94838

Parts of an airplane

Научная статья

Астрономия и авиация

The ailerons are located at the rear of the wing, typically one on each side. They work opposite to each other, meaning that when one is raised, the other is lowered. Their job is to increase the lift on one wing while reducing the lift on the other. By doing this, they roll the aircraft sideways, causing the aircraft to turn.

Английский

2015-09-17

29.37 KB

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Parts of an airplane

Fuselage

The fuselage, from the French word “fuselé” meaning “spindle shaped”(веретенообразный)( в википедии от fuseau – веретено), is the portion of the airplane used to join, or fuse, the other parts together. It is commonly thought of as the body of the aircraft and holds the passengers and cargo safely inside. 

The fuselage is made up of the cockpit, which includes the seating and instruments for the pilot and sometimes for the co-pilot, and the body of the plane, which may carry passengers, cargo or both.

Cockpit

The cockpit, sometimes referred to as the Flight Deck (на тяжёлом самолёте), is where the pilots sit. It contains the flight controls (органы управления ЛА), which move the airplane, as well as all the buttons and switches used to operate the various systems.

Windshield

The windshield on smaller aircraft is usually made from polycarbonate (поликрбонат), a type of plastic, while pressurized airplanes (ЛА с герметичной кабиной) use a sandwich of plastic and glass layers, called a laminate (слоистый пластик), up to 20mm thick. This is necessary to absorb (поглощать)the impact of birds, insects and other debris (мусор) that may collide with (сталкиваться с) the windshield as the airplane flies at a speed close to the speed of sound.

Wing

The wing provides the majority of the lift an airplane requires for flight. Its shape is specifically designed for the aircraft to which it is attached. On most aircraft, the interior of the wing is also used to store the fuel required to power the engines.

Winglet

Some aircraft wings have an additional component called a winglet, which is located at the end of each wing. Its purpose is to reduce the drag (or air resistance) the wing produces as it pushes through the air. This not only allows the airplane to fly faster, but also means it burns less fuel, allowing it to fly longer distances without refuelling.

The wings of the airplane include ailerons and wing flaps, and depending on the size and model of the plane, may have the engines attached as well.

Aileron

The ailerons are located at the rear of the wing, typically one on each side. They work opposite to each other, meaning that when one is raised, the other is lowered. Their job is to increase the lift on one wing while reducing the lift on the other. By doing this, they roll the aircraft sideways, causing the aircraft to turn. This is the primary method of steering a fixed-wing aircraft.

Flap

Flaps are ahigh lift / high dragdevice (устройство для увеличения подъёмной силы\лобового сопротивления). Not only do they improve the lifting ability of the wing at slower speeds by changing the camber (изогнутость), or curvature (кривизна)of the wing, but when extended fully they also create more drag. This means an aircraft can descend (or lose altitude) faster, without gaining airspeed (набирать.увеличивать скорость) in the process.

Slat

A slat is a “high lift” device typically found on jet-powered aircraft (реактивный самолёт). Slats are similar to the flaps except they are mounted on the leading edge of the wing. They also assist in changing the camber, or curvature of the wing, to improve lifting ability at slower speeds.

Spoiler

The spoiler’s function is to disrupt (срывать), or spoil (гасить), the flow of air across the upper surface of the wing. They are usually found on larger aircraft, which can have two types installed. The in-flight spoilers (интерцепторы, отклоняемые в полёте) are small and designed to reduce the lifting capability of the wing just enough to allow the aircraft to descend quicker without gaining airspeed. Although the flaps can also perform this function, the spoiler is intended to be used temporarily (временно), while the flaps are typically used for longer durations such as during the approach and landing. The ground spoilers (интерцепторы, отклоняемые только на земле - тормозные интерцепторы, используемые для гашения подъёмной силы на земле) typically deploy automatically on landing and are much larger than their in-flight cousins. They are used to completely destroy the lifting ability of the wing upon landing, ensuring that the entire weight of the airplane rests firmly on the wheels, making the brakes more effective and shortening the length of runway needed to stop the aircraft.(увеличивают сопротивление и уменьшают подъёмную силу)

