. discuss

b. get

c. contain

d. study

16. How is your study progressing?

a. topic

b. investigation

c. attempt

d. procedure

17. The issue deals with international cooperation.

a. demands

b. touches upon

c. anticipates

d. allows

Noteworthy

Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life.

(Confucius).


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 23

Chapter 2

Focus on:

The Importance of Science Scientific Prefixes

Grammar: Expression of Quantity


24           Chapter 2

Text A Read the text be ready to answer the questions that follow .

Thinking about science, Goethe once said, «To one man it is the highest thing, a heavenly goddess; to another it is a productive and proficient cow who supplies them with butter.» The results of science and the motives for doing it are diverse.

Curiosity is the most powerful motivation for research professionals — and for many amateurs, too. Science clarifies, explains and occasionally predicts. Understanding a piece of universe can bring satisfaction and excitement to anyone.

Science serves the missions of improving health, national security, energy, the environment and communications, it creates new products, meets the demands of emerging markets and satisfies social needs. But even strong "faith in science may crack in straitened circumstances.

When it comes to future justification for curiosity-driven and mission-oriented research, we encounter three related undertakings.

First, we have to rethink the case from inside the scientific community. Government, businesses and universities must demonstrate that investments in science are the 'only way of fulfilling long-range goals. Research executives will have to document the ample returns from past investments and then outline future paths. Setting priorities will not be easy, and ,stern management to ensure excellence will be essential.

Second, we should broaden the dialogue. Society must be engaged in continuing exchange about national goals and research priorities. The press, industry, nonprofit organizations must participate.

Finally, we must expand the accessibility of knowledge.

The entire professional community must pay more attention to building a scientifically literate society. Support for science, and for the benefits of technology, increases with educational level.

To be successful in the twenty-first century, we need more science, not less.

result — something that happens because of an action or event. Synonym: outcome; укр. результат, наслідок

diverse — different (from each other), showing variety укр. різноманітний

motivation — need or purpose. Synonyms: incentive, stimulus, motive укр. стимул, мотивація

occasionally — укр. час від часу, інколи

to satisfy — to give enough for укр. задовольняти

to improve — to make better укр. поліпшувати

to emerge — to come or appear from inside or from being hidden укр. з'являтися, виявлятися

faith — firm belief, trust, complete confidence укр. вipa

straitened circumstances — difficult because lacking money. Synonym: money is short укр. фінансова скрута

to encounter — to meet or have to deal with (esp. Something difficult) Synonym: to be faced with укр. стикатися

related — connected in some way укр. суміжний, пов'язаний

undertaking — a job, a piece of work or anything needing effort укр. нелегка справа

community — a group of people living together and/or united by shared aims and interests укр. спільнота

long-range — covering a long distance or time укр. довгостроковий

ample — enough or more than enough укр. достатній

stern — firm, strict, severe укр. суворий

essential (to, for) — completely necessary for the existence, success of something. Synonyms: most important, notable, fundamental. Also: indispensable — too important or too useful to do without укр. нагально необхідний, суттєвий, дуже важливий

to expand — to increase in size, number, volume, degree; to grow larger, to broaden укр. збільшувати, розширяти

accessible — easy to reach, enter or obtain. Synonym: obtainable укр. доступний

accessibility — доступність

access — доступ

benefit — anything that brings help, advantage or profit укр. перевага, користь

NOTE

переваги

недоліки

advantage(s)

merit(s)

plus(es)

disadvantage(s)

demerit(s)

minus(es)

weakness (es)

shortcoming(s)

limitation(s)

pitfall(s)


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 25

1. What are the motives for doing science? What is the most powerful motivation?

2. What are the missions of science?

3. Are there any problems concerning scientific development? What are possible ways of solving them?

4. What can be done to build a scientifically literate society?

5. What major conclusions does the author arrive at?

6. Why did the author mention «the goddess» and «the cow»?

7. What was the author's purpose for writing this passage (to inform, to describe, to persuade, to explain, to entertain or something else)? What is the author's opinion on the subject?

Exercise 1. Give English equivalents to:

сильний стимул; професіонали та аматори; різноманітні мотиви; поліпшувати; слугувати меті; час від часу, фінансова скрута; довкілля; задовольняти потреби; довгострокові цілі; наукова спільнота; некомерційні організації; розширяти доступність знань; приділяти більше уваги; переваги науки та техніки; національна безпека; встановлювати пріоритети.

Exercise 2 Discuss the following point. Use an example provided below as possible response to the issue raised.

Problem: Around the world science is both indispensable and vulnerable. Indispensable because the world has goals that can be reached only with deeper understanding. Vulnerable because money is short and patience with research is running short, too.

Sample answer: Why support science? For hundreds of years one justification has been that research fulfills a passionate human quest for knowledge. But these days curiosity is not enough. Most people support science and think research leads to practical benefits: economic growth, better health, labor saving devices. The challenge is to integrate the drive for knowledge with the delivery of useful outputs.

vulnerable — weak, not well protected, sensitive, easily harmed укр. уразливий

quest — a long search, an attempt to find something


26           Chapter 2

GRAMMAR: EXPRESSION OF QUANTITY.

I. LARGE QUANTITY

With count nouns

With both

With non-count nouns

MANY (more, the most)

MUCH (more, the most)

There are many books in our library. У нашій бібліотеці багато книг

A LOT ОF

Much time is needed to solve this problem.

Для розв'язання цієї задачі треба багато часу

A GREAT NUMBER (OF) LARGE

a lot of

Books

Time

A LARGE AMOUNT (OF)

a great number of students багато (велика килькість) студентів

багато

Книг

Часу

a large amount of

water (велика кількість води)

*not a few

*quite a few *(a) host (of)

information knowledge evidence

There are universities

not a few quite a few

in the U.S.

significance

У США багато університетів They have a host of friends. У них багато друзів.

OTHER EXPRESSIONS DENOTING LARGE QUANTITY:

a great deal of

a great variety of

a wide range of

abundant = plentiful

myriad(s)

plethora

a great deal of money — багато грошей

a great variety of reasons (багато причин)

a wide range of different opinions (багато рiзних думок)

The country has abundant supplies of oil and gas,

У цій кpaїні великий запас нафти та газу.

a myriad stars — велика кількість зірок, міріади зірок

a plethora of suggestions — достаток, надмір пропозицій

II. SMALL QUANTITY

With count nouns

With non-count nouns

FEW (fewer, the fewest)

They asked few questions. Вони поставили мало запитань

*a few — трохи, невелика кількість I may be a few minutes late. Я можу трохи запізнитися.

LITTLE (less, the least)

We paid little attention to the proposal. Ми майже не звернули уваги на пропозицію

*а little — трохи, невелика кільюсть I have a little money У мене є трохи грошей.

minute, tiny, infinitesimal — крихітний

a bit — трохи. I'm a bit tired. Я трохи втомився

scarce — мало, обмаль. This winter snow was scarce. Цього року взимку було обмаль снігу.


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 27

Use some in affirmative sentences — I have some time. У мене є трохи часу.

Use any in negative and interrogative sentences — I don't have any information.

У мене немає ніякої (бодай найменшої) інформації.

Are there any letters for me? Чи є для мене (якісь) листи?

sufficient

enough

ample

(a) plenty of

достатня кількість

We have plenty of time — У нас досить часу.

We have enough seats for everyone — У нас досить місць для ycix.

sufficient information — достатня інформація.

ample money — досить грошей.

a bunch of

several

a number (of)

a couple (of)

декілька

a bunch of

students

flowers

група студентів

букет квітів

He wrote

several

a number of

articles

Він написав декілька (низку) статей

BUT:

The number (of) - кількість

The number of students in our group is 12. В нашій гpyпi 12 ociб.

Approximators:

Approximately

Nearly

About / around / some

Almost

Roughly

2 hours — приблизно (майже) 2 години.

Relatively

Rather

I good — відносно добрий.

Succession:

The first, the second ... the last — перший, другий ... останній

*the former — перший за переліком

*the latter — останній за переліком

серед двох згаданих.

Of the two possibilities the former seems more interesting (than the latter).

З двох можливостей перша здається більш цікавою (ніж друга).

(Also: former — колишній, the former president — колишній президент)

*every other — через одного

every other year — кожні два роки (раз на два роки).

*in succession — поспіль, підряд

*the last but one

*next to the last

Передостанній

*the last but not least — останній за переліком, але не за значениям (важливістю)

NOTE

the last останній

the latest найновіший, найсвіжіший (про новини, інформацію, тощо)

Have you read the last book by academician Vernadsky?

Ви читали останню книгу академика Вернадського?

The last chapter presents conclusions.

В останній главі наводяться висновки.

Have you read the latest article by our professor?

Ви читали нову статтю нашого професора?

The author provides the reader with the latest information. Автор надає найновішу інформацію.

Also: the late — покійний; the late president — покійний президент


28           Chapter 2

the most

найбільш

Most

більшість

This is the most interesting article I have ever read. Це найбільш цікава стаття серед тих, що я читав.

Most scientists usually work on one or two projects at one time. Більшість вчених звичайно працює над одним або двома проектами одночасно.

Also:  *for the most part = mainly — головним чином

*to make the most of — використовувати найкращим чином Make the most of your studies!

*another, a second, one more — ще один *other — ще один, інший (з декількох)

* the other — останній, що залишився

leftover, remainder

vestige(s)

залишки

OTHER EXPRESSIONS:

a dozen = 12

a score = 20

a quarter =1/4

a half = 1/2

1,2,3... 80...

100... 300..,

percent Ø

hundred Ø

million Ø

BUT:

hundreds of millions

billion Ø dollars

10 dollar 0 bill(s)

* billion — мільярд — 109

  two times — двічі

  three times — тричі

* -fold  There has been a twofold increase in company's business.

Прибуток компанії збільшився вдвічі.

twice

as little

as much

вдвічі

менший

більший

NOTE

Mind such phrases as:  «as much as», «as small as», «as early as»

as early as 1970 — (ще) у 1970 році


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 29

IS or ARE?

time (5 minutes, 3 years)

money (40 dollars)

distance (50 miles)

the number

a word of;

a pair of

1+2, 12+80 (...)

«Great Expectations»

(and similar titles of books) news

data

evidence

everything / each / everyone / anything

somebody / anybody / everybody

physics (and all other subjects)

statistics (as a science of dealing with and

explaining a collection of numbers which

represent facts or measurements)

IS

police

goods

a number

several

thanks data

ethics

statistics

(as a collection

of numbers

which represent facts or measurements)

ARE

Also

Chinese (as a language)

Chinese is a difficult language.

the Chinese (as people)

The Chinese are famous for their cuisine.

there + to be

There is (was) 1 professor and 2 (...) students.

There are (were) 2 students and 1 (...) professor(s).

WITH COLLECTIVE NOUNS:

committee

faculty

class

team

audience

public

IS having their meeting (as a group)

ARE going back to their homes (separately)

MIND OTHER EXPRESSIONS:

a flock of birds — пташина зграя

a swarm of bees

a school of fish

a pack of wolves

a colony of ants

a herd of cows

a pride of lions


30           Chapter 2

Exercise 3. Choose the correct variant:

1. After the negotiations they made many / much changes in their preliminary proposal.

2. German is / are spoken in parts of Switzerland.

3. The number of / the amount of working women are / is increasing nowadays.

4. Professor Johnson did not give many / much information.

5. No news are / is good news.

6. Mathematics are / is an interesting subject.

7. They informed us of much / many important decisions.

8. Many thanks were / was given.

9. «Gulliver's Travels» are / is a popular book.

10. The latest statistics is / are not reliable enough.

11. All of the money were / was spent.

12. A word of gratitude was / were very pleasant.

13. The Japanese is/are known for their traditions.

14. A number of students has / have improved their English.

15. Someone have / has forgotten to put the name on the list.

16. There is / are several documents missing.

17. Statistics are / is a branch of mathematics.

18. There is/are no question of postponing the meeting.

Exercise 4. Read the text and try to appreciate its humor. Discuss the point with your colleagues.

