Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Italian in origin and concept, futurism was first theorized by Filippo Tomaso Marinetti in a manifesto published on 20 February 1909 in the French daily Le Figaro. Futurism soon became a movement central to the process of radical artistic renovation carried out by the European avant-garde.



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Italian in origin and concept, futurism was first theorized by Filippo Tomaso Marinetti in a manifesto published on 20 February 1909 in the French daily Le Figaro. Futurism soon became a movement central to the process of radical artistic renovation carried out by the European avant-garde. It dealt both with cultural debates specific to Italian art of the first two decades of the 20th century and with crucial discourses of the European artistic revival in general. While affecting primarily the arts in the more restrictive sense of the term—under the influence of Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Gino Severini, and Mario Chiattone—its most notable representatives in Italian architecture were Giacomo Balla and Antonio Sant’Elia but also, in various degrees, such architects as Adalberto Libera and Angiolo Mazzoni, among others. The close collaboration between futurist artists and architects is evidenced by the fact that the first and only exhibition of futurist architecture held in Italy of the period was curated by a painter, Fillia, who also edited journals on topics such as “The Futurist City” and in 1932 wrote a book, La Nuova Architettu ra, in which he gave a comprehensive view of the significance of the movement. Most sensitive to the challenges of the new “machinist society” (Le Corbusier) among the avant-garde artists and architects, the promoters of futurism were concerned primarily with expressing movement and mechanical speed, which they saw as essential determinants of modernity. The futurists extended their artistic vision to the study of the latest conquest of modern science with an undivided enthusiasm for all of what they perceived to be radical facts of the contemporary civilization. They rejected emphatically the old canons of static prespectival representation and invoked instead the redemptive force of the universal dynamism brought about by the machine, itself central to the new forms of visualization. Such a proposition was translated in architecture first through visionary representations of cities shaped by speedy automotive vehicles and later through the redefinition of the Modern movement’s functionalist themes in terms of extreme flexibility and mobility (Libera’s imaginary villas, Mazzoni’s control tower for the Florentine train station, and Le Corbusier’s inhabited high-ways). The best-known early projects of futurist architecture are Sant’Elia’s and Mario Chiatone’s urban experiments exhibited in Milan in 1914. The spatial relationships of the city fabric were determined in the first place by an elaborate system of monumental arteries distributed hierarchically through and underneath huge “streamlined” skyscrapers, anticipating the post-Art Deco aesthetics of the 1930s, including Libera’s entrance to the commemorative Mostra della Rivoluzione Fascista (1932) or his analogous Italian Pavilion of the 1933 Century of Progress Exposition, Chicago. Sant’Elia’s pre-World War I “città nuova” projects informed significantly Marinetti himself, who published Manifest of Futurist Architecture, commonly regarded as one of the most important documents of modern Italian architecture. The thrust that futurism put on solving problems of motorized transportation and its diversification according to speed and purpose—including strict segregation of pedestrian circulation—had a significant influence on Le Corbusier’s 1922 speculative Contemporary City for Three Million Inhabitants, the touchstone of pre-Chandigarh Le Corbusian urbanism. This influence can be seen as well in the Amsterdam Rokin project by Mart Stam and that of other European architects, Le Corbusier’s Plan Obus in particular. Whereas at the eve of World War II the early Russian artistic and literary avant-garde evolved a genre with a similar name—the Cubo-Futurism of Kasimir Malevich, Khruchenikh, and Khlebnikov—with little significant connection with the Italian movement proper, the postrevolutionary Soviet Constructivism (Chernikhov’s mechanical architecture, Melnikov’s dynamic garages and exploded theaters, Mayakovsky’s “urban poetry,” or Dziga Vertov’s cinematic constructions) played a significant role in the development of futurism in Italy (Libera’s and Giuseppe Terragni’s rooms at the 1932 Mostra).


