94884

English for Students of Technology and Economics

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Space exploration was a challenging problem requiring full use of our knowledge, energy, abilities and resources. Though it was a challenging proposition, it promised to be exciting and fun. As you study English you will be reading, listening, speaking and writing in it.

Английский

2015-09-17

4.77 MB

44 чел.

Г.І. Литвиненко  Т.О. Алексахіна

E n g l i s h

for Students of Technology and Economics

Н а в ч а л ь н и й  п о с і б н и к

H.I. Lytvynenko    Т.О. Aleksakhina

Г.І. Литвиненко    Т.О. Алексахіна

English

for Students of Technology and Economics

 

Sumy

«University Book» 2005

АНГЛІЙСЬКА МОВА

Аля студентів 1-II курсів інженерних та економічних спеиіальностей виших навчальних закладів

 

Рекомендовано Міністерством освіти і науки

України як навчальний посібник для студентів

виших навчальних закладів

 

Суми

«Університетська книга» 2005

 

УДК 821.111(075-8) ББК 81.2АНГЛ-923 Л64

Рецензенти:

Л.В. Скрипниченко, зав. кафедри іноземних мов НТУ "ХПГ,

професор;

М.О. Хекало, доцент кафедри англійської філології Сумського

державного педагогічного університету ім. А.С. Макаренка

Гриф надано Міністерством освіти і науки України. Лист № 14/18.2-2034 від 13.09.04

Автори:

Литвиненко Г.І. (уроки 1-11, додатки А, Б);

Алексахіна Т.О. (тексти для позааудиторного читання)

Литвиненко ГЛ., Алексахіна Т.О.

Англійська мова: Навч. посіб. / За ред. Г.І. Литвиненко. -Суми: ВТД «Університетська книга», 2005. - 128 с

ISBN 966-680-172-8

Посібник призначено для розвитку навичок читання науко-во-популярної літератури, а також уміння усного та письмового професійно спрямованого спілкування.

Для студентів 1-2-х курсів інженерних та економічних спе-ціальностей вищих навчальних закладів.

ББК 81.2АНГЛ-923

 ISBN 966-680-172-8

 

© Литвиненко Г.І., Алексахіна Т О

2005 ©ТОВ «ВТД «Університетська

книга», 2005

ПЕРЕДМОВА

Посібник розраховано на студентів нефілологічних спеціальнос-тей вищих навчальних закладів. У посібнику використовується автентичний матеріал, що є базою професійно-спрямованого на-вчання англійської мови студентів інженерних та економічних спеціальностей за освітньо-кваліфікаційним рівнем "бакалавр". Представлені в посібнику тексти та вправи містять інформацію науково-популярного характеру, досить цікаву і доступну для розуміння студентами 1-2-х курсів, сприяють підготовці їх до сприйняття вузькоспеціальної інформації на наступних ступе-нях навчання. Тематика текстів сучасна і актуальна, має вихов-ну спрямованість. Лексичний і граматичний матеріал, є частот¬но-значущим для підмови науково-технічної літератури.

Робота з посібником дозволяє викладачеві здійснювати взає-мопов'язане навчання основних видів мовленнєвої діяльності, у тому числі письмових. Викладення лексичного і граматичного матеріалу здійснюється таким чином, щоб стимулювати розумо¬ву активність та підвищувати рівень мотивації студентів. Посі-бник містить достатню кількість різноманітних вправ, побудова¬них за принципом зростання складності і попередження лексич¬них та граматичних труднощів, сприяння збагаченню словнико¬вого запасу.

Посібник складають 11 уроків, тексти для позааудиторного читання та додатки з деяких граматичних питань. Цей посіб-ник може бути використаний як для роботи в аудиторії під ке-рівництвом викладача, так і для самостійного вивчення англій-ської мови студентами нефілологічних спеціальностей вищих навчальних закладів.

 

 

 

Завдання 1. Прочитайте подані нижче слова, пам'ятаючи про правила читання голосних та їх сполучень, а також сполучень приголосних букв:

short, world, tool, like, use, pace, fun, bridge, help, need, good, bad, such, as, but, math, make, life.

Завдання 2. Прочитайте подані нижче багатоскладові слова. Не забувайте про. правила читання голосних у наголошеному та ненаголошеному складах:

robot, saw, hammer, solve, invent, device, easy, agree, people, affect, effect, change, about, learn.

Завдання 3. Прочитайте подані нижче слова. У разі утруднень перевірте правильність читання за словником та запишіть їх у транскрипції:

high, involve, fast, exciting, knowledge, science, while, through, answer, society, advancement, acid, find, literate, tech, both.

Завдання 4. Уважно прочитайте та запам'ятайте подані нижче слова та їх переклад:

 to challenge

кидати виклик

бросить вызов

device

прилад, механізм

устройство

to involve

містити, охоплювати

содержать, охватывать

science

наука

наука

tool

інструмент, знаряддя

инструмент

to invent

винаходити

изобретать

to create

створювати

создавать

to advance

просувати, удосконалювати

продвигать(ся)

environment      

Навколишнє середовище

довкілля      окружающая среда

acid

кислота

кислота

technology

техніка, технологія

техника, технология

to cause

завдавати, спричиняти   

причинять, вызывать

research

дослідження

исследование

Завдання 5. Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче слова, ґрун-туючись на їх подібності до слів рідної мови:

robot, combination, subject, design, creative, definition, resources, future, fact, base, satellite, laser, product, problem, idea, essay, computer, person.

Завдання 6. Дайте еквіваленти таких словосполучень рідною мовою:

creative ideas, fast-paced, for a while, a technologically literate person, to make a decision, a decision based on facts, to change through time, tools of technology, to find out more about smth, environmental problems, acid rain.

Завдання 7. Дайте свій варіант перекладу поданих нижче речень. Поясніть особливості перекладу виділеної частини кожного речення:

1. Technology has both good and bad sides.

2. Space exploration was a challenging problem requiring full use

of our knowledge, energy, abilities and resources.

3. Though it was a challenging proposition, it promised to be

exciting and fun.

4. As you study English you will be reading, listening, speaking

and writing in it.

5.1 would like your essay to be more creative and more personal,

6. Our last decisions quite agree with the ones made earlier.

7. To obtain the job you need to come up with your own project.

8. My new apartment is not ready yet. I'll stay at the hotel for a

while.

9. This research deals with environmental problems caused by

the advancement of technology.

10. New advancements in computer technology are unbelievable.

Завдання 8.

а) Згадайте, яким повинен бути порядок слів у питальному ре¬ченні. Проаналізуйте подані нижче запитання стосовно поряд¬ку слів:

1. What do we call technology?

2. Does technology affect our life?

3. How does technology develop nowadays?

4. Is technology a part of our life?

5. What helps us make our life easier?

6. We cannot stop technological development, can we?

7. In what way does technology affect the environment?

8. What kind of job do you think you would like?

9. Isn't it interesting to study how technology develops?

10. Are you a technologically-minded person or a socially-minded one?

 

Indirect questions

Negative questions

б) Користуючись наведеною схемою, з'ясуйте тип кожного з по¬даних вище питальних речень:

 

 

в) Дайте відповіді на подані запитання.

 

Завдання 9. а) Уважно вивчить таблицю питальних слів:

Question words

б) Користуючись наведеною таблицею, поставте запитання до ви¬ділених частин поданих нижче речень:

1. Millions of people all over the world work in technology – related careers.

2. Technology started over 2 million years ago.

3. Technology is changing and growing very quickly,

4. You can have more creative ideas if you open your mind to new

things.

5. A technologically literate person can put technology to use to

solve problems.

6. A problem - solving strategy can make it easier to solve the

problem.

7. Learning about technology is fast - paced, exciting, challenging

and fun.

8. There is a good chance that the career you choose will involve

technology in some way.

9. Technicians use problem - solving steps in jobs that produce or

transport products, communicate messages and research ideas.

10. Technology is causing changes in our everyday lives.

Завдання 10.

а) Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче групи слів:

- product, to produce, production, productivity, producer;

- to create, creative, creature, creativity, creation, creativeness,

creatively;

- to challenge, a challenge, challenging, challenger;

- technology, technological, technical, technician;

- science, scientist, scientific, scientifically;

- to invent, invention, inventor;

- computer, computerize, computerization, computation, to compute;

- to define, definition, definite, indefinite, definitely;

- advance, advancement, to advance,

б) Визначивши, до яких частин мови належать слова із поперед¬

нього завдання, розподіліть їх на групи:

Іменники         Дієслова        Прикметники Прислівники

в) На розвороті робочого зошита накресліть таку таблицю:

Розпочніть її заповнення, використовуючи подані вище слова. Надалі заповнюйте її регулярно, коли знаходитимете нові засо¬би словотворення.

Завдання 11. Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся якомога точніше зрозуміти і запам'ятати його зміст.

Текст 1

What Is Technology?

You live in a «high-tech» world. Tech is short for technology. Is technology robots, satellites, lasers, and computers? Or is it tools such as saws and hammers? All of these are products of technology, but technology is a lot more! Technology is a combination of people like you, your ideas, and the tools you will use to solve problems. It involves both thinking and doing. Technology is fast-paced, exciting, challenging, and fun! As you learn about technology you will be:

• Using knowledge from science, math, and other subjects to solve

problems.

• Designing, inventing, and making things using your creative

ideas.

• Building things such as products, houses, bridges, and devices

that people have created to make life easier.

You can see that technology has many different definitions. Most definitions agree that technology is the use of knowledge, tools, and resources to help people. You will probably come up with your own definition of technology after working with it for a while.

Because technology deals with people and the environment, you need to know how technology affects you. A person who understands the effects of technology is technologically literate. If you are techno¬logically literate, you will be able to make decisions about your future and technology based on facts. As a technologically literate person, you will be able TO:

- See how technology has changed through time.

- Think through a problem and come up with an answer.

- Decide whether a technology is good or bad for people or for the

environment.

- Understand the newest uses of technology.

- Use the tools of technology to solve problems.

The effects of technology are not always good for society or for the environment. Some advancements in technology have caused environmental problems such as acid rain. Other technologies are being developed to help solve those problems. Let's find out more about technology.

Завдання 12.

а) Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповідають змісту Тексту 1:

1. Technology includes not only advanced devices and processes.

2. Products of technology are knowledge and ideas.

3. Technology is a combination of science, math and other subjects.

4. Technology affects people and the environment.

5. If you understand how technology changes people and the

environment, are able to find an answer to a technical problem

you are considered technologically literate.

6. All technological discoveries and inventions are good for people.

7. You do not need to be creative to achieve good results in

technology.

б) Виправте неправильні твердження.

Завдання 13.  Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 1 речення.

Завдання 14. Виберіть із тексту слова, які можуть допомогти охарактеризувати поняття технічного прогресу:

а) складові частини технічного прогресу:

 

б) дієслова, які допоможуть описати процес прийняття технічно¬го рішення та його втілення в життя.

Завдання 15. Перекладіть подані нижче речення англійською мовою:

1. Ми використовуємо досягнення техніки, щоб зробити життя

легшим та приємнішим.

2. Для розвитку техніки потрібні інформація, інструменти і ре¬

сурси.

3. Люди, їх ідеї і творчість - важливі складові технічних дося¬

гнень.

4. Якщо ви технічно грамотний, то розумієте, як новітні техно¬

логії можуть впливати на наше життя.

5. Не всі сучасні досягнення техніки підходять для навколиш¬

нього середовища та людей.

6. Щоб прийняти правильне рішення, ми повинні мати всю не¬

обхідну інформацію і ґрунтуватися на фактах.

7. Технічний прогрес - складова частина розвитку людства.

Завдання 16. Сформулюйте основну ідею Тексту 1 (5-7 речень).

Завдання 17. Уявіть, що ви щойно розповіли своїм учням про технічний прогрес так, як було подано в Тексті 1, Які запитан¬ня ви поставили б учням, щоб перевірити, наскільки вони вас зрозуміли?

Урок 2

Завдання 1. Гїрочитахіте подані нижче слова, пам'ятаючи про правила читання голосних та їх сполучень, а також сполучень приголосних букв:

add, mean, start, ciub, ax, stone, age, bone, word, food, fire, mix, tin,

strong, skill, meet, need.

Завдання 2. Прочитайте подані нижче багатоскладові слова. Не забувайте про правила читання голосних у наголошеному та ненаголошеному складі:

factory, different, divide, kind, useful, bronze, recent, animal,

weapons, gather, discover, copper.

Завдання З, Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче слова, ґрун¬туючись на їх подібності до слів рідної мови:

combine, machine, percent, real, prehistoric, material, organize,

history, period, method, industrial, agricultural, start, rapid.

Завдання 4, Уважно прочитайте і запам'ятайте подані нижче слова та їх переклад:

Завдання 5. Прочитайте подані нижче слова. У разі утруднень перевірте правильність читання за словником та запишіть їх у транскрипції. Дайте еквіваленти таких словосполучень рідною мовою:

over 90 percent, to meet the changing needs, throw away, to take a brief look at, through the ages, prehistoric people, to work on different materials, time period, to base on, a strong metal, to mix copper with tin, a cutting edge, to hold a cutting edge, hard metal, iron ore, to move ahead, to stay the same, to be ahead of other people, steam engine, to pump water out of coal mines, steam was put to use in 1712, instrument, craft people, workshop, to live off the land, rapid growth, at the same pace, to set up factories, to move away from farms.

Завдання 6. Проаналізуйте подані нижче пари слів щодо їх форми, значення та належності до певної частини мови.

Перекладіть їх та доповніть таблицю словотворення:

use useful

herd herder

together    getherer

farm farmer

real really

historic prehistoric

cut cutting

spend expensive

move moveble

print printing

combine    combination

define definition

Завдання 7.

а) Пригадайте, як утворюються ступені порівняння прикметни¬ків та прислівників:

б) в)Утворіть ступені порівняння таких прикметників:

short, fast, exciting, simple, useful, important, strong, good, hard, isolated, cheap, early, easy.

Завдання 8. Перекладіть подані нижче речення, звертаючи осо¬бливу увагу на вживання ступенів порівняння прикметників та прислівників:

1. Technology is changing faster and faster all the time.

2. The more new ideas and inventions appear, the faster technology

development is.

3. During the Industrial Revolution technological inventions

brought more changes that affected the society than during all

the previous periods.

4. Metallurgy is one of the oldest of arts but one of the youngest

of sciences.

5. One of the most important properties of metals is their ability

to combine with other elements in stable solid mixtures known

as alloys.

6. Ferrous metals are used more often than non-ferrous metals.

7. Did you know that the highest wind speed ever recorded on

earth was 231 miles per hour?

Завдання 9.

а) Перекладіть рідною мовою речення, що мають порівняльні

конструкції:

1. Bronze was stronger than either copper or tin.

2. Bronze could be used to make better tools and weapons.

3. In the Iron Age people preferred iron because it was harder and

held a cutting edge better than bronze.

4. With the use of iron, more tools developed faster.

5. With new inventions and machines, people set up factories that

could produce things cheaper and faster.

6. During the Bronze Age people learned how to mix copper with

tin to make a stronger metal called bronze.

7. When these people combine their ideas, we shall have even more

new machines and tools.

б) Розкрийте дужки, використовуючи потрібний ступінь порів¬

няння прикметника чи прислівника:

1. Tech is (short) for technology.

2. In our days technology changes (fast).

3. As a technologically literate person, you will be able to understand

the (new) uses of technology.

4. The effects of technology are not always (good) for society or

for the environment.

5. You must decide whether a technology is (good) or (bad) for

people or for the environment.

6. (Many) definitions agree that technology is the use of knowledge

and tools to help people.

7. Let's find out (much) about technology.

Завдання 10. Перекладіть подані нижче речення. Виведіть загальну формулу утворення пасивного стану і сформулюйте його основне  значення:

1. Rock, wood, animal bones, plants or other natural materials Завдання 9.

  1.  Rock, wood, animal bones, plants or other natural materials were
    known
    to Stone Age people.

All the facts known to people today are called our knowledge

base.

  1.  Because the knowledge base is so large and is growing so rapidly,
    it is important for you to learn where and how information
    can
    be found
    .

Only natural materials were used by prehistoric people.

  1.  If you have steps to follow in trying to solve a problem, getting
    an answer
    will be made easier.
  2.  Once a problem solving strategy has been worked out, it can be
    used
    to solve all kinds of problems.
  3.  Most of the time the problems which are being solved in
    technology are very complicated.
  4.  Many of the latest technological developments are connected
    with computers.
  5.  Very often prehistoric people are considered not very smart,
    but they were able to use the technology of their day very well.

10. Drawings were used by prehistoric people to communicate with each other.

Завдання 11. Використовуючи виведену загальну формулу утво¬рення пасивного стану, виведіть відповідні формули для кожної з груп часів дієслова:

INDEFINITE

CONTINUOUS

PERFECT

PRESENT

PAST

FUTURE

Завдання 12. Використовуючи таблицю із Завдання 11, пере-кладіть рідною мовою подані нижче речення:

1. These periods are based on the kinds of materials people used.

2. Iron is still used in industry today.

3. Over 90 percent of all technologies were invented in the last 25

or 30 years.

4. An alloy is made when two or more metals are mixed together.

5. Products were made in homes rather than factories during this

period.

6. Several scientific instruments were invented during the period

of Industrial Revolution.

7. Recent history is divided into ages.

8. Prehistoric times are described by the materials people used.

9. Other technologies are being developed nowadays.

10. Bronze was stronger than either copper or tin and it could be used to make better tools and weapons.

Завдання 13.  Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся якомога точніше зрозуміти і запам'ятати його зміст:

Текст 2 Technology — Growing Fast!

Technology is changing faster and faster all the time. As the population grows, more people are adding more new ideas and inventing more new tools. When these people combine their ideas, we have even more new machines and tools. Over 90 percent of all technologies we have today were invented in the last 25 or 30 years. That means that technology is causing lots of change very fast.

When did technology start? Many people think that technology started in the 1700s when factories began to make things. But technology really began many thousands of years ago. Prehistoric people used simple tools such as clubs and axes made of stone to work on different materials.

One way to organize history is to divide the past into time periods. These periods are based on the kinds of materials people used. This method is useful because people develop new technologies to meet their changing needs. But they don't throw away the old technology; they build on it. Let's take a brief look at technology through the ages. - The Stone Age (2,000,000 b.c. to 3,000 b.c.)

During the Stone Age, prehistoric people used tools made mostly

of stone, animal bones, and wood. The tools were important to them as weapons or for gathering food. Prehistoric people also discovered uses for fire. The Bronze Age (3000 b.c. to 1200 b.c.)

During the Bronze Age, people learned how to mix copper with tin to make a stronger metal called bronze. Bronze is an alloy. An alloy is made when two or more metals are mixed together. Bronze was stronger than either copper or tin, and it could be used to make better tools and weapons.

- The Iron Age (1200 b.c. to a.d. 500)

People started to make their tools from iron instead of bronze. They preferred iron because it was harder and held a cutting edge better than bronze. Iron ore was also easy to find and less expensive. With the use of iron, more tools developed faster. Iron is still used in industry today.