Marion Eppley, developer of the standard cell that bears his name, was credited with the following anecdote:

A young high school student returned one afternoon to the small retail store his father operated in conjunction with a partner.

«Dad,» asked the student, «what are ethics? My teacher said that tomorrow we are going to discuss them.»

«Well,» said the father, «I'll illustrate. Imagine that a man comes into the store to buy a carton of cigarettes. I give him the cigarettes, and he gives me the money. Then, after I've given him his change, he turns to leave and I discover that the $20 bill he gave me seems thicker than usual. On closer examination I find that there are two $20 bills stuck together.

Here, my son, is the whole question of ethics. Do I or don't I tell my partner?»

I'm sure you see Eppley's point.

BORROWED PLURAL FORMS:

on

a

um

phenomenon — phenomena феномен (явище) феномени (явища)

medium — media

засiб — засоби

Also possible:

symposium

criterion

symposia

symposiums

criteria

criterions

is → es

a → ae

analysis — analyses

аналiз — аналiзи

formula — formulae

формула — формули

formula

formulae

formulas

us → i                 nucleus — nuclei

ядро — ядра

indices

index

indexes

ix → ices index — indices

ex             індекс — індекси

                (покажчик — покажчики)


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 31

singular

Plural

man

woman

child

tooth

goose

mouse

ox

person, human being

Men

Women

Children

Teeth

Geese

Mice

Oxen

people, human beings, humans

Aircraft

Encyclopedia

Equipment

a piece of information

a piece of news

a piece of advice

a piece of furniture

Information

News

Advice

Furniture

Exercise 5. Pluralize the following words:

radius, crisis, antenna, appendix, criterion, stimulus, encyclopedia, prognosis, sanatorium, axis, aircraft, medium, matrix, nebula, phasis, optimum, syllabus, supernova, synthesis, spectrum, thesis, equipment, maximum, hypothesis, equilibrium, millennium, oasis, curriculum, phenomenon, analysis.

Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences.

1. There are infinitely many bases to choose from.

2. You may first wish to try a few examples to illustrate that formula.

3. There are many interesting results concerning matrices.

4. Unfortunately, formulas like the ones above do not come easily.

5. There did not remain any questions.

6. This is the least acceptable variant.

7. The latter procedure is much more complicated than the former one.

8. There are a lot of differences among languages.

9. Elevator makers believe that their cars can carry passengers up to at least 180 floors.

10. We do not have enough information at present to offer sound answers to these questions.

11. They have sufficient information from which to draw a conclusion.

12. The reaction accelerated fivefold.

13. These features are also important in a wide variety of applications.


32           Chapter 2

Text B. Scientific prefixes

Let's meet zetta, yotta, zepto and yocto. They are not fundamental particles, they are prefixes on the scientific scale of quantities denoting, respectively, a billion trillions, a trillion trillions, a billionth of a trillionth, respectively — укр. вiдповiдно and a trillionth of a trillionth. Nobody has found much practical use for them yet, but they exist if you need them, according to decisions of the Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures, the international body that meets every four years to govern the realm of scientific units.

101 deka or deca (da), from Greek deka ten,

10-1 deci (d), from Latin decimus, tenth

102 hecto (h), from Greek hekaton, hundred,

10-2 centi (c), from Latin centum, hundred

103 kilo (K),, from Greek chilioi, thousand

10-3 milli (m), from Latin mille, thousand

106 mega (M), from Greek megas, large ,

10-6 micro ,from Latin micro -(Greek micros), small

109 giga (G), from Greek gigas, giant,

10-9 nano (n),, from Latin nanus (Greek nanos), dwarf

1012 tera (T), from Greek teras, monster,

10-12 pico (p),, from Spanish pico or Italian piccolo, small

1015 penta (P), from Greek pente, five

10-15 femto (f),, from Danish-Norwegian femten, fifteen

1018 exa (E), from Greek hex, six

10-18 atto (a), from Danish-Norwegian atten, eighteen

1021 zetta (Z), from Latin septem, seven

10-21 zepto (z), from Latin septem, seven

1024 yotta (Y), from Greek or Latin octo, eight

10-24 yocto (y), from Greek or Latin octo. eight


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 33

By learning the prefixes you will understand the meaning of words.

Prefix

Meaning

a - , ab -

not having

ambi -

Both

anti -

Against

bi -

having or involving two, coming or occurring twice

mono -, uni -

single, one

tri -

having or involving three, coming or occurring three times

by-

Secondary

co -, corn -, col -, con -, cor -

together with

dis -, mis -, mal -

not, bad, wrong,

ex-

out, from

extra -

beyond, outside

fore -

before (in time or order)

pre -, ante -

before, prior

contra -,

Against

in -, im -, ir -, il -, un -

Not

inter -

Between

micro -

Small

multi -, poly -

more than one or two, many

octo -, octa -

Eight

out -

to do better than

post -

After

pseudo -

not real, false

quadra -

four, one-fourth

retro -

Backward

semi -, hemi -, demi -

Half

sept-

Seven

sub -

under, below, beneath, underneath, lower

syn -

same, together

trans -

Across

over -

too much

under -

too little


34           Chapter 2

Exercise 7. Match the two columns:

1. to coexist

2. to postpone

3. overpopulation

4. illogical

5. miscalculation

6. to underpay

7. trilingual

8. to rewrite

9. unfair

10. ambiguous.

11. bilingual

12. atypically

13. decade

14. to outperform

15. malfunction

16. demigod

A. speaking two languages

B. a period of ten years

C. not logical

D. having two meanings

E. to make later

F. not typically

G. to exist together at the same time

H. wrong calculation

I. too many people

J. speaking three languages

K. not fair

L. to write again in a better way

M. to perform better than somebody

N. to pay too little

O. someone greater than a human but less than God

P. a fault in operation

Exercise 8. Try to guess the meaning of the following words. If necessary, consult the dictionary.

contradict, uniform, combine, decade, antecedent, byproduct, international, foresee, impossible, ambivalent, unknown, collaborate, transportation, disorder, monologue, unilateral, bimonthly, semiannual, microscope, subterranean, cooperate, unusual, monopoly, synthesis, bicycle, antipathy, polyglot, reaffirm, demigod, triangle, intermediate, predict, dislike, overestimate, multimillionaire, illegal, infinity, misinform, bilateral, retrospect, preview, hemisphere, outplay, undervalue.

Exercise 9. Read the. text concentrating on «quantity» words. Render it into Ukrainian.

Although the beginning of «electronics» is usually dated around the 1920s, this represents a myopic view of technology. We can now see that the telegraph and the telephone are the first two landmarks of the electronic age. After Alexander Graham Bell had sent his voice from one room to another in 1876, society could never be the same again.

Electron, this invisible, ubiquitous, weightless object has given us power over nature of which our ancestors never dreamed. Until the closing years of the nineteenth century, people used electricity without knowing what it was. One of the most dramatic events was the invention of the X-ray tube — the ancestor of vacuum ubiquitous — existing tubes which followed. X-rays were discovered in 1895 — the electron  or being everywhere itself just one year later. It was then realized that an electric current consists of myriads of these submicroscopic particles, each carrying a minute negative charge. Until 1948, electronics was almost synonymous with the vacuum tube. By the late 1940's, the vacuum tube had shrunk from the object as large as an electric bulb, to a cylinder not much


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 35

bigger than a man's thumb. Then three scientists at the Bell Telephone Laboratories invented the transistor and we moved from the Paleoelectronic to the Neoelectronic Age. But a really efficient, reliable and universal communications system can be achieved only with the aid of satellites. With the improvement of communications the role of cities as meeting places and centers of social interaction will become obsolete, as people will be able to meet face to face (individually or in groups) without even leaving their homes.

Exercise 10. Choose the correct word and fill in the blanks.

(to) improve              improvement

1. Your work shows considerable __ .

2. I want to __ my German.

3. Your English if getting better, but there is still room for __ .

(to) benefit                    beneficial

4. He had the          of a first-class education.

5. The fall in prices will be :__ to our business.

6. He is most likely __ .

technology   technological    technologist

7. The system uses advanced computer and satellite __ .

8. We witness the rapid pace         change.

9. A specialist in technology is called ____.

10. We use the latest ____.

Exercise 11. Read the passage and answer the questions about it.

When colonists from Europe first arrived in America, they had to decide what to preserve of their cultural heritage, and what to discard. They also had to decide upon a means to preserve and build upon their legacy. Their answer was the town school. Within 30' years of the founding of the first settlement in Massachusetts (1620), all towns were required to hire a schoolmaster to teach reading, writing and arithmetic, as well as religion; larger towns were required to establish grammar schools to prepare children for the university. In 1787 the Continental Congress required every new township in the Northwest Territory to preserve one plot and land for public schools.

At the university level, Harvard (Massachusetts) was founded in 1636, and William and Mary (Virginia) in 1693. By 1776, on the eve of its revolution, America had 14 colleges in the new country and another score were founded by 1800. By that time schooling meant not only preserving parts of the classical education, but also teaching skills necessary to build a new North American Nation. Americans freely borrowed from English, French and German precedents.

1. Which of the following is the best title for this passage?

a. European colonists in America

b. American educational system

c. Grammar schools and universities

d. The first steps of American education


36           Chapter 2

2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a subject?

a. religion

b. reading

c. astronomy

d. arithmetic

3. How many colleges were founded by 1800?

a. 14

b. 34

с. 20

d. 30

4. In line 2 the word «heritage» could be best replaced by which of the following?

a. pride

b. example

c. criterion

d. legacy

5. The author implies that

a. public schools were the first to appear

b. there were quite a few universities

c. William and Mary established town schools

d. there was a tendency towards linking theory to practice

Exercise 12. Choose the one word of phrase that best keeps the meaning of the original sentence if it is substituted for the underlined word or phrase.

1. He was given ample money for the journey.

a. enough

b. little

c. some

d. no

2. The program deals with diverse subjects.

a. all

b. interesting

c. challenging

d. different

3. Good timing is essential to our plans.

a. useful

b. important

c. realistic

d. interesting

4. With strong motivation it is easier to learn a foreign language.

a. problem

b. will

c. prediction

d. need

5. What was the outcome?

a. result

b. issue

c. question

d. occasion


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 37

6. This machinery is obsolete.

a. new

b. universal

c. outdated

d. good

7. The theory has myriads of followers.

a. some

b. a great number of

c. a plenty of

d. few

8. We were faced with a lot of problems.

a. found

b. renewed

c. resolved

d. encountered

9. Several approaches have emerged in recent years.

a. appeared

b. lost importance

c. formed

d. disappeared

10. They made a minute improvement.

a. instant

b. very small

c. considerable

d. very important

11. We have carried out several experiments.

a. the number of

b. a lot of

c. few

d. a number of

12. At present we do not have enough information.

a. sufficient

b. pertinent

c. updated

d. important

13. Electron is a ubiquitous object.

a. valuable

b. infinitesimal

c. omnipresent

d. weightless

14. Computer is a reliable tool.

a. dependable

b. sophisticated

c. expensive

d. common

15. Water is the most abundant resource on the Earth, and one of the most important.

a. rare

b. useful

c. significant

d. plentiful


38           Chapter 2

16. The article concerns huge woodland areas.

a. concluded by

b. denies

c. provides

d. regards

17. A second, more rigorous course may be offered as an elective.

a. the other

b. another

c. the second

d. other

18. A telephone is an indispensable piece of equipment in any office.

a. beneficial

b. compatible

c. very reliable

d. extremely important

19. It was one of the most dramatic events.

a. usual

b. exciting

c. sad

d. obvious

Noteworthy

The name «quark» was coined by Irish poet and novelist James Joyce in the 1930s, and adopted by quantum physicist Murray Gell-Mann in 1964. Gell-Mann took it from the novel «Finnegan's Wake» in which a flock of seaswans sings this song to one of the characters:

«Three quarks for Muster Mark!