Engine

An airplane has at least one, or as many as eight engines, which provide the thrust needed to fly. There are many different makes and models on aircraft today but all perform the same basic function of taking the air that’s in front of the aircraft, accelerating it and pushing it out behind the aircraft. Jet powered aircraft perform this function by compressing the air using turbines, while propeller-powered aircraft use a propeller mounted to the engine. In general, the propeller works like a big screw, pulling the aircraft forward while pushing the air behind it. (Fig.2 Propeller path)

Finally the tail of the airplane is made up of two main parts, the vertical stabilizer and the horizontal stabilizer. Each of these parts has a role to play in the flight of the airplane.

Empennage

This name stems from the French word “empenner,” meaning “to feather an arrow” (оперять стрелу). The empennage is the name given to the entire tail section of the aircraft, including both the horizontal and vertical stabilizers, the rudder and the elevator. As a combined unit, it works identically to the feather on the arrow, helping guide the aircraft to its destination.

Horizontal Stabilizer

The horizontal stabilizer is quite simply an upside-down wing (перевёрнутое крыло), designed to provide a downward force (сила, направленная вниз) (push) on the tail. Airplanes are traditionally nose-heavy and this downward force is required to compensate for that, keeping the nose level with the rest of the aircraft. Some aircraft can control the angle of the stabilizer and therefore the level of downward force while in flight, while others are fixed in place.

Vertical Stabilizer

The vertical stabilizer is designed to stabilize the left-right motion of the aircraft. While most aircraft use a single stabilizer, some models, such as the Lockheed C-69 Constellation, use multiple, smaller stabilizers.

On the edges of each stabilizer are small moveable flaps attached by hinges. The hinged part on the vertical stabilizer is called the rudder.

Rudder

The rudder is attached to the vertical stabilizer, located on the tail of the aircraft. It works identically to a rudder on a boat, helping to steer the nose of the aircraft left and right; this motion is referred to as yaw (рыскание). Unlike the boat however, it is not the primary method of steering. Its main purpose is to counteract (уравновешивать; противодействовать) certain types of drag, or friction, ensuring that the aircraft’s tail follows the nose, rather than sliding out to the side.

The hinged part of the horizontal stabilizer is called the elevator.

Elevator

As the name implies, the elevator helps “elevate” the aircraft. It is located on the tail and directs the nose of the aircraft either upwards or downwards (pitch) in order to make the airplane climb and descend.

Antenna

There are numerous radio antennas located around an aircraft, their size and position corresponding to the type of work each antenna must perform and the frequencies being transmitted or received. The GPS antenna, for example, is always mounted to the top of an airplane. This is because the GPS satellites are in Space, and therefore always above the aircraft. As a general rule, longer antennas are used for radio communication and navigation (VHF frequencies), while shorter antennas are reserved for higher frequency data such as the GPS signals and the transponder, which provides air traffic control with information about the aircraft’s position and altitude.

Struts

The struts are part of the undercarriage, more commonly known as the landing gear. Their function is to absorb the impact of the landing as the aircraft touches the ground. Each strut contains a shock absorber (a collection of springs), hydraulic oil and gasses which work together to reduce the impact felt by the passengers. On some aircraft, such as those used by student pilots, the struts are made entirely out of spring steel (пружинная сталь). This type of steel is treated in such a way that it can absorb the shock of landings repeatedly, bending automatically back into shape.

Wheel

The wheels are another part of the undercarriage, or landing gear. While most aircraft have a minimum of three wheels, larger aircraft require many more to support their immense (огромный, значительный) weight. Typically aircraft wheels are filled with nitrogen instead of air. This is because the pressure of nitrogen gas changes very little with changes in altitude or temperature, which is something aircraft constantly experience.


 

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