Stylistic as a branch of science. Subjects, methods, related research and the differences between them


Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Affective implies that the choice of words reflects the user’s attitude to the contents of communication. Connotative suggests emotional associations with words. In other words it has to produce an enlarged representation of the communication in order to be explicit enough.



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1. Stylistic as a branch of science. Subjects, methods, related research and the differences between them.

S. is a branch of ling. which studies style. There exists several definitions of style, few schools with diff. approaches. Style as “the way of doing it” (encyclopedia of lang. and ling.). Style should be treated as an alternative ways of expressing the same content. Choices can occur on all levels of lang. (phonetic, morf., lex., synt.). In certain context choices may not be available. The choice may be determined by preceding sent. S. as a part of general linguistics tends to focus first on the relationship between the ling. structure and textual meaning. In Russ. tradition S. covers the research into both literature and other applications of lang: Виноградов, Гальперин, Винокур, Якобсон, Арнольд. Проф. Гальперин understood stylistics as research into lang. media which secure the desired effect of the utterance as well as into types of texts determined by their pragmatic characteristics. S. – subdomain of ling. dealing with stylistic resources of the lang. and with functional styles. The methods of research vary and rely not only on traditional ling. methods but on those of cognitive ling., pragmatic, literary, criticism, socioling., rhetoric. Links between S. and other branches of ling.: overlaps with pragmatics and socioling in their study of social relationships which exist between the writer and the reader. It looks at how the context situation subj. matters of function can constrain the choice of ling. means and features. S. overlaps with discourse analysis trying to answer why certain means were used or why the text or a message is organized in certain ways. Cognitive ling. relates stylistically significant facts and our choice of them to cognitive structure and process. Rhetoric developed into study of affective speaking and writing. Fundamental notions of S.: func. style, expressiveness, imagery, emotive charge, evaluation, expressive means, stylistic devices.

2. The notion of style.

There exists several definitions of style, few schools with diff. approaches. Style as “the way of doing it” (encyclopedia of lang. and ling.). Style should be treated as an alternative ways of expressing the same content. Choices can occur on all levels of lang. (phonetic, morf., lex., synt.). In certain context choices may not be available. The choice may be determined by preceding sent. S. is construed as ling. choice. S. of the text – the aggregate of the contextual probabilities of its ling. items. S. is more than 1 ling item. S. can be treated as a link between context and ling. form. The Encycl. of L&L states that S. is described in context of Literary studies, it includes the research into: the s. of individual, the s. of a group, the s. of a text. Indiv. s. can be observed outside of literary boundaries. S. as a part of general ling. tends to focus on relationships between the ling. structure and textual meaning.

3. The notion of stylistic markedness

SM is prominents of some lang. units either in a lang. as a syst. or in the context. Sometimes instead of the “prominents” = salients. A lang. unit is considered to be stylistically marked if it’s just characterized by stylistic connotation either sintagmatically or paradigmatically. Ex thin-skinny-slim. Syntagmatic markedness is called for-grounding (выдвижение) This term is usually applied to literary text. They describe St.M. in terms of expressiveness, imagery and emotiveness.

6.Expressive means and stylistic devices.

They are particular means that foreground certain utterances that make them more prominent, more effective and carrying additional info. EM are ling. means which are part of lang. They are registered in dict-s, singled out in textbooks and may have corresponding neutral synonyms. SD reflects the creative ability of the lang. user. They are unique, individual, carry a great amount of important info and require a considerable effect to be understood.

The birth of SDs is a natural process in the development of language media. Language units which are used with more or less definite aims of communication in various passages of writing and in various functional styles begin gradually to develop new features, a wider range, of functions, thus causing polyfunctionality. Hence they can be presented as invariants with concrete variables. The interrelation between expressive means and stylistic devices can be worded in terms of the theory of information. Expressive means have a greater degree of predictability than stylistic devices. The latter may appear in an environment which may seem alien and therefore be only slightly or not at all predictable. Expressive means, on the contrary, follow the natural course of thought, intensifying it by means commonly used in language. It follows that SDs carry amountof information and therefore require a certain effort to decode their meaning and purport. SDs must be regarded as a special code which has to be well known to the reader in order to be deciphered easily.

4. Expressiveness, evaluation, emotiveness.

E. – a notion which refers to the emotional content of an expression as well to the degree to which this expression reflects the personality or the individual creativity of a lang. user. The notion “expressive” overlaps with the notion “affective”, “connotative”, “emotive”. E. is always broader than emotiveness. Affective implies that the choice of words reflects the user’s attitude to the contents of communication. Connotative suggests emotional associations with words. Emotive refers to the emotional effect on the reader/listener. Evaluation presupposes that the lang. user compares a phenomenon with his system of values and places the phenomenon along the respective scale. Expressiveness includes emotiveness.

The category of expressiveness has long been the subject of heated discussions among linguists. In etimological sense expressiveness may be understood as a kind of intensification of an utterance or of a part of it depending on the position in the utterance of the means that manifest this category and what these means are. But somehow lately the notion of expressiveness has been confused with another notion, viz. emotiveness. Emotiveness, and corresponidingly the emotive elements of language, are what reveal the emotions of writer or speaker. But these elements are not direct manifestations ^f"the*^molT6ns—they are just the echoes of real emotions, echoes which have undergone some intellectual recasting. They are designed to awaken co-experience in the mind of the reader.

Expressiveness a broader notion than emotiveness and is by no means to be reduced to the latter. Emotiveness is an integral part of expressiveness and, as a matter of fact, occupies a predominant position in the category of expressiveness. But there are media in language which aim simply at logical emphasis of certain parts of the utterance. They do not evoke any intellectual representation of feeling but merely serve the purpose of verbal actualization of the utterance.