Sure he hasn't got much of a bark

And sure any he has it's all beside the mark».

Although «quark» had no relevance to physics, it was probably as good a name as any for a mysterious building block of matter.


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 39

Chapter 3

Focus on:

Science and Society Using Graphics

Grammar: System of Tenses (Review)


40           Chapter 3

Text A. Read the text and be ready to answer the questions that follow.

In industrial countries, there is a close correlation between the rate of increase in the number of graduate engineers and the level of industrial productivity.

The speed at which new knowledge is transferred to industry is a key factor in preserving economy's competitive position vis-a-vis tough rivals.

The modern world is facing several disturbing trends in human resources. In quantitative terms, we will have to cope with the consequences   of an aging population, a decline in the working population. In more qualitative terms, there is a mismatch between the supply of young graduates and the needs of industry resulting in skills shortage. For that matter, continuing   vocational   training   and retraining in a constantly changing industrial and technological context need radical improvement. It has been shown that intellectual capital depreciates by 7% every year if it is not maintained.

To  improve  the  situation,   some recommendations have been made. Most of these are what one would expect — attract more young people into science, more science in schools, better contact between industry and education, investment  in continuing education to make labor mobility respond to regional needs, and to avoid a brain drain.

The United States, Japan and Germany each employ between roughly fifty and seventy-five scientists and engineers for every 10000 workers in the labor force. In developing countries the number is between five and ten. By emphasizing education at all levels and by selectively entering globally competitive markets,

between & among: when you are talking about only

two things use

between, укр, серед (двох)

If you are talking of three or more things use among, укр, серед

(трьох та більше)

to transfer — to move from one place to another укр.

переносити, переміщати

competitive — based on competition

укр. конкурентоспроможний

competitorSynonym: rival укр. конкурент,

суперник

tough — difficult to do or deal with, not easy, needing

effort укр. складний

trend — a general tendency or direction in the way a

situation is changing or developing укр. тенденція

to cope with — to deal successfully with a difficult

situation укр. справлятися, переборювати

consequences — results, outcome укр. наслідки,

результати

mismatch — укр. невідповідність

to result in — to have as a result; to cause;

укр. спричиняти, призводити (до)

vocational training — укр. професійно-технічна

підготовка

retrainingSynonym: in-service укр. перепідготовка

Also: staff development — підвищення кваліфікації

radical — having wide and important effects.

Synonym: drastic укр. радикальний

to maintain — to continue to have (do) as before, to

keep up, to take care (of), to support укр. підтримувати

to respond — to do something in answer, to react

укр. відповідати, реагувати

brain drain — a movement of large number of highlyskilled or professional people from the country where they were trained to other countries where they can earn more money укр. відплив спеціалістів/фахівців

to prosper — to become successful and rich.

Synonyms: to thrive, to flourish укр. процвітати

to enable — to permit, to allow укр. дозволяти

the very dynamics — укр. власне динаміка (сама динаміка) Compare: the very fact — сам факт

countries prosper. That prosperity then enables higher investments in R&D reguired for economic development. The very dynamics of R&D institutions is changing. Universities create hybrid academic-industrial centers, often with partial goverment funding, to accelerate the transfer of scientific results to commercial applications.

1. What is a key factor in preserving economy's competitiveness?

2. What is meant by disturbing trends in human resources?

3. Why is it necessary to maintain intellectual capital?

4. What is a brain drain?

5. What are the new forms of linkages between science and industry?


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 41

Exercise 1. Give English equivalents to:

сильний суперник, тривожна тенденція, справлятися з наслідками, професійно-технічна освіта, переподготовка, радикальне поліпшення, залучати молодь до науки, подовжена освіта, реагувати на потреби, уникати відпливу спеціалістів, процвітати, прискорювати процес.

Exercise 2. Give Ukrainian equivalents of:

industrial countries; modern world; disturbing trend; to cope with the consequences; the very dynamics; brain drain; skills shortage; mismatch; competitive.

Exercise 3. Translate Ukrainian sentences into English. Then match the two columns.

1. У них є багато зарубіжних конкурентов.

2. Вони наголошують на важливості освіти на Bcіx рівнях.

3. Професійна освіта допоможе вам пристосуватися до нових умов.

4. Внески (інвестиції) у науку дають велику соціальну віддачу.

5. Які показники результативности науково-дослідної роботи?

A. Investments in science generate high rates of social return.

В. What are the output indicators of R&D?

С. They emphasize education at all levels.

D. Vocational education will help you to adjust to new industrial context.

Е. They have a lot of foreign competitors.

Exercise 4. Discuss the following point with your colleagues.

Scientists think globally and act competitively. International competition is the norm.  But scientists also have a tradition of global cooperation, just as corporations now seek global alliances and share the costs of research and development to reach new markets. By blending competition and collaboration, the international scientific system works. As many Asian nations have shown, the patient building of national base of technology and education flourishes when linked to global networks of research.


42           Chapter 3

GRAMMAR: SYSTEM OF TENSES

Simple Present (Present Indefinite) (Present Indefinite) «now»

Present Progressive (Present Continuous) «already in progress now»

Express:

1. General realtionships and timeless truths

Time changes everything.

Час змінює усе.

1. Actions in progress:

He is studying for an exam

now

at the moment

Зараз він готується до іспиту.

This device is becoming more and more popular.

Цей прилад набуває (зараз) все більшої популярності.

2. Permanent states:

Ann likes mathematics.

Енн любить математику.

2. Uncompleted actions:

She is still looking for a job.

Вона все ще шукає роботу.

John is making dinner. Джон готує вечерю.

3. Habitual and recurring actions:

John jogs every morning.

Джон бiгaє щоранку.

3. Repetition and duration, temporary states and activities:

He is taking English classes this year.

Цього року він відвідує заняття з англійської мови.

She is living with her parents this month.

Цього місяця вона мешкає разом з батьками.

4. Mental perception and emotions:

He never worries.

Biн ніколи не хвилюється.

4. Emotional comment on present habit:

She is always cracking jokes! Завжди вона шуткує!

5. Definite future plans or schedules

She completes her studies in a month.

Через місяць вона закінчить навчання.

5. Future events:

I'm leaving at 7 a.m. tomorrow.

Я їду завтра о 7 годині ранку.

The deleaation is coming tomorrow.

Завтра прибуває делегація.

6. Events with future time adverbials:

After she completes her studies, she plans to stay here for good.

Після закінчення навчання вона планує залишитись тут назавжди.

7. Future events with verbs open/close, beam/end, come/leave:

The class begins at 8 a.m.

Заняття починаються о 8 годині ранку.

The store closes at 10 p.m.

Крамниця зачиняється о 10 годині вечора.

Не comes tomorrow.

Він прибуває завтра.


Chapter 1                                                                                                                                 43

Tense markers

usually/generally/as a rule

sometimes/from time to time

rarely/seldom/hardly ever

never/almost never

often/

frequently

always

now/right now/at the moment

still

today

this year/week

these days

always

every

day

morning

other day

NOTE

Use ONLY Simple Present with stative verbs:

BUT:

I'm looking at you.

He's tasting food.

We're having a party next Sunday.

Understand

Know

Believe

Like

Remember

Need

want/wish

mean

prefer

appear

seem

sound

smell

look

taste

have

I know it.

Я знаю це.

I understand what you mean.

Я розумiю, що ви маєте на увазi.

This idea sounds nice.

Ця iдея звучить непогано.

Projects look OK on paper.

Food tastes delicious.

I have two dictionaries.

Exercise 5. Choose the correct form of the verbs from the parentheses:

1. I (understand / am understanding) now.

2. This melody (is sounding / sounds) nice.

3. Barbara always (goes / is going) to work at 7 a.m.

4. Coffee (is smelling / smells) good.

5. She usually (phones / is phoning) in the evening.


44           Chapter 3

SIMPLE FUTURE

(Future Indefinite)

«at a certain time in the future»

1. probable future events:

I will call you*

Я подзвоню тoбi

I will help you

Я допоможу тo6i

I'll get the phone

Я підійду до телефона

←Тense markers

later

tomorrow

in 2 hours

next month

tonight

soon

one of these days

(цими)днями

(по відношенню до майбутнього)

5 years from now

the day after tomorrow

NOTE

I/we

s/he

they

will       (American English)

I/we

s/he

they

shall

will          (British English)

2. mental perception and emotions:

You'll

like it!    Toбi це обов'язково сподобається!

love

NOTE

DO NOT use Future Tense in a sentence where there are two clauses, one of which is time clause beginning with when; before; until; after/as soon as; unless; should (as equivalent of if).

I will do it

іf

when

before

after

as soon as

you come.

Unless it rains, the competition will be held outside.

Якщо не буде дощу, змагання будуть проведені надворі.

Should you come, I will meet you.

Якщо ти приїдеш, я тебе зустріну.


Chapter 3           45

3. to be going to future:

a. future plans, intentions:

She is going to study at the university.

Вона збирається навчатися в університеті

I'm going to do it no matter what!

Я збираюся це зробити (зроблю це) будь-що!

b. probable and immediate future events:

The class is going to start in a minute.

За хвилину почнуться заняття.

Also: The laboratory is (just) about to close. Лабораторію вже майже зачинили.

NOTE

Talking about the future you may well use the following expressions:

* in the long run — in the distant future, укр. у далекому майбутньому, на перспективу.

* in the short run—in the near future, soon, укр. незабаром

—Why are you learning Spanish?

— I think it will be useful in the long run.

Past Progressive

(Past Continuous)

Future Progressive

(Future Continuous)

Express:

«in progress at a time in the past»

«in progress at a certain time in the future»

l. events in progress at a specific time:

He was studying at 10 p.m.

Вчора о 10 годині вечора він вчився.

1. events that will be in progress at a time

in the future; will last for a period of time in the future:

I will be delivering a lecture on philosophy from 9 a.m. till 11 a.m. tomorrow.

She will be working on her paper for the next two weeks.

Вона працюватиме над статтею два наступні тижні.

2. interrupted actions:

I was reading when she came.

Я читав у той момент, коли вона прийшла.

Tense markers

3. two actions in the past continued at the same time:

He was reading while I was writing my esseay.

Він читав у той час, коли я писав твір.

from 5 a.m. till 7 a.m.

4. repetition and iteration:

I was reading all dav long.

Я читав цілий день.

Tense markers

this time

tomorrow

next year

10 years from now

still

for 2

hours

days

at 8 a.m. tomorrow

when X come(s)

yesterday

at 5 p.m.

from 3 p.m. to 10 p.m.

all day long while

NOTE Use while with Past Progressive, and when with Simple Past


46           Chapter 3

Exercise 6. Choose the correct form of the verb from the parentheses:

1. When Melissa arrived everyone (was studying / studied),

2. At three o'clock she (was studying / studied).

3. At. this time tomorrow we (wi]l be taking / will take) the test.

4. I (will call / am calling) you one of these days.

5. John (was reading / read) while Mary (was watching / watched) TV.

Simple Past

«at a certain time in the past»

Present Perfect

«in the past but related in some way to the present»

Express:

1. events that took place at a definite time in the past:

We discussed it yesterday.

Ми обговорили це учора.

tense markers

1. actions happened at an indefinite time in the past: 

We have already discussed it.

Ми вже обговорили це (колись раніше).

tense markers

in 1990

when X was 20

as a child

yesterday

last year / month

the day before yesterday

long ago

once upon a time

the other day (цими) днями

(по відношенню до минулого)

this morning (the morning is over)

eventually / finally

at that time

2 hours ago / later

(for the) first / last time

lately / recently / of late /

in recent years (останнім часом)

up to now

so far

already

never

ever .

since

in the past

yet

during the past 2 days

2. events that lasted for a time in continue to the present: 

He taught at Harvard for 10 years before he came here.