- The Pre-Industrial Revolution (a.d. 500 to 1750)

There were very few changes in science and technology during the first part of this time period. People around the world did not advance from one stage of technology to the next at the same pace. People in some parts of the world moved ahead, while others stayed the same. Some people remained hunters and gatherers while others became farmers and herders. For example, the Chinese were ahead of other people in technology because they had gunpowder, the compass, and movable type for printing. Today there are a few isolated places where people are still living in the Stone Age. During the second part of the Pre-Industrial Revolution, technology and science became important. For example, steam was first put to use in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. He made a steam engine to pump water out of coal mines. Products were made in homes rather than factories during this period. Several important scientific instruments such as the microscope were invented. This is when scientists started using the scientific method to find answers.

- The Industrial Revolution (1750-1900)

Beginning about 1750 many inventions brought changes that affected all of society. Before this time products were made by craftspeople using their own tools in their workshops. With new inventions and machines, people set up factories that could produce things cheaper and faster.

- Recent History (1900-Today)

The early 1900s started a period of very rapid growth in technology. Recent history is divided into ages that describe the technology of each period just as prehistoric times are described by the materials people used. Some of the recent ages include the

Air Age, the Atomic Age, the Jet Age, the Space Age, and the Information Age. The ages overlap and build on each other. As technology has changed, so have the ways people live. In earlier times, people lived in an agricultural society where they needed tools to live off the land. Then, during the industrial period many machines were invented that changed the ways in which products were made. Many people moved away from farms and worked in factories. Today we are in an Information Age, where skills such as finding and using information are important.

Завдання 14. а) Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відпові-дають змісту Тексту 2:

1. Technology is changing slowly.

2. There are several periods in the history of mankind, depending

on the kinds of materials people used.

3. During the Bronze Age people learned how to mix copper with

tin to make a stronger metal.

4. An alloy is a combination of iron with another metal.

5. Copper was stronger than bronze.

6. Iron is no longer used in industry today.

7. During the Industrial Revolution people set up factories which

used technological inventions to improve production process.

8. The period called Recent History is a period of intensive

development technology.

9. The new inventions could produce more expensive things.

10. Today skills of finding and using information are not significant as they used to be.

б) Виправте неправильні твердження.

Завдання 15. Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 2 речення.

Завдання 16. Виберіть з тексту ключові слова, які характеризу-ють кожен із періодів розвитку техніки:

STONE AGE

BRONZE AGE

IRON AGE

PRE-INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

RECENT HISTORY

Завдання 17. Дайте відповіді на подані нижче запитання, вико-ристовуючи Текст 2:

1. The population of the Earth has been growing all the time, hasn't it?

2. What is the correlation between the population growth and

technology development?

3. What are the integral parts of technology?

4. When did technology start?

5. How are the technological inventions distributed in the history

of humanity?

6. What kind of tools were first used by prehistoric people?

7. What principle is used to organize history?

8. What are the names of the periods history is divided into?

9. In what way does technology change people's life?

10. How can you define technology?

Завдання 18. Перекладіть англійською мовою подані нижче речення:

1. Ви можете бачити, що техніка має багато різних визначень.

2. Техніка має справу з людьми та навколишнім середовищем,

тому ти повинен знати, як вона впливає на тебе.

3. Давайте більше дізнаємося про техніку.

4. Весь час техніка змінюється все швидше і швидше.

5. Коли почала розвиватися техніка?

6. Протягом кам'яного віку люди використовували інструмент,

зроблений з кісток тварин, дерева та каменю.

7. Залізо і в наші часи використовується в промисловості.

8. Бронза - це сплав, бо складається з двох металів - міді та

олова.

9. Індустріальна революція внесла багато змін у наше суспільство.

10.Завдяки новим винаходам люди заснували фабрики та змогли виробляти        продукцію швидше і дешевше.

11.Останній період розвитку техніки поділяється на так звані

«ери».

12.Ми живемо в епоху, найважливішим надбанням якої є інформаційні технології.

Завдання 19.

а) Складіть план повідомлення, яке базуватиметься на інформа¬

ції із Тексту 1 та Тексту 2.

б) Дайте свій варіант заголовка до повідомлення.

в) Зробіть усне повідомлення за названою темою.

Завдання 1. Уважно прочитайте та запам'ятайте подані нижче слова та їх переклад:

to touch

доторкатися,

(при)касаться

стосуватися

sure

впевнений

уверенный

to occur

траплятися,

случаться,

зустрічатися

встречаться

to fit

бути придатним,

соответствовать,

відповідати

подходить

levitation

винурення

всплытие

voice

голос

голос

art

майстерність, ремесло

искусство,

мастерство

to recognize

упізнавати, визнавати

признавать,

узнавать

to conduct

проводити

проводить

to design

конструювати

конструировать

to present

представляти

представлять

disease

хвороба

болезнь

to improve

поліпшувати

улучшать

keyboard

клавіатура

клавиатура

to lose

втрачати

терять

to resist

чинити опір

сопротивляться

property

властивість, власність

свойство,

собственность

To describe

зображувати

изображать,

описывать

track

friction

to rub

reason

to figure out

to assemble

to predict

space

 

 

 

Завдання 2. Дайте еквіваленти таких словосполучень рідною

мовою:

to take place, to double, rate of change, artificial intelligence, genetic engineering, biotechnology, magnetic levitation, to put to use, medicines, to give commands by voice, resistance to electricity, magnetic field, to reason through a problem, to make the right decision, to run a factory, working hours, space bases, solar energy, robotic vision.

Завдання 3. Уважно прочитайте групи поданих нижче синоні¬мів та перекладіть їх рідною мовою:

shape = form; hard = difficult; hard = strong; for sure = to be sure of; fast = quick, not slow; rate = speed; area = field; brief = short; advancements = developments; to manufacture = to produce; manufacturing = production.

Завдання 4.

а) Проаналізуйте подані нижче групи однокореневих слів щодо їх форми, значення та належності до певної частини мови:

place - to place - to replace - placement;

to train - to retrain - training;

gene - genetic;

magnet - magnetic - to magnetize - magnetization - magnetism;

to lead - leader - leading;

to act - actor - action - acting - to react - reaction;

to recognize - recognition;

to conduct - conductivity - superconductivity - conductor;

voice - voiceless- voiced- to voice;

to develop - development - developments;

to describe- description;

to design - to redesign - design - designer;

art - artificial - artist - artistic;

to consider - consideration;

medicine -- medicines - medical - medication;

biology - biological - biologist.

б) Перекладіть вищенаведені слова рідною мовою та доповніть таблицю словотворення:

NOUN

VERB

ADJECTIVE

ADVERB

Завдання 5. Прочитайте подані нижче словосполучення, в яких один іменник є означенням іншого. Перекладіть їх, користую¬чись однією з таких схем:

 

acid rain, time period, iron ore, steam engine, coal mine, craft people, bronze age, information age, space age, knowledge base, science fiction, voice recognition, life forms, work week, space base, problem situation.

 

Завдання 6. Утворіть потрібну форму дієслів:

a) When you (look) at stars, you really (look) back in time

hundreds, thousands, or even millions of years. The light that we

(see) shining from stars (take) time to travel to earth. Even

though light (travel) very fast (186,282 miles per second), stars

are very far away. You probably (see) the North Star, for example.

The light you (see) is really 680 years old! It is strange to think

that the light you (see) when you (look) at the North Star (leave)

the star during medieval times.

b) Advancements in technology (give) us the quality of life we

enjoy today. It is easy to see how the speed of technology

(increase) when you chart it on a type of graph called a timeline.

In this activity you will organize and chart some of the events

in history that (lead) to the high level of technology we (have)

in our world today.

Завдання 7. Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся якомога точніше зро¬зуміти і запам'ятати його зміст.

Текст З Future Technology

Technology touches almost every part of your life today. With technology comes change - change in the way people do things, change in the way machines work and change in how we think. Changes in technology took place very slowly before the Industrial Revolution. Now with so many new inventions and improvements on older inventions, change occurs faster than ever. Some people say our knowledge base (all the facts known to people today) is doubling every two to three years. When something changes, and keeps changing faster and faster, we call it an exponential rate of change. You can imagine how much knowledge there is now and how the knowledge base is growing.

How will technology shape your future? It's hard to say for sure, but you can be sure that future technologies will make your life easier or more productive. That is why technology is here. Future technologies should also bring good changes that fit the environment and our needs. You may hear words such as genetic engineering or biotechnology, voice recognition, superconductivity, magnetic levitation, and artificial intelligence. These are all areas where technology is being put to use for the future. Some of them used to be considered science fiction. Now they are real. Here are brief descriptions of a few future technologies. Genetic Engineering or Biotechnology is the ability to design or redesign life forms. Developments in biotechnology or genetic engineering can lead to better production of food, prevention of disease, and improved medicines. Voice Recognition is a computer's ability to react to a person's voice. Instead of using a keyboard, you will give commands by voice. Superconductor is a material that loses all resistance to electricity, usually at low temperatures. This property is unusual because all materials have some resistance. Anything that uses electricity could benefit from this technology. Magnetic Levitation means trains that float above a magnetic field instead of using wheels on a track. Levitating trains reduce the friction made when two materials rub against each other. Levitation also makes it possible for trains to go over 300 miles per hour safely. Programming a computer to be able to reason through a problem as well as any person is called Artificial Intelligence. The computer would then be able to recognize problem situations and make the right decision. This means that the computer would be able to figure out what it needs to know on its own instead of being told!

Advancements in one field often lead to advancements in another field. In the future, you may find more robots replacing people in industry. In fact, many factories will be run totally by robots. As computers improve, so will robots. They will eventually be able to assemble products as well as make the parts. This means that people will have to be retrained to find other jobs.

People like you will have shorter working hours. Some people predict that the work week, which now averages around 40 hours per week, will be only half that in less than 50 years. What will you do with all your free time?

Manufacturing will be important in space, too. Factories on space bases will operate automatically. They will use natural materials from the space environment and will use solar energy for power. Space robots will perform well-defined tasks in some cases, but, with the improvement of artificial intelligence, robots will be more "intelligent." They will be capable of making logic decisions and with robotic vision, will actually recognize different objects.

We live in an exciting age of rapid technology growth. Keeping up with this rapid growth doesn't have to be frustrating. Learning about technology is fun! Technology is putting knowledge to use. You will learn that it is important to use your hands and your mind to solve problems.

Technology offers you the opportunity to explore the fascinating world in which you live.

 

Завдання 8. Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 3 речення.

Завдання 9.

а) Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповідають змісту

Тексту 3:

1. Before the Industrial Revolution changes in technology took

place very fast.

2. Now new improvements and inventions occur very seldom.

3. Our knowledge base has not grown significantly in the last decade.

4. Future technologies will make our life more productive.

5. Genetic engineering, magnetic levitation, voice recognition used

to be considered science fiction and are so even today.

6. Only some materials have resistance.

7. The computer will be able to make the right decision.

8. You will see that advancements in one field will lead to

advancements in another field.

9. With robots, computers and all similar complex devices we will

have to work longer hours.

10. Factories in space will need a lot of people to operate them.

б) Виправте неправильні твердження.

Завдання 10. Знайдіть у тексті речення, в яких:

а) присудок стоїть у пасивному стані;

б) використовуються порівняльні конструкції;

в) використовується питальний порядок слів.

Перекладіть ці речення рідною мовою.

Завдання 11. Перекладіть подані нижче речення англійською мовою:

а)

1. Нині розробляється багато нових технологій для вирішення

складних питань.

2. Сплав отримують шляхом змішування двох чи більше мета¬

лів.

3. У залізну епоху знаряддя виготовлялися із заліза.

4. Залізо використовується в промисловості і в наш час.

5. Нова історія поділяється на декілька етапів.

6. В індустріальний період було винайдено багато машин.

7. Ліс, рослини, кістки тварин та інші природні матеріали були

відомі людям у кам'яному віці як сировина для виготовлення потрібних їм речей.

б)

1. Бронза міцніша за інші метали.

2. Усе більш важливим стає розвиток виробництва в космічному просторі.

3. Тепер ми маємо більше корисних машин та знарядь, які до¬

помагають нам у роботі та повсякденному житті.

4. Техніка розвивається все швидше і швидше.

5. За допомогою нових машин люди почали виготовляти різно¬

манітну продукцію швидше і змогли зробити її дешевшою.

6. Нові технології полегшать наше життя.

7. Без розвитку техніки ми не зможемо просуватися далі.

8. У майбутньому завдяки новій техніці люди матимуть корот¬

ший робочий день.

в)

1. Що таке техніка?

2. Як ми використовуємо природні ресурси?

3. Чи змінить техніка наше майбутнє?

4. Завдяки чому наше життя стане легшим?

5. Коли темпи розвитку техніки значно зросли?

6. Які періоди має розвиток техніки?

7. Що таке сплав?

Завдання 12. Поставте запитання до виділених частин поданих нижче речень:

1. Superconductor is a material that loses all resistance to electricity,

usually at low temperatures.

2. A computer's ability to react to a person's voice is called voice

recognition.

3. In the future many factories will be run totally by robots.

4. Factories on space bases will operate automatically.

5. With technology comes change.

6. Our knowledge base is doubling every two or three years.

7. Future technologies will make your life easier and more

productive.

Завдання 13. Виберіть із тексту слова, які є ключовими для опи¬су науки майбутнього.

Завдання 14. Дайте визначення таких понять: knowledge base, exponential rate of change, science fiction, superconductivity, artificial intelligence, genetic engineering, robotics.

Завдання 15. Сформулюйте основну ідею тексту у 7-Ю реченнях.

Завдання 16. Поставте 10 питань до Тексту 3 таким чином, щоб вони склали план переказу тексту.

Завдання 17. Перекажіть текст, використовуючи складений вами план і ключові слова із Завдання 13.

Завдання 18. Прочитайте та письмово перекладіть поданий ни¬жче текст, звертаючи особливу увагу на виділені речення та сло¬восполучення:

With the increased store of knowledge available and the widening of the field of engineering to include diverse branches, it is usual to find groups or teams of engineers and scientists working on a single project. Where formerly an individual could absorb and understand practically all of the scientific knowledge available, now the amount of information is so vast that an individual can retain and employ at best only a part of it.

Since 1900 the ratio of engineers and scientists in the United States in comparison to the total population has been steadily increasing.

Year Ratio of US engineers and scientists to population

1900 1 to 1800

1950  1 to 190

2000 1 to 130

1980  1 to 65

1960        1 to 35

There will be an even greater increase in technological advances in the next 20 years than there has been in the past 20 years.

In this age, as in any age, the engineer must be creative and must be able to visualize what may lie ahead. He must possess a fertile imagination and a knowledge of what others have done before him. As Sir Isaac Newton is reputed to have said, „If I have seen farther than other men, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants". The giants of science and engineering still exist. All any person must do to increase his\ her field of vision is to climb up on their shoulders.

Завдання 19. Доберіть синоніми до поданих нижче слів та сло¬восполучень:

amount to retain

field total

vast steadily

store advance

to employ advances

visualize possess

Завдання 20. Поясніть, як ви розумієте висловлення Ньютона (Завдання 18). Яких гігантів він мав на увазі? Висловте свої міркування з цього приводу англійською мовою.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНІ ЗАВДАННЯ ДО УРОКІВ 1-3

Завдання 1. Прочитайте та перекладіть подані слова та слово-сполучення:

а) ore, steam., rapid, to invent, acid, satellite, science, definite, tin,

copper, weapons, friction, keyboard, levitation, wheel, occur, tool,

essay, to develop, recent, bone;

б) craft people, to hold a cutting edge, to find out more about

smth., to move away from farms, prehistoric people, to make the

right decision, to react to a person's voice, the store of knowledge

available, technological advances, a fertile imagination, a field

of vision, artificial intelligence, to deal with, a decision based

on facts.

Завдання 2. Підберіть англійські еквіваленти поданих нижче слів та словосполучень:

а) з'ясовувати, зображувати, технології, вирішення, розвиток, зна¬

ряддя, залізо, виготовляти, ресурси, сплав, створювати, винахо¬

дити, кислота, ґрунтуватися, навколишнє середовище, досягнення,

надбання, камінь, бронза, мідь, опиратися, майстерність;

б) технічний прогрес, завдяки новим винаходам, інформаційна

технологія, індустріальна революція, досягнення техніки, роз¬

роблення нових технологій, змішування двох металів, кам'я¬

ний вік, природні матеріали, залізна епоха, індустріальний

період, виготовлення потрібних речей.

Завдання 3. З поданих нижче слів складіть якомога більше сло¬восполучень та перекладіть їх:

metallurgy, acid, engineering, age, world, iron, materials, commands, history, base,  development,  robots,  application,  engine, environment, rain, protection, computer, ore, steam, knowledge, voice, space, field.

Завдання 4. Заповніть таблицю, використовуючи відомі вам сло¬вотвірні моделі. Дайте якомога більше варіантів там, де це можливо.

NOUN

IVERB

ADJECTIVE

ADVERB

to present

conductivity

_

creative

-

scientifically

computer

advance

_

to produce

definitely

to realize

really

magnet

to design

-

to react

training

-

_

voiced

_

electrician

Завдання 5. Перекладіть рідною мовою.

1. Teaching a robot to work can be much simpler than training a

human apprentice to perform the same task.

2. Every motion made by the worker will be recorded by the robot

and will be converted automatically to a program that the robot

will then follow.

3. The program is usually stored on a tape cassette or disk.

4. When the robot is given a new task, the disk or cassette can be

kept for use when the robot returns to the original task.

5. In 1990 it was calculated that the total energy generated in the

USA would be the equivalent in 'muscle - power energy' of 153

slaves working for every American man, woman and child in

the country.

6. Early engineering was principally either civil or military.

7. We travel to space to learn more about the Earth and about the

stars, planets and moons in our universe.

8. Many of the benefits of space research are used to help people in

their daily activities.

9. There are also benefits that make life at home easier.

10. Surprisingly, the worst killer of all natural phenomena is not, as

we might think, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods or earthquakes, but

lightning.

11. Lightning can be a dangerous killer, and often is, far more often

than many people may realize.

12. Lightning is, without a doubt, a big killer, the greatest cause of

death among all types of storms.

13. The most costly lightning strike in the USA is considered to be

the one that hit an army arsenal in northern New Jersey on

July 10, 1926.

14. Property damage from this single lightning bolt was placed at

$70 million.

15. The study of technology is a study of process that includes both

technology and social processes.

16. Technology deals with designing, making, and doing things.

17. It is enriched by discoveries in science and shaped by the designs

of engineers.

18. Technology is the way that things are introduced into society.

Завдання 6. Прочитайте текст та складіть 10 питань до його змісту своїм товаришам.

In 1950, there were fewer than 150 computers in the world. In 1970, there were 50,000. Today, companies make 50,000 computers every day! A huge mainframe computer that cost millions of dollars twenty years ago can now be purchased as a portable computer for less than $5,000. Advancements in computer technology and electronics will make future computers even more powerful and less expensive.

Because technology is changing so fast, it is hard to predict what computers of the future will be like. Here are a few possibilites:

- voice-activated computers without keyboard;

- computers that operate with laser light instead of electronic

chips;

- computers that react to your eye movements ;

- superconducting, superfast supercomputers ;

- mind-reading computers;

- computers that can think and learn on their own.

Research is being conducted on each of these areas today. For

example, your home or car of the future will be controlled by computers. Parts of them already are.