5. The notion of variation. Variation is English language.

In stylistics and socioling. the notion of v. is used to refer to any system of ling. expression whose use is governed by situational variables. Lang. varieties can be determined by the aims of communication. Lang. varies because of the wide range of uses it is put to a wide range of contexts as well as several identities of a person. Number of factors which would bring lang. variations: 1) codification factor divides the English lang. into standard and substandard. Standard eng. – elaboratd form of a lang. which is based on phonetic, morf., lexical, synt. & styl. norms. these norms are recognized by the majority of native speakers. This variety of eng. is acceptable anywhere. Substandard eng. is that form of lang. which is considered to be beyond the established norms. It includes slang, vulgarisms, jargons, grammatical illiteracies. Slang can be divided into general slang which is admitted into standard eng. and is understood as colloquial departure from standard usage. Special slang – the lang. of the underworld. Standard and substandard eng. form national eng. 2) geographical factor: reflects physical spac between lang. and culture communities. National variants of eng (American, british..) & dialects. National lang. are characterized by both ling. diff-s and referential diff-s. Dialects are recognized by phonetics but they may also differ in grammar and structure. 3) social factor: it reflects social space between communities or social groups. It creates sociolects. Sociolects are determined by a number of factors: social status by birth, education, occupation, ethnic group, gender, age.

4) medium factor: it divides lang. into spoken & written. Each of them can be also divided: spoken – spontaneous & non-spontaneous -> spont. – monologue & dialogue$ non-spont. – reciting & speaking on what’s written -> to be spoken & to be spoken as if not written. Written speech -> written text to be spoken, written to be spoken as if not written, written not necessarily to be spoken. 5) relationship factor/attitudional/tenor: it takes into account the proximity of the interlocatives, 5 varieties: frozen (church, court of law), formal, consultative (neutral, less-formal), the one which doesn’t have any styl. markers, casual, intimate. 6) subject matter/function: registers which are described as lang. in action (horse-racing, women’s eng.) 7) functional factor: it determines functional styles. the term “func. styl” is used in russ. tradition (in eng – discourse types). diff varieties within the lang. have no rigid borders. they intersect each other and their confrontation in one text may have styl. significances.


7. Spoken English and Written English.

Of the two varieties of language, diachronically the spoken is primary and the written is secondary. Each of these varieties has developed its own features which in many ways may be regarded as opposed to each other. The situation in which the spoken variety of language is used and in which it develops, can be described concisely as the presence of an interlocutor. The written variety, on the contrary, presupposes the absence of an interlocutor. The spoken language is maintained in the form of a dialogue, the written in the form of a monologue. The spoken language, has a considerable advantage over the written, in that the human voice, comes into play. This is a powerful means of modulating the utterance, as are all kinds of gestures, which, together with the intonation, give additional information.

The written language has to seek means to compensate for what it lacks. Therefore the written utterance will inevitably be more diffuse, more explanatory. In other words, it has to produce an enlarged representation of the communication in order to be explicit enough.

The forms of the written language replace those of the spoken language when dissemination of ideas is the purpose in view. It is the written variety of language with its careful organization and deliberate, choice of words.

The gap between the spoken and written varieties of language, wider & narrower at different periods in the development of the literary language, will always remain apparent due to the difference in circumstances in which the two are used.

It must be borne in mind that in the belles-lettres style there may appear elements of colloquial language (a form of the spoken variety), but it will always be stylized to a greater or lesser degree by the writer.

The spoken language cannot be detached from the user of it, the speaker, who is unable to view it from the outside. The written language, on the contrary, can be detached from the writer, enabling him to look upon his utterance objectively and giving him the opportunity to correct and improve what has been put on paper. That is why it is said that the written language bears a greater volume of responsibility than its spoken c6unteifpart;

The most striking difference between the spoken and written language is, however, in the Vocabulary used. There are words and phrases typically colloquial, on the one hand, and typically bookish-, on the other.

There is another characteristic feature of colloquial language, namely, the insertion into the utterance of words without any meaning, which are appropriately called "fill-ups" or empty words. To some extent they give a touch of completeness to the sentence if used at the end of it or, if used in the middle, help the speaker to fill the gap when unable to find the proper word.

12. The stylistic devices of zeugma and pun.

Z. is defined as the use of the word in the same grammatical, but diff semantic relations to the 2 words in context. Sometimes the head word may be repeated. Syntactically every z. is a combination of a verb with 2 nouns within each pair the semantic relationship is different.

Zeugma - a SD, when a polysemantic verb that can be combined with nouns of most varying semantic groups is deliberately used with two of more homogeneous members, which are not connected semantically. This SD is particularly favoured in Eng. emotive prose & poetry. Is a strong & effective SD to maintain the purity of the primary meaning when the 2 meanings clash. By making the 2 meanings conspicuous in this particular way, each of them stands out clearly.

E.g. “All girls were in tears and white muslin”

Pun is more independent syntactically and some may require a rather big context to be understood. P. may be used to create a humorous effect. pun – another SD based on the interaction of 2 well-known meanings of a word or phrase. The main distinction between Z. & P. is a structural one. Z – the realization of 2 meanings with the help of a V which is made to refer to different subjects/objects. The P. is more independent. Is often used in riddles & jokes. P & Z are found in poetry & poetical descriptions, in emotive prose. E.g. “Did you hit a woman with the child?” – “No, Sir, I hit her with a brick.”

9.The stylistic device of metaphor.

Was first described by Aristotle. Is a matter of words. It’s deviant from literal usage because the name is transferred to where it doesn’t belong. M. is based on similarity between 2 things and therefore an implicit comparison created on the principle of analogy. It’s function is purely ornamental. M/ is a kind of compressed or folded comparison. M. is based on an image and that comparison should occur between classes of objects and not individual objects. M. has a dual semantic nature. both literary and transferred meaning should be still perceived in a M. 4 notions to describe the M.: topic(tenor) – the word used literary, vehicle (word used metaphorically), the ground (relationship between these 2 words), the tension (the incompatibility between these 2 words). Black developed 2 theories: 1) substitutional theory – M. terms can be replaced with literary terms which fit the same context in order to understand the M. 2) comparison theory – M. is a presentation of some underlying analogy or similarity in the form of a condensed or elliptical simile. Another (anomaly) theory – M. is grammatically deviant, semantically anomalous, conceptually absurd or false. As a SD M. can be classified into genuine and trite, or dead M. (degree of unpredictability) a trite M. can be revived if it’s converted into a sustained or prolonged M. ex. the car shot down the drive snorting explosive fury from the exhaust. Conceptual metaphor is not a stylistic device. It’s a pattern of thought. It’s a method of explaining smth. we do not know with a help of smth. we know. ex. time is money

A metaphor is the interaction between the logical and contextual logical meanings of a word which is based on a likeness between objects and implies analogy and comparison between them.Similar to all lexical stylistic devices metaphor may be genuine, that is original, invented by the writer, or trite, that is hackneyed, often used in the language. The metaphor suggests an analogy. An implied analogy and likeness to concrete objects makes abstract ideas more concrete, complex ideas more simple and the thoughts more comprehensible. The metaphor may be expressed through nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs.