Він викладав у Гарварді протягом 10 років перед тим, як переїхав сюди (він більше там не викладає).

2. situations that began in the past, the past: 

He has attended the university for 3 years.

Він навчався в університеті протягом 3 років (i зараз продовжує навчатися там).

Не has lived in Germany since 1992 (he still lives there).

Biн проживає у Германії з 1992 року (i зараз також). 

MIND: since is used to indicate the beginning of the time period; for is used to indicate duration of time.

3. habitual or repeated events: 

She studied English every day until she passed the test.

Вона вчила англійську щодня, доки не склала іспит.

3. actions completed in the past but related to the present:

John has applied for several job openings and now he's waiting for the results. Джон подав заявку на кілька вакансій i зараз очікує на результати.


Chapter 3           47

4. past mental perceptions or emotions:

She always knew what she wanted.

Вона завжди знала, чого прагне.

NOTE

used to and be used to ...ing/noun

*used to describes habits, regular activities, states in the past that no longer exist now;

*be used to ...ing/noun means «be accustomed to», «have a habit»

He used to work at the university.

Раніше він працював в університеті.

He is used to working at the university.

Biн звик працювати в утверситеті.

Or: He is used to his present job.

Biн звик до своєї теперішньої роботи.

Еxercise 7. Choose the correct form of the verb from the parentheses:

1. They (bought / have bought) a dictionary the other day.

2. Laura (has taken / took) the test.

3. During the last week I (read / have read) 2 books.

4. They (have translated / translated) the article already.

5. We (didn't finish / haven't finished) the project yet.

6. He (arrived / has arrived) the day before yesterday.

7. I (haven't seen / didn't see) him recently.

Exercise 8. Choose the one option that is closest in meaning to the original sentence.

1. John used to travel a lot.

a. He traveled a lot in the past, now he doesn't.

b. He is accustomed to traveling.

2. Doris isn't used to working so hard.

a. In the past she worked very much but now she doesn't.

b. She isn't in the habit of working so hard.

3. Marilyn is used to this climate.

a. Marilyn is accustomed to this climate.

b. In the past Marilyn liked this climate,

4. These students are used to studying for exams in the library.

a. They always study for exams in the library.

b. In the past they went to the library to study.

5. He used to jog every other day.

a. He always jogs every other day.

b. He doesn't jog every other day anymore.


48           Chapter 3

Past Perfect

Future Perfect

2 actions (or more) occurred

Before a certain time in the past

before a certain time in the future Express:

Express

Action(s) or state (s) that took place

Before other event(s) in the past:

He had studied very hard

Action 1 

Before he passed the exam.

Action 2

Biн наполегливо вчився перед тим, як склав іспит.

future event(s) happening before other future event(s):

By the time you come,

Action 2

we will have finished the experiment.

Action 1

Коли ви прийдете, ми вже закінчимо експеримент.

I will have finished translation by 9 p.m.

Я закінчу переклад до дев'ятої години вечора.

Tense markers

Before

After

When

hardly ... when

never ... before

Tense markers

before

tomorrow by 5 p.m.

by the year...

NOTE

The Present Perfect Progressive(Continuous), the Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous), the Future Perfect Progressive (Continuous) are used mainly to emphasize the duration of activity expressed by Present Perfect, Past Perfect, and Future Perfect, respectively:

He

has taught

has been teaching

mathematics for 2 years.

He

had studied

had been studying

very hard before he passed the test.

By the end of the year

we will have worked/hved/taught

we will have been working/living/teaching

here for 5 years.

Exercise 9. Choose the correct tense of the verbs from the parentheses.

1. By the time you come , he (study) for two hours.

2. He (say) yesterday that he (publish) his first book in 1995.

3. I (know) him for many years.

4. Carol (be) to France.

5. He (study) since 8 o'clock this morning.

6. They (finish) the project already.

7. By the time we (arrive) the conference had already begun.


Chapter 3           49

Sequence of Tenses (Reported Speech)

He says that he

Biн каже, що

could

might

would

is studying

studies

вчиться

studied

вчився

will study

буде вчитися

could study

today

here

now

this/those

yesterday

last year

tomorrow

two days from today

three days ago

next month/year

He said that he

Він казав, що

could

might

would

was studying

studied

вчиться

had studied

вчився

would study

буде вчитися

could study

that day

there

then

that/those

the day before (on the previous day)

the year before the previous year

the next day the following day

two days from then

three days earlier

the following month / year

NO tense changes are required when you mention

1. things that are always true:

Cavendish discovered that water consists of hydrogen and oxygen.

2. statements that occurred only a very short time ago:

He told me, «I can't understand your idea».

He said that he can't understand my idea.

NOTE

Questions in reported speech:

«Am I right?» asked X.

X

Asked

Wondered

if

whether (or not)

she/he was right


50           Chapters 3

Exercise 10. Decide whether tense changes are required or not if the sentences are  changed to reported speech. State the reason why.

1. My friend said, «English and French are the two official languages in Canada».

2. Shakespeare once observed, «Love is blind».

3. Yesterday morning my teacher said, «The results of your test will be here two days from today».

4. My father always told me, «To learn is never too late».

5. Last week my cousin told me, «I have already completed the essay for my classes this week».

6. When I saw Paula last month she told me, «I received John's letter two months ago».

7. Elisabeth told me, «I couldn't come earlier».

8. Michael said, «I would get the tickets».

Exercise 11. Complete the following sentences:

1. The cordless telephone ... available to the professional and general public in the years between 1970 and 1980.

a. is becoming

b. became

c. has become

d. had become

2. Recently, there ... considerable discussion about technology investments.

a. is

b. has been

c. was

d. is going to be

3. If you ... role in leadership, you are going to develop special skills.

a. take on

b. took on

c. will take on

d. were taking on

4. They ... that they had completed the task.

a. have reported

b. report

c. are reporting

d. reported

5. For many years the Academy ... science education in the schools.

a. promoted

b. has promoted

c. promotes

d. is promoting

6. She will go to the university when she ... her paper.

a. finishes

b. will finish

c. finished

d. had finished


Chapter 3           51

7. We can talk about it after he ...

a. will leave

b. is leaving

c. leaves

d. has left

8. This theory is popular ... scientists.

a. along

b. between

c. where

d. among

9. The quality of education from elementary school through college ... a subject of special interest in recent years.

a. has become

b. became

c. will become

d. becomes

Text B. Read the following passage, paraphrase it. Discuss the ways graphics affects people in workplace.

As we move into the technological age, we witness the increasing use of graphics all around us, and the influence that graphics has on the way everyone thinks, The visual world in which we live reminds us that graphics has enormous impact on our lives.

Computer users, for example, use graphic design within the texts they prepare on a word processor. Some researchers believe that graphics will actually help people communicate more effectively whether on a

influence — an effect on someone or something without the use of direct force or command Synonym: impact укр. вплив

enormous — extremely large укр. величезний

actually — in fact, really, in reality, in actuality укр. фактично, насправдi

computer screen or a printed page. The goal of graphic design is to present information that can be understood easily and quickly. Graphic designs usually mean headlines, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, symbols and pictures.

GRAPHS are a visual way of presenting information, especially statistical data. The three most important types of graphs are:

line graphs

bar graphs

are useful in showing changes and trends (general tendencies or directions in the way a situation is changing or developing) involving quantities or amounts over time

Scientists & Engineers in

the Labor Force

Per 10,000 Labor Force

Ratio of Science and Engineering Degrees

to Total First University Degrees


52           Chapter 3

R&D Scientists and Engineers

Per 10.000 Population, 1995

circle graphs

sometimes called pie graphs, show percentage, and whole is divided into parts

When analyzing information in a line or bar graph, note time periods and increases or decreases in amounts. In a circle graph, note the relationship of each part to the whole. Rank the percentages from the greatest to the least.

Comment on these graphs:

The present stock and flow of human resources engaged in the global discovery and application of science and technology are critical to the future pace of innovation. Historically, the world's largest reservoirs of scientists and engineers have rested in the Western economies. Over time, however, Asia, especially Japan, has begun to build equivalent pools of scientists and engineers in the labor force, and emerging economies are showing signs of producing relatively high proportions of scientists and engineers among their university graduating cohorts. As the global economy expands and nations become ever more interconnected, there may be reason to hope for a smoothing out of at least some aspects of global S&T human resources capacity.

pool of scientists, reservoir of scientists

укр. кадри (резерв) вчених

cohort — any group of people who share some common quality (same age etc.) укр. когорта, група

S&T — Science and Technology укр. наука i техніка


Chapter 3           53

Exercise 12. Study the following graph and answer the questions about it:

Elements that make up the earth's crust

1. What elements make up the fourth largest percentage of the earth's crust?

2. Does oxygen make up more, less, or about the same percentage of the earth's crust as compared to all the other elements together?

3. What three elements make up almost equal percentage of the earth's crust?

4. Do sodium and calcium together make up a larger percentage than aluminium?

Exercise 13. Choose the correct word and fill in the blanks.

(to) increase                  increasingly

1. I find it ____ difficult to work with them.

2. The population of this country has _____.

competition competitor(s) competitive

3. The two companies are in direct ______

4. Anyone wanting to enter the computer business faces tough _______

5. They lost the contract to their ____.

6. We've discussed the _____ nature of private industry.

(to) invest                    investment(s)

7. The government is trying to attract _____ into this industry.

8. He will advise you how _____ money.

9. I've ____ a lot of time and effort into this project.

(to) prosper    prosperity      prosperous

10. Their business ____.

11. We wish you health, happiness , and ____.

12. This is a new and ____ city.

innovation(s)                  innovative

13. The article dealt with _____ printing techniques.

14. Recent _____ in this field are very promising.


54           Chapter 3

Exercise 14. Read the text and answer the questions about it.

garbageSynonyms: litter, trash, junk укр. сміття

William Rathje, a professor of anthropology at the University of Tucson, Arizona, has created an entirely new field of science called garbology. He conducted a scientific study of garbage left for collection, inspected and categorized some 120 tons of garbage and has arrived at some interesting conclusions. If you ask professor Rathje about trash, his answers might surprise you. Garbage, he points out, is an unavoidable fact of life, produced by all societies since the dawn of civilization. One of his findings is a real composition of the American waste: not plastic, not glass, not metal — but paper, which makes up more than 40 percent of the volume of waste. Another result is that middle-income families waste more food than lower or upper-income families. Rathje's research also reveals some facts about American habits of consumption. For example, lower-income households tend to throw away hazardous car-care items, middle class households discard paint, furniture, plant fertilizers.

1. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) The creation of archaeology

(B) Methods of paper recycling

(C) William Rathje's biography

(D) Results from work in the field of garbology

2. According to the passage, who is William Rathje?

(A) a university student

(B) a sanitation engineer

(C) an anthropology professor

(D) a chemist

3. According to the passage, who wasted more food?

(A) lower-and middle income families

(B) upper-income families

(C) middle-income families

(D) lower-income families

4. It can be inferred from the passage that

(A) problems with garbage appeared only recently

(B) garbage has been produced since ancient times

(C) Americans produce more garbage than other nations

(D) plastic is the most common waste

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the science of garbology is important because it

(A) provides insights into lifestyles of American families

(B) offers work opportunities for students

(C) is the most promising trend in science

(D) studies modern methods of food processing

Exercise 15. Choose the one word or phrase that best keeps the meaning of the original  sentence if it is substituted for it.