Завдання 7. Прочитайте та письмово перекладіть поданий ниж¬че текст.

Until late the nineteenth century, engineering as an applied science was divided into two principal groups,civil and military. Mining and metallurgy was the first group to be recognized as a separate branch and the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers was founded in 1871. In 1880 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was created and in 1884 the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) was organized. In 1908 the American Institute of Chemical Engineers appeared and since then a number of other branch societies have been founded to deal with the aims characteristic of specialized fields of engineering.

Завдання 8.

а) Прочитайте текст з метою якомога точніше зрозуміти його зміст.

In fact the beginning of civilization and the beginning of engineering are coincident. Down through the ages, the engineer has been in the forefront as a maker of history. His material accomplishments have had as much impact on world history as any political, economic or social developments.

Basically, the role of engineer has not changed through the centuries. His job is to take knowledge and make practical use of it. He converts scientific theory into useful application, and in so doing, he provides for man's material needs and well-being.

Outstanding characteristics of engineers through the centuries have been a willingness to work and an intellectual curiosity about the behavior of things. Their queries about Why? , How? , With what?, At What Cost? have all served to stimulate an effort to find desirable answers to many types of technological problems.

Another characteristic associated with engineers is the ability to see ahead. The engineer must have a fertile imagination, must be creative, and must be ready to accept new ideas. Whether an engineer lived at the time of construction of pyramids or has only recently graduated in nuclear engineering, these characteristics have been an important part of his intellectual make up.

б) Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповідають змісту

тексту:

1. Civilization and engineering belong to different periods of time-.

2. Outstanding engineers have always been among those people

who determined the course of history.

3. Engineers use information and knowledge to invent devices

helping to make our life easier.

4. Asking a lot of questions does not help solving technological

problems.

5. Curiosity, creative imagination and desire to work in engineers

stimulate technology development.

в) Дайте пояснення або переклад виділених слів та словосполу¬

чень.

г) Дайте відповіді на такі запитання:

1. What is the role of engineers in the history of mankind?

2. What characteristics should an individual possess to become a

good engineer?

Завдання 9. Перекладіть англійською мовою поданий нижче текст.

Що таке техніка? Якими шляхами вона розвивається? Давай¬те знайдемо відповіді на ці запитання.

По-перше, ви повинні знати, що техніка почала своє існуван¬ня багато століть тому. її розвиток поділяється на декілька пе¬ріодів, які залежать від того, чим користувалися люди в той чи інший момент.

Перший період має назву «кам'яний вік». У цю епоху люди використовували знаряддя, виготовлені з каменю, кісток тварин чи з дерева.

Другий період — «бронзовий вік», де люди змішували мідь з оловом, щоб мати міцніший метал — бронзу.

Третій період має назву «залізний вік», де люди мали справу з залізом, за допомогою якого інструменти виготовлялися швидше.

Наступні періоди - «доіндустріальна революція» і «індустріа¬льна революція» - відрізнялися тим, що тоді з'являлися фабри¬ки. Велика кількість винаходів внесла зміни в життя того часу.

Останній період має назву «Новітня історія». Він поділяєть-ся на епохи, назви яких відображають технічний розвиток кож-ної епохи. Таким чином, ми можемо сказати, що техніка не сто¬їть на місці.

Завдання 10. Складіть стислу доповідь на тему „Історія розвит¬ку техніки, її місце в нашому житті та перспективи в майбут¬ньому." (Обсяг доповіді 100 слів.)

 

Урок 5

Завдання 1. Уважно прочитайте подані

клад. Запам'ятайте їх:

заявляти визначення точний вимога кількість досліджувати джерело

Завдання 2. Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче слова, ґрун¬туючись на їх подібності до слів рідної мови:

strategy, parameter, detail, specific, to identify, resources, chance, review, cycle, experimentation, department, actually, supermarket, portable, microchip, silicon, component, part, hypothesis, to block smth.

Завдання 3. Прочитайте подані нижче словосполучення. По¬дайте їх еквіваленти рідною мовою:

a design brief, throughout life, problem statement, to state what the problem is in your own words, to take measurements, accurate notes, totally perfect, along with, problem solving cycle, final solution, basic research, applied research, supermarket pricing, electronic circuit, to start from scratch, to keep an open mind, by accident, to have smth. in common, to have investigating minds, proven facts, the same, the exact same.

Завдання 4. а) Проаналізуйте подані нижче групи однокорене-вих слів щодо їх форми, значення та належності до певної час¬тини мови:

to state - statement - to restate - restatement

accurate - accuracy - accurately

to research - research - researcher

to solve - solution

to define - definition

to require - requirement

to explore - exploration - explorer

current - currently

to identify - identification

to review - review - reviewer

to choose - choice

to predict - prediction

to guess - guess

willing - willingness

to reason - reason - reasoning

to evaluate - evaluation

to fail - failure

to restrict - restriction

to proove - proof

perfect - to perfect - perfection

б) Перекладіть слова із попереднього завдання рідною мовою та доповніть таблицю словотвору:

NOUN

VERB

ADJECTIVE

ADVERB

 Завдання 5. Уважно вивчіть таблиці форм та функцій неособо¬вих форм дієслова.

Таблиця 1. Неособові форми дієслова  

 

 

Продовження таблиці

Завдання 6.  Перекладіть рідною мовою подані нижче фрагмен¬ти речень, звертаючи увагу на неособові форми дієслова:

a) a challenging problem, problem - solving strategy, steps to follow, a plan for solving a problem, the first in solving a problem, information related to a problem, a simple question to ask, a big step toward solving the problem, the chances of your idea being perfect,applied research,a silicon chip containing thousands of electronic circuits, a reason for keeping an open mind, proven facts, a problem requiring full use of our knowledge, the promised proposition, problems caused by the advancement of technology, technology - related careers, decisions based on facts, the problems being solved, tools made of stone.

b) where to start, use it to solve all kinds of problems, how to use the plan, in trying to solve a problem, being able to say it, you need to explore ideas, the idea promised to be exciting and fun, to obtain the job you need to have experience, technology involves thinking and doing, testing your idea, taking measurements, evaluating what happened, gathering information, using this information, doing things is fun.

Завдання 7. Перекладіть речення рідною мовою, звертаючи ува¬гу на використання неособових форм дієслова. Майте на увазі, що правильність вибору способу передачі значення неособової форми рідною мовою залежить від правильності визначення функції цієї форми в реченні.

1. In the problem solving strategy, you spend a lot of time exploring

ideas.

2. Someone may suggest an idea or invent something to solve a

particular problem.

3. Research helps us gather information.

4. Basic research is gathering information that helps us understand

things about the world around us.

5. Applied research is the kind of research done to solve a particular

problem.

6. Basic and applied research use the same two methods to get

information: gathering already - known information and

experimenting.

7. Using already - known information saves time because you do

not have to start from scratch every time.

8. Experimenting is like the testing part of your problem - solving

strategy.

9. Research is also done by experimenting to find out how things

work. This knowledge can then be used to change or improve

technology that already exists.

10. Knowledge how to work in a group is an important skill.

11. Having people with different experiences and backgrounds in

your group gives you more information to explore.

12. Some of us are better at testing out new ideas. Others are better

at putting ideas into action.

13. You will have a chance to do both as part of a group.

14. When you brainstorm ideas, you list as many ideas as possible

without people saying anything good or bad about any of them.

15. The abilities to work both independently and as part of a group

are important to you in solving problems.

16. Sometimes people make excuses for not doing things by saying,

«I'm just not creative.»

17. You might have to break your usual rules for thinking or create

some new ones when trying to make an idea work.

18. By doing this you allow yourself to question the possible, the

impractical, and even the impossible.

19. Part of being creative is changing patterns, looking at things

differently, and experimenting.

20. To improve your creativity even more, take a closer look at things

you usually take for granted.

21. Only a few hundred of the thousands of human - made objects

in space today are considered working spacecraft.

Завдання 8. Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся якомога точніше зро¬зуміти і запам'ятати його зміст.

Текст 5 Problem Solving

Have you ever had a problem that you wanted to solve but you didn't know where to start? Many people give up before they even try. // you have steps to follow in trying to solve a problem, getting an answer will be easier. A step - by - step plan for solving problems is called a problem - solving strategy. Once you learn a problem -solving strategy, you can use it to solve all kinds of problems. If you really learn how to use it, it will help you throughout life.

All problem - solving strategies have some common parts. Usually, the first step in solving a problem is being able to say, or state, exactly what the problem is in your own words. The definition of the problem is sometimes called the problem statement.

A more detailed problem statement is called a design brief. // the problem statement is not very specific (exact) then you might not know when you have found a solution. A design brief gives specific details of the problem. It gives you a lot more information than a problem statement does.

The specific requirements for a problem are called parameters. Parameters might limit the amount of money you can spend to solve the problem, the amount of time, or the kinds of materials you can use.

Once the problem is identified, you need to explore ideas and gather information related to your problem. Ideas can come from many sources. You need to use as many resources as possible. You also need to be sure your information is current. You will find a great deal of information on most topics.You will need to evaluate the information and decide whether or not it is useful in solving your problem. A simple question to ask yourself is «Is this particular information «need to know» or is it just «nice to know»?»

Now that you have all the ideas, you have to do something with them. You select what you think is the best idea to try first. The fun part is testing your idea or solution. During the test you should review the parameters of the problem, so that you can stay on track. Testing usually requires taking measurements or accurate notes about what's happening. Evaluating what happened during the testing is the most important part of the entire problem - solving strategy. Sometimes you want so much for your idea to work that you do not look at the results carefully. Remember that there may be many possible solutions to a problem.

The chances of your first idea being totally perfect are slim. Just because your idea did not work, it doesn't mean you failed - it just means you learned what doesn't work. That is a big step toward solving the problem! You can use the successful parts of your idea along with some changes to create a second idea. You will need to test this new idea and evaluate it too. You might go through the problem solving cycle many times before you reach your final solution.

Завдання 9. Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 5 ре-чення.

Завдання 10. Визначте, які з поданих шіжче речень відповіда-ють змісту тексту:

1. Many people don't even try to solve a problem.

2. If you don't try to find an answer to the problem at once, but do

it step by step instead, success is almost inevitable.

3. The specific requirements for a problem are called parameters.

4. Testing your solution is fun.

5. Once you have all the ideas, you have to select the best one to try

it first.

6. A detailed plan for solving a problem is called a problem -

solving strategy.

7. The specific details of the problem are given in its detailed

definition, which is called a design brief.

8. There must be only one solution to a problem.

9. Your first idea is always the best one.

Завдання 11. Назвіть п'ять стадій процесу вирішення наукової чи технічної проблеми.

Завдання 12. Поставте запитання до Тексту 5А таким чином, щоб вони склали план переказу тексту.

Завдання 13.

а) Прочитайте текст, намагаючись його зрозуміти якомога точніше.

Текст 5А

In the problem solving strategy, you spend a lot of time exploring ideas. Companies are always looking for new ideas, too. That's because every product starts as an idea. Someone may suggest an idea or invent something to solve a particular problem. Many companies have special research and development (R and D) departments. The people who work in R and D look for new ideas, find then they develop them into products. Of course, not every idea works. Only one out of every five ideas actually works.

Research helps us gather information. There are two kinds of research - basic research and applied research. Basic research is gathering information that helps us understand things about the world around us. Sometimes the information cannot be used right away. For example, people learned how to make a laser in the 1960s, but they did not know what to do with it. Today we use lasers for many things, from supermarket pricing to surgery.

Applied research is the kind of research done to solve a particular problem. The information can be used right away. For example, people wanted to make computers smaller and more portable. To do that they needed to put more components (parts) in a smaller space.

The microchip (a tiny silicon chip containing thousands of electronic circuits) was invented to solve this problem.

Basic and applied researches use the same two methods to get information - retrieving and experimenting. Retrieving is gathering already - known information from sources such as books, people, and computers. The information is part of the knowledge base. Using this kind of information saves time because you do not have to start from scratch every time.

б) Дайте відповіді на запитання до тексту:

1. What do R and D departments deal with?

2. What do we mean by research?

3. What kinds of research do you know?

4. What is the difference between basic and applied research?

5. What methods are used to do research?

в) Дайте назву тексту.

Завдання 14. Зробіть письмовий переклад Тексту 5Б.

Текст 5Б The Scientific Method

The process of scientific problem solving is called the scientific method. The scientific method was developed by the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and the English philosopher Francis Bacon (1561-1626). This method is used as a general rule and is not strictly followed in its purest form. The five steps of the scientific method are:

1. Recognize the problem.

2. Form a hypothesis (an educated guess) about the correct answer.

3. Make a prediction.

4. Experiment to test your prediction.

5. Make a general rule that will apply, or organize the hypothesis,

prediction, and results of your experiment.

Scientists and technologists face the same traps in trying to solve problems. Everyone has a set of ideas about how the world works. These ideas often block new ideas or restrict our thinking to one path. Scientists must keep an open mind about their investigations; this is important because their results have to be based on scientific facts. Scientists can't let their results be changed by what they think the results should be. Another important reason for keeping an open mind is that many scientific discoveries happen by accident!

All scientists have a few very important things in common. They have investigating minds, they are willing to perform experiments carefully, and they don't let themselves be influenced by anything but proven facts. Their experiments have to be done so that if someone else performs the exact same experiment, he or she will get the same results.

Завдання 15.

а) Прочитайте та перекладіть поданий нижче абзац.

An acronym is a word formed from the initial letters of the words in a phrase. The acronym SEARCH uses the main problem solving steps and adds a few extras. It was developed by a group of students to help them remember the problem - solving steps.

б) Вставте одне із запропонованих слів (одне з них використовується декілька разів) у кожний пропуск:

real-life, to test, information, ideas, problem, idea.

State the in your own words.

Explore all  and  possible.

Appply the best and it. If it doesn't work.

Retry the or

Change your  and  it.

Hook what you have learned to - problems.

Завдання 16. Підберіть слова та словосполучення, які назива¬ють можливі для вас джерела інформації:

а)

 

 

б)

Завдання 17. Складіть уточнений перелік кроків-операцій вирішення проблеми, використовуючи тексти та схеми із Завдань 8, 11, 14, 15.

Завдання 18. Перекладіть англійською мовою подані нижче речення:

1. Техніка завжди відігравала значну роль у нашому житті.

2. Уміння працювати в невеликих групах - це майстерність.

3. Вирішення будь-якої проблеми має бути ретельно спланова¬

ним процесом.

4. Велика кількість людей відмовляюється вирішувати пробле¬

ми, не знаючи, як це правильно зробити.

5. Існує науковий підхід до вирішення проблем.

6. Визначення проблеми називається твердженням.

7. Параметри - це специфічні вимоги до вирішення проблеми.

8. До параметрів ми відносимо: час, гроші та матеріал, який

використовуємо.

9. Ми завжди повинні бути впевнені в інформації, яку викори¬

стовуємо для вирішення проблеми.

10. Треба об'єктивно оцінити зібрану інформацію та результати перевірки запропонованих ідей раніше, ніж дійти висновку.

Завдання 19. Як ви розумієте висловлення антрополога Макса Глюкмана, що наука — це «any discipline in which a fool of this generation can go beyond the point reached by the genius of the last generation?»

 

 

 

Завдання 1. Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче слова, ґрунтуючись на їх подібності до слів рідної мови:

stereo, automobile, battery, machine, fact, rocket, operation, system,

combination, process, instruction, fund, result, graphics, mechanical!

conditioner, radiator, radio, pump, shock, antifreeze, fan, to absorb!

hydraulic, thermal, chemical, complex, to fix.

Завдання 2. Уважно прочитайте та залам'ятатйте подані нижче слова та їх переклад:

to expect

очікувати

ожидать

perfect

досконалий

совершенный

to break

руйнувати

разрушать

to frustrate

розстроювати

ломать,расстраивать

rather than

замість того щоб

вместо того чтобы

whole

увесь

весь

common

загальний, звичайний

обычный, общий

to find

знаходити

находить

careful

дбайливий, обережний

осторожный,тщательный

latch

засув

щеколда

even

навіть

даже

to order

замовляти

заказывать

to complete

закінчувати,завершувати

заканчивать,завершать

to check

перевіряти

проверять

to steer

керувати кермом

управлять рулем

meal

їжа, приймання їжі

еда, приём пищи

to gather

збирати

собирать

although

хоча

хотя

fluid

рідина

жидкость

smooth

гладкий

гладкий

safe

безпечний

безопасный

chain

ланцюг

цепь

belt

ремінь

ремень

pulley

шків

шкив

gear

пристрій

приспособление

heat

теплота

теплота

brakes

гальма

тормоза

ignition

запалювання

зажигание

to fix

встановлювати

крепить, устанавливать

 

 

Завдання 3. Проаналізуйте подані нижче слова щодо їх форми, значення, належності до певної частини мови та перекладіть їх рідною мовою:

scientist, input, output, feedback, to press, to process, thermal, chemical, complex, fan, to absorb, hydraulic, a press, a process, a processor, to order, an order, to frustrate, frustrated, frustration, hydraulics, chemistry.

Завдання 4. Прочитайте подані нижче словосполучення. По¬дайте їх еквіваленти рідною мовою:

millions of people, to have no idea about something, what to do about it, a dead battery, technology - related devices, the fact is, a rocket scientist, complicated machines can be broken down into smaller systems, to work as a whole, this fits every system, a general model, a system model, computer system, final results, a fast food restaurant, to place an order, energy system, a complete product, in combination, a complex machine, door latch, fan belt, water pump, shock absorber, hydraulic brakes, air conditioner, a complicated system, to fix a problem.

Завдання 5. Поставте дієслова в дужках у потрібну часову фор¬му активного чи пасивного стану:

1. The first Industrial Revolution (to take place) between the years 1760 and 1860.

2. New sources of power, new processes, new materials (to come)

into use with such bewildering speed in the present century

that it is hard to keep track of them all.

3. The first industrial revolution (to give) us machines to do the

work that used to have been done by men's hands.

4. The second industrial revolution (to produce) machines that

can do the work of men's brains.

5. The new forms of power (to use) in new engines: the electric

motor, the petrol engine, the diesel engine and the steam turbine.

6. In fact nearly all the electricity which (not to produce) by water

(to produce) by steam turbines, even when the steam (to make)

by atomic energy.

7. The first revolution (to bring about) by the inventions of

engineers. The second (to rely) heavily on the scientists.

Завдання 6.  Перекладіть подані нижче речення, звертаючи ува¬гу на використання неособових форм дієслова, пасивного стану та ступенів порівняння прикметників та прислівників:

1. People see some of the changes introduced by technology as being

good and some as being bad._

2. Some people just don't like any change at all. But one thing is

for sure: change keeps happening.

3. Your job is to constantly evaluate how technology can be used

with the most benefits to people and the environment.

4. Thousands of people work in the communications industry to

bring you up - to date information or entertainment.

5. Most of us watch television every day. But do you ever stop to

think about how the TV show is made or how it gets to your

home?

6. Technology is a combination of knowledge, ideas, and resources

put to work for us.

7. Most of the products of technology such as lasers, robots, and

satellites were invented to meet the needs of people.

8. It is easier to solve problems that involve technology if you have

a problem - solving strategy and if you work with others to

find the best solution.

9. Creative thinking is important when you are developing new

technologies and evaluating their uses.

