Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
People working in them keep in contact with each other regularly. In the best-run businesses, few barriers exist to prevent people talking to each other. The companies do everything possible to ensure that staff meets easily and frequently.
Communications in excellent companies are different from those in other companies. Excellent companies have a 'vast network of informal, open communications'. People working in them keep in contact with each other regularly. In the best-run businesses, few barriers exist to prevent people talking to each other. The companies do everything possible to ensure that staff meets easily and frequently.
One problem with communication is that people think they have got their message across when in fact they have not. We do not communicate as effectively as we think we do, so when giving instructions, managers must make sure that those instructions have been understood and interpreted correctly.
A breakdown in communication is quite likely to happen if there is some kind of 'social distance' between people. In organizations, people may have difficulty communicating if they are different in status, or if one person has a much higher position than the other. For example, a couple of production workers will probably speak frankly to each other about things that are going wrong in their department. But if the Chief Executive of the company passes by and asks how things are going, they'll probably say, 'Just fine, thank you. It is risky to tell the truth to someone higher up in the hierarchy - they may not like what they hear and hold it against you.
For this reason, staff often 'filter' information. They deliberately alter the facts, telling the boss what he or she wants to hear. They do not want to give bad news, so they give their superior too good an impression of the situation.
One way of reducing social distance and improving communications is to cut down on status symbols. It is possible, for example, to have a common dining-room for all staff. It is worth noting, too. that in Japanese companies, it is common for all the staff to wear uniforms. Physical surroundings and physical distance limit or encourage communication. The physical layout of an office must be carefully planned. Open-plan offices are designed to make communication easier and quicker. However, it is interesting to note that employees in such offices will often move furniture and other objects to create mini-offices.
Another important barrier to communication is selective perception. Put simply, this means that people perceive things in different ways. The world of the sender is not the same as the world of the receiver. Because their knowledge and experience is different, sender and receiver are always on slightly different wavelengths. Therefore, a manager will say something, but the employee will interpret his meaning incorrectly. The message becomes distorted.
Communication problems will arise, from time to time, in the best-run companies. However, to minimize such problems, managers must remember one thing. Communication should be a two-way process. Managers should encourage staff to ask questions and to react to what the managers are saying. Feedback is essential. The most useful question a manager can ask is 'Did you understand that?'.