1. He responded to my suggestion promptly.

(a) agreed

(b) reacted

(c) objected

(d) understood


Chapter 3           55

2. These two companies are rivals.

(a) innovators

(b) companions

(c) competitors

(d) investors

3. It's a tough problem.

(a) disturbing

(b) enormous

(c) radical

(d) difficult

4. The computer has made a great impact on our lives.

a. decision

b. reaction

c. influence

d. help

5. We are to face these radical changes.

a. drastic

b. minor

c. relevant

d. constant

6. We start off with trends in global communications.

a. tendencies

b. data

c. priorities

d. partnerships

7. It is difficult to predict possible consequences.

a. chances

b. results

c. improvements

d. trends

8. As soon as you arrive home, phone me.

a. after

b. before

c. until

d. unless

9. He seldom comes on time.

a. often

b. always

c. sometimes

d. rarely

10. I hope you will maintain your recent improvement.

a. give up

b. transfer

c. realize

d. keep up

11. The project will become effective in the short run.

a. later

b. in the distant future

c. soon

d. at the moment


56           Chapter 3

12. Actually, IBM was world's seventh largest company in 1983.

a. essentially

b. on the whole

c. finally

d. in fact

13.Walking on the grass is not allowed.

a. prohibited

b. permitted

c. proclamed

d. proposed

Noteworthy

The science of graphology tries to establish relationship between handwriting and personality. Such relationship was first noticed by the Chinese in the eleventh century, and then in 1622 a

man called Camillo Baldi maintained that each person has a characteristic handwriting. At the end of the nineteenth century graphology became a proper science. Now even figures aimless doodles are of interest to graphologists. Like dreams, doodles are products of the unconscious and can reflect

to maintain — to assert укр. наполягати, стверджувати

to doodle — to draw lines, etc. while about something

a person's state of mind. Check out your recent doodles (for example, in memo pads) and find out what they could mean:

1. Faces: It's your personality you're showing. If features are faint, you tend to be withdrawn and self-conscious; when dark or overemphasized, you may be domineering but insecure. Small or closed eyes could mean you are introspective, even self-absorbed, while large eyes represent a suspicious or hypersensitive nature.

2. Geometric shapes: Circles signal affection. Three-dimensional boxes indicate frustration, but also a desire to solve problems. A triangle stands for aggression, high energy, and ambition;

stars are symbols of hope and achievement.

3. Lines: Very short, sketchy strokes show you're anxious or uncertain, while long, straight ones convey determination.

4. Loops: Loosely spaced — you're feeling relaxed or lazy, but tightly drawn — you're a bit anxious.

5. Animals: Domestic pets reveal a tame personality, while birds represent high-flying ideas or the wish to escape.


Chapter 4           57

Chapter 4

Focus on:

Hackers

Grammar: Structure of English Sentence. Logical Connectors


58           Chapter 4

Text A Read the text and be ready to answer the questions that follow.

Who are hackers? What is hacking? Imagine that you had a properly working program that performed one task, and you needed another program to do something slightly different. Modifying the first program to create the second one was much faster than writing a new one from scratch. In other words, that led more to an ax-hewn bench than to a piece of finely crafted furniture. Taking an ax to a program to turn it into something else became the basis of the term to hack.

Whereas programming is like cooking in your own kitchen — a personal act of creation — hacking is like cooking in a stranger's kitchen in the dead of night. Hacking is not for the beginners.

As one might guess, The New Hacker's Dictionary, a collection of «in crowd» terms compiled at MIT, is full of definitions of the term «hacker»:

1. A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users who prefer to learn Only the minimum necessary.

2. One who programs enthusiastically (even obsessively)  or who enjoys programming rather than just theorizing about programming...

3. An expert or enthusiast of any kind. One might be an astronomy hacker, for example.

In «Hackers» (1984), one of the best books on the subject, Steven Levy noted in early 1960's, «a project undertaken or a product built not solely to fulfill some constructive goal, but with some wild pleasure taken in mere involvement, was called a «hack». «Secrets of Super Hacker»    (1994)   by   Knightmare, pseudonym for Dennis Fiery (which is itself another pseudonym) offers this: «A hacker is a person with an intense love of something, be it computers, writing, nature or sports. A hacker is a person, who, because he or she has this love, also has a deep curiosity about the subject in

* from scratch (informal) — starting from the beginning or with nothing

to hew — to cut using an ax or other cutting tool укр. рубати (сокирою)

to hack — to cut, especially roughly, violently or in uneven pieces, укр. рубати

MIT — Massachusetts Institute of Technology

obsession — a fixed and often unreasonable idea with which the mind is continually concerned укр. нав'язлива ідея

early — happening towards the beginning of a period of time укр. на початку. Compare: late — happening towards the end of a period of time укр. наприкінці

solely — only, hot including anything else укр. лише, виключно

mere —nothing more than; only укр. просто, не більш ніж

subject in question — under consideration, being talked about укр. питання, що розглядається

intentional — done on purpose, deliberate укр.навмисний

to meddle (in, with) — to take too much interest or take action about other people's private affairs. Synonym: to interfere (in) укр. утручатися

malicious meddler — укр. той, хто зловмисно утручається

* to poke around — to nose about, to search (in or for something) by examining other people's business укр. вишукувати

pretty harmless — укр. досить безпечний, нешкідливий

to tempt — to persuade or attract (someone) to do something that seems pleasant or advantageous but may be unwise or immoral. Noun — temptation Synonyms:

entice, lure, allure, seduction укр. спокуса

question... For a computer hacker that means he respects the ability of computers to put him in contact with a universe of information and other people, and it means he respects those other people, and does not intentionally use knowledge of computers to be destructive. Such a definition differs a lot from the final definition in the dictionary mentioned above:

4. A malicious meddler who tries to discover sensitive information by poking around. Hence password hacker, network hacker.

But many people really forget that hacking is pretty harmless as long as the hacker avoids the temptation to cross the line and become a «malicious meddler».

In order to counteract the bad press, the hacking community tried to divide itself into good guys and bad guys. In general, those people who just liked to play and learn tried to retain the name HACKER by creating the term CRACKER for the bad guys. For crackers a major motivating force is definition number eight of «The New Hacker's Dictionary» — breaking into systems


Chapter 4           59

without authorization and with malicious intent. In any event, the distinction has failed to catch on outside the hacking community. All are still known as hackers.

The culture that we live in is being threatened  by an oversimplified image of hackers as criminals or vandals. Anyhow, a computer hacker needs to understand how computers work, to study them, to learn programming. To hack means to be on the frontier, to be on the border. In computer science and technology this border is

in any event — in any case укр. у будь-якому

разі (випадку)

* to catch on — (informal) to become popular

укр. набувати популярності

threat — an expression of an intention to hurt,

punish, cause pain etc.. Synonym: menace

укр. загроза

frontier — the border, the limit or edge укр. край

pace — rate or speed укр. швидкість, темп

* to come up with — to have an idea about укр.

спадати на думку

constantly being pushed back, and at a tremendous pace. As science becomes more and more computational, we need to come up with a better understanding of the nature of human activity in the information age.

1. What is the subject of this passage?

2. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English provides the following definition of the word «hacker» — someone who is able to use or change the information in other people's computers without their permission». Do you agree with this definition? Why?

3. What is the difference between hackers and crackers?

4. What are the positive and the negative sides of hacking? Express your opinion.

5. What is specific about subculture of hackers?

6. Why hackers are sometimes called «every security manager's worst nightmare» ? Give your reasons.

7. Why is the word «hacker» sometimes used as honorable connotation of the word «lawyer»? Give your reasons.


60           Chapter 4

Exercise 1. Give English equivalents of:

виконувати одне завдання; трохи відмінний; розширяти можливості; лише, виключно; питання, що розглядається; поважати; навмисне використовувати; втручатися; набувати популярності, загрожувати; надто спрощений образ; величезна швидкість; краще розуміння; на початку 19 століття, наприкінці травня.

Exercise 2. Translate Ukrainian sentences into English. Then match the two columns:

1. На жаль, ця ідея не набула популярності.

2. Сподіваюся, вам спаде на думку кращий план.

3. Цей прилад з'явився наприкінці 20 століття.

4. Він зробив це навмисне.

5. Про це (питання) не йдеться (це питання не розглядаеться).

A. That is not the point in question, B. He did it on purpose.

C. I hope you can come up with a better plan (than this).

D. Unfortunately, this idea failed to catch on.

E. This device appeared in late 20th century.

Exercise 3. Render the following passage into Ukrainian.

A new philosophy of conceiving scientific theory is about to be born in the so-called computer laboratory, which, so to speak, stands half-way between theory and experiment.

Supercomputers will allow a whole new methodological research approach dealing with reformulation of the basic principles of economic and social systems. Thanks to these «artificial brains», it will soon be possible to model present and future reality with a degree of accuracy previously unseen.


Chapter 4           61

Grammar: STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH SENTENCE

A main clause has a subject and a verb that stand independently:

He is reading the book.

A subordinate clause also has a subject and a predicate but is dependent on the main clause and cannot stand independently:

He is reading the book    that I gave him.

main clause   subordinate

clause

Mind that a complex sentence may consist of two independent clauses:

She likes physics, and he likes mathematics.


62           Chapter 4

Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with one of the variants.

1. ... he is speaking about is exciting.

a. that

b. what

c. while

d. when

2. You might know a person ... has gotten a job like this.

a. which

b. whom

c. who

d. how

3. I don't know ... to go.

a. after

b. that

c. because

d. where

4. ... we need more information is obvious.

a. before

b. while

c. that

d. what

5. ... you go to Italy, you should visit Rome.

a. after

b. as

c. when

d. unless

6. No one is sure ... makes him think so.

a. when

b. why

c. what

d. how

7. ... the introduction of the washing machine people spent much more time cleaning their clothes.

a. after

b. prior to

c. at present

d. during

8. Scientists are still uncertain about ... this phenomenon occurs.

a. which

b. how

c. about

d. with


Chapter 4           63

LOGICAL CONNECTORS

Logical connectors are essential for connecting clauses, and are essential for good writing. We will classify logical connectors (or transitions) according to the function they fulfill. Mind that some logical connectors belong to more than one category (depending on the context and the speaker's intention).

Additional Information

and

also

too, as well

as well as

and so ... X

також

either

(expresses negation)

також (ні)

in addition,

additionally,

moreover

what is more

further, furthermore

до того ж,

більше того

besides

окрім (того)

both ... and

як ..., так i

not only ... but also

не тільки, але й

together with,

along with

alongside

разом з, поруч

another,

one more,

a second

ще один

the next

наступний

not to mention

не кажучи вже про

*the listing goes on —

перелік можна продовжити

*in order to supplement, ... —

для того, щоб додати/доповнити

John likes physics and also chemistry.

Джон любить фізику, а також хімію.

Alan likes physics, too.

Алану також подобається фізика.

Alan likes physics as well as John.

Alan likes physics and so does John.

Алану, як i Джону, подобається фізика.

Helen doesn't like astronomy. Mary doesn't like it, either.

Хелен не подобаеться астрономія. Mepi також.

The procedures in question can be used in physics.

Moreover

In addition

Besides

Some of them can be used in astronomy.

Методи, що розглядаються, можуть бути використані у фізиці. До того ж (oкpiм того), деякі з них можуть використовуватись в астрономії.

The course gives both general introduction to computers and provides practical experience.

Курс надає як загальну інформацію про комп'ютери, так i можливють набуття практичного досвіду.

The method is not only easy, but also accurate. Метод не лише легкий, але й надійний.

This problem

together with

along with

alongside

mentioned above is of prime importance.

Ця проблема разом з зазначеними вище є надзвичайно важливою.

Another question is to be answered promptly. Треба швидко дати відповідь ще на одне питания.

The next step is to make an experiment.

Наступний крок — зробити експеримент.

Word processors are very useful — they can help writers rearrange word order, not to mention checking spelling.

Текстові редактори дуже корисні — вони можуть допомогти змінити порядок слів, не кажучи вже про виправлення помилок.