10. Doctors use technology to save the lives of sick or injured people.

11. Research is also done by experimenting to find out how things

work.

12. Most inventions are just other inventions used in a different way.

13. The microchip makes everyday items: digital watches,calculators,

and computers, smaller and less expensive.

14. A research and development team worked together to make the

first carbon - dioxide laser in 1966. Since that time, many new

lasers have been found.

15. People working in research and development departments are

always looking for new ideas.

16. Getting across wide rivers has always been a problem to solve.

17. The problem of producing products quickly in a hazardous

(dangerous) workplace is often solved by using a robot.

18. Producing TV shows that inform, educate, and entertain people

is a problem.

19. Using a problem - solving strategy is helping students to find

a solution by exploring many different ideas.

20. We depend on technology to make our lives more comfortable.

21. Most people think that technology is related only to science and

math. While this connection is easy to see, technology is just as

much a part of social studies and other subjects.

22. Technology and science are closely tied together, but they are

different.

23. Science usually gives you the theories (ideas about how nature

works), while technology lets you use your knowledge and

resources to solve different problems.

24. Everything in our world is made up of atoms and combinations

of atoms called molecules.

25.Technology is sometimes divided into job-related groups called

career clusters. Four common career clusters are: communication,

construction, manufacturing, and transportation.

26. Technology lets you use many different ways to communicate

with others.

27. Math is often used to solve problems related to technology.

28. Future technologies are being developed according to the

products we want and think will benefit us most.

29. Careers involving technology are exciting and offer you new

challenges.

30. Computers are valuable tools used to help solve problems in

technology and to run our world.

31. Today, researchers use very fast computers to help design our

future.

Завдання 7.

Уважно вивчіть схеми 1-3 і таблиці 1-2 щодо формування, використання та значення зворотів з інфінітивом. Проаналізуйте

та перекладіть подані речення, які містять ці звороти.

Перекладається підрядним реченням, причому іменник чи займенник цього звороту стає підметом підрядного речення, а інфінітив - дієсло-вом-присудком (в особовій формі).

Не explained the scheme once more for us to understand it better. Він пояснив схему ще раз, щоб ми краще її зрозуміли. Fora wire to be a good conductor it has to be made of low resistance metal. Для того щоб провід був непоганим провідником, він повинен бути ви¬готовлений з металу, що має невеликий опір.

Схема 3. Інфінітивний зворот «For 4- іменник (займенник) +

+ інфінітив»

1. The ancients thought electricity to be invisible fluid.

2. We consider nuclear energy to be the prime source of heat energy.

3. The early discoveries in nuclear science showed the atomic nucleus

to be a vast source of energy.

4. What makes a satellite go around the Earth and stay in its orbit?

5. The air flowing over and under a wing causes the pressure to be

less than atmospheric on the upper side of the wing.

6. The Sun is known to have a 11-year cycle of activity.

7. The first Earth's satellites were expected to stay on their orbits

for a month or two.

8. Heat was thought to be a material substance.

9. The circle where the earth and the sky seem to meet is the horizon.

  1.  Stars appear to be made of the elements that have been found in

our Sun.

11. The neutron was shown to be a magnet by simple experiments.

12. The rocket may be said to work on the reaction principle.

13. 8 minutes are required for light to travel from the Sun to the

Earth.

14. For ions to be formed, a considerable amount of energy must be

given to the parent atoms.

15.Certain conditions are necessary for the existence of life to be

possible on planets.

16. In order for a proton or neutron to leave the nucleus much

energy is required.

17. Four years are required for light to travel from the nearest star

to the Earth.

Завдання 8. Перекладіть рідною мовою подані нижче речення:

l.His being invited to take part in this conference is natural as

everybody knows of his having made interesting experiments

in physics.

2.I remember having seen this film.

3. The new device was put into mass production on having been

carefully tested.

4. The engineer having constructed a new type of this device was

not known to us.

5. The workers succeeded in completing the construction of the

plant in time because of their having introduced new methods

of work.

6. Having received the necessary equipment we finished our

experiment.

7. Having determined amperes and volts one can find the resistance

by using Ohm's law.

8. Having been tested on the stand the engine was put into operation.

9. Travelling into space has always been one of the greatest dreams

of man.

10. For ages mankind has dreamed of reaching the top of the world,

the North Pole.

11. After studying theory we can begin experimenting.

12. Before finishing the experiment we could not write the report.

13. An instrument for measuring current is called an ammeter, and

for measuring voltage г. voltmeter.

14. Think before speaking.

15. The engineers invited to our plant are well-known specialists.

16. The lecture followed by an experiment was interesting.

17. Having solved this important problem, the scientist made a report.

18. He likes reading such kinds of books.

19. After finishing the experiments the students left the laboratory.

20.1 succeeded in having finished my work in time.

21. The problems being discussed at this conference are of great importance for the development of chemistry.

22. The metals being used in our work possess many important

properties.

23. Technical and scientific problems being solved by our scientists

are of great importance for the development of world science

and technology.

24. Being heated to the proper temperature the metal will melt.

25. He is sorry to have been given so little time for this important

work.

26. We are happy to have been included in the research group.

27. Our engineer has used the recommended method.

28. The report followed by the discussion showed the importance of

this problem.

29. The amount of the heat produced depended upon the quality of

the fuel used.

30. The two problems of the fuel used were widely discussed at the

conference.

31. If dropped directly above the target the bomb will never damage it.

32. When asked he did not answer.

33. To know everything is to know nothing.

34. The machine was to be tested in our laboratory.

35. The machine to be tested in our laboratory was constructed by

our students.

36. The main task of Faraday's work was to find out the nature of

electricity and magnetism.

37. The power station to be built on this river is to supply the town

with electric energy.

38. To achieve better results we must repeat the experiment.

39. The proton is found to be 1840 times heavier than the electron.

40. Billions of stars are assumed to exist in the universe.

41. The electric rocket is likely to remain a low-thrust device.

42. Nearly a month is required for the Moon to circle the Earth.

43. To observe the artificial satellite optically it is necessary for

him to be illuminated by the Sun.

Завдання 9. Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся якомога точніше зро¬зуміти і запам'ятати його зміст.

Текст 6 What Is a System?

Many people don't know how the machines they commonly use work. Stereos, televisions, automobiles, and bicycles are examples of machines used by millions of people every day. We expect them to work perfectly. If they break, we often have no idea about what could be wrong or what to do about it. Something as simple as a dead battery can often make us frustrated with technology-related devices. Rather than try to learn something about how a machine works, some people say, «Well, I'm just not good with machines.»

The fact is, you don't have to be a rocket scientist to understand the basic operation of machines and devices. Even the most complicated machines can be broken down into smaller systems. A system is a combination of parts that work together as a whole.

To make it easy for you, there is a general model that fits almost every system. The system model has only four parts: input, process, output, and feedback. Inputs are things that go into a system. It's easy to remember because you are putting things in. For example, in a computer system, you press keys to put instructions into the computer. The next step is to process the input instructions. In a computer system, the instructions are processed by the CPU. The process is what is done with your inputs. The final results of the process are called the output. Again, it's easy for you to remember this part because it is what comes out of the process. In our computer example, the output might be sound or graphics. If the system is working right, the output will be what you wanted from your input. Feedback is information about the output. It can be used to change the output so the result is what you want.The problem-solving strategy introduced in Text 4 is really just a system. You solve problems systematically. Systematically means simply that you are using a system. Even eating at a fast-food restaurant is systematic. For example, first you wait in line. Then you place your order, which is the input. Your order is processed by the workers. The output is your meal. Hopefully, it is what you ordered! If not, you might send it back. That's feedback!

 

The process of solving a problem is similar to the general system model.

Though there are many different kinds of systems, in technology you often use five basic energy systems to make a complete product. The energy systems are mechanical systems, electrical systems, fluid systems, thermal systems, and chemical systems. The five basic sys¬tems can be used independently or in combination to make something work.

Almost any machine has one or more of these systems that make it work. A car, for example, is a complex machine made up of all five systems. Here are some examples of how the five systems work together to make your car run:

- mechanical: door latches, fan belts, pulleys, gears;

- fluid: water pump, shock absorbers, hydraulic brakes;

- electrical: battery, lights, radio, ignition;

- thermal: radiator, air conditioner, heater;

- chemical: fuel, battery fluid, antifreeze.

These systems work independently and together to make a car run smoothly and safely. When a car isn't working right, the problem is found by carefully checking each system.

Engineers, designers, technicians, and architects must know how all five systems work alone and how they work together. People who understand technology can break these complicated systems down even further into smaller systems called subsystems. Subsystems make it even easier to understand how things work. For example, a bicycle is made mostly of parts in a mechanical system. You can divide that mechanical system into subsystems such as brakes, steering, chains, gears, and so on. If you understand how each bicycle subsystem works, it is easier to find and fix a problem.

Завдання 10. Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 6 речення.

Завдання 11. Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповіда-ють змісту тексту:

1. The system model has only three parts: the input, process, and

feedback.

2. Every day a lot of people use the stereos, televisions, automobiles

and others things, which incorporate different kinds of systems.

3. If you want to understand the basic operation of machines and

devices you have to be an expert in this field.

4. A system is a combination of parts that work together as a whole.

5. The output is information about the input.

6. In technology, there are many different kinds of systems, but

four of them are basic energy systems to make a complete product.

7. A car is a complex machine, and all the basic systems work

together to make it run.

8. Engineers, designers and technicians do not have to know all the

systems and how they function alone or all together.

9. The process of solving a problem might serve as an example of

a general system model.

10. Complex systems can be broken down into subsystems.

Завдання 12. Дайте відповіді на запитання до тексту:

1. How many parts does the system model have?

2. What are these parts?

3. What do we call the things that go into a system?

4. What do we call the step that follows putting things in?

5. How do we call the information about the output?

6. How can we use feedback information?

7. What is given in the text as an example of a system model?

8. How many basic systems do you know?

9. What systems work together to make a car run?

10. Do you think all engineers should know how the five systems work alone and together?

Завдання 13. Розташуйте подані нижче речення в потрібній по-слідовності:

1. The result of the action is the output.

2. Something must be put in,

3. Feedback provides information about the results.

4. The general model of a system is simple to understand,

5. Then some action is taken.

6. A system is a combination of parts that work together as a whole.

7. This information can be used to change the output if it is not

wThat you want.

8. There is a general model that fits almost every system.

Завдання 14. Перекладіть англійською мовою подані нижче речення, використовуючи вивчену раніше лексику та граматич-ні конструкції:

1. Багато різноманітних приладів використовується кожним

із нас у повсякденному житті.

2. Кожен з цих приладів є системою.

3. Існує загальна модель, яку ми використовуємо, щоб описати

систему.

4. Щоб ввести інформацію в комп'ютер, ви натискаєте клавішу

5. Введена інформація обробляється спеціальним пристроєм

6. Використовуючи екран монітора, ви одержуєте результат об¬

робки введеної інформації.

7. Працювати в групі більш цікаво, ніж самому.

8. Використовуючи ідеї кожного члена групи, ми маємо більпгЄ

шансів знайти кращу ідею.

9. З'ясувавши всі плюси та мінуси запропонованих ідей, ми

знаходимо потрібне рішення.

10. Щоб бути творчою людиною, вам потрібно розвивати свою уяву.

Завдання 15. Наведіть приклади різних систем, використовуй), чи схему:

 

Завдання 16.

а) Уважно прочитайте поданий нижче текст, намагаючись яко-, мога точніше зрозуміти його зміст.

Текст 6А

Problems are often easier to solve with the help of other people. Knowing how to work in a group is an important skill that will help you in school and later in a job. The old saying «Two heads are better than one» is really true. When you are working to solve a problem you need as many different ideas as possible. Having people with different experiences and backgrounds in your group gives you more information to explore. As you move through the problem - solving strategy, you can put each person's talents to good use. Some of us are better at tossing out new ideas. Others are better at putting ideas into action. You will have a chance to do both as part of a group.

Many people judge an idea as soon as they hear it. Many good ideas are lost because someone puts the idea down before it has a chance to be discussed. When you brainstorm ideas, you list as many ideas as possible without people saying anything good or bad about any of them. Everyone in the group has a chance to contribute to the idea bank. From that idea bank your group selects the best idea. The ability to work both independently and as part of a group is important to you in solving problems.

Sometimes people make excuses for not doing things by saying «I'm just not creative». But everyone can be creative. You just have to learn how. First, to be a creative thinker you need to use facts, feelings, experiences, knowledge, and some basic concepts.

You're much more likely to find something original if you try different things in different ways. Many good ideas were discovered when someone looked in unusual places, found some ideas, and then applied the ideas to their own field. For example, military designers in World War I borrowed from the style used by Pablo Picasso, a famous artist, to make more effective camouflage patterns for guns and tanks. In another case, an «unbreakable code» used by World War II military leaders was based on the Navajo language.

You might have to break your usual rules for thinking or create some new ones when trying to make an idea work. You need to ask «what if» questions. By doing this, you allow yourself to question the possible, the impractical, and even the impossible. For example, what if there were a pill that would make anyone smarter? Who would take it? How many would you have to take to be really smart? Would you want everyone to have the same degree of «smartness»?

To improve your creativity even more, take a closer look at things you usually take for granted. For example, who says a wheel has to be round? Part of being creative is changing patterns, looking at things differently, and experimenting.

б) За допомогою словника перекладіть виділені слова, слово¬

сполучення та частини речень.

в) Розбийте текст на смислові фрагменти та коротко визначте

їх зміст.

г) Виберіть з тексту якомога більше дієслів та словосполучень

з дієсловами, які стосуються теми „Problem-solving strategy".

д) Дайте письмовий переклад трьох останніх абзаців тексту.

є) Знайдіть у тексті речення, в яких є неособові форми дієслова.

Який відсоток від кількості речень тексту становлять ці ре-чення? Перекладіть їх рідною мовою.

ж) Дайте свої відповіді на запитання „what if" з п'ятого абзацу тексту.

КОНТРОЛЬНІ ЗАВДАННЯ ДО УРОКІВ 5-6

Завдання 1. Перекладіть рідною мовою:

a) to expect, to break, to choose, to guess, to investigate, to prove, to

process, to check, to gather, to fix, to explore, to give up, to predict,

to restrict.

b) definition, requirement, output, input, feedback, amount, source,

circuit, accident, trap, key.

c) whole, even, common, exact, particular, pure, strict, willing.

Завдання 2.

а) Складіть якомога більше словосполучень з поданими нижче

словами:

design, mistakes, statement, development, research, problem, input, cycle, engineer, system, rocket, data, model, scientist, modem, strategy, definition, information, achievements, sources, solution, output, correction, age, necessity, computer, services, science, identification, production.

research strategies development; design information sources;

б) Проаналізуйте та перекладіть подані нижче словосполучення,

які складаються з трьох іменників, за такою схемою:

 

 

information analysis stage; problem input cycle; information mistake analysis; design strategy definition; research data analysis.

Завдання 3. Перекладіть подані нижче речення рідною мовою:

1. Always use the guards on each machine. Keep hands and fingers

away from all moving parts.

2. Technology is growing at an exponential rate. It is doubling

every few years. To make it even faster, the time it takes to

double is getting even shorter.

3. Three - dimensional graphs can make it easier to understand

information.

4. Solar panels help to solve the problem of using fossil fuels like

gasoline.

5. The energy produced by the sun can charge batteries to power

electric vehicles.

6. Saving our world is a problem we all need to work on.

7. Solar - powered vehicles can help to save our environment.

8. The steps of the problem-solving strategy can be used to help

you solve problems by learning from past experiences and

mistakes.

9. This knowledge can then be used to change or improve technology

that already exists.

10. You are not forced to "re-invent the wheel" each time you want

to begin a project.

11. Only a few hundred of the thousands of human - made objects

in space today are considered wTorking spacecraft.

12. Liquid crystal battery testers change color to show if the battery

is strong or weak.

13. About a century ago skyscraper construction was made possible

through the use of steel framing.

14. The world's tallest self-supporting structure of any kind,

anywhere, is a TV and radio transmission tower in Toronto,

Ontario, Canada.

15. Asking "what-if" questions helps open your mind.

16. Now anyone can use calculators without special training, and

anyone can afford to buy one.

17. Some technologies have changed to better meet our needs.

18. It is easy to see how the speed of technology has increased when

you chart it on a type of graph called a timeline.

19. Being able to communicate with others is a very important skill

that you work with in all your subjects.

20. You also must know how to enter the information correctly

into the calculator or computer.

21. The fast food industry has used technology to help make food as

efficiently as possible.

22. Every fast-food restaurant must try to keep costs down to be

competitive.

23. It is important to exercise both your muscles and your brain.

24. The study area should include a place to write, a light, and a place

for a computer.

25. One of the most important abilities for you to develop is being

adaptable.

26. Being adaptable means you can change your work skills without

difficulty.

27. You learn the main skills needed to do a specific job as you are

doing the job.

28. The special chocolate bars are supposed to hold their shape at

temperatures of up to 140 F.

29. Tying all the subjects that are learned in school together makes

learning fun for students.

30. Part of your job as a member of society is to evaluate technology's

effects on you and on your environment.

31. Geographic Information System can be used to predict and to

visualize millions of pieces of information that would otherwise

be impossible to understand.

32. Silicon,the best ingredient for making computer chips today,also

turns out to be a great material for making mechanical parts.

33. Researchers can build micromachines using the technology

developed to make computer chips.

34. Micromachines are being used today to monitor automobile

brakes.

Завдання 4. Прочитайте поданий нижче текст, намагаючись якомога точніше зрозуміти його зміст.

Текст 7А

You live in an information age. You've already learned how fast the knowledge base is growing. You also know it is impossible for any one person to know everything. An educated person isn't necessarily someone who knows everything. An educated person knows where to find the information he or she needs!

 

A computer can be used to access (find) information on many topics. You can access information in several ways. Personal computers can be interfaced, or attached to, a CD-ROM (compact disk-read only memory) drive. An entire electronic encyclopedia, for example, can be accessed through a compact disk (CD). A compact disk can hold 1,300 times as much information as a floppy disk. Besides that, it accesses information in a matter of seconds. If you needed information on crash testing of cars, by the time you pulled the encyclopedia from the shelf, the computer would have that information for you. In addition, the computer lists cross-references that allow you to tie the information with other subjects. Sometimes not all the information is available on CDs but many electronic encylopedias also include a bibliography (list of resources) so you can explore further.

Another way to access information from the outside world is by hooking the computer to a modem and a telephone line. A modem is an electronic device that lets computers share information. Attaching a modem to your computer lets you communicate with any other computer that has a modem. Modem is another acronym. It stands for modulator- demodulator.

Two computers can communicate with each other only if one computer can decode (understand) the information received from the other computer. When you receive a file over a modem it is called downloading. When you send a file over the modem to another computer it is called uploading. Communications software on each computer sets up a protocol (special settings) to allow information transfer. One important protocol is how fast information is sent on the telephone line. This is called the baud rate. Most common modems operate from 1,200 to 9,600 baud. The faster the baud rate, the less time you have to spend using the telephone line. The baud rate is important because if you're communicating long-distance the cost can increase quickly!