Architect, England

Together with architects Richard Rogers, Nicholas Grimshaw, and Michael Hopkins, Norman Foster is credited with pioneering the design style known as High-Tech in Britain in the early 1970s. Although in the United States the term refers principally to an architectural style, in Britain High-Tech points to a more rigorous approach in which advanced technology is acknowledged as representing the “spirit of the age.” The aesthetics of industrial production and machine technology are celebrated and embodied in the methodology of design production. Industry is a source for both technology and imagery. After working in the city treasurer’s office in Manchester Town Hall and serving for two years in the Royal Air Force, Foster studied at the University of Manchester (1956–61) and at Yale University (1961–62).  

Great Court at The British Museum

(extension), London, 1994–2000

Photo by Nigel Young © Foster and


In 1963, he formed Team 4 in London, collaborating with his wife, Wendy, and Su and Richard Rogers, whom he had met at Yale. An early commission was for a house in Cornwall for Richard Rogers’s parents-in-law, the Brumwells, and their art collection. Marcus Brumwell had been a founder of Misha Black’s design consultancy, DRU, and this connection was to lead to further commissions. The house is half buried in the contours of the site and takes full advantage of the dramatic coastal position; the bridge spanning the steep gully between road and turfed roof presages some of Foster and Roger’s laterpreoccupations. Another significant early work was the controversial Reliance Controls Factory (1967) at Swindon. Here, Foster’s interest in tense metal skins for buildings and Roger’s predilection for expressing structural bracing externally are anticipated. There was also a concern for civilizing working conditions, which was to become a hallmark of Foster’s commercial buildings. Foster Associates was founded in London in 1967 and includes eight partners in addition to Norman and Wendy Foster (Loren Butt, Chubby S.Chhabra, Spencer de Gray, Roy Fleetwood, Birkin Haward, James Meller, Graham Phillips, and Mark Robertson). It has become an immensely successful practice with an international profile. Their first significant commission was the Olsen line passenger terminal and administration building (1971) in London’s Dockland. Here, Foster declared his concern of breaking down the “distinction between us and them, posh and scruffy, front office and workers’ entrance.” Throughout the early 1970s, Foster brought his commitment to a patrician elegance to a whole range of modestly scaled buildings, offices, schools, shops, and some factories. The celebrated headquarters of the Willis Faber Dumas offices (1975) in Ipswich boasts a curved glass facade that reinforces the street boundaries and harmonizes with the urban environment. Two floors of office accommodation for 1300 people are elevated and placed between amenity and support areas above and below, including a swimming pool and gymnasium on the ground floor and a restaurant pavilion set in the landscaped garden roof. The Sainsbury Centre for the Visual Arts (1978), built to house the Sir Robert and Lady Sainsbury Collection, comprises an ingeniously adaptable structure that allows any part of the external walls and roof to be changed quickly to provide different combinations of glazed, solid, or grilled aluminum panels. A single, large, span roof covers two exhibition galleries, the School of Fine Arts, a large reception area, the university faculty club, a public restaurant, and storage facilities. The latter requiring more space, Foster designed the fan-shaped Crescent Wing, completed in 1991. This addition is introduced discretely into the landscape and does not destroy the integrity of the main building. The Renault Distribution Centre (1983) at Swindon is based on a structural module—a masted, lightweight suspended roof that repeats itself. Stansted Airport Terminal (1991) followed, with its dramatic roof structure surmounting the vast open space of the main building. While being committed to the HighTech movement, which celebrates the aesthetic of industrial production, Foster is also concerned with what he describes as design “development,” evinced in the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Headquarters (1985), described as the most expensive office building ever constructed. More recent works include a contribution to Stockley Park (1984), Heathrow, Middlesex, a business park attracting international companies; the ITN Headquarters (1991); Riverside Offices and Apartments (1990), including Foster’s own apartment, both in London; and the Library (1992) at Cranfield Institute of Technology, Bedfordshire, England.


R.Stephen Sennott, Editor

Fitzroy Dearborn

New York London


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