64           Chapter 4

IS or ARE?

I. Subjects joined by «and», «both ... and» take a plural verb:

Professor and his students are coming. Both professor and his students are, coming.

II. The following phrases take a singular verb:

Professor

together with

along with

accompanied by

as well as

in addition to

his students is coming.

III. Expression «not only ... but also» takes either singular or plural verb depending on the subject nearest to it:

Not only the professor, but also his students are coming.

Not only the students, but also their professor is coming.

EXEMPLIFICATION

for example

for instance

to illustrate

an example of this

a case in point

e.g.

наприклад

specifically

especially

particularly

in particular

зокрема

i.e. = that is

тобто

in other words

to put it another way

інакше кажучи

namely

а саме

The steps for saving your computer file are quite simple.

To illustrate

For example

For instance

I will show you how to save the file you have just created.

Зберегти файл у комп'ютері дуже просто.

Наприклад, зараз я покажу вам, як зберегти щойно створений файл.

Не is very difficult to get along with.

A case in point occurred today.

З ним дуже важко порозумітися.

Наприклад, сьогодні трапився такий випадок.

We still need to arrange several details.

Specifically

In particular

we have to get all the necessary information.

Нам все ще треба з'ясувати декілька деталей.

Зокрема, нам треба отримати всю необхідну інформацію.

The book dealt with traveling.

That is

Namely

In other words

it discussed climate, language, food in Japan.

Книга була присвячена подорожам.

Інакше кажучи (а саме) у ній розглядалися питання клімату, мови, їжi в Японії.


Chapter 4           65

SUMMARY

to sum up

in summary

summing it (all) up

in sum

to summarize

to conclude

in conclusion

підсумовуючи

on the whole all in all in general

generally speaking

загалом

in brief

briefly

in short

in a word

*in a nutshell

коротше кажучи

In summary

Summing it up

In conclusion

To summarize

the findings of the research to date suggest that not all answers have been found.

Підсумовуючи результата дослідження, можна сказати, що знайдені ще не всі відповіді на запитання.

On the whole

In general

All in all

the new approach can be beneficial in several ways.

Загалом, новий підхід може бути корисним з декількох точок зору.

In brief

In a word

In a nutshell

we had to start it all over again.

Коротше кажучи, треба було починати все знову.

CONTRAST

but

yet

however

nevertheless

nonetheless

still

але, зате, проте

on the one hand ...

з одного боку

on the other hand

з іншого боку ...

on the contrary

alternatively (yet)

conversely

однак, з іншого боку, навпаки

unlike

на відміну

rather than

а не

otherwise

протилежний

Human soon will be able to travel through space.

However

But

Still

Nevertheless

he will never be able to conquer it.

Людина скоро зможе подорожувати у космічному просторі. Однак (але) вона ніколи не зможе його підкорити.

Although urban development destroys the ecological balance, it

on the other hand

on the contrary

provides needed employment for many people.

Хоча урбанізація руйнує екологічний баланс, однак (з іншого боку) вона створює необхідні для багатьох людей робочі місця.

Unlike Paul, Tom always comes on time.

На відміну від Пола, Том завжди приходить вчасно.

The decision was taken for ecological rather than economic reasons.

Рішення було прийняте виходячи з екологічних, а не економічних міркувань.

Не says he is right but I think otherwise.

Biн каже, що правий, але я так не думаю (маю протилежну думку).


66           Chapter 4

rather

скоріш(e), раніш(е)

to be opposed to

as opposed to

протиставляти

though

(at the end of a clause) =

nevertheless

однак, проте

vs. = versus

проти/протиставлення

pros and cons

за та проти

Professor didn't imply that science is in perfect state. Rather, he said, the task is to think how to maintain commitment to it.

Професор не мав на увазі, що наука у бездоганному стані. Cкоріше, він казав про те, що треба добре подумати про те, як зберегти відданість цій справі.

The former method is opposed to the latter one.

Перший метод протиставляється другому.

It's a tough job. I like it, though.

Це складна робота, однак вона мені подобається.

The debate was on environment vs. industrial development.

Дискусія була присвячена питанням охорони довкілля у протиставленні розвитку промисловості.

It is necessary that we consider all pros and cons.

Необхідно взяти до уваги yci за та проти.

PURPOSE

to

in order to

in order that

для того щоб, аби, задля

for для

for ... to щоб, аби

for the purpose of

with the aim of

for the sake of

for the reason of

in behalf of

with the view of

з метою, заради

lest

щоб не, аби не

We've done it

to

in order to

save time.

Ми зробили це для того, щоб зекономити час.

They used this technique for convenience.

Вони використали цей метод для зручності.

It will be useful for you to know how to operate the device.

Вам буде корисно знати, як користуватися приладом.

You should not miss this opportunity

for the reason of

in behalf of

for the sake of

your future.

Ви не повинні втрачати таку можливість заради вашого майбутнього.

Write down the number lest you forget it.

Запишіть номер, щоб не забути його.


Chapter 4           67

CONCESSION

though

although

even though

albeit

хоча

yet

while

whereas

хоч, хоча

in spite of

despite

regardless of

notwithstanding

(the fact that)

незважаючи на

whether

незалежно від

незалежно чи

with (all)

незважаючи на

no matter

незважаючи на

for all (that)

as ... may seem

whatever що б не

whoever хто б не

whenever коли б не

wherever де б не

Attitudes to this problem are changing

although

though

albeit

slowly.

Відношення до цієї проблеми змінюється, хоча й поступово.

It is difficult, yet rewarding.

Це складна, але вдячна справа.

While

Whereas

I understand what you say, I can't agree with you.

Хоч я розумію, що ви кажете, але не можу з вами погодитися.

In spite of

Despite

I the delay, we arrived on time.

Незважаючи на затримку, ми прибули вчасно.

The results are to be recorded, whether successful or not.

Результати треба записати незалежно від того, чи будуть вони успішними , чи ні.

With all its limitations, the procedure is still applicable.

Незважаючи на yci недоліки, методику все ж можна використовувати.

I'll finish the experiment, no matter how long it takes.

Я закінчу експеримент незважаючи на те, скільки часу для цього буде потрібно.

For all his efforts, he failed.

Незважаючи на yci зусилля, йому це не вдалося.

It's a victory, for all that.

I все ж це перемога.

Strange as it may seem, I like it.

(Хоча) це може видатися дивним, проте мені це подобається.

It is a good project, whatever you may say.

Що б ви не казали, це добрий проект.


68           Chapter 4

REASON, CAUSE AND EFFECT (RESULT)

because

since

for

for the reason that

in that

тому що, бо

thanks to

due to

owing to

because of

on account of

завдяки, дякуючи

so

відтак

to result in

to have as a result

to cause

to end in

to lead to

призводити до,

закінчуватися

thus

hence

therefore

тому, відтак

as a consequence

consequently

as a result

for this reason

внаслідок

"to bring about =

to bring into being

спричиняти, викликати

* (From this) it follows —

звідси випливає

effect(s)            result(s)

consequence(s)   implication(s)

результат (и)

aftermath

наслідки

He was admitted to the University

because since for

in that for the reason that

he successfully passed all exams.

Його зарахували до університету, бо він успішно склав yci іспити.

They obtained accurate results

because of

thanks to

owing to

due to

up-to-date sophisticated equipment.

Вони отримали точні результати завдяки сучасному складному обладнанню.

Не encountered many problems, so he went to see his advisor.

Він натрапив на багато проблем i відтак пішов до свого керівника.

The experiment resulted in no success.

Експеримент не призвів до ycпixy.

Не forgot the meaning of this English word.

Thus

Therefore

For this reason

he decided to consult the dictionary.

Biн забув значення цього англійського слова i вирішив звернутись до словника.

Science has brought about many changes in our lives.

Наука спричинила багато змін (або: призвела до багатьох змін).


Chapter 4           69

Exercise 5. Render the following passage into Ukrainian. Pay special attention to logical connectors.

Various educational traditions have always laid emphasis on the learning of other languages. One effect of knowing a second language is that a person can experience first hand the great literature of other people, the power and subtleties of the original. The ability to read in another language reinforces one more effect: the gaining of knowledge about other cultures. Through reading and speaking a foreign language one can gain insight into the life of a different culture. Perhaps the most powerful effect of learning other languages is communication. With a second — or third — or fourth language one can make contact with other human beings. Many people study foreign languages because of more practical reasons for acquiring a new language. However, the effects are considerable. Since greater understanding of other cultures and communication with other people are so important, we would all do well if we studied at least one more language.

EXPRESSION OF COMPARISON

I

As

as ... as

similar to

alike

такий же, як i

подібний, аналогічний

equally

in the same way

similarly

likewise

in an identical manner

аналопчно, подібно

the same

такий самий

quite the same

almost the same

very much the same

майже такий самий

exactly / precisely / just the same

такий самий, однаковий

to have much in common

мати багато спільного

to resemble — to look like

бути подібним

Nobody does it as well as you do.

Hiхто не зробить цього краще ніж ви (так добре, як ви).

This method is similar to the previous one.

Цей  метод подібний (аналогічний) до попереднього.

We must pay a lot of attention to general secondary education, but equally we shouldn't forget higher education.

Ми повинні приділяти багато уваги загальній середній освіті, аналогічно, ми не повинні забувати i про вищу.

American English and Canadian English are

almost

very much

the same.

Both theories have much in common.

Обидві теорії мають багато спільного.


70           Chapter 4

NOTE

LIKE or AS?

Use like before nouns or pronouns, but if nouns or pronouns are followed by verbs, use as:

He behaves like you. He behaves as. you often do.

II.

to be different from

відрізнятися від

not as ... as

not so ... as

не такий, як

less (than)

менше ніж

more (than)

більше ніж

Our department is different from theirs.

Наш відділ відрізняється від їхнього.

John is not as careful as Ann.

Джон не такий уважний, як Енн.

My experiment is less important than yours.

Мій експеримент менш важливий, ніж ваш.

This article is far more informative.

Ця стаття значно більш інформативна.

This method is markedly less efficient.

Цей метод значно менш ефективний.

much

many

far

markedly

more (less)

значно більше (менше)

somewhat a bit slightly

дещо

The new device is              a bit

somewhat

smaller.

Новий прилад дещо менший за розмірами.

III.

the ...-est (of all)

the most (the least)

найбільш (найменш)

by far the ...-est

мабуть, най-...

She translates the best (of all).

Вона перекладає найкраще (від ycix).

Не is by far the brightest student.

Мабуть, Biн найбільш талановитий студент.


Chapter 4           71

DOUBLE COMPARATIVE

the ... the

чим ... тим

less and less

усе менше i менше

more and more

усе більше та більше

The more we learn, the more we know.

Чим більше ми вчимося, тим більше ми знаємо.

Не became less and less interested in the subject.

Biн виявляв усе менше i менше зацікавленості.

*well

over

above

The level is well above average.

Рівень значно перевищує середній.

значно більше

NOTE

Comparatives and superlatives of adjectives:

1. Adjectives of one syllable:

add ...-er and ...-est big - bigger, -the biggest

2. Adjectives of three or more syllables:

use more and the most interesting - more interesting, - the most interesting

3. Adjectives of two syllables ending in:

...-y, ...-ly, ...-ow, ...-le, ...-er, ...-ure, take ...-er and ...-est – easy - easier, - the easiest

4. Adjectives of two syllables that end in

...-ful, ...-less, ...-re, ...-ic, ...-ate, ...-ish, ..,-ent, ...-ous, ...-ing, ...-gn, ...-mn, and

also adjectives «guilty» and «eager» take more and the most.