Using your computer and modem, you can access information stored in huge mainframe computers. Information services are companies that sell information to you. Did you ever think about paying for information like you would for another product such as a hamburger? A rapidly growing use of computers is for accessing information. Whenever a topic needs to be researched, an information service can save valuable time. It gives you bibliographies and abstracts (brief summaries) of articles in magazines as well as books. Abstracts let you see whether that resource will be useful to you.

Завдання 5. Перекладіть подані нижче слова та словосполучен¬ня з Тексту 7А:

a) knowledge base, information age, compact disc drive, crash testing,

telephone line, communications software, information transfer,

mainframe computers, information services, cross references;

b) to access information,  to interface a computer,  to tie the

information with other subjects, to hook the computer to a modem,

to share information, to decode information, to receive information,

to communicate long-distance, to store information, to save time;

c) ROM (read only memory), CD (compact disc), bibliography, modem,

downloading, uploading, baud rate, abstract.

Завдання 6.  Дайте відповіді на запитання до Тексту 7:

1. Should an educated person know everything? What is important

for an educated person?

2. In what way can a personal computer be used to access

information?

3. Why is bibliography important?

4. What do we call "an abstract"?

5. What do we use a modem for?

6. How can you explain the terms "downloading", "uploading", "baud

rate"?

7. What is the baud rate of modern modems?

Завдання 7. Прочитайте вголос Текст 7 та перекладіть його рідною мовою.

Завдання 8. Прочитайте та письмово перекладіть рідною мовою поданий нижче текст.

Текст 7Б

Einstein believed that «The whole of science is nothing more than an improvement of everyday thinking». The way this improvement has been achieved has been through the discovery and perfection of the experimental method - possibly the greatest contribution science has made to human progress. Indeed, several writers considered that science is no more than this method - the scientific method as it is sometimes called. Karl Pearson, the founder of the twentieth century science of statistics, thought that «the unity of all science consists alone in its method, not in its material». This method is good for all the sciences and the technologies also, and is of course widely applied in other disciplines.

 

The first step a scientist (or technologist) takes towards solving a problem is to collect all the information that may relate to the question: this is the observation stage. He then formulates a theory as to how such facts are to be interpreted: this is the hypothesis stage. He then designs and makes a series of controlled tests to try to confirm his working hypothesis: this is the experimental stage. If results of the experiments prove his theory correct he formulates his answer to the problem: this is the conclusion stage. Of course, it often happens that the working hypothesis does not stand up under experiment. Т.Н. Huxley called this «the great tragedy of science". When this occurs the scientist must go back as often as necessary until he achieves a hypothesis that not only explains all the observed facts but can be confirmed by controlled experiment. This is the classic inductive theory of scientific method «still taught to every generation of students».

Завдання 9. Складіть 7 запитань до Тексту 7Б. Завдання 10. Дайте свій варіант назви до Тексту 7Б.

Завдання 11. Перекладіть англійською мовою, використовуючи відому вам лексику та граматичні структури:

1. Комп'ютери - важливий інструмент для вирішення техніч¬

них проблем.

2. Комп'ютери часто використовуються для пошуку та органі¬

зації інформації, проведення розрахунків, письма, малювання

та розв'язання інших завдань.

3. Перші комп'ютери були більш громіздкими й дорогими, ніж

сучасні.

4. Закодована інформація, що керує комп'ютером, має назву «про¬

грамне забезпечення».

5. Іноді комп'ютери використовуються як потужні електронні

друкарські машинки.

6. Спеціальні комп'ютерні програми використовуються, щоб

проектувати нові технічні пристрої.

7. Використовуючи комп'ютерну графіку, ми можемо створю¬

вати сучасну рекламну продукцію.

8. Майбутні комп'ютери будуть більш швидкодіючими та менш

дорогими.

9. Для того щоб працювати з текстовою інформацією, ми вико¬

ристовуємо спеціально розроблений текстовий процесор.

10. Використання автоматичного проектування - одна з найне-обхідніших умов розвитку виробництва сьогодні.

Завдання 12. Як ви розумієте вислів: „Science is built of facts, the way a house is built of bricks; but an accumulation of facts is no more a science than a pile of bricks is a house" (J. H. Poincare).

Завдання 13. Підготуйте невелике письмове оповідання (200-250 слів), яке б розкривало зміст висловлення: „Science would not be science without communication."

Урок 8

Завдання І. Уважно прочитайте та запам'ятайте подані нижче слова та їх переклад:

to include

включати

включать

to hire

наймати

нанимать

raw

необроблений

необработанный

just as

так само, як

точно так, как

proper

відповідний

соответствующий

since

з того часу як

с тех пор как

to rely on

покладатися на

полагаться на

fuel

паливо

топливо

fossil

копалина

ископаемое

to remain

залишатися

оставаться

coal

вугілля

уголь

timber

лісоматеріали

лесоматериалы

once

якщо вже

если уж

supply

постачання

снабжение

to borrow

запозичати

заимствовать

loan

позика

заём

to bend

згинатися, гнутися

сгибаться, гнуться

to charge

доручати; заряджати

поручать; заряжать

profit

користь, прибуток

польза, выгода

bill

рахунок

счет

to waste

витрачати даремно

тратить зря

appropriate

придатний,

соответствующий,

відповідний

подходящий

 

 

 

to pollute

забруднювати

загрязнять

claim

вимога

требование (от)

to dispose (of)

позбавлятися (чогось)

избавляться

garbage

сміття

мусор, отбросы

to bury

Ховати, закопувати

прятать, закапывать

to burn

спалювати

сжигать

to dump

скидати

сбрасывать

 

Завдання 2. Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче слова, ґрун¬туючись на їх подібності до слів рідної мови:

resources, production, material, contact, natural, training, intelligence, mineral, vegetation, oil, gas, energy, transport, factor! cycle.

Завдання 3. Прочитайте подані нижче словосполучення. Дайте їх еквіваленти рідною мовою:

resource list, to meet the needs, raw materials, people skilled in a particular field, proper training and education, complex machines, remains of dead vegetation and animals, natural gas, the world's supply of oil, to last forever, solar energy, interest on the loan, food container, packaging materials.

Завдання 4. Використовуючи значення відомих вам слів та пра¬вила словотворення, перекладіть подані нижче групи слів. Визначте, до якої частини мови кожне з них належить (майте на увазі, що іноді різні частини мови, дві чи три, збігаються за формою):

product - produce - producer - production

train - retrain - training

intellect ~ intellectual - intelligent - intelligence - intelligent

transport - transport - transportation

hot - heat(l,2) - heating

light (1,2,3) -lightening

place (1,2) - replace - placement

nucleus - nuclear

lend - lender

ever - forever

thermal - geothermal

safe (1,2) - safely

pollute - pollution - polluted - pollutant

round - around - surround

 

Завдання 5.

а) Уважно вивчіть таблицю вживання модальних дієслів:

МОДАЛЬНІ ДІЄСЛОВА

ЗНАЧЕННЯ

Час

ТЕПЕРІШНІЙ/

МАЙБУТНІЙ

МИНУЛИЙ

may

(1) ввічливе прохання

(2) формальний

дозвіл

(3) менш ніж 50%

ймовірності

May I borrow your

pen?

You may leave the

room.

-Where's John?

- He may be at the

library.

-

-

He may have been at the library.

can

(1) наявність чи

відсутність вміння/

можливості

(2) неформальний

дозвіл

(3) неформальне

ввічливе прохання

(4) неможливість

(тільки негативне)

I can run fast.

You can use my car.

Can I borrow your

pen?

That can't be true!

I could run fast

when I was a child,

but now I can't.

That can't have

been true!

could

(1) вміння в минулому

(2) ввічливе прохання

(3) припущення

(4) менш ніж 50%

ймовірності

(5) неможливість

(тільки заперечення)

Could I borrow your

pen?

Could you help me?

-1 need help in math.

- You could talk to

your teacher.

-Where's John?

- He could be at

home.

That couldn't be true!

I could run fast

when I was a child.

_

You could have

talked to your

teacher.

He could have

been at home.

That couldn't have

been true!

be able to

(1) уміння, здібність

I am able to help you.

I wiil be able to help

you.

I was able to help

him.

must

(1) велика

необхідність

(2)заборона

(негативне)

(3) 95% ймовірності

I must go to class

today.

You must not open

that door.

Mary isn't in class.

She must be sick.

(present only)

I had to go to class

yesterday.

Mary must have

been sick

yesterday.

have to

  1.  необхідність
  2.   відсутність необхідності (негативне)

I don't have to go to class today. І have to go to class today.

І had to go to class today.

I didn't have to go to class yesterday.

be to

(1)висока ймовірність, домовленість

You are to be here at 9:00.

You were to be here at 9:00.

shall

(1) ввічливий спосіб запропонувати якусь дію

Shall I open the window?

б) Перекладіть подані нижче речення та прокоментуйте значен¬ня модальних дієслів:

І

1. Practice can do a lot of good.

2. You cannot see atoms even with a powerful microscope.

3. You could not see him yesterday.

4. He cannot make such a serious mistake.

5. You can become an expert in the field only if you work seriously

and creatively, and try to advance a little bit every day.

6. May I come in?

7. You may use my dictionary.

8. We may discuss the problem at the meeting.

9. May I have a smoke in this room?

10. You must have all the necessary books at the lesson.

11. One and all, we must devotedly work for the good of our country.

12. We badly needed the dictionary.

13. He does not need your book any longer.

14. Every student should read this article.

15. He should help his friend.

16. You should not do such things in future.

17. You should know this material perfectly well.

18.I do not need your book any longer.

19.He will need your advice.

20.The students must work better to pass their examinations well.

II

1. You are to read this paper before the conference.

2. He is to make a report at the conference.

3. She is to come here at five o'clock.

4. As I was to be at the Academy at 9 sharp I had to take a taxi.

5. Will you have to get up early tomorrow?

6. No, I did not have to come to the Academy early.

7. Devices in the rocket have to operate under very difficult

conditions.

8. At the speed of seven miles per second the rocket will have to

travel over a million years to reach Sirius, one of the nearest

stars.

9. The rocket is able to travel in a vacuum even better than it can

through the air.

10.She is able to do this.

11.In some years we shall be able to solve this problem.

III

1. He must have translated that article yesterday.

2. They must have forgotten all about it.

3.The discussion must have been very interesting. It's a pity I could not stay.

4. The students may have translated these articles last month.

5. They may have returned home already.

6. My friend may have left two days ago.

7. They could have taken their exam in English yesterday.

8. She could have arrived some days ago.

9. He might have left his book in some other place.

10. She might have come if you had asked her.

11.1 should have done it before.

12.You should have translated those articles long ago.

13.You could have informed me in time.

14.The moving parts of the machine must have been lubricated not

to damage the machine at work.

15.A specially designed computer should have been used in the

equipment of the meteo probe.

16.You might have known that to stop the flow of electricity you

have to use a switch.

17.The article should have been translated long ago, where is the

translation?

IV

1. We can't always predict accurately how a change will affect us or our world. We can only be sure that everything changes eventually.

2. Advances in technology can have a great impact on the world if

they are made available to all people.

3. If medical equipment and people could be put in an airplane,

people all over the world might be helped.

4. If you wanted to design a bycicle, for example, you would not

have to invent the wheel. But you might just want to change the

shape of the wheel.

5. New knowledge can then be used to change or improve technology

that already exists.

6. The saying «you don't have to reinvent the wheel» means that

you do not have to start from the beginning to solve a problem.

7. You will see that even though you don't have to reinvent the

wheel, that doesn't mean you shouldn't try.

8. Researchers might try many ideas until the problem is solved.

9. The energy produced by the sun can charge batteries to powrer

electric vehicles.

10.Computers can be used to make 3-D graphics colourful and

interesting.

11.Life science and technology can be combined to produce food in

a fish farm.

12.Being able to communicate with others is a very important skill

that you work with in all your subjects.

13.In all your courses you need to be able to let your teachers and

others know what your ideas are.

14.Using calculators you have to know what math operations

(addition, substraction, multiplication, and division) to use in

solving a problem. You must also know how to enter the

information correctly into the calculator or computer.

15.Every fast-food restaurant must try to keep costs down to be

competitive.

16.As business manager you will have to solve a lot of problems.

Завдання 6.  Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся якомога точніше зро¬зуміти і запам'ятати його зміст.

Текст 8 Where Do We Get Resources?

Before you can make anything you will need resources. Resources can be anything that is used in the production of a product. What are some of the resources you can use, and where do you find them? Your resource list might include:

People: Technology has been created by people. People have used their ideas and knowledge to invent and build products that meet their needs. Some companies hire people for their ideas and skills just as other companies buy raw materials for their products. You might need to contact people skilled in a particular field who can help you with your ideas and designs. With the proper training and education, you can be a resource person for others, too.

Machines: Since the invention of the wheel and other simple machines, people have used their intelligence to create the many complex machines we rely on today. We rely on machines as a resource to help us do work, and through technology those machines often run automatically; we don't even have to think about them.

Information: You know already that the amount of information in the world is growing rapidly. Because there is so much information there are companies that gather, organize, and sell the information. People use this information to design, produce, and sell products.

Raw Materials: You probably know that natural resources include water, land, minerals, fossil fuels (remains of dead vege-tation and animals such as oil, coal, natural gas), and timber. But did you know that some of these resources are nonrenewable? Nonrenewable means that once the resource has been used up, it is gone forever! For example, the world's supply of oil will not last

forever.

Energy: Energy is used to make things and to transport products. It is also used to heat, cool, and light the buildings that we live and work in. Like raw materials, some sources of energy are limited. Renewable energy sources include solar energy, geothermal energy, and nuclear energy.

Money: Even if you had all the other resources available to you, it still takes money to start a business. Money to start a new business is often borrowed from banks. Loans must be paid back as well as any interest on the loan. The lender charges you additional money for letting you use its money. This charge is called interest. Even after a company is making a profit (money left over after all bills are paid), it continues to pay for the other resources it uses.

Time: Many people consider time a resource because it takes time to make a product. In many instances, however, time is a factor that determines which other resources you might use and how you might use them. If you have to produce a product in a short time, you might choose only materials that are readily available and people who are already trained for that job.

Завдання 7. Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповідають змісту тексту:

1. Resources are important.

2. Money to start a new business is often borrowed from banks.

3. Natural resources include energy, machines, money, people, time

and information.

4. Proper training and education are important to invent new

products.

5. People created technology and raw materials.

6. You don't need to contact other people for professional assistance,

you must use only your own ideas.

7. If we want to produce high-quality machines, we should choose

intelligent people, skilled in the field.

8. People have used their knowledge to create a lot of clever

machines.

9. There is a lot of information in the world, and it is growing

rapidly.

10. Money and time do not influence the final product.

Завдання 8. Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 8 ре-чення.

Завдання 9. Дайте відповіді на подані нижче запитання:

1. What do we call resources?

2. How many items does the resource list include? Name them.

3. What qualities are important to consider a specialist "a resource

person"?

4. Why do people need information?

5. What is the most important thing you should know about natural

resources?

6. What kind of energy sources do you know?

7. Where can you get money to start a business?

8. In what way does time factor influence your business project?

Завдання 10. Дайте визначення таких понять:

1) resources;

2) renewable resources;

3) nonrenewable resources;

4) geothermal energy;

5) fossil fuels;

6) a resource person;

7) interest on loans.

Завдання 11. Виберіть з тексту всі слова, якими ми можемо оха¬рактеризувати якості матеріалів.

Завдання 12. Прочитайте поданий нижче Текст 8А з метою найти відповіді на такі запитання:

1. Чому ми називаємо Землю „закритою системою"?

2. Яке значення мають терміни „disposable", „biodegradable" та

recycling"?

3. Яким чином використання ресурсів може впливати на на¬

вколишнє середовище?

Текст 8А

Are we wasting our resources? Are companies producing products without thinking about the appropriate use of resources? These are hard questions for you to answer, but you need to ask them. We often forget the fact that we live in a world that has limits. Do you ever think about the fact that the air you breathe and the water you drink are recycled? The Earth is a closed system. There are no other sources of air or water, for example, than what has always been on earth. It might be unpleasant to think that the air you are breathing now or the water you drank for lunch may have been used by someone else before you. If air and water are polluted, they cannot be used safely again by anyone.

You are surrounded by products that companies claim are «disposable». Think about all the paper and plastic cups, food containers, and packaging materials that your family throws in the garbage each week. What do you think happens to them?

Many of the products and materials you throw away end up in landfills (garbage dumps) where they are buried or burned, or sometimes the used materials are dumped directly into the oceans. Disposing of materials in these ways can eventually cause air or water pollution. The best thing for you to do is to use, whenever possible, materials that are biodegradable. Biodegradable materials break down or decompose naturally like paper and go back into the earth. Other materials that take a long time to decompose, such as aluminum, plastic, and glass, should be recycled.

Today, you must use resources carefully and be aware of how they will affect the environment after they are no longer in use. You can do things that will really make a difference.

Завдання 13.

а) Розташуйте речення в потрібному порядку, щоб одержати зв'я-

зний тексі

1. The materials you choose for a product can make it either useful

and long-lasting" or dangerous and short-lived.

2. Basically, materials can be divided into two major groups,

synthetic and natural.

3.For example, a television has a picture tube made of glass, a cabinet made of plastic or wood, and wires made of copper.

4. When you are completing design briefs, you should consider

using more than one kind of material in your solution.

5. Not only it is important to design products writh people in mind,

but it is also important to choose the right material for your

product.

6. People have been researching new materials and new uses for

old materials since the Stone Age.

7. Synthetic means that people made the materials, and they cannot

be found in nature.

8. You know already that materials were so important that entire

periods of history, such as the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, were

named after them.

9. A bicycle has rubber tires, steel frames, and a plastic seat.

10.The many kinds of plastics are examples of synthetics.

11.Natural materials, such as copper and wood, can be found in

nature.

12.Products often are combinations of many kinds of materials.

б) Прочитайте та усно перекладіть текст, який ви отримали, ви¬конуючи попередні завдання.

Завдання 14. Перекладіть письмово текст рідною мовою.

Текст 8Б

Most materials can be further divided into groups. The grouping of materials is based on their properties or their origin. Here is the way to classify some materials.

Woods: There are two types of wood, hardwood and softwood. Sounds simple, but the words hard and soft have nothing to do with the hardness of the wood. The difference is in the tree that the wood came from. Hardwoods come from trees that have broad leaves, for example, walnut and maple. Softwoods come from trees that have needles, such as pine and fir.

Metals: There are two types of metals also, ferrous and nonferrous. Ferrous is a Latin word for iron. The difference between ferrous and nonferrous is that ferrous metals contain iron and nonferrous metals do not. Ferrous metals include iron and the many types of steel. Nonferrous metals include copper, tin, lead, aluminum, gold, and silver.

Plastics: There are also two types of plastics: thermoplastic and thermoset. The difference is very simple. Thermoplastics can be melted and remelted many times using heat. Thermosetting plastics change chemically when they set (твердіти). They cannot be remelted. Acrylic plastic is an example of thermoplastic. It can be reheated many times to change its shape. Bakelite is a common plastic used for electrical plugs and cooking-pot handles.

Composite materials: By combining different materials, new and often better properties can be obtained. Composite materials such as fiberglass and carbon graphite or graphite-epoxy are very lightweight and strong. They are used to make high-performance aircraft wings and lightweight sporting goods such as tennis

racquets.

