Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

The history of money is the history of mankind. Throughout the history people used different things as money: knives and rice in China tobacco in America. The first paper money banknotes appeared in France in the early 1700s. But paper money as well as the first coins was invented in China.



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l. The history of money is the history of mankind. At first people bartered, they exchanged things for things they needed. Throughout the history people used different things as money: knives and rice in China, tobacco in America.

The first coins appeared in Greece. The first paper money (banknotes) appeared in France in the early 1700s. But paper money, as well as the first coins, was invented in China. Now many people carry plastic credit cards instead (вместо) of cash (наличные). We can take money from the cash machine.

Banknotes of different countries differ. Many countries in Europe now have the same currency (валюта) – euros. When people travel to another country they need to convert (обменять) their money into the local currency.

ll. Going shopping is a part of our everyday life. It can be both a must and a pleasure. Whatever we like it or not we have to do it. There are different kinds of shops to go shopping. In big cities and even in towns there are supermarkets. They sell all kinds of food: fresh and frozen, canned meat and fish, dairy food, bread, fruit. They also carry some other products for everyday life. In supermarkets the customer serves himself and pays on leaving the store.

The majority (большинство) of the dress, grocery, drug and book stores are owned by local businessmen. They will give you a personal attention.

In the department store there are different sections: ready-made clothes for men & women, jewellery (драгоценности), shoes and haberdashery (галантерея), drapery (ткани) and hosiery (трикотаж)

There are also pet shops and newsagent’s, chemist’s and toy shops. And we shouldn’t forget about the local market, where we can find different kinds of goods from fresh vegetables and meat, to free range eggs. So you can make any purchase (достойную покупку).


  1.  I wonder if this thing is on sale.
  2.  It’s interesting to know, if different sizes are in stock.
  3.  I’d like to know, if you take credit cards.

lV. Though I live in a small town. I’d advise you to visit our supermarket City-Mall. First of all it is situated just opposite a bus stop and those who have cars have a car park at their disposal. This large self-service store is brightly lit and is well laid out. The goods are tidily arranged on trays and long shelves on which prices are clearly marked. The shelves are well-stocked with a very wide selection of attractively packed goods – everything from quick frozen food to washing powder, from shoe polish to tooth paste. Trolleys (тележки) and baskets are available, shop assistants are helpful and ready to consult you and give advice. In this supermarket the customer serves himself and pays the cashier on leaving the store. You can pay either cash or by card.

V. Everyone knows money doesn’t grow on trees. Many teens have problems with pocket money. Very often we can hear our parents say: “when I was your age…”, and how they managed to survive on a few roubles a day. But our parents forget that the time has changed. We need some extra money on our friend’s birthday, or disco or some other useless things as parents think. Working for money is not always a solution, though (хотя) a part time job in summer or babysitting is possible to get some extra money. Holidays such as Christmas or a birthday are fine as we can get some more money as a present. But in whole we must admit that some parents haven’t got the slightest idea of what it costs to be a teen (young) these days. We are not over paid, we are deprived very often. As for me my parents give me pocket money. I try not to waste it, but to spend the money reasonably. As a rule I’m satisfied with the amount. Sometimes I ask a little bit more, my mum believes me and never refuses to supply me with the necessary sum as I do my best to plan my expenses. As for household chores I do them for free.


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