The noun metaphor may consist of one word or may have an attribute in the form of an “of-phrase”. The verb-metaphor is very emphatic as it throws the metaphorical light on the subject of the sentence too. Metaphors expressed by adjectives and adverbs are called metaphorical epithets and will be dealt with in the chapter on the epithet. Sometimes a metaphor is not confined to one image. The writer finds it necessary to prolong the image by adding a number of other images, but all these additional images are linked with the main, central image. Such metaphors are called sustained or prolonged metaphors.

e.g. But there was no May morning in his cowardly human heart.

13. The stylistic devices of oxymoron and antonomasia.

O. structurally consists of an adj + noun or adv. + noun. the meaning of 2 members clash being opposite in sense. ex. disagreeably pleasant. the adj + noun is more widely used. If the primary meaning of the qualifying word changes or weakens, the stylistic effect of oxymoron is lost. We may notice a peculiar change in the meaning of the qualifying word. It assumes a new life in oxymoron. oxymoronic groups, if repeated frequently, lose their stylistic quality and gradually fall into the group of acknowledged word-combinations which consist of an intensifier and the concept intensified.

Antonomasia – the use of a common noun in a function of a proper name or the use of a proper name with the func. of a common name to point out the lading most characteristic feature of an obj or event. Prof. Galperin points out that to certain extent a. may be likened to an epithet because it characterizes the person or event. 1st type of A. point to the most characteristic feature; 2nd type the proper name would acquire the grammatical characteristic of a common noun and it would start … an event or a of a person by that name (no more Hirosimas)

Depending on the character of the contextual meaning there are two types of antonomasia:

1) That based on the interaction between the nominal and contextual logical meanings.

2) That based on the interaction between the logical and contextual nominal meanings.

8. The notion of stylistic function

One of the most use definition of the function is the context:

  1.  cognitive tune, emotive tune, meta-linguistic tune, communicative tune

Stylistic focuses on the expressive potential of a linguistic phenomena in the context we can talk about their stylistic function.

  1.  Stylistic tune – ability of language means to interpret in such way in the text so it to convey in addition to the factual information they expressive, emotive, evaluate, estetic information.
  2.  the role played by certain classes of words in units of a higher level, senteces, text, utterances.
  3.  There`s no one correspondence between the tune and linguistic means which performed
  4.  Quite often several different means are used to express the same function this allows to channel the addresses attention in a right direction.
  5.  On the contrary one or two examples can color a substantial passage in the text.
  6.  Stylistic function is often expressed with the help of the interaction between various expressive means and stylistic devices as well as it works with the help of interaction between the units of different levels.

The notion of the stylistic tune is separately connected with notion of stylistic information.

In order to decipher the stylistic information in the text as well as their textual linguistic and extra-linguistic links. On one hand English posses a number of linguistic units.

  1.  Theory of deviance 2. Theory of foregrounding
  2.  We can`t do without the notion of the norm.
  3.  Norm can be defined as the recognized or received standarts.

Гальперин: is the invariant of the phonetic, morphological and stylistic patterns circulating in language in action of given period of time.

The norm is characterized by a certain degree of flexibility.

The variations made end of becoming of a new norm if the variation show patterns of repetition. If something is different of the norm it would stand out additional information. bad-------------good deviation - transposition

2.This notion first appeared in the research carried out by Prague linguistic group. This school standing the language of literature. The readers attention is directed what the language itself and not the information.

Within this theory the norm is not the violated.

The theory implies that some language forms are made more visible. As these forms are made more visible are attention is drown to these forms. And we need to seek a possible interpretation as to why they are so visible in comparison with the rest of the context. This theory reflects the ability of the language uses to predict t the possibility of this or that language uses to predict the possibility of this or that language form on the bases of one`s previous experience and the degree to which the prediction differs from the observe fact determines the intensity of the stylistic effect.

14. The stylistic devices of simile and hyperbole.

Another SD which also has the function of intensifying one certain property of the object described is hуperbоle. It can be defined as a deliberate overstatement or exaggeration of a feature essential (unlike periphrasis) to the object or phenomenon. In its extreme form this exaggeration is carried to an illogical degree. Like many stylistic devices, hyperbole may lose its quality as a stylistic device through frequent repetition and become a unit of the lan-guage-as-a-system. Hyperbole differs from mere exaggeration in that it is intended to be understood as an exaggeration.

S. is a stylistic device expressing a likeness between different objects. The formal element of the simile is the following conjunctions and adverbs: like, as, as like, etc. S. is based on the comparison of objects belonging to different spheres and involves an element of imagination. S. interprets the object by comparing it with some other objects of an entirely different nature, and produces the desired effect on the reader. S.usually serves as a means to clearer meaning. By comparing the object or phenomenon the writer describes with a concrete and familiar thing, he makes his description clearer and more picturesque. Besides making a narrative more concrete and definite, the simile helps the author to reveal certain feelings of his own as well.

Besides the original similes created by writers there are a great number of so-called traditional similes in the language which must be regarded as phraseological units. In the author‘s narrative traditional similes are most often used to stress the highest degree of quality. e.g. “Funny how ideas come,” he said afterwards, “like a flash of lightning.”