Materials are chosen by their characteristics. The characteristics of a material are called its properties. Each material has special properties that make it useful for certain products.

Завдання 15. Зробіть доповідь на тему „Classifying materials", використовуючи подану схему:

Завдання  16. Перекладіть англійською мовою подані нижче речення:

1. Люди використовують інформацію для того, щоб виробляти,

створювати та продавати продукцію.

2. Природні копалини, такі, як залізо та мідь, видобуваються з

надр землі.

3. Джерела енергії містять сонячну, геотермальну та ядерну ене¬

ргію.

4. Існують компанії, які збирають, обробляють та продають ін¬

формацію.

5. Ми завжди забуваємо, що живемо у світі, який не можна вва¬

жати невичерпним.

в. Існує два типи пластику: термопластичні та термореактивні матеріали.

7. Важливо не тільки те, чи буде ваша продукція такою, як ви її

собі уявляєте, але й те, з якого матеріалу вона буде вироблена.

8. Матеріали поділяються на групи залежно від їх властивос¬

тей та походження.

9. Тверду деревину виробляють із дерев, які мають широке листя, наприклад, горіх чи клен.

10. Відмінність між кольоровими та некольоровими металами

полягає в тому, що кольорові метали містять залізо, а неко-

льорові - ні.

11.Матеріали вибираються завдяки їхнім характеристикам.

 

 

Урок 9

approach

наближатися

приближаться

valuable

цінний

ценный

to stick

приклеювати(ся)

приклеивать(ся)

cereal

крупа

крупа

corn

кукурудза

кукуруза

flakes

пластівці

хлопья

goal

мета

цель

crank

рукоятка

рукоятка

to notice

помічати

замечать

rust

іржа

ржавчина

rivet

заклепка

заклепка

trend

тенденція

тенденция

permission

дозвіл

разрешение

to prove

доводити

доказывать

to apply for

звертатися за

обращаться за

cell

комірка

ячейка

to relate to

належати до

относиться к

faucet

водопровідний кран

Водопроводный кран

knob

набалдашник

набалдашник

resposible for glue

відповідальний за клей

ответственный за клей

Завдання 2. Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче слова, ґрун¬туючись на їх подібності до слів рідної мови:

adhesive, patent, innovation, license, to protect, file, sketch,

prototype, model, project, tradition.

Завдання 3. Прочитайте подані нижче словосполучення. По-дайте їх еквіваленти рідною мовою:

creative thinking, by accident=by chance, a nonstick surface, safety glass, a car windshield, corn flakes, something else, to work toward a goal ,exercise equi pment, waste products ,nuclear waste products, to crank the engine, patent office, water faucet, door knobs, current needs.

Завдання 4. Використовуючи значення відомих вам слів та пра¬вила словотворення, перекладіть подані нижче групи слів. Ви¬значте, до якої частини мови належить кожне слово (зверніть увагу на те, що іноді різні частини мови збігаються за формою):

accident - accidentally

approach - to approach

safe - a safe - safely - safety

valuable - value - to value - evaluation - to evaluate

combination - to combine

new - innovation - innovator

benefit - to benefit (from)

to notice - unnoticed - a notice- noticeable

rust - to rust - rusting

permission - to permit

patent - to patent

high - height

wide - width

long - length

to weigh - weight

Завдання 5.

а) Уважно вивчіть таблицю різних типів умовних речень, їх утво¬рення та значення.

 

б) Перекладіть подані нижче речення рідною мовою:

1. If he is here, he will help me.

2. If he were here, he would help me.

3. If he had been here, he would have helped me.

4. If you get tickets, I shall go to the cinema with you.

5. If you got tickets, I would go to the cinema with you.

6. If you had got tickets, I would have gone to the cinema.

7. He would come to see us if he had time.

8. If it were his own book, he would give it to you.

9. If he had seen this film, he would have told us about it.

10. If they were here, he would speak to them.

11.1 would have prepared the report in case I had got all the necessary materials.

12. They would not stay in town unless the weather were bad.

13. If you intensify the process by heating the materials, you will

save a great deal of time.

14. The accident might have not occurred, if you had been more

attentive.

15. Had he come in time, nothing would have occurred.

16. Would you bring the dictionary, we could translate the text.

17. Had you been more attentive, nothing would have occurred.

18. If all of you prepared well, the discussion would be interesting.

Завдання 6.  Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся якомога точніше зро¬зуміти і запам'ятати його зміст.

Текст 9 What Is Innovation?

Innovation is the creation of new ideas or devices or different approaches to doing something. Innovation happens in many ways. Most innovations are a result of creative thinking. Sometimes valuable innovations happen by accident. Some examples of innovations include Teflon (a nonstick surface), safety glass for car windshields, and even the process for making breakfast cereals like corn flakes! In those cases, inventors were looking for something else and accidentally came up with a different idea or product. At other times innovation happens because people or companies work toward a goal using a combination of skill, creativity, and knowledge. Because innovation makes you think about «new» things, it is usually tied closely to change.

Change is happening all around us all the time. People who are innovators are excited about making changes. In business, change might be a different way to make the same product, or it could be an entirely new product. Trends, or current needs that people have, also determine what changes companies will make in their products. Many companies have R&D (research and development) departments whose job is to find out what people want now and what they will want in the future. By studying trends, R&D departments can provide the products you want to make your life better. Why do engineers need to continually make changes?

One reason is that what worked for us yesterday might not work for us today. That's where innovation and creativity are important. Sometimes we simply want different things such as new car styles, different exercise equipment, or new foods. At other times we need change for a specific rertson. For example, today we don't know what to do with our nuclear waste products. Up to now, we haven't found a way to store the materials safely for long periods of time. // someone like you could think of an innovative way to use or recycle the materials, it would really benefit our society.

It's easy to see how some innovations have made our lives easier. You've probably seen old movies where people had to crank the engine to get a car started. Thanks to innovation, all you have to do today is turn the key. Maybe some day all you'll do is talk to the car's computer!

Many innovative ideas go unnoticed by most people. For example, today many parts of cars are made of plastics to reduce weight and to prevent rusting. Many of your clothes are made of new kinds of plastics that don't feel or look any different from the materials that were used before. In the aerospace industry, adhesives (glues) are used instead of rivets to hold airplane wings together.

Other innovative ideas, such as the development of laser, had to wait until people found a practical way to make and use them. Innovation needs some knowledge combined.wTith creativity. There are lots of people out there with knowledge, but they don't know how to use it creatively. Being innovative means you can do something new with your knowledge and experience. It also means you can recognize when something happens accidentally, even if you're not exactly sure what it is!

Завдання 7. Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповідають змісту тексту:

1. Most innovations happen accidentally, like Teflon or corn flakes.

2. Most innovations make our life harder.

3. To become an inventor you must be excited about making

changes.

4. Being innovative means you can do something new with your

knowledge and experience.

5. If you could think of an innovative way to use nuclear waste

products, there might be less environmental problems.

6. Not a single innovation goes unnoticed.

7. Innovations need a combination of knowledge and creativity.

8. Innovations are important when we want some new things or

processes for a specific reason.

9. Engineers need to continually make changes.

10. Companies must know what people want now and what they will want in future.

Завдання 8. Дайте відповіді на запитання до тексту:

1. What do we call an innovation?

2. How do innovations appear?

3. What are the main reasons for innovations?

4. Can every person come up with a new idea or design, or do you

need special characteristics to produce innovations?

5. Can you give some examples of innovations?

Завдання 9. Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 9 ре¬чення.

Завдання 10. Знайдіть в Тексті 9 речення з модальними дієсло¬вами та перекладіть їх, звертаючи увагу на значення модальних дієслів.

Завдання 11. Дайте письмовий переклад Тексту 9А.

Текст 9А Getting a Patent

A patent is a special government license that protects your idea or invention. When you patent your invention, anyone who wants to use your idea must get your permission or pay you. Anyone can patent an invention, but getting a patent takes time and money. You must first prove your invention is new or the first of its kind. This means going back through the thousands of patents filed at the Patent Office to be sure no one else has an existing patent for the same invention. Then you have to provide written plans and sketches that show how your invention works. Often you have to make a prototype, or model. The government keeps these plans on file while your patent is current.

There are five types of patents that you can apply for: 1. Design patent: A drawing and protection of the general appearance and how an invention looks to the eye. An example of a design patent might be  the  outside package for an invention.

2. Structure patent:  A mechanical  patent  that shows  how

the idea works, its history, and detailed plans.

3. Process/method/system patent: Protects the way a group of

materials or parts work together. These usually have specific

drawings and flowcharts.

4. Combination of materials patent: Descriptions of materials and

how they are mixed and used.

5. Living cell patent: Covers new developments in biotechnology

and biochemistry.

Every patented product will have a patent number on it. If you see the words «patent applied for» or «patentpending» on a product, it means the inventor has applied for a patent. Sometimes companies will start making a product before they have their patent. Because there are so many inventions all the time, it is important to protect inventions with a patent. You can imagine how disappointed you would be if you spent a great deal of time and money on an invention idea only to find out someone else already had a patent on a similar project. Getting a patent is an important protection step for anyone with an invention.

Завдання 12.

а) Прочитайте поданий нижче текст.

Текст 9Б Designing Products for People

Have you ever tried on gloves and found the medium size was too big and the small size was too small? Have you ever wondered how designers decided on what a «medium» size is? Technology can make our lives more comfortable through ergonomics. Ergonomics is the study of how the human body relates to things around it. It is also called «human engineering». Places where you live, work, and play are safer, easier for you to use. and more comfortable if they are designed based on the actual human body size.

The actual measurements of your height, width, weight, reach (arms extended), and so on are recorded in books as anthropometric information or data. Designers and engineers use the size information to determine the dimensions of products such as clothing, furniture, sporting goods, car interiors, and even spacesuits. When designers made the chair you are sitting in, they used the anthropometric data from many people and found a size that would be comfortable for 90 percent of the people. Five percent of the people will probably be too large and another five percent will be too small for that particular chair. Because there is such a wide range in sizes of people, it is difficult to make one product that everyone would find comfortable. Is your chair really comfortable? Does it fit you? Not all products are made with ergonomics or anthropometry in mind. Simple everyday things like water faucets and door knobs can sometimes be hard to figure out because they weren't designed with people in mind. Many times they were designed just for looks. In the past, tradition rather than people's needs was also responsible for the way some things were designed. For instance, maybe the reason most automobile engines are located in the front of a car is that the engine replaced the horse. The horse, of course, was in front of the wagon.

You might think that designing products around people is just for appearance and isn't very important. That isn't so. Part of ergonomic design is to make products safe for you to use.

б) Поясніть дані поняття, про які йдеться в тексті:

ergonomics, human engineering, anthropometric data, ergonomic design.

в) Дайте відповіді на такі запитання до тексту:

1. What do we call the branch of technology which helps to make

our life easier, more comfortable and safe?

2. What information is used to determine the dimensions of

products and what do we call it?

3. Do you think it's impossible to combine comfort, safety and

good looks in product design?

4. Can you give some positive examples of product design?

5. Can you give some negative examples of product design?

г) Перекладіть Текст 9Б рідною мовою.

Завдання 13.

а) Якщо ви розташуйте слова в даних реченнях в потрібному порядку, то знайдете серію запитань щодо впливу технічного нововведення на вас та навколишнє середовище. Підмет та при¬судок (основне дієслово) виділені шрифтом:

1) the, require, or, technology, energy, existing, new, resources, does,

less, natural, than, technology, more, an, or?

2) not, it, the, biodegradable, will, for example, damage, environment,

by, being?

3) to, it, use, is, easier?

4) save, does, time, it?

5) special, to, does, require, use, training, it?

6)put, does, people, out of, it, work?

7) a, this, need, technology, for, is there, real?

8) technology, is, safe, the?

9) an, of, appropriate, is, use, this, technology?

б) Проаналізуйте яке-небудь технічне відкриття, винахід, ново-введення за допомогою цих запитань.

Завдання 14. Перекладіть англійською мовою:

1. Людина не може стати винахідником, якщо вона не вміє творчо

мислити.

2. Можливо, ми зможемо вирішити цю проблему в найближчо¬

му майбутньому.

3. Ми повинні більше уваги приділяти виріпіенню проблем, які

можуть спричинити забруднення навколишнього середовища.

4. Компанії повинні надавати перевагу екологічно чистій про¬

дукції.

5. Іноді нам доводиться вибирати між красою та зручністю, але

цього не повинно бути. Ми повинні поєднувати те й інше.

6. Немає необхідності жертвувати красою заради комфорту.

7. Не могли б ви мені пояснити, що таке „ергономіка"?

Завдання 15. З усіх трьох текстів Уроку 7 виберіть ключові слова до теми „Innovations: why, what, how."

Завдання 16. Складіть план доповіді за названою темою.

Завдання 17. Зробіть доповідь на тему, використовуючи складе-ний план та ключові слова.

Завдання 1. Уважно прочитайте подані нижче слова та їх пере¬клад. Запам'ятайте їх:

to hire

наймати

нанимать

consumer

споживач

потребитель

to own

володіти

владеть

to share

ділити (ся)

делить (ся)

stock

майно, сировина

имущество, сырье

to elect

обирати

избирать

to reward

винагороджувати

вознаграждать

to be in charge(of)

бути відповідальним (за)

быть ответст-венным (за)

to turn (into)

 

перетворюватися (на)

превращаться (в)

to assemble

монтувати

монтировать

survey

огляд

обзор

to hire

наймати

нанимать

consumer

споживач

потребитель

to own

володіти

владеть

to share

ділити (ся)

нанимать

stock

майно, сировина

потребитель

Завдання 2. Прочитайте та перекладіть подані нижче слова, ґрун¬туючись на їх подібності до слів рідної мови:

company, sponsor, services, business, capital, invest, partner, manager, control, planning, strategy, marketing.

Завдання 3. Прочитайте подані нижче словосполучення. По-дайте їх еквіваленти рідною мовою:

to provide services, to be in business, to make a profit, to get a company started, to start a company, to run a company, to manage a company, to have complete control over a company, to hold a share, a part owner of the company, a structured organization of a company, board of directors, to set company policies, to rent a

 

building, personnel, extra training, to slow production down, to plan ahead, consumer surveys.

Завдання 4. Зверніть увагу на утворення скорочених варіантів даних слів, перекладіть їх рідною мовою:

confer = compare - cf advertisement - ad mathematics - math(s) technology - tech dormitory - dorm television - TV refrigerator - fridge examination - exam for example - e. g. that is - i. e.

Завдання 5. Перекладіть дані слова, використовуючи їх синоніми:

huge = big

to involve = to include

to control = to operate

to control = to manage

annual = yearly

goals = aims

to raise money = to make money

accurate = precise

downtime == decrease

to promote = to advertise

marketing plan = strategy

to invest = to put in

human resources = workers = employees = personnel

over and over = again and again

to eliminate = to get rid of

to ship = to send

a great deal of = many/much

Завдання 6.  Використовуючи значення відомих вам слів та пра¬вила словотворення, перекладіть подані нижче групи слів. Ви¬значте, до якої частини мови вони належать (пам'ятайте, що іно¬ді різні частини мови збігаються за формою):

property - proprietor - proprietorship

part - partner - partnershi p

to manage - manager — management

to serve - services - servant

to invest - investor - investment

to sponsor - sponsor - sponsorship

to advertise -advertisement - advertising

to consume - consumer - consumption

to own - owner - ownership

to share - a share - shareholders

Завдання 7. Перекладіть англійською мовою подані нижче умовні речення різного типу:

1. Якщо компанія хоче бути успішною, вона повинна постійно

займатися маркетинговими дослідженнями.

2. Якщо б Японія не приділяла стільки уваги розвитку науки

та технічної творчості, вона б не досягла таких успіхів у ви¬

робництві.

3. Якщо б усі підприємства використовували екологічно чисті

технології, ми б зберегли навколишнє середовище для майбут¬

ніх поколінь.

4. Якщо б ви використовували інші джерела енергії, ваша про¬

дукція була б більш популярною.

5. Якщо ви дуже хочете знайти рішення проблеми, то воно при¬

ходить неначе саме по собі.

6. Якщо б ми не просто викидали промислові та побутові від¬

ходи, а переробляли їх, ми б змогли вирішити частину еколо¬

гічних та соціальних проблем.

7. Якщо б ми були більш уважними та технічно грамотними, то

помітили б, що світ навколо нас сповнений технічних ново¬

введень.

Завдання 8. Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся якомога точніше зро¬зуміти і запам'ятати його зміст.

Текст 10 What Is a Company?

You've probably seen ads in magazines and on television sponsored by names such as Xerox, IBM, General Motors, and Exxon. These are huge companies that hire thousands of workers to produce goods or services for you, the consumer. Thousands of companies make products or provide services for you. A company is an organized group of people doing business.

Every company is in business to sell products and to make a profit. Remember that one resource needed to make things is money, or capital. In order to get a company started, someone has to invest (put in) money to start the company. Then, once the company is organized, you have to have some way to run it. There are different ways to manage (run) a company.

Proprietorship: A proprietorship is a business owned by just one person. It is the easiest type of business to form because you as the owner have complete control over everything. Besides that у you get to keep all the profits.

Partnership: A business owned by two or more people is a part-nership. It is also easy to form. The partners share the profits. An advantage to being in a partnership is that you can share the workload and responsibilities.

Corporation: A corporation is a company organized and owned by stockholders. A stockholder is anyone who buys a share in a company. While you own the stock, you will also receive what's called a dividend. A dividend is a payment you get as part owner of the company. Sometimes corporations start out as proprietorships or partnerships. They have a very structured organization because there are so many people involved. The corporate structure includes the following:

Stockholders: People who have bought shares in the company. Stockholders hold an annual meeting. At the annual meeting, they elect the board of directors for the next year. Board of Directors: Board members are elected. They set com¬pany policies and determine the main company goals. They report how the company is doing to the stockholders. The board also hires a company manager or president to run the company. Management: These people run the company. They have to be good leaders and hard workers to make the company successful. Management people have to pick the products the company will make, decide how to raise money to buy or rent buildings, where to get raw materials, and how much to pay workers. Administration: The people in administration carry out the decisions made by the management department. There are many other workers in a company, too. As you learn what each department does, think about what jobs you would like to do or would feel most qualified to do. These are some of the main departments in most companies.

Human Resources: In some companies, this department is called Personnel. This department makes sure that the people who have the skills needed for certain jobs are hired. If extra training is needed, the Personnel department makes sure workers get the training. The Human Resources department also makes sure you are rewarded if you are a good worker. Usually you are advanced to a position with higher pay.

Research and Development Department (R&D): The research and development department improves existing products or designs new products that people really want. Companies depend on R&D departments to find efficient ways to make products so that they can save money and make a profit.

Production Department: The production department is in charge of actually making the products for the company. The production workers must turn materials into parts for products and then assemble the products. The production department usually plans a production system to make sure each job is done as accurately, quickly, and safely as possible. A mistake in production caused by poor planning can cost a company a lot of money or slow production down. The production department has to plan ahead so there is no downtime, or stop in production.

Marketing Department: The job of the marketing department is to sell the company products. Sometimes they conduct consumer surveys to find out what people want, how much they are willing to pay for a product, and who would probably buy that product. The marketing department must also have a marketing plan for promoting and selling the product.

