94886

HISTORY OF MEDICINE

Доклад

Медицина и ветеринария

In the middle of the 14th century the bubonic plague killed one-fourth of the European population and the scientists became more determined to search for practical effective methods of dealing with medical problems. In the early 1600s the English physician William Harvey discovered how blood circulates in the body...

Английский

2015-09-17

24 KB

0 чел.

HISTORY OF MEDICINE

Middle Ages date from about 500 A.D. to about 1500 A.D. The period from 500 A.D. to about 1000 A.D. is often referred to as Dark Ages, as there was lack of progress in the ability of people to understand and control their environment. During Middle Ages many hospitals were built in Europe. In the middle of the 14th century the bubonic plague killed one-fourth of the European population and the scientists became more determined to search for practical, effective methods of dealing with medical problems. This marked the beginning of the scientific approach to medicine.

During the Renaissance, laws forbidding the dissection of cadavers were relaxed and as a result, the first accurate textbook on human anatomy was published. In 1515 the first public dissection of a human cadaver was performed.

Dissection enabled physicians to identify the heart and its circulatory system, the major nerves, the stomach and other digestive organs.

In 1545, the first pharmacy was opened in London. Prescription of medicines had been administered prior to this time, but the establishment of this shop indicated means of treating a disease. Today, many thousands of drugs are used to treat illnesses.

The microscope was invented in 1590. Laboratory technicians use it regularly to analyze specimens of blood, urine and tissue. Their reports help the physicians to make the diagnosis of a disease.

In the early 1600s, the English physician William Harvey discovered how blood circulates in the body and published the first medical book describing this circulation and the role of the heart. In 1667, the first blood transfusion was performed. In 1699 a law to control communicable diseases was enacted in the American colony of Massachusetts.

In the 19th century, modern surgery was made possible by two revolutionary discoveries: the invention of safe methods of anesthesia and the control of wound infection by the use of antiseptics and sterile equipment. Besides, a set of diagnostic procedures, requiring a complete case history and a thorough physical examination, become common medical practice. In 1895, Roentgen discovered the X-ray to detect abnormalities inside the body.

The 20th century has brought medical advances in nearly every area of medicine. Open-heart surgery has been developed. Organ transplants are often successful. Vaccines (infectious agents given to patients to establish resistance to particular diseases) have almost eliminated the threat of poliomyelitis. The electrocardiogram (EKG), electroencephalogram (EEG) and computed tomography help physicians to detect heart and brain malfunctions. Due to early diagnosis and more effective treatment more and more cancer victims are surviving. X-ray examination helps to make more accurate diagnosis and more effective treatment. Lasers become very helpful in surgery. As people change their lifestyles and their environment new diseases appear. That's why health workers always search for better medical care.


 

А также другие работы, которые могут Вас заинтересовать

49698. Определение геометрических размеров рамы 148 KB
  Выбираем сечение ригеля 150x300.сечения; ширина ребра таврового и двутаврового сечений; h0 рабочая высота сечения; относительная высота сжатой зоны бетона Rb расчетные сопротивления бетона осевому растяжению; Аs площадь сечения ненапрягаемой арматуры γb 1 где Rbn значение жесткости бетона призменная прочность выбираемое по таблице СНиП 2. γs 1 по значению Rs выбираем =004 производим расчет арматуры по формуле 2 см2 где относительная высота сжатой зоны бетона равная...
49700. РАДИОПРИЁМНОЕ УСТРОЙСТВО ЧМ СИГНАЛОВ 1.6 MB
  Курсовой проект посвящен проектированию приемника частотно модулированных непрерывных сигналов.В первой главе проведен выбор и обоснование структурной схемы приемника и описаны основные составные части. Во второй главе сделан эскизный расчет приемника и выбраны электрические принципиальные схемы составных частей приемника.
49701. Метрологическое обеспечение механической обработки гильзы 1Е14ОП-ХС1200.5.19.018 211.48 KB
  Целью работы является разработка метрологического обеспечения производства детали Гильза проверка правильности оформления чертежа правильности выбора допусков на размеры и значений шероховатости для поверхностей. СОДЕРЖАНИЕ Введение 5 1 Задача метрологической экспертизы 6 2 Назначение детали 7 3 Требования к точности размеров 8 4 Требования к шероховатости поверхности 10 5 Взаимосвязь допусков размеров формы расположения поверхностей и шероховатости 11 6 Отклонение формы и расположения поверхностей 13 7 Список замечаний и предложений на...
49703. Полносборное общественное здание из крупноэлементных конструкций 227 KB
  Характеристика здания; Генеральный план; Санитарно техническое оборудование здания; Противопожарные требования. Конструктивные решения здания. По заданию; По генеральному плану участка здания.