10. The stylistic devices of metonymy and irony.

M. is a stylistic device based on some kind of association between 2 objects. – transfer a name of author to piece of art or a book etc. (He has 2 Shagals in his countryside). – transfer material to smth. made of this material (ex. pay in silver). – from the place name onto the vent that takes place there (all of us can have our own Waterloo). – from the event to its participants (ex. the conference greeted the Speaker with applaud). – from parts to hole (ex. have you got wheels?) – it’s called synecdoche. M. concerns concrete concrete objects which are then generalized. this is why instances of M. are very often used with the definite article (from the cradle to the grave).

Irony occurs when a word is used in a meaning opposite to its dictionary meaning (I love being scolded by her). I. must not be confused with humor. The function of I. is not to produce a humorous effect but rather to express a feeling of irritation, displeasure, pity or regret. As I. is used to convey negative meaning, only positive concepts which are then negated can be uncounted as irony. All these devices the stylistic effect is created thanks to the context in which new meaning appear.

M. It is based on definite relations between the object implied and the object named. The interaction between the logical and the contextual meanings of the words is based on close relations objectively existing between the part and the body itself. In M. relations between the object named and the object implied are various and numerous. Here are the most frequent types of relations:

1) The relations that exist between an instrument and the action it performs (or between an organ of the body and its function). 2) The relations that exist between an article of clothing and the person wearing it. 3) The relations that exist between the symbol and the phenomenon it symbolized. Apart from this group of Ms some other trite types of metonymies should be mentioned – that is metonymies based on very close, common relations between objects. They are: a) The relations between the creator and his creation. b) The relations between the material and the thing made of it. c) The relations between the singular and the plural. This type of M. is called synecdochy. The stylistic effect of trite metonymies is in most cases weak. M. as a genuine stylistic device is used to achieve concreteness of description. By giving a specific detail connected with the phenomenon, the author evokes a concrete and life-like image and reveals certain feelings of his own. By mentioning only one seemingly insignificant feature or detail connected with the phenomenon the author draws the reader’s attention to it and makes him see the character he describes as he himself sees it. e.g. Then a pause, as the bonnet and dress neared the top of the Square.

Irony is such a case of interaction between logical and contextual logical meanings when the contextual logical meaning of the word becomes the opposite of its logical meaning.In most cases the sentence suffices to make irony clear. In certain cases, though, a much wider context is needed to understand that the word is used ironically and to perceive its stylistic effect.I. may be expressed by any part of speech, most often by a noun, adjective and adverb. The effect of irony largely depends on the unexpectedness and seeming lack of logic of a word used by the author in an incompatible context. The reader is fully aware of the contrast between what is logically expected and what is said. This contrast, this interaction of the contextual logical and logical meanings of the word often produces a humorous effect.Irony may be used to achieve an effect of bitter mockery and sarcasm as well, especially when it concerns some social phenomena. e.g. “Perhaps you had a grand passion”. Soames looked at her intently. “Yes – if you want to know – and much good it did me.”

11. The stylistic devices of epithet.

Aim – to characterize an object & to point out to the reader sometimes even impose on him some of the properties or features of the object with the aim of giving an individual perception or evaluation of them. E. there’s no clash. it’s a complex device. Semantically E. may be divided into associated & unassociated. Associated E. will point to a feature to a certain extent inherent in the concept of the object. Unassociated E. will characterize the obj. by adding a feature not inherent in it to strike the reader with its novelty. ex. voiceless sands. repeated E. would become stable word-combination – “fixed e.” – true love, emerald grass. A lot of e. are in folklore. Compositional structure divides e. into simple e. (1 w. only) – the devil-inspired twins$ phrase e. – has my good-for-nothing son been here, sentence e. – that i-don’t-care-about-anything look. In this sentence are usually used words look and attitude; reversed e. – a big brute of an animal. Distribution of e. divides into string chain of e., transferred e. – unbreakfasted morning.

Epithet is a stylistic device based on the interaction of the logical and emotive meanings. It shows the purely individual emotional attitude of the writer or the speaker towards the object mentioned. Epithet is expressed by: 1) adjectives; 2) adverbs;

Adjectives and adverbs constitute the greatest majority of epithets. 3) participles, both present and past; 4) nouns, especially often in of-phrases; 5) word-combinations; 6) whole phrases.

The last two groups of epithets help the writer in a rather concise form to express the emotional attitude of a personage towards an object or phenomenon. In most cases it is a direct quotation of the character’s remark. Such a usage of a quotation for an epithet stresses the subjectivity, individuality of the character’s perception. It renders the emotional attitude of the personage. Phrase-epithet helps not only to reveal the individual view of the author and his characters but at the same time to do it in a rather economical manner. One more structural type of epithet is “monopolized” by the English language. It is based on the illogical syntactical relations between the modifier and the modified. Such constructions enable the writer to use nouns of high emotional coloring, supplying them with additional characteristics without overcrowding the description. Epithets vary not only in structure but in the manner of application too. So, most often we meet one-word, or simple epithet. Rather often epithets are used in pairs. Not seldom three, four, five and even more epithets are joined in chains. From the viewpoint of their expressive power epithets can be regarded as those stressing qualities of the object or phenomenon and as those transferring the quality of one object to its closest neighbour. When the same definition is given to a smile it becomes an individual evaluation of the same, and is classified as a transferred epithet. A metaphoric epithet presents a metaphor within an epithet. In most cases metaphoric epithet is expressed by adjectives and adverbs. Into the same group of metaphoric epithets must be included compound epithets, the second element of which is “-like”. As all the other stylistic devices, epithets become hackneyed through long usage. Epithets should not be mixed up with logical attributes which have the same syntactical function but which do not convey the subjective attitude of the author towards the described object, pointing out only the objectively existing feature of the same. e.g. “Can you tell me what time that game starts today?” The girl gave him a lipsticky smile.

16. The stylistic devices of allusion and decomposition of set phrases.

An allusion is an indirect reference, by word or phrase, to a historical, literary, mythological, biblical fact or to a fact of everyday life made in the course of speaking or writing. The use of

allusion presupposes knowledge of the fact, thing or person alluded to on the part of the reader or listener. As a rule no indication of the source is given. This is one of the notable differences between quotation and allusion.