IRREGULAR FORMATION

Positive

good

bad

little

many│

much│

far

old

Comparative

Better

Worse

Less

More

Farther

Further

Older

Elder

Superlative

the best

the worst

the least

the most

the farthest (about distance)

the furthest

the oldest

the eldest (especially about siblings)


72           Chapter 4

Exercise 6. Complete the following table:

Positive

1.   sophisticated

2.     …

3.  famous

4.     …

5.   comfortable

6.   careful

7.     …

8.   useful

9.  guilty

10.    …

Comparative

more sophisticated

less intelligent

worse

harder

Superlative

the most sophisticated

the brightest

Exercise 7 Render the following passage into Ukrainian. Pay special attention to logical connectors.

John F. Kennedy and Abraham Lincoln lived in different times and had very different family and educational backgrounds. Kennedy was born in 1917, whereas Lincoln was born more than a hundred years earlier than Kennedy, in 1809. Kennedy came from a very rich family, but Lincoln's family, on the other hand, was not wealthy at all. Kennedy graduated from Harvard University, while Lincoln had only one year of formal schooling. In spite of this fact, he became a well-known lawyer.

Despite these differences between Kennedy and Lincoln, some interesting similarities between the two are evident. For example, take their political careers. Lincoln began his political career as a Congressman. Similarly, Kennedy also began his political career as a Congressman. They were both elected to the U.S. House of Representatives — Lincoln in 1847, and Kennedy in 1947 — just one hundred years apart. Another interesting coincidence is that Lincoln and Kennedy were elected presidents of the U.S. in a year ending with the number 60 — Lincoln in 1860, Kennedy in 1960, respectively. Furthermore, both men were presidents during the years of civil unrest in the country.

There are some similarities between the two first ladies — Jacqueline Kennedy and Marry Todd Lincoln. For example, both were socially prominent women. Another interesting similarity between Kennedy and Lincoln was the fact that both presidents had vice-presidents named Johnson. Lincoln's vice-president was named Andrew Johnson, and Kennedy's — Lyndon Johnson.

These are only a few similarities in the destinies of these two men who had a tremendous impact on social and political life in the USA.

Exercise 8 Select the appropriate logical connector from the word list, and insert it in the passage: however; by contrast; like; while

Postmodernism,... modernism before it, is a term covering several different tendencies, directions, and styles. Postmodernism is more populist, ... modernism is more elitist and exclusive. Postmodernism has brought about a renewed partnership between the old and the new. Postmodernism recognizes that a work of art can reflect many aspects of life. Modernism ... was more puritanical. Postmodernism, ... , saw the need to face openness and cultural diversity.


Chapter 4           73

Exercise 9.  Fill in the blanks with one of the variants.

A.

1. John turned off the radio ... he could study.

a. so that

b. now that

c. due to

d. while

2. Some substances are hard, ... others are brittle.

a. if

b. when

c. unless

d. but

3. ... the procedures of science can appear very precise, the means of making scientific discoveries are far from perfect.

a. although

b. because

c. owing to

d. because of

4. Scientists and engineers, ... become more productive, need both easy to use and very flexible software.

a. rather than

b. therefore

c. in order to

d. in order of

5. This will probably continue ... the recession goes worldwide.

a. unless

b. again

c. but

d. for

B.

1. Both literature and music .. the fine arts.

a. is

b. are

2. When in Rome, do ... the Romans do.

a. as

b. like

3. John isn't much ... his brother.

a. as

b. like

4. Not only Mary, but also her parents ... leaving tomorrow.

a. is

b. are

5. The new director, together with his colleagues, ... arriving today,

a. are

b. is


74           Chapter 4

Exercise 10. Find the one synonym to the underlined word:

1. In spite of the delay, we arrived on time.

a. because

b. despite

c. due to

d. because of

2. The debate has nonetheless enlarged our knowledge on the issue.

a. alternatively

b. nevertheless

c. notwithstanding

d. also

3. This problem together with mentioned above is of prime importance.

a. rather than

b. moreover

c. besides

d. alongside

4. In brief, we had to start it from scratch.

a. finally

b. in summary

c. in a word

d. in conclusion

5. These two methods are almost the same.

a. not always

b. very much

c. sometimes

d. never

6. The experiment has valuable implications.

a. reasons

b. indications

c. prospects

d. consequences

7. The experiment resulted in no success.

a. followed

b. realized

c. caused

d. accounted for


Chapter 4           75

Exercise 11. Translate the following sentences:

1. There are far more possibilities for those who have a good command of English.

2. Our teacher is different from theirs.

3. This is by far the best approach.

4. This is the most sophisticated device I've ever seen.

5. He became more and more interested in the project.

6. This invention has brought about many changes in our lives.

7. Why did you do it? Was it on account of what I said yesterday?

8. They have considered all pros and cons.

9. He says it's a genuine coin, but I think otherwise.

10 They proposed that we discuss theoretical aspects rather than applied.

11. Unlike his students, professor Smith always comes on time.

12. Although Denmark is an agricultural country it is also modern and industrialized.

13. The new edition is not so expensive as the old edition..

14. This observation leads us to the following definition.

15. We don't prove the theorem here, but rather, we illustrate it with two examples.

16. To prove things Euclid made certain assumptions which he called axioms.

17. They have markedly different approaches to the problem.

18. Try not to talk too much in conversations, but don't be silent, either.

Text B Study some terms from «The New Hacker's Dictionary» mentioned in Text A, and try to appreciate the humor.

angry fruit salad: n. A bad interface design that uses too many colors.

baud barf: /bawd barf/ n. The garbage one sometimes gets on the monitor when encountering spurious data, caused, for example, by an incorrect protocol setting.

beige toaster: n. A Macintosh PC.

spurious _ wrong, false

bit rot: n. The hypotethical disease of unused programs or features that stop working after enough time has passed, even if «nothing has changed». The theory explains that bits decay as if radioactive.

bletcherous:/blech-(e)-rus/ adj. Disgusting in design or function; esthetically unappealing.

bulletproof: adj. Descriptive of an algorithm or implementation considered extremely robust and capable of correctly recovering from any imaginable exception condition. This is a rare and valued quality.

chrome: n. Showy features contributing little or nothing to the power of a system.

robust — strong, effective

glork:/glork/ interj. Term of surprise, uttered when, say, trying to save the results of two hours of editing, you find that the system has crashed.

guru: n. An expert, implying not only the possession of wizardly skill but a history of being a knowledge resource for others.

demigod: n. Hacker with a national reputation and a major role in the development of a design, tool, or game known to over half of the hacker community.

face time: n. Time spent interacting with somebody face-to-face (as opposed to over an electronic link).

New Testament: n. The second edition of K&R's (Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie's) «The С Programming Language» (Prentice-Hall, 1988), describing ANSI Standard C. The first edition is referred to as the Old Testament.

programming: n. 1. Classically, the art of debugging a blank sheet of paper. 2. A pastime akin to banging one's head against a wall, but less rewarding.

softy: n. Hardware hackers' term for a software expert ignorant of hardware.

to debug — to search for or remove bugs (faults) in a computer program

a bug — (informal) a fault or difficulty in a machine, system, computer program

akin — similar, having the same character or nature


76           Chapter 4

spaghetti code: n. Code with a complex and tangled control structure, especially one using many GOTO's, exceptions, or other unstructured branching constructs.

tense: adj. Of programs, very clever and efficient.

tangle — confused, disordered mass/state

troglodyte mode: n. Programming with the lights turned off, sunglasses on, and the terminal inverted (black on white) because your eyes hurt.

vaporware: Products announced far in advance of any release (which may or may not actually take place).

wedged: adj. Stuck, incapable of proceeding without help (whereas crashing describes total nonfunctioning). The system may be capable of doing a few things, but is not fully operational.

WIMP environment: [acronym of Window, Icon, Menu, Pointing device] n. A graphical user— interface-based environment, as described by a hacker who prefers command-line interfaces for their superior flexibility and extensibility. Macintoshes and Microsoft Windows use WIMP interfaces.

wizard: n. A person who knows how a complex piece of software or hardware works and can find and fix bugs quickly in an emergency.

wizard — a person with unusual, almost magical abilities

Exercise 13. Choose the correct word and fill in the blanks.

(to) create   creation   creativity    creative

1. His designs are always ______

2. You should use your ____.

3. The project will _____ a sensation.

4. The report proposed is the ____ of an independent committee.

(to be) capable of      capability

5. We are not ____ improving it.

6. They will not doubt her _____ for the job.

(to) modify       modification(s)

7. A few ___ to the plan will _____ it.

8. The design has been ____.

9. Scientists _____ their views in the light of new evidence.

Exercise 14. Read the passage and answer the questions about it.

The world of telecommunications is changing rapidly. New devices become invaluable for both professionals and general public. Consider business travelers who must be able to maintain contact with the office, no matter what the time or place, since negotiations often involve decisions based on the latest figures. New telecommunications products and services on the market make staying in touch easier than ever before.

Personal portable products include calculators, portable radios and pocket telephones. The pocket telephone is really remarkable. The possibility to call or be called anyplace and any time permits the pocket telephone to be often considered as almost magic personal item. Another widespread device is cellular telephone. Car phones have proven indispensable for emergencies as well as for routine business. Pocket-size organizers — tiny computers that can store all kinds of information — may serve as phone and address directories, calculators and calendars. They help businessmen with heavy and hectic schedules.

Smaller, lighter fax machines allow instantaneous transmission of data to any location having a compatible fax machine. Faxing is becoming the primary means of sending and receiving short documents.

In the future we will see the explosive growth of communication services.


Chapter 4           77

1. What is the best title for the passage?

a. The business traveler

b. New telecommunications products and services

c. Everyday communications

d. Business negotiations

2. It can be inferred from the passage that business travelers need to maintain contact with the office because

a. there are many new products

b. they have to do it every day

c. they must have the latest information for negotiations

d. it is a company's requirement

3. According to the passage, mobile phone service

a. is very useful in case of accidents

b. costs too much

c. is not yet available on the airplanes

d. will soon appear on the market

4. It can be inferred from the passage that pocket-size computers are especially useful for businessmen who

a. have no cellular phones

b. have few/many clients

c. contact the office frequently

d. have very busy itineraries

5. It can be inferred from the passage that fax machines

a. cannot be used with phone service

b. will soon replace mail delivery of short documents

c. are of little use nowadays

d. are not small and light enough

Exercise 15.

1. These plants look like small roses.

a. resemble

b. turn into

c. behave

d. appear

2. Unfortunately, this property is almost completely lost.

a. very slightly

b. nearly entirely

c. not so much

d. forever

3. I'm at a loss for I don't know what to do.

a. that is

b. since

c. as if

d. when

4. These devices are extremely accurate.

a. safe

b. original

c. versatile

d. precise


78           Chapter 4

5. Because there is no exact definition for biological aging, it is difficult to determine when the phenomenon begins.

a. while

b. though

c. due to

d. since

6. Roget's Thesaurus, a collection of English words and phrases, is arranged by the ideas they express rather than by alphabetical order.

a. as well as

b. unless

c. together with

d. instead of

7. She got the job in that she was the best candidate.

a. although

b. as soon as

c. because

d. while

8. I succeeded because of your help.

a. since

b. in spite of

c. nevertheless

d. thanks to

9. Another indicator is provided by our committee.

a. a different

b. one more

c. other

d. the other

10. Despite our efforts, we failed.

a. because of

b. owing to

c. as opposed to

d. in spite of

11. These two concepts are different, even though they use the same word.

a. because

b. although

c. however

d. therefore

12. In an identical manner, we see that this law holds.

a. regularly

b. similarly

c. finally

d. gradually

13. In general, it is possible to be more specific.

a. furthermore

b. in short

c. for instance

d. on the whole


Chapter 4           79

14. The evidence is compelling, albeit indirect.

a. hence

b. although

c. on the other hand

d. because

15. The scope of application of photographic technigues has expanded tremendously.

a. diversely

b. obviously

c. gradually

d. enormously

16. He expressed it either with deliberate intent, or spontaneously.

a. on purpose

b. by contrast

c. with respect

d. on the other hand

17. This technique should be differentiated from the previous one.

a. be compared with

b. be opposed to

c. not be confused with

d. not be replaced by

18. Like everything else in office technology, telephone systems are getting smaller and more powerful.

a. smarter

b. more space-saving .

c. cost-effective

d. less expensive

19. In a broad sense, this application is quite possible.

a. alternatively

b. in general

c. on the contrary

d. from now on

20. I'm concerned solely for your future.

a. solitary

b. not only

c. somehow

d. only

21. For all its many problems, the United States system of education has achieved much.

a. still

b. as opposed to

c. in spite of

d. by turns


80           Chapter 4

Noteworthy

«When we begin the study of any science, we are in a situation similar to that of children; and the course by which we have to advance is precisely the same which nature follows in the formation of their ideas».