Завдання 9. Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень відповідають змісту тексту:

1. Companies are organized to produce products but it is not their

aim to sell them.

2. Providing services has nothing to do with business.

3. Investments are necessary to start a business.

4. All companies are managed in the same way.

5. Partnerships are the most complicated of all different ways to

run a company.

6. Corporations never start out as proprietorships.

7. Board of directors are hired to manage a company.

8. The departments a company includes are never the same in

different businesses.

9. Marketing research is very important for successful operation

of any company.

Завдання 10. Дайте відповіді на запитання до тексту:

1. What is a company?

2. What are companies organized for?

3. What is the resource you need to start a company?

4. What  is  the difference between  a proprietorship  and  a

partnership?

5. What do we call a company which is organized and owned by

stockholders?

6. What are the main components of a corporation?

7. What do we call a share?

8. Whom do we call a stockholder?

9. What is a dividend?

10. How is a board of directors formed?

11. Do they elect managers of a company?

12. What are the main departments in most companies called?

13. How can you define the main tasks of each department?

Завдання 11. Перекладіть рідною мовою виділені в Тексті 10 речення.

Завдання 12.

а) Прочитайте Текст 10А, намагаючись якомога точніше зрозу-

міти його ЗМІСТ.

Текст 10А

Before a company begins to sell a product, the marketing department makes a special plan called a marketing plan or strategy. There are all kinds of ways to market products. The plan might include a sales forecast, or prediction of how many sales the company will make. If the market research is not accurate, the company could lose a lot of money. Can you imagine making thousands of a product but selling only a few hundred?

Sometimes companies will do test marketing. To do this, they produce just a small number of products and sell them in maybe just one city. If sales are good in the test market, then the company expects the product to sell in other places, too.

Advertising tells people about your product. The main goal of advertising is to convince customers that they need your product. Many companies have a public relations division. Its job is to make the product name familiar to the public. Have you ever bought something just because an ad caught your attention? Companies count on that happening. Lots of companies try different ways of advertising such as television commercials, billboards, and ads in magazines, newspapers, and on the radio. Sometimes a company will sponsor a contest or give away a free prize to get people to try their product for the first time.

Brand names like McDonald's, Disney, Honda, and Hershey also make it easier to sell products. People already know the name so if something new comes out from that company you are quick notice it.

Actually selling and getting the products to the buyers are also part of the marketing strategy. If a company can't sell its products, then it will not be successful

б) Дайте переклад виділених слів та словосполучень.

в) Дайте відповіді на, такі запитання стосовно інформації Текс¬

ту 10А:

1. What are the duties of the marketing department?

2. What do we call a marketing plan?

3. What do they mean by 'test marketing'?

4. What is the main; goal of advertising?

5. How do they advertise products?

6. What do we mean by "brand names"?

7. What "brand names" do you know? '

8. What for do they organize Public relations division?

Завдання 13.

а) Уважно прочитайте поданий нижче Текст 10Б, намагаючись якомога точніше зрозуміти ЙОГО зміст.

Текст 10Б Mass production

Mass production enables companies to produce large quantities of parts and products Within a short time. To do this, each worker on a factory assembly line is assigned only one job. Each person does the same job over and over. Mass production works only if all the same parts of components are standardized, i.e. the same size and shape. The parts must be interchangeable. Any one of several hundred pieces of one part mus1t fit with any of several hundred pieces of a joining part. Today's automobiles are n.ade mostly with standardized, or interchangeable, parts.

Through mass production and the assembly line, a greater number of products can be made in a given amount of time. Mass production also makes products less expensive to produce and therefore less expensive to buy.

Where do companies put materials and purchased parts until they are needed on the production line? Many companies have to order large amounts of materials ahead of time. They then must pay for storage space in a warehouse. The company must also hire people (or buy robots) to move the materials to the production line. Once the finished product is made, it often spends time in a warehouse, waiting to be shipped. One way to cut down on inventory (things in storage) and costs is to use a computer to schedule deliveries just in time.

Just-in-time manufacturing (JIT) is a method that many companies are turning to because it eliminates the need for storage space and extra people to manage the inventory. All the materials and ordered parts get to the factory just in time to be used in production. When the product is finished it is immediately shipped to the customer. Just-in-time manufacturing enables companies to cut back inventory as much as possible.

You can see that good management and teamwork are important to just-in-time manufacturing, or synchronized production. If one part is not there on time, then the rest of the product must wait. To be successful, production workers, managers, suppliers, and workers who transport materials must work closely together. Computers play a large part in linking all those people together so thai they all know what they are supposed to do and when they are supposed to do it.

б) Дайте переклад таких слів та словосполучень:

mass production, within a short time, assembly line, standardized parts, interchangeable, in a given amount of tine, production line, storage space, warehouse, finished product, to ship, inventory, to schedule deliveries, just-in-time manufacturing, to eliminate, synchronized production.

в) Дайте відповіді на поставлені запитання, використовуючи ін¬

формацію, яка є в Тексті 8Б:

1 When do we call machine parts standardized and interchangeable?

2 What is the aim of nuass production and assembly lines?

3 What is meant by inventory?

4 What are the advantages of just-in-time manufacturing?

5 Can you explain whait 'synchronized production: means?

Завдання 14.

а) Прочитайте Текст 1OB та дайте його письмошй переклад рідною мовою, користуючись словником та звертаючи увагу на підкреслені терміни.

 

Текст 10В

There are three main ways to sell your product.

Direct Sales: A manufacturer sells its product directly to the customer. Usually a company will have salespeople who make a commission (certain percentage) on the amount they sell. The more the salespeople sell, the more money they make. The commission is an incentive (encouragement) for them to sell more products. If an area is large and the company does not have enough salespeople, they might hire a sales representative to sell their product.

Wholesale Sales: Wholesalers are people or companies that buy large quantities of products from manufacturers. Then they sell the products to other businesses in large quantities.

Retail Sales: Retailers buy products either from wholesalers or directly from the manufacturer. Then they sell them to you. If you've been to a shopping mall, you've seen many retail stores from discount stores to large department stores.

In addition to selling their products, companies must have ways to get their goods to the buyers. This is called distribution. Sometimes the distribution path for a product can be short, as in direct sales. Sometimes products must be temporarily stored in warehouses until the right time for distribution.

At some point, transportation is involved in distributing the products. Depending on the product or the need, different kinds of transporation such as air freight,trucks,trains,or ships might be used. Most of the «18-wheelers» you see on the highways are carrying products to wholesalers or retail stores. Getting the product distributed on time is very important to the success of your company!

б) Перекладіть письмово виділені терміни.

Завдання 15. Висловіть свої міркування з приводу висловлювання відомого англійського письменника, якщо віднести його до сфери бізнесу: „Success is just failure postponed" (Graham Greene).

 

 to the success of your company"! б) Перекладіть письмово виділені терміни

 

КОНТРОЛЬНІ ЗАВДАННЯ ДО УРОКІВ 8-10

Завдання 1. Складіть якомога більше дво- чи трислівних слово¬сполучень з даних слів:

muscle, government, quality, strategy, power, energy, manu-facturing, goal, survey, automation, company, market, depart¬ment, test, product, resources, technology, agency, process.

Завдання 2. Перекладіть такі дієслова, для нестандартних дайте три форми:

to save, to reduce, to design, to fit, to fix, to use, to waste, to increase, to require, to happen, to include, to create, to protect, to spend, to sell, to maintain, to deliver, to involve, to prove, to determine, to store, to measure.

Завдання 3. Утворіть якомога більше нових слів, використовую¬чи відомі вам словотвірні моделі:

1) expensive;

2) available;

3) transport;

4) to renew;

5) appropriate;

6) cycle;

7) to interact;

8) to place;

9) to use;

10) competition;

11) application;

12) employment.

Завдання 4. Перекладіть рідною мовою:

1. Companies get started so that people can make money.

2. A product or a service is made available for sale to consumers.

3. If the product is successful, the company may expand production.

4. Companies often sell stock to raise money to buy equipment or

build factories.

5. When proper planning and automation technology are used, the

cost of production can be kept down, and the rate of production

can be kept high.

6. As you know, computers play an important part in any efficient

production process.

7. There are different kinds of jobs in a company.

8. In a successful company, everyone works to meet the company

goal.

9. Companies may have the right people and equipment to

manufacture a product but it takes even more than that to

succeed.

10. You also need to have a good production plan to produce a good

product at the lowest cost.

11. That means people must know what they are doing, and the right

technology and machines must be used at the right time.

12. You will have to fill out an application for any job you have in

a business.

13. Applications give the employer information about your experience

and background.

14. The quality of a product is very important for the consumer and

the company.

15. Some companies do some interesting advertising to get their

product recognized.

16. Partners can form a type of company called a partnership.

17. There are different ways to start a company or a corporation.

18. A company is an organized group of people in business to make

a profit.

19. We often forget about the factories and companies behind the

product we use every day.

20. People buy stock in a company in the hope that its value will go

up.

21. The stockholders can then sell the stock and make a profit.

22. Research and development departments try to perfect existing

products and design new products.

23. Technology can be applied to help solve problems related to

energy use, medicine, and many other fields.

24. The production department actually makes the product.

25. Downtime for companies can be very costly, and when it happens,

many people must work quickly to get the production line back

on line.

26. Marketing departments promote the product and conduct

consumer surveys.

27. The results of surveys provide feedback for the company so that

managers can make decisions about the future of the product.

28. Every day millions of people go to work to manufacture the

products we depend on.

29. Businesses are started to make a profit.

30. Large companies need managers to make decisions that keep the

company going.

31. Employers are hired to do a specific job in manufacturing.

32. No matter what product is being manufactured, the quality of

the finished product is in the hands of the employees.

33. If you wanted to start a corporation along with some people,

you would first have to make out an application that must be

approved by a government agency.

34. If people don't know about the product, they will not buy it.

35. You would make your report more interesting if you used these

materials.

36. The student would have answered better had he studied hard

during the year.

37.1 should be very glad if the device worked well. 38. Had you studied English hard at school, you would have been able to read any book without using a dictionary.

Завдання 5. Прочитайте та перекладіть рідною мовою такі текс¬ти, звертаючи увагу на яереклад виділених слів, словосполучень та частин речень.

Text A Using Resources

Early people relied on muscle power to survive and to make every¬thing. As technology grew and changed, people were able to extend their muscle resources by using machines. The energy of moving water, steam, oil, and the atom have been added to the list of resources that people can use to make things.

Whether you choose a resource often depends on its availability. For example, if you were going to start a company that needed a great deal of electricity, you would try to find an area in the country where electricity is available and inexpensive.

As you design your product you should pick material resources that best fit your product. Paper clips made of pure silver sound great, but they would be too heavy and too expensive.

You also want to use resources wisely and not waste them. The cost of energy used to make and transport products is increasing. If energy can be conserved (saved) in the manufacturing process, we can save energy and reduce the cost of products.

Some nonrenewable resources such as aluminum can be used appropriately through recycling. Aluminum requires a great deal of electricity to produce the first time, by recycling, you can save not only the mineral resource but energy as well.

Text В Ecology of a Product

Ecology is the study of how things interact with the environment. Part of designing a product is planning ahead for what will happen to it after it is used. Products might include anything from a newspaper to a jet airplane. Do you ever stop to think what happens to the things you throw away? Most of us don't very often, In fact, we live in a «throwaway» world. When we're finished with a product, we throw it away instead of fixing it or recycling it. Did you know some of these facts?

- On the average, every man, woman, and child in the United States

creates 5 pounds of garbage a day. That's 230 million tons of

garbage every year!

- Some products that we throw away could easily be replaced with

different products that would last longer or that could be reused.

For example, every year we throw away the following disposable

items:

- 2,000,000,000 razors

- 16,000,000,000 plastic diapers

- 1,600,000,000 ballpoint pens

- The cost of throwing away our trash is going up fast because

of new regulations to protect the environment and because of

lack of space. It can cost $50 per ton to throw away trash. If

you multiply the 230,000,000 tons of garbage we throw away

each year by $50, we spend $11,500,000,000 just on garbage!

 

Text С Doing Business in the Future

Most companies are starting to use more automation to produce more goods faster and to improve the product quality. They must do both in order to compete with other manufacturers all over the world. Maintaining large inventories is costly, so many companies are moving toward just-in-time methods that use the computer to schedule deliveries of parts just in time for use. Teamwork among all the people involved in making the product is important to its success.

The success of a business in the future will depend a lot on how it is managed. The R&D department will continue' to be important in bringing in new ideas and new ways to produce products. Companies will need well-planned marketing strategies and ways to control company money so that the company can continue to make a profit and grow.

Computers, as we further develop their uses, will be doing many more jobs in all business areas, from administration to production to marketing. Who knows? You might even do most of your shopping at home by computer in the future. Even today, you can order a car through a computerized marketing system. You can examine the car options and then check on the car as it moves through the manufacturing process. Businesses will have to produce quality products quickly and efficiently in order to be successful.

Завдання 6. Зробіть доповідь за даними темами.' використовую¬чи подані ключові слова та схеми:

1) What is a company?

company, capital, to invest, people, to organize, fact^0™8'to Procmce, products, services, to sell, to make a profit.

2) Selling Products

3) Marketing and advertising products

to sell a product, marketing department, marketing strategy, sales forecast, test marketing, advertising, brand names.

4) Types of companies

 

Завдання 7. Передайте зміст поданих нижче текстів англійсь¬кою мовою:

а) Я пишу дипломну роботу про роль роботів у сучасному житті, про їхнє застосування на заводах, у дослідницьких лабораторіях, у повітрі, космосі, керуванні транспортом та інших сферах.

Я вважаю, що роботи - друзі людини, вони полегшують жит¬тя і роблять його приємнішим, можуть виконувати різні функ¬ції, не вимагаючи нічого натомість.

Нині у багатьох країнах величезна увага приділяється нау¬ці і техніці, зокрема, роботобудуванню. Лабораторія, де я прохо¬джу практику, оснащена найсучаснішими приладами, машина¬ми й обладнанням. Мій науковий керівник, професор Соболев,

- експерт у роботобудуванні. Я можу одержати в нього консу¬

льтацію з усіх питань. Його лабораторії потрібні фахівці в га¬

лузі фізики, математики, кібернетики, біохімії, фізхімії, біоніки.

Я сподіваюся працювати в його лабораторії після закінчення

інституту.

Перед лабораторією поставлене дуже цікаве і складне завдан¬ня - створити багатофункціональну модель робота для роботи в космосі.

б) Моделі та прилади, представлені на виставці, що відкрила¬

ся вчора в нашому місті, викликали великий інтерес. Гостям

виставки були представлені сто експонатів. Вони були виготов¬

лені в майстернях і лабораторіях інституту, більша частина з

них виконана студентами.

Програма виставки передбачала також лекції з актуальних наукових проблем, над яісими нині працюють дослідники. Се¬ред них науковці, відомі не лише в інституті, а й за його межа¬ми. Серед гідів були не тільки фахівці, здатні роз'яснити при¬значення приладів, продемонструвати ту чи іншу модель, а й перекладачі-студенти, готові дати будь-яку інформацію інозем¬ною мовою.

На одному з семінарів було проведене обговорення проблем викладання фізики як фундаментальної навчальної дисциплі¬ни. На спеціальному семінарі розповіли про створення унікаль¬ного радіотелескопа та його використання в науці. Значення цього приладу для науки величезне. У його створенні брали участь учені декількох українських вузів.

в) Я - член студентської наукової спілки. Студенти - члени

СНС - беруть участь у дослідженні і розробленні цілої низки

науково-технічних проблем. Ми проводимо як теоретичні, так і

практичні дослідження.

На засіданнях СНС ми можемо одержати багато цікавої ін¬формації, обмінятися досвідом, познайомитися з кращими нау¬ковими працями.

Члени СНС виступають із доповідями на наукових конфере¬нціях, олімпіадах, беруть участь у Тижні науки. Тиждень науки

- це свято науки в інституті. Багато студентів нагороджується

почесними грамотами і дипломами.

Мета СНС - активізувати наукову роботу студентів, заохоти¬ти їх до наукових досліджень, залучити максимальну кількість студентів до наукового пошуку і технічної творчості. Одним із завдань СНС є зміцнення наукових зв'язків із промисловими підприємствами й іншими вузами країни.

Робота в СНС допомагає студентові стати дослідником задо¬вго до закінчення інституту, сприяє творчому, самостійному під¬ходу до роботи.

г) Взаємозв'язок людини з природою - одна з найбільш важ¬ливих і складних проблем людства. У цих взаєминах виника¬ють різноманітні конфлікти.

Промисловість забруднює атмосферу, ґрунт і воду небезпеч¬ними для всього живого речовинами, порушує сформований на окремих ділянках арени життя тепловий баланс, збільшує вміст С09 в атмосфері.

Сотні мільйонів років підтримувала біосфера оптимальне співвідношення важливих для життя елементів. Кілька десят-ків років промислової революції виявилися достатніми, щоб по¬рушити цю рівновагу.

Сучасна біологія володіє достатніми теоретичними знаннями для раціонального співробітництва з природою і достатнім ар¬сеналом технічних засобів для того, щоб знати, що ми можемо чекати від природи і чого від неї чекати не можна.

Завдання 8. Обговоріть дані запитання, використовуючи інфор¬мацію з Текстів 8А, 8Б, 8В:

1. Can you name other resources we use now to make products

besides those listed in Text 8 A?

2. What do we mean by resource availability? How does it affect

production costs?

3. What should we do not to multiply environmental problems?

4. What is the place of research in business and production?

Завдання 9. Висловіть свої міркування з приводу тведжень ви-датних людей:

„7 was taught that the way of progress is neither swift nor easy" (Marie Curie)

"No machine can replace the human spark: spirit, compassion, love and understanding" (Louis V. Gerstner, Jr.)

"Ideas are like wandering sons. They show up when you least expect them" (Bern Williams).

ТЕКСТИ ДЛЯ ПОЗААУДИТОРНОГО ЧИТАННЯ

Текст 1 Carsdriving us crazy?

Technology has given us plenty of things that improve our lives: computers, calculators, mobile phones, CDs... It has also given us cheaper and faster cars that most people in western countries can afford. Cars improve our lives in lots of ways but they also cause problems.

My own car

Lots of teenagers dream of the day when they will be old enougli to learn to drive and have their own car. There are plenty of reasons why. They will be able to go out where they like, when they like. They won't have to ask their parents to take them. They won't have to go home early because the last bus leaves at half past ten. They will be able to give their friends a lift. Passing their driving test is a very important day in many teenagers' lives. Cars are also a big status symbol. If you own a big, fast car, you must be rich and successful.

The problems. Cars cause a lot of problems. Here, are some of them. Put them in order from 1 to 7 (1 - for the biggest problem, 7 - for the smallest problem) in your opinion.

l.The roads are too busy. People driving in cities or on the motorway often have to sit in traffic jams.

2. Towns are often designed for cars, not for people. On some roads,

pedestrians have to use dark, dirty subways to get across the

road.

3. Modern cars can go very fast. However, why have a car that

can travel at 240 kilometers per hour when the speed limit in

Britain is 110 kilometers per hour on the motorway and 50

kilometers per hour in towns? It just encourages people to

break the speed limit.