Linguistic fusions are set phrases, the meaning of which is understood only from the combination as a whole, as to pull a person's leg or to have something at one's finger tips. The meaning of the whole cannot be derived from the meanings of the component parts. The stylistic device of decomposition of fused set phrases consists in reviving the independent meanings which make up the component parts of the fusion. In other words, it makes each word of the combination acquire its literal meaning which, of course, in many cases leads to the realization of an absurdity. In the sentence "It was raining cats and dogs, and two kittens and a puppy landed on my window-sill" the fusion to rain cats and dogs' is freshened by the introduction of "kittens and a puppy," which changes the unmotivated combination into a metaphor which in its turn is sustained.


15. The stylistic devices of periphrasis and euphemism.

Euphemism is a word or phrase used to replace an unpleasant word or expression by a conventionally more acceptable one. The origin of the term 'euphemism' discloses the aim of the device very clearly, i.e. speaking well. Euphemism is sometimes figuratively called "a whitewashing device". The linguistic peculiarity of euphemism lies in the fact that every euphemism must call up a definite synonym in the mind of the reader or listener. Euphemisms may be divided into several groups according to their spheres of application. The most recognized are the following: 1) religious, 2) moral, 3) medical and 4) parliamentary. The life of euphemisms is short. They very soon become closely associated with the referent (the object named) and give way to a newly-coined word or combination of words, which, being the sign of a sign, throws another veil over an unpleasant or indelicate concept. political euphemisms. These are really understatements, the aim of which is to mislead public opinion and to express what is unpleasant in a more delicate manner. As has already been explained, genuine euphemism must call up the word it stands for. It is always the result of some deliberate clash between two synonyms. If a euphemism fails to carry along with it the word it is intended to replace, it is not a euphemism, but a deliberate veiling of the truth.

Periphrasis is a word-combination which is used instead of the word designating an object. Every periphrasis indicates the feature of a notion which impressed the writer and conveys a purely individual perception of a given phenomenon. As a result of frequent repetition periphrasis may become well established in the language as a synonymous expression for the word generally used to signify the object. Such word-combinations are called periphrastic synonyms. In contrast to periphrastic synonyms genuine periphrasis is created in the process of writing and is an element of the individual style of a writer. Periphrasis may be logical and figurative. Logical periphrases are based on logical notions. Figurative periphrasis may be based on metaphor and on metonymy. Euphemistic periphrasis is a variety of periphrasis which substitutes a mild, delicate expression for one which seems to be rude or unpleasant. Euphemistic periphrasis has some features in common with euphemisms. Periphrasis is used for various stylistic purposes, usually to achieve a humorous or satirical effect.

e.g. He bore under his arm the instruments of destruction.

20. The stylistic devices of asyndeton, polysyndeton and the gap-sentence link.

The connection of sentences, phrases or words without any conjunctions is called asyndentic.

Asyndeton helps the author to make each phrase or word sound independent and significant.

Asyndeton generally creates an effect that the enumeration is not completed.

Asyndeton also creates a certain rhythmical arrangement, usually making the narrative measured and energetic. e.g. She watched them go; she said nothing; it was not to begin then.

Polysyndeton is the connection of sentences, phrases or words based on the repetition of conjunctions or prepositions. The repetition of the conjunction “and” before each word or phrase stresses these enumerated words or phrases. Polysyndeton is sometimes used to retard the action and to create the stylistic effect of suspense. Besides, polysyndeton is one of the means used to create a certain rhythmical effect. e.g. He put on his coat and found his mug and plate and knife and went outside.

There is a peculiar type of connection which for want of a term we shall call the gap-sentence link. The connection is not immediately apparent & it requires a certain mental effort to grasp the interrelation b/w the parts of the utterance, in other words, to bridge the semantic gap. GSL is a way of connecting 2 s-ces seemingly unconnected & leaving it to the reader’s perspicacity to grasp the idea implied but not worded. The proper intonation also helps in deciphering the communication. THE GSL is generally indicated by AND or BUT. There is no asyndatic GSL. The GSL as a stylistic device is based on the peculiarities of the spoken l-ge & is therefore most frequently used in represented speech. The GSL has several functions: it may serve to signal the introduction of inner represented speech; it may be used to indicate a subjective evaluation of facts; it may introduce an effect resulting from a cause which has already had verbal expression.

17. The stylistic devices of inversion, chiasmus and parallel structures.

Inversion – a stylistic device in which the direct regular word order is changed either completely when predicative or predicate precedes the subj. Correspondently we differentiate between partial and complete inversion. ex. Out came the couchman. Compl. i. – predicate is in the front of the subj.; partial i. – the obj. precedes the subj. I. deals with rearrangements of the regular word order for the sake of producing emotional effect. I. is always sense motivated! I. has typical structural patterns: 1) obj. is placed at the beginning (part. i.); 2) the predicate is placed before the subj. (complete i.); 3) the adv. modifier is placed at the beginning of the sent. (part. i.); 4) the adv. modifier and predicate stand before the subj.; 5) the attribute is placed after the word it modifies (part. i.) – a picture beautiful in its sight. I. is characterized by specific intonation.

Parallel constr-n is a device which may be encountered not so much in the s-ce as in the SPU & the paragraph. The necessary condition in parallel constr-n is identical, or similar, syntactical structure in 2 or more s-ces or part of a s-ce in close succession. PCs are often backed up by repetition of wds (lexical) & prepositions (Polysyndeton). Pure PC doesn’t depend however on any other kind of repetition but the repetition of some parts of successive s-ces or clauses. Complete parallel arrangement, also called balance, maintains the principle of identical structures throughout corresponding s-ces. PC is most frequently used in enumeration, antithesis & in climax. The device of parallelism always generates rhythm. Chiasmus (reversed PC) belongs to the group of SDs based on the repetition of a syntactical pattern, but it has a cross order of w-ds & phrases. The structure of 2 successive s-ces or parts of a s-ce may be described as chiasmus, the word-order of one of the s-ces being inverted as compared with that of the other. Chiasmus is smt achieved by a sudden change from active voice to passive or vice versa. This device is effective in that it helps to lay stress on the 2nd part of the utterance, which is opposite in structure. Syntactical chiasmus is smt used to break the monotony of parallel constr-ns. Repetition is an expressive means of l-ge used when the speaker is under the stress of strong emotion. When used as a SD repetition acquires quite different functions. It doesn’t aim at making a direct emotional impact. On the contrary, the SD of repetition aims at logical emphasis, an emphasis necessary to fix the attention of the reader on the key-word of the utterance. Repetition is classified according to compositional patterns. If the repeated word (phrase) comes at the beginning of 2 or more consecutive s-cs, clauses or phrases, we have anaphora. If the repeated unit is placed at the end of consecutive s-ces, clauses or phrases, we have epiphora. Repetition may also be arranged in the form of the frame: the initial parts of a syntactic unit, in most cases of a paragraph, are repeated at the end of it/ This is called framing. Among other compositional models of repetition is linking or reduplication (also known as anadiplosis). The structure: the last word or phrase of one part of the utterance is repeated at the beginning of the next part, thus hooking the two parts together. Smt a writer may use the linking device several times in one utterance. This compositional pattern of repetition is also called chain-repetition. In root-repetition it is not the same words that are repeated but the same root. Another variety of repetition may be called synonymical repetition. This is the repetition of the same idea by using synonymous wds & phrases which by adding a slightly different nuance of m-ing intensify the impact of an utterance. Constructions formed by the same syntactical pattern, closely following one another present the stylistic device of parallelism. Parallelism strongly affects the rhythmical organization of the paragraph, so it is imminent in oratoric speech, in pathetic and emphatic extracts. Parallelism can be complete when the construction of the second sentence fully copies that of the first one. Or parallelism can be partial, when only the beginning or the end of several sentences are structurally similar. Reversed parallelism is called chiasmus. In chiasmus the central part of the sentence – the predicate remains the hinge around which occur syntactical changes – the subject of the first sentence becomes the object of the second and vice versa. e.g. The coach was waiting, the horse were fresh, the roads were good, and the driver was willing.

18. The stylistic devices of repetition, enumeration and suspense

Enumeration is a stylistic device by which separate things, objects, phenomena, properties, actions are named one by one so that thy produce a chain, the links of which, being syntactically in the same position (homogeneous parts of sp), are forced to display some kind of semantic homogeneity, remote though it may seem. As a SD it may be conventially called a sporadic semantic field. Enumeration can be heterogeneous as well, when words in a string result in a kind of clash, a thing typical of any stylistic device. E-n is frequently used to depict scenery through the tourist’s eyes.

Suspense is a compositional device which consists in arranging the matter of communication in such a way that the less important, descriptive, subordinate parts are amassed at the beginning, the main idea being withheld till the end of the s-ce. Thus the reader’s attention is held & his interest kept up. The device of suspense is especially favoured by orators. This is apparently due to the strong influence of intonation which helps to create the desired atmosphere of expectation. Suspense is framed in one s-ce, for there must not be any break in the intonation pattern. Suspense & climax sometimes go together.

Repetition as a stylistic device is a direct successor of repetition as an expressive language means, which serves to emphasize certain statements of the speaker, and so possesses considerable emotive force. It is not only a single word that can be repeated but a word combination and a whole sentence too. As to the position occupied by the repeated unit in the sentence or utterance, we shall mention four main types, most frequently occurring in English literature:

1) anaphora – the repetition of the first word of several succeeding sentences or clauses (a …, a …, a …);

2) epiphora – the repetition of the final word (… a, … a, … a);

3) anadiplosis or catch repetition – the repetition of the same unit (word or phrase) at the end of the preceding and at the beginning of the sentence (…a, a …);

The combination of several catch repetitions produces a chain repetition.

4) framing or ring repetition – the repetition of the same unit at the beginning and at the end of the same sentence (a …, … a).

Stylistic functions of repetition are various and many-sided. Besides emphasizing the most important part of the utterance, rendering the emotions of the speaker or showing his emotive attitude towards the object described, it may play a minor stylistic role, showing the durability of action, and to a lesser degree the emotions following it.

Repetition, deliberately used by the author to better emphasize his sentiments, should not be mixed with pleonasm – an excessive, uneconomic usage of unnecessary, extra words, which shows the inability of the writer to express his ideas in a precise and clear manner.

Morphological repetition, that is the repetition of a morpheme, is to be included into the stylistic means.

e.g. I might as well face facts: good-bye, Susan, good-bye a big car, good-bye a big house, good-bye power, good-bye the silly handsome dreams.


38. The newspaper headline.

The headline (the title given to a news item or an article) is a dependent form of newspaper writing. It is in fact a part of a larger whole. The specific functional and linguistic traits of the headline provide sufficient ground for isolating and analysing it as a specific "genre" of journalism. The main function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly what the text that follows is about. But apart from this, headlines often contain elements of appraisal, i.e. they show the reporter's or the paper's attitude to the facts reported or commented on, thus also performing the function of instructing the reader. English headlines are short and catching, they "compact the gist of news stories into a few eye-snaring words. A skilfully turned out headline tells a story, or enough of it, to arouse or satisfy the reader's curiosity." l In some English and American newspapers sensational headlines are quite common. The practices of headline writing are different with different newspapers. In many papers there is, as a rule, but one headline to a news item, whereas such papers as The Times, The Guardian, The New York Times often carry a news item or an article with two or three headlines, and sometimes as many as four, e.g.


Many Vehicles Marooned in Blizzard

(The Guardian)

The functions and the peculiar nature of English headlines predetermine the choice of the language means used. The vocabulary groups considered in the analysis of brief news items are commonly found in headlines. But headlines also abound in emotionally coloured words and phrases, as the italicised words in the following:

End this Bloodbath (Morning Star) „ Milk Madness (Morning Star) Tax agent a cheat (Daily World)

Furthermore, to attract the reader's attention, headline writers often resort to a deliberate breaking-up of set expressions, in particular fused set expressions, and deformation of special terms, a stylistic device capable of producing a strong emotional effect, e.g.

Cakes and Bitter Ale (The Sunday Times) Conspirator-in-chief Still at Large (The Guardian)

Other stylistic devices are not infrequent in headlines, as for example, the pun (e.g. 'And what about Watt'—The Observer), alliteration (e.g. Miller in Maniac Aiood— The Observer), etc.

Syntactically headlines are very short sentences or phrases of a variety of patterns:

a) Full declarative sentences, e.g. 'They Threw Bombs on Gipsy Sites' (Morning Star), 'Allies Now Look to London' (The Times)

b) Interrogative sentences, e. g. 'Do-you love war?' (Daily World), 'Will Celtic confound pundits?' (Morning Star)

c) Nominative sentences, e.g. 'Gloomy Sunday' (The Guardian), * Atlantic Sea Traffic' (The Times), 'Union peace plan for Girling stewards' (Morning Star)

d) Elliptical sentences:

a. with an auxiliary verb omitted, e.g. 'Initial report not expected until June!' (The Guardian), 'Yachtsman spotted" (Morning Star)]

b. with the subject omitted, e.g. 'Will win' (Morning Star), lWill give Mrs. Onassis $ 250,00(Xa year'.(77i£ New York Times);

c. with the subject and part;of-the predicate omitted, e.g. 'Off to the sun' (Morning Star), 'Still in danger' (The Guardian)

e) Sentences with articles omitted, e. g. 'Step to Overall Settlement Cited in Text of Agreement' (International Herald Tribune), 'Blaze kills 15 at Party" (Morning Star) ^

Articles are very frequently omitted in all types of headlines.

f) Phrases with verbals—infinitive, participial and gerundial, e.g. Tog^US aid* (MorningStar), To visit Faisal' (Morning Star), \Keep-ing Prices Down' (The Times), 'Preparing reply on cold war' (Morning Star), 'Speaking parts' (The Sunday Times)

g) Questions in the form of statements, e.g. 'The worse the better?' (Daily World), 'Growl now, smile, later?' (The Observer)

h) Complex sentences, e. g. 'Senate Panel Hears Board of Military Experts Who Favoured Losing Bidder' '(The New York Times), 'Army Says It Gave LSD to Unknown GIs' (International Herald Tribune)

i) Headlines including direct speech:

a. introduced by a full sentence, e.g.', 'Prince Richard says: "I was not in trouble"' (The Guardian), 'What Oils the Wheels of Industry?

Asks James Lowery-Olearch of the Shell-Мех and B. P. Group' (The Times);

b. introduced elliptically, e.g. 'The Queen: "My deep distress'" (The Guardian), 'Observe Mid-East Ceasefire—UThant' (MorningStar)

The above-listed patterns are the most typical, although they do not cover all the variety in headline structure.

The headline in British and American newspapers is an important vehicle both of information and appraisal; editors give it special attention, admitting that few read beyond the headline, or at best the lead. To lure the reader into going through the whole of the item or at least a greater part of it, takes a lot of skill and ingenuity on the^part of the headline writer,

19. The stylistic devices of detached constructions, climax(gradation) and antithesis.

Detached Constructions

placing one of the secondary parts of a sentence by some specific consideration of the writer so that it seems formally independent of the word it logically refers to. The structural pattern of DC have not been yet classified. The essential quality - the isolated parts are placed in position that makes the phrase seem independent. But a DC cannot rise to the rank of a primary member of the sentence – it always remains secondary, structurally it possesses all the features of a primary member. In the Eng. L. DCs are generally used in the belle-letters prose style & mainly with words that have some explanatory functions. DCs have been little investigated. Connected with the intonation pattern of the utterance. A variant of DC is parenthesis (a qualifying, explanatory or appositive word, phrase, clause, sentence, or other sequence which interrupts a syntactic construction without otherwise affecting it, having often a characteristic intonation and indicated in writing by commas, brackets or dashes).

Isolated members of the sentence are regarded as a special kind of inversion. Isolated members are syntactically separated from other members of a sentence with which they are grammatically and logically connected. The violation of the traditional word order and connections between the members of the sentence make isolated words more independent and give them greater prominence. Only secondary parts of the sentence, generally attributes, adverbial modifiers and apposition, may be used in isolation. In written speech isolated members are separated from the words they modify by graphic means: by a comma, brackets, dash, and even a full stop.

Isolated members of the sentence give prominence to some words and help the author to laconically draw the reader’s attention to a certain detail or circumstance or help the author to emphasize his emotional attitude toward what he describes. e.g. I have to beg you for money. Daily!

Climax presents a structure in which every successive sentence or phrase is emotionally stronger or logically more important than the preceding one. Such an organization of the utterance creates a gradual intensification of its significance, both logical and emotive, and absorbs the reader’s attention more completely. Climax may be of three main types:

1) quantitative, when it is quality or size that increases with the unfolding of the utterance.

2) qualitative, when intensification is achieved through the introduction of emphatic words into the utterance, which fact increases its emotive force.

3) logical, the most frequent type, in which every new concept is stronger, more important and valid.

A peculiar variety is presented in those cases when a negative structure undergoes intensification. As counterpart to climax stands Anticlimax, where emotion or logical importance is accumulated only to be unexpectedly broken and brought to a sudden cadence.

e.g. Silence fell upon Closter. Place, peace, oblivion.”

Antithesis is a stylistic device presenting two contrasting ideas in a close neighbourhood.

The phenomena opposed to one another can be pictured in an extended way. Or else the contradictory ideas may intermingle, thus creating the effect of not only the contrast, but also of the close unity of the contrasting features. E.g. The smell of life and richness, of death and digestion, of decay and birth, burden the air.

e.g. The smell of life and richness, of death and digestion, of decay and birth, burden the air.

Antithesis- a figure of speech based on parallel constructions with contrasted words (usually antonyms). It is based on relative opposition which arises out of the context through the expansion of objectively contrasting pairs, as in: "Youth is lovely, age is lonely, Youth is fiery, age is frosty." Here the objectively contrasted pair is 'youth' and 'age'. 'Lovely' and 'lonely' cannot be regarded as objectively opposite concepts, but being drawn into the scheme contrasting 'youth' and 'age', they display certain features which may be counted as antonymical. It is not only the semantic aspect which explains the linguistic nature of antithesis, the structural pattern also plays an important role. Antithesis is generally moulded in parallel construction. The antagonistic features of the two objects or phenomena are more easily perceived when they stand out in similar structures. This is particularly advantageous when the antagonistic features are not inherent in the objects in question but imposed on them. The structural design of antithesis is so important that unless it is conspicuously marked in the utterance, the effect might be lost. Antithesis is a device bordering between stylistics and logic. The extremes are easily discernible but most of the cases are intermediate. However, it is essential to distinguish between antithesis arid what is termed contrast. Contrast is a literary (not a linguistic) device based on logical opposition between the phenomena set one against anthr.

21. The stylistic devices of ellipsis, aposiopesis (break-in-the-narrative), question in the narrative.

Ellipsis. Among the cases of the particular use of colloq constructions are ellipsis, break-in-the-narrative, question-in-the-narrative & represented speech. Ellipsis is a typical phenomenon in the conversation, arising out of the situation. Ellipsis, when used as a stylistic device, always imitates the common features of colloq l-ge, where the situation predetermines not the omission of certain members of the s-ce, but their absence. It would perhaps be adequate to call s-ces lacking certain members “incomplete s-ces”, leaving the term ellipsis to specify structures where we recognize a digression from the traditional literary s-ce structure. Ellipsis being the property of colloq l-ge doesn’t express hat can easily be supplied by the situation. This is perhaps the reason why elliptical s-ces are rarely used as stylistic devices. Aposiopesis (break-in-the narrative) is a device which dictionaries define as a stopping short for rhetorical effect. In the spoken variety of the l-ge a br-in-the-nar is usually caused by unwillingness to proceed; or by the supposition that what remains to be said can be understood by the implication embodied in what has been said; or by uncertainty as to what should be said. In the written variety a br-in-the-nar is always a stylistic device used for some stylistic effect. In writing it is the context which suggests the adequate intonation, that is the only key to decoding the aposiopesis. A-s is a stylistic syntactical device to convey to the reader a very strong upsurge of emotions. The idea of it is that the speaker cannot proceed, his feelings depriving him of the ability to express himself in terms of l-ge. Smt a br-in-the-nar is caused by euphemistic considerations. Here the role of the intonation implied cannot be overestimated. Question-in-the-narrative changes the real nature of a q-n & turns it into a stylistic device. A q-n in the nar is asked & answered by one & the same person., usually by the author. The q-ns asked unlike rhetorical q-ns do not contain statements. Smt q-in-the-nar gives the impression of an intimate talk b/w the writer & the reader.

The deliberate omission of one or more words in the sentence for definite stylistic purpose is called the stylistic device of ellipsis.

The omission of some parts of the sentence is an ordinary and typical feature of the oral type of speech. In belle-letters style the peculiarities of the structure of the oral type of speech are partially reflected in the speech of characters (for example, the informal and careless character of speech).

Some parts of the sentence may be omitted due to the excitement of the speaker.

The stylistic device of ellipsis is sometimes used in the author’s narration but more frequently it is used in represented speech.

The stylistic device of ellipsis used in represented inner speech creates a stylistic effect of the natural abruptness and the fragmentary character of the process of thinking.

It is difficult to draw a line of demarcation between elliptical sentences and one-member sentences.

One-member sentences may be used to heighten the emotional tension of the narration or to single out the character’s or the author’s attitude towards what is happening.

e.g. A dark gentleman… A very bad manner. In the last degree constrained, reserved, diffident, troubled.

AposiopesisA sudden break in speech often occurs in the oral type of speech. It is caused by strong emotion or some reluctance to finish the sentence. In belle-letters style a break in speech is often used in dialogue to reflect its naturalness. A sudden break in the narration when used in written speech for certain stylistic purposes, creates the stylistic device of aposiopesis. Aposiopesis is marked graphically by a series of dots or a dash. It is often used in represented speech. Graphical expressive means, such as dash and dots are indispensable in aposiopesis.

e.g. I still don’t quite like the face, it’s just a trifle too full, but –“ I swung myself on the stool.

22. The stylistic devices of litotes and rhetorical question.

Litotes & rhetorical Q. Every syntactical structure has its definite function, which is smt called its structural m-ing. Among syntactical stylistic devices there are two in which this transference of struct.m-ing is to be seen. The rhetorical q-n is a special synt styl device the essence of which consists in reshaping the grammatical m-ing of the interrogative s-ce. The q-n here is no longer a q-n but a statement expressed in the form of an interrogative s-ce. There is an interplay of 2 struct.m-ings 1) that of the q-n & 2) that of the statement (either affirmative or interr-ve). Both are materialized simultaneously. Negative-interr s-ces generally have a peculiar nature. There is always an additional shade of m-ing implied in them: smt doubt, smt assertion, smt suggestion. They are full of emotive m-ing & modality. !!!Both the q-n m-ing & the statement m-ing are materialized with an emotional charge, the weight of which can be judged by the intonation of the speaker. The int-n of rhet.q-ns differs materially from the int-n of ordinary q-ns (double nature). Litotes is a styl device consisting of peculiar use of negative constr-ns. The negation + N/Adj serves to establish a positive feature in a person or a thing. However this positive m-ing is diminished in quality as compared with a synonymous expression making an assertion of the positive feature. Still we cannot say that the 2 negative constr-s produce a lesser effect than the corresponding affirmative ones. They have an additional connotation => they are regarded as stylistic devices. The negatives NO & NOT are more emphatically pronounced than in ordinary negative s-ces, thus bringing in mind the corresponding antonym. The stylistic effect of litotes depends mainly on intonation. A variant of litotes is a constr-n with 2 negations, as in ‘not unlike, not unpromising, not displeased’ & the like. Litotes is used in different styles of speech excluding official style & scientific prose.

Rhetorical question presents a statement in the form of a question. A question appealing to the reader for an answer, is emphatic and mobilizes the attention of the reader even when the latter is not supposed to answer anything