Antoine Lament Lavoisier

Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743 — 1794) in the preface to «Elements of Chemistry». (Lavoisier originated the oxygen theory of combustion and is considered the father of modern chemistry).


Chapter 5           81

Chapter 5

Focus on:

Of Truth and Theories Avoiding Sexist Language

Grammar: Mood.


82           Chapter 5

TextA Read the text and be ready to answer the questions that follow.

We regard as «true» the simplest explanation that satisfies all the data we have about any given thing. This principle is known as Occam's razor; it is named after a 14th century British philosopher who originally proposed it. Without this rule, we would always be subject to such complicated doubts that we would accept

razor — укр. бритва

subject to — tending or likely (to have), causing to

experience укр. зазнавати

complicated — difficult to understand or deal with

укр. складний

doubt — (a feeling of) uncertainty of belief or opinion,

lack of confidence укр. сумнів

nothing as known. Occam's razor sometimes called the Principle of Simplicity, is a razor in a sense that it is a cutting edge that allows distinction to be made among theories.

Science is based on Occam's razor, though we don't usually think about it. Sometimes, something that we call «true» might be more accurately described as a theory. The scientific method is based on hypotheses and theories. A hypothesis is an explanation of why something happens or happened. When it is shown that the hypothesis actually explains most of the facts known, then we may call it a theory. We usually test a theory by seeing whether it can predict things that were not previously observed, and then by trying to confirm whether the predictions are valid. 

An example of a theory is the Newtonian theory of gravitation, which for many years explained almost all

the planetary motions. Only a small discrepancy in the orbit of Mercury remained unexplained. In 1916, Albert Einstein presented a general theory of relativity as a better explanation of gravitation. The theory explained the discrepancy in Mercury's orbit. When his predictions were verified, his theory was widely accepted.

Is Newton's theory «true»? Yes, in most regions of space. Is Einstein's theory«true»? We

to confirm — to give support or certainty to (a fact,

statement etc.) e.g. by providing more proof or by stating

that something is true or correct

Synonyms: to verify, to prove, to corroborate

укр. підтверджувати, стверджувати

valid — firmly based on what is true or reasonable укр.

дійсний. Antonym — invalid

discrepancy (between) — difference, lack of agreement

or similarity — укр. розбіжність, розходження, невідповідність

say so, although we may also think that one day a new theory will come along that is more general than Einstein's in the same way that Einstein's is more general than Newton's.

1. What is specific about «Occam's razor»?

2. What is the correlation between the hypothesis and the theory?

3. What are possible ways of testing a theory?

Exercise 1. Give English equivalents of:

сумніви; найпростіше пояснення; вперше запропонувати принцип; невелика розбіжність; більш точний опис; краще пояснення; широко визнавати; загальна теорія відносності; підтверджувати; фактично пояснювати; дійсний.


Chapter 5           83

NOTE

Probability may be expressed in English in many different ways (see Expression of Conditions (chapter 5), Modal Verbs (chapter 6).

Mind several linguistic devices that usually express probability (for a more detailed list see appendix X).

(It is) possible/probable (that) possibly/probably можливо, ймовірно

(It is) likely (that) схоже

(It is) impossible (that)

(It is) unlikely (that) несхоже

There is

strong

high

probability

that

definite

possibility

дуже ймвірно

Exercise 2. Read the text. Find linguistic devices expressing probability and hypotheses. Render the passage into Ukrainian.

In 1705, the English astronomer Edmond Halley applied the new theory of gravity developed by his friend Isaac Newton to determine the orbits of comets from observations of their positions in the sky. He reported that the orbits of the bright comets that had appeared in 1531, 1607, and

1682 were about the same. He was troubled, though, that the intervals between appearances were not quite equal. The scientist resolved this difficulty by analyzing the effect on the comet's orbit by the

to limit — to keep within a certain area, size, amount, number, limits. Synonyms: to restrict, to confine

gravity of Jupiter and Saturn. Halley said that we were possibly observing a single comet orbiting the sun. He predicted that it would return in 1758. The reappearance of this comet on Christmas night of that year, 16 years after Halley's death was the proof of Halley's hypothesis; the comet has since been known as Halley's comet. It seems probable that the bright comets reported every 74 to 79 years since 240 B.C. were earlier appearances. The comet will be back in the inner solar system in 2061, but only in May 2134 will we have a spectacular view from the Earth's surface, though we may not be limited to the Earth's surface by that time.


84           Chapter 5

GRAMMAR: MOOD. EXPRESSION OF CONDITIONS

Mood is any of three special forms of verbs that express:

a fact or action — Indicative Mood — дійсний cnociб

He

Biн

is studying

studies

вчиться

studied

вчився

will study.

буде вчитися

a command — Imperative Mood — наказовий cnociб

Do as most men do, then most men will think well of you.

Робіть, як більшість людей, i тоді про вас будуть думати добре.

a wish, a doubt — Subjunctive Mood — умовний cnoci6

What would you do in my place?

(May) success attend you!

Хай щастить!

If only I knew!

Якби ж я знав!

SEMANTIC TYPES OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

FACTUAL

express relationships that are true and unchanging

If

when(ever)

the temperature gets to 0° С, water freezes.

Коли температура сягає 0° С, вода замерзає.

If it is 11 р. т., the library is closed.

Якщо зараз 11 година вечора, бібліотека зачинена.

If it is September, 13, it's my father's birthday.

Якщо сьогодні 13 вересня, це день народження мого батька.

FUTURE

(PREDICATIVE)

express future plans

If I

may

might

...

...

should

happen to

should happen to

have the time, I'll call you.

Якщо у мене буде час, я вам зателефоную.

HYPOTHETICAL

express unlikely yet possible events

IMAGINATIVE

COUNTERFACTUAL

express impossible events or states

If she had the possibility she would visit Toronto.

Якби у неї була можливість, вона б відвідала Торонто (може у неї ще буде нагода).

If Newton were alive, he would live in England.

Якби Ньютон був живий, він жив би в Англії.


Chapter 5           85

TYPES OF CONDITIONS

REAL

UNREAL

PRESENT

PAST

REAL CONDITIONS

if якщо

even if навіть якщо

only if тільки якщо

on condition (that) за умови

in case, in the event

якщо, в разі, за умови

provided (that), providing (that) за умови

suppose / imagine

assuming (that) ...

припустімо

What if ... ?

а якщо

Should (as equalent of «if»)

якщо, якщо трапиться

unless якщо не

lest  щоб не, аби не

if ... would якщо (захочете)

If you study hard, you will pass the exam.

Якщо ви будете наполегливо вчитися, то зможете скласти іспит (зміст: ви можете вчитися зараз, тобто ця умова є реальною).

I will go provided that you go too.

Я піду за умови, що й ви також підете.

Suppose it rains, what shall we do?

Припустімо, піде дощ — що ми будемо робити?

What if we change the approach?

А якщо змінити підхід? (що відбудеться, якщо ... )

Should you be interested, I have a book on the subject.

Якщо (трапиться, що) ви зацікавитесь, у мене є

книга з цього питання.

Unless you study hard, you won't pass the exam. Якщо ви не будете наполегливо вчитися, ви не зможете скласти іспит.

Write down the rule lest you forget it. Запишіть це правило, аби не забути його.

If you would let me come ...

Якщо ви дозволите (захочете дозволити) мені

прийти ...

UNREAL CONDITIONS

Present

Past

If you studied hard, you would pass

the exam.

Якби ви наполегливо вчилися, то склали б іспит. (зміст: зараз ви не вчитеся наполегливо, тобто зараз умова є нереальною ).

If you had studied hard, you would have passed the exam.

Якби ви наполегливо вчилися, то склали б іспит. (зміст: ви не вчилися наполегливо раніше, тобто умова є нереальною у минулому).

If only I knew it!

Якби я тільки знав про це! (зараз) (зміст: я не знаю про це)

If only I had known it!

Якби я тьльки знав про це! (раніше, колись, у минулому) (зміст: я не знав про це)


86           Chapter 5

I wish I were there.

Як би я хотів бути там (зміст: я жалкую, що мене там немає).

I wish I had been there.

Як би я хотів бути там (зміст: я шкодую, що мене там не було).

Also: * It's a pity / I regret

Even if he were here, he wouldn't help us.

Навіть якщо б він був тут (зараз). він би нам не допоміг.

Even if I had a dictionary, I wouldn't use it.

Навіть якщо б у мене був зараз словник, я б не скористався ним.

Also:

*If I were in your place /shoes =

*Were I in your place / shoes

(Якщо б я був на вашому місці ... )

If I had this book ... = Had I this book ...

(Якби в мене була ця книжка ... )

*but for якби не

transforms into «if it were not for» (Present Unreal)

and «if it had not been for» (Past Unreal)

Even if he had been here, he wouldn't have helped us.

Навіть якщо б він був тут (тоді), він би нам не допоміг.

Even if I had had a dictionary, I wouldn't have used it.

Навіть якщо б у мене був словник (тоді), я б не скористався ним.

But for your help, I'd fail.

Якби не ваша допомога, я б не досяг успіху.

OTHER EXPRESSIONS DENOTING CONDITIONS:

Conditions permitting, ... Якщо дозволять умови ...

It being the case, ... Якщо це саме той випадок

if so, ...якщо так

if not, ...якщо ні

if any, if anything, ... якщо хоч щось ...

if anybody  якщо хтось

if at all   якщо взагалі

NOTE.

Forms of Subjunctive

Present

Past

be

were

infinitives WITHOUT to

The rules of the sequences of tenses are NOT observed after:

It

is

was has been

necessary необхідно

important / vital важливо

desirable бажано

essential суттєво, важливо

that you

know it

be here

American English

should know it

should be here

British English


Chapter 5           87

It is important that they be present at the meeting.

Важливо, щоб вони були присутні на зборах.

Compare:It is important that they are present at the meeting.

Важливо, що вони присутні на зборах.

I

suggest(ed)

(make/made a suggestion)

propose(d)

пропонувати

insist(ed)

наполягати

order(ed)

наказувати

recommend(ed)

рекомендувати

demand(ed)

require (d) (it is/was a requirement)

вимагати

that you

do

know

it

be here

American English

should do should know

it

should be here

British English

We insist (insisted) that the meeting be held tomorrow.

Ми наполягаемо (наполягали), щоб засідання відбулося завтра.

BUT: Indicative Mood (and therefore regular rules of sequence of tenses) are used with the following expressions:

It is

strange/curious/surprising/astonishing (дивно)

possible/probable/likely (ймовірно, схоже)

unlikely (несхоже)

wonderful (чудово)

natural (природно)

It is strange that they know about it.

Дивно, що вони про це знають.

It is strange that they knew about it.

Дивно, що вони про це знали.

It was strange that they had known about it.

Видавалося дивним, що вони про це знали.

Memorize the following useful expressions with conditionals:

So be it.

Let it be so.

Нехай буде так.

Be that as it may, ... Як би то (там) не було, ...

As

luck

ill luck

would have it, ...

За

щасливим

нещасливим

збігом обставин ...

Come