4. The noise of traffic causes stress for people who live and work

near busy roads.

5. Finding a parking space in cities and towns is often almost

impossible.

6. Cars create a great deal of pollution. Air pollution is getting

worse because more and more people own cars.

7. Every time you get into a car you risk having an accident.

Solutions from around the world. Different countries have different ways of reducing traffic. Tick (V) the ones that you think are good ideas.

l.In Britain, the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution has asked the government to increase the price of petrol.

2. In Paris, France, when the pollution is really bad the underground,

buses and trains are free.

3. In Bern, Switzerland, drivers have to get a permit to park in the

city. This has reduced traffic in the city by 15 percent since

1992.

4. In Toronto, Canada, Highway 407 uses cameras to read car

registration numbers. Then computers charge drivers for the

number of kilometers they travel on the highway.

5. In Singapore, car drivers have to pay to enter the city. There is

also a limit on the number of new cars every year.

6. In Cuba, not many people can afford to own a car. People who are

on their own in a car have to stop and take passengers.

7. In the Netherlands, there isn't such a big problem with traffic

as in other countries. This is because every town and city has

plenty of cycle lanes, so people travel on bicycles much more.

Завдання. Перекладіть рідною мовою слова та словосполучення з тексту:

to afford, to give sb a lift , motorway, traffic jam, pedestrian, subway, encourage, accident, permit, highway, cycle lane.

Текст 2

American Culture

American culture is everywhere. But are Uncle Sam's exports opening doors for the world's consumers, or closing them?

The reach of American culture has extended far and wide across the world. Disney now runs theme parks on three continents; McDonald's, having opened restaurants to sell hamburgers and fries nearly everywhere, has recently expanded into the hotel business in Switzerland; the Marlboro man sells cigarettes throughout Europe, Latin America and Asia; surveys routinely find that American sports (Michael Jordan), music (Madonna), and movie (Julia Roberts) stars are the most recognized people in the world; American TV shows such as «Friends», «ER», and «The Simpsons» are dubbed into dozen of languages and rebroadcast; and American staples such as blue jeans and Nike shoes have become staples everywhere else as well.

The value of American domination

American cultural domination has grown ever stronger over the past fifty years, and today American culture can be found in almost every country. However, many question the value of this dominance. Is the United States opening opportunities to people around the world, or destroying local cultures and customs? Do American cultural exports offer people more choices or fewer choices? Are we heading toward a global uniformity, or can we retain regional and cultural differences? And what caused American culture to be so dominant anyway?

The role of global trade

It is important to recognize that American culture has spread primarily as a result of trade. Executives at McDonald's, Nike and Coca-Cola export their products around the globe not out of a sense of moral obligation, nor as part of a crafty plan to subvert the world's population; they export their products, and with them American culture, in an attempt to make a profit.

The past 40 years have seen the biggest and longest economic boom in history, resulting in rising standards of living for people around the globe, .and massive profits for the international corporations which have benefited from global trade opportunities. This expansion in "trade is largely due to reductions in the trade barriers between countries. Where most governments once tried to protect and isolate their country's economy from the global marketplace, there is now a rush to participate in global trading. Today companies regularly merge across national lines to form multinational corporations, and relocation of manufacturing sites to countries with cheaper labor costs is normal.

Benefits of globalization

This global trade has both advantages and disadvantages. Supporters of trade argue that it creates jobs, as the large global market needs more workers to produce more goods. It has also been credited with aiding economic growth. For example, countries such as Hong Kong and Taiwan have dramatically increased their average incomes per person by trading globally. And some have even suggested that globalization has contributed to the spread of democracy and an increased respect for human rights. This seems logical - as individuals gain more economic power, they seek more rights politically as well.

Concerns about globalization

Opponents of globalization, on the other hand, denounce global trade as causing more harm than good. They believe that it is responsible for creating poor working conditions and poverty in developing countries. Wealthy corporations open factories in poorer nations, where labor is cheaper, and often exploit these workers. The workers may face horrendously long hours and brutal conditions, for wages that are typically less than 1 pound per day.

It has also been claimed that global trade encourages environmental damage. Developing nations often recklessly exploit their environment, in an effort to export to the global market. Lastly, there is the worry that globalization leads to cultural degradation. Rather than producing a greater choice of products in each nation, global trade may lead to the world becoming similar. Multinational corporations promote the same products the world over. Small local companies cannot compete with the high advertising budgets and low prices of these corporations, so they drop out of the market.

Reason for America's success

But why has American culture come to dominate in this way? To begin with, North America itself is a large and wealthy country, with a huge and diverse population. US corporations which do well at home have already succeeded in marketing and distributing for a great number of consumers. For American companies, the jump from national to international marketing and distribution is not as great as it is for those from smaller countries. Further, American companies can afford to spend a great deal of money marketing their products around the world, and are able to undercut the prices of local products. It is worth noting that, for entertainment, fast food, carbonated drinks and so on — areas in which the US has come to dominate — America was first in the field.

In the development of music recording technology, the US was ahead of anything anywhere else in the world. This made jazz music accessible to people of all classes, and exportable around the world. It is even truer for moving pictures, an American invention in their mass-market form. So it seems that very early in the last century, a pattern of American dominance in key areas of mass entertainment had already been created.

Why American success continued

Much of American culture's success appears to lie in the fact that American corporations are wealthy, and that they were ahead of others in certain areas. But how have they continued this dominance? One answer to this lies in the fact that people associated the United States with wealth and success. This is particularly true in countries from which many people have emigrated to America. The idealized view of America as the land of the free, where the streets are paved with gold, lives on. By purchasing American products, people can buy a little of the country's glamor. Wherever you live, and however much you earn, wearing Calvin Klein jeans makes you look like a wealthy westerner.

American culture has the added appeal that not only is it glamorous, it is also usually easy to digest. This applies to products from the sweet fizzy taste of Coca-Cola to Hollywood action movies. U.S. culture is generally unsophisticated, and so can be appreciated by everyone. American TV shows and movies rarely have an unhappy ending, and are usually fast-paced, holding your attention with car chases and love scenes. Like hamburgers and ice-cream-laden milkshakes, American entertainment provides us with simple pleasures.

Globalization and the future

American culture today owes its dominance to combination of glamor, technology, marketing and the US' massive wealth. In all, globalization is a scary term. It somehow implies the wTorld turning into one giant American-style shopping mall,  where cultures, languages, customs, and individual rights are dissolved by commerce. But this is not what globalization has to be about. America itself has been greatly influenced by other cultures -Western and non-Western alike. One needs only to look at the Afro-Caribbean roots of jazz and rap music, the popularity of Pokemon, the growth in the practice of Islam, the Mexican food in US diets, and the tens of thousands of American kids who enroll in karate classes every year, to realize that American culture is continually influenced by cultures, ideas, and individuals throughout the world. Globalization need not imply influence in only one direction.

114

 

Завдання. Прочитайте запитання до тексту та виберіть прави-льну відповідь із запропонованих:

1. What is the biggest contributor to the spread of American culture?

a) TV;

b) Music;

c) Trade.

2. What does globalization mean?

a) Worldwide influence of culture and trade;

b) Worldwide economic growth;

c) Worldwide loss of national culture and identity.

3. What is not an effect of globalization?

a) It creates jobs and increases the average person's income;

b) Small companies can do more business;

c) Wealthy corporations exploit workers in poorer nations.

4. How has the USA become so successful?

a) It's a big country and everyone has heard of it;

b) There is a lack of competition;

c) It is a wealthy country and can afford to spend a lot on

marketing and distribution.

5. Why does the USA continue to be successful today?

a) Its exports are of higher quality than those from other

countries;

b) It is the only country that makes many of the things it exports;

c) American products are associated with wealth and glamour.

6. What is likely to happen in the future?

a) America's cultural exports will increase further;

b) America's cultural exports will lessen;

c) Other cultures will have more influence than America.

 

 

Technology Making Us Intimate Strangers?

Cell phones and beepers keep us in touch, but they also keep us away from the best of ourselves and others.

Every day when I walk out of my house I feel surrounded. Surrounded by people so loaded down with the latest equipment that any military commander would be envious. Cell phones, beepers, headsets, watches that both tell time and give good e-mail - devices that allow you to keep up and keep track and that keep you tethered to the daily grind. America is on the move, utterly self-absorbed, multi-tasking, busy, busy, busy.

So what's the matter with me, daring to go about the streets without any of these things, a dinosaur out of step with the times? Frankly, I worry about the freedom we give up, the time to think and reflect, the time to consider where we've been in order to see where we are - or want to be - going. For many people these are painful things they don't necessarily want to dwell on. Self-reflection is far different - and far more difficult - than self-absorption, but the pain that self-absorption can inflict on others is acute.

Last summer, on as lovely an evening as one can hope for in central Virginia, I was at my daughter's tennis practice. Standing next to me was a father more intent on the cell-phone conversation he was having (which did not sound terribly pressing) than on watching his daughter play. Time and again, she would lock toward him, craving for his attention, but he never saw her.

 

Now some confessions are in order. I've had e-mail only for a little more than a year, and I worry that I'm starting to become obsessed with it. In the intoxicating game of popularity that we all play, e-mail has presented another way for others to reach out to us. If someone hasn't left us a phone message or a fax, there is always the chance that an e-mail awaits. I can't even finish this essay without checking - three times already - to see if another one came through. I have also checked my stocks and a favorite Web site - all because they are there. I am not proud of the fact that when I read to my 6-year old daughter at night, I sometimes reach for the phone when it rings, only to have her admonish me - «Daddy, don't!» - a sharp rebuke for being so quick to interrupt our sacred time together.

Do you remember when you and your friends would go to the beach to swim and sun and take leave of your lives for an afternoon or longer. These days, I go to the beach and see teenagers come out of the water and instantly get on their cell phones. They can't imagine a life without a cell phone, and they can't imagine coming to the beach without it.

Nonetheless, I still say: why not step back and view all this progress from a different angle? Instead of trying to figure out way to do a hundred things at once, why not slow things down? After all, the greatest gift you can offer another person, is your ability to listen, to let that person feel that you are intent on what he or she is saying, that you have all the time in the world. (The individuals I know who can do that are few, but they stand out conspicuously in my mind.) Through interviewing people I write about, I have come to learn how much people want to be understood, how much they want and need to be able to explain themselves.

Technology, for the most part, creates the illusion of intimacy. As marvelous as it can be, it also foils us. It keeps us from the best of ourselves and enables us to avoid others. It makes us into intimate strangers.

To me, the most splendid thing about a place like New York City, where I lived for a long time, is that you can walk the streets day after day, year after year, and always see something new, something that will astonish or touch you. It may be a detail on a building, or the way the light hits the magnificent public library at a particular time. But if you're not open to these things, if you're too busy walking down the street glued to your phone and don't nof ice things around you, you're going to miss something. It may seem intangible and, therefore, unimportant, but those something have a way of adding up.

Запитання для диспуту:

1. Is here a particular machine or form of technology that you?

2. Do you think technology than do females?

3. If you could keep only one machine, which one would it be?

4. In general, are you a gadget-lover or a gadget-hater?

 

A gloomy picture

The environment is everything that surrounds and affects the character and growth of living things. When talking about environmental problems, ecological issues cannot be separated from their effect on mankind, nor can human actions be separated from their effect on the ecology. The condition of life, our daily actions, and the state of the global environment are interdependent, yet often this interdependence is overlooked.

What follows is a summary of the environmental issues.

Population Explosion

Today the planet holds more than 6 billion people. Global population has doubled in the last 40 years and is expected to double again by 2050, with 90 percent of that increase occurring in developing countries.

African nations are expanding at the fastest rate. In the year 2000, Africa will have 900 million people: with an annual population growth of 3 percent. Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, will soar from 112 million to 274 million. China, now the most populous country in the world with 1.2 billion people, will retain the lead with a population expected to reach over 1.5 billion by the year 2050.

Hunger

Despite claims that there is less famine in the world today; over 150 million children go to bed hungry every night. According to a United Nations report, 37 percent of people in India cannot buy enough food to feed their families, and in the Horn of Africa, it is estimated that more than 20 million people, mostly women and children are at risk of starving.

The United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization reports that there are more than 786 million underfed people in developing nations. But the developing countries are not alone. The United States is not exempt. Due to, the recession and structural changes in the economy, a record  number million

people, or 10 percent of Americans, were dependent on food stamps

In 1992, over half were families with children under the age of 5.

We are looking at one-quarter of the globe plagued  hunger

and lacking the most basic needs in life.

The United States is not exempt. Due to the recession and structural changes in the economy, a record number of 23 million people, or 10 percent of Americans, were dependent on food stamps in 1992; over half were families with children under the age of 5. We are looking at one-quarter of the globe plagued with hunger and lacking the most basic needs in life.

Pollution

For many people, the most alarming of all human assaults on the environment is the contamination of air, earth, and water from dumping. Evidence of dumping can be found everywhere, done by individuals and large corporations alike. Hong Kong dumps more than 1,000 tons of plastic a day. Americans throw away 16 billion disposable diapers each year. Open sewage drains and festering landfills are common sites in many parts of the world.

In a small Malaysian village, babies are born deformed and children die of rare illnesses, which their doctors claim are caused by exposure to radiation from a multinational company that set up business in this small community.

Creatures of the sea are also vulnerable to pollutants that enter the rivers, lakes, and oceans of the world. Over half of the world's population lives along coastlines that are being increasingly polluted by sewage, industrial waste water, and runoff from cities and farms. Half of the fish in these areas polluted by toxic chemicals fail to spawn, and many die. Those that are fished may pass on high levels of cancer-causing chemicals to the consumer. It appears that humans are polluting at the expense of their own lives.

Deforestation

The rapid reduction of forest land around the globe appears on every list of critical environmental issues. Its effects are of importance to all living things. Forests absorb carbon dioxide from the air and supply oxygen. They are home to fragile plants and fascinating creatures, and they have provided people with fuel, food, and shelter for centuries. But with the growth in human population, forests have been converted into farms, commercial enterprises, and industrial developments.

It is estimated that every year 6.3 million hectares of tropical forest alone are cleared for agriculture and that 4.4 million hectares are used in commercial logging. This involves big corporations buying large chunks of forest in order to fell and export timber to Europe, Japan, and North America. One-tenth of all the timber for this market comes from tropical forests from such countries as Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines.

Extinction

Biological diversity - the variety among living organisms and their habitats - is more threatened now than at any time in the past. Tropical deforestation is the main reason behind this crisis, but the destruction of temperate forests and the pollution of rivers, lakes, and oceans also plays an important role.

The total number of species is not known. Biologists estimate that there are between 5 and 30 million species, many of them insects, tiny sea creatures and lesser known plants and animals. As these species become extinct, they in turn take with them more of nature's wealth. The removal of a single species, no matter how tiny, can set off a chain reaction affecting many others. It has been estimated, for example, that a disappearing plant can take with it up to 30 other species, including insects, higher animals, and even other plants. Each species, no matter how small or obscure, plays an essential role in maintaining the balance of nature.

Global Warming

Human activity is altering the composition of the atmosphere in ways that could bring rapid changes in climate. Although naturally occurring greenhouse gases keep the Earth's surface warm by trapping infrared radiation given off by the sun, human activity is increasing the concentration of these gases, as well as adding new, more dangerous chemicals to the atmosphere.

Carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas, has increased in the atmosphere over the past four decades from the burning of fossil fuels and, more recently, from deforestation. Carbon dioxide is pouring into atmosphere from motor vehicles and factories.

But perhaps the most dangerous is the production of chemically synthesized chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are used in cooling systems and aerosol spray cans and in the production of some fast food containers. This greenhouse gas has been blamed for heating up the atmosphere as well as thinning the upper level of the atmosphere, the ozone layer.

Many scientists are predicting an increase of about 1 degree Celsius in the global mean temperature by 2025 and a 3-degree increase by the end of the next century.

Завдання. Перекладіть рідною мовою: Tarn Lehrer

Pollution

Pollution, pollution - you can use the latest toothpaste And then rinse your mouth with industrial waste. Just go out for a breath of air And you'll be ready for medicare. The city streets are quite a thrill -If the hoods don't get you the monoxide will. Pollution, pollution - wear a gas mask and a veil, Then you can breathe - long as you don't inhale. Fish gotta swim, birds gotta fly -But they don't last long if they try. Запитання для диспуту:

1. What kind of personal environment do you enjoy? Do you like to be outside in nature or inside in an artificially cooled or heated environment? What natural surroundings do you prefer? Do you like a climate that is cool or warm? Moist or dry?

2. What do you know about pollution? What are the different kinds

of pollution? What are some major causes of pollution? What are

some immediate and long-range effects of pollution?

3. How do you dispose of your trash when you are at home? In a

public place? In your car? How does your community or town

dispose of its trash?

4. How many throw-away-products do you use in your home? For

example, do you regularly use packaged or prepared foods or

frozen dinners in throw-away-trays? Do you drink soft drinks

from cans or bottles? Do you use aerosol cans? If you are a parent,

do you use (or have you used) disposable diapers with your baby?

Have you thought of possible long-range effects of using so

many throw-away-products-especially paper and styrofoam products?

5. Can you name three endangered species? Can you explain why one species is endangered and what can be done to revive the species? When the protection of an endangered species conflicts with economic or human values, such as job security or health, which is more important?

 

ДОДАТОК А

ПІДРЯДНІ РЕЧЕННЯ:

ПІДМЕТ

ПРИСУДОК

Підрядні сполучники та сполучникові слова

that що, те що; whether, if чи; who (whom) хто (кого); whose чий; what що, який; which який; when коли; where де, куди; how як; why чому.

What you say is interesting.

Те, що ви говорите, цікаве.

The question is if they can go to the laboratory.

Запитання в тому, чи зможуть вони піти до лабораторії.

That water is a good conductor of sound is a weil-known fact.

Те, що вода є гарним провідником звуку, всім відомо.

The trouble is that the key is lost.

Справа в тому, що ключ загублено.

ОБСТАВИННІ ПІДРЯДНІ РЕЧЕННЯ:

УМОВИ

ОБРАЗУ ДІЇ

Підрядні сполучники

how як, яким чином; unless якщо ...ні;

as як; provided (that) за умови, що

as if, as though так, неначе; providing (that) якщо тільки

if якщо, якщо б

 

 

mean meant meant

meet met met

put put put

read read read

run ran run

speak spoke spoken

say said said

see saw seen

show showed shown

sell sold sold

spend spent spent

send sent sent

stand stood stood

sit sat sat

sleep slept slept

swim swam swum

sing sang sung

shine shone shone

teach taught taught

tell told told

take took taken

think thought thought

understand understood understood

write wrote written

win won won

wake (up) woke (up) woken (up)

 

ЗМІСТ

Передмова 5

Урок 1  6

Урок 2   15

Урок 3 24

Урок 4. Контрольні завдання до уроків 1—3 33

Урок 5 33

Урок б 50

Урок 7. Контрольні завдання до уроків 5-6 64

Урок 8 71

Урок 9 83

Урок 10 92

Урок 11. Контрольні завдання до уроків 8-10   101

Тексти для позааудиторного читання   109

Текст 1  109

Текст 2  110

Текст 3  115

Текст 4  ,  118

Додаток А  123

Додаток Б  125

 

 

126

 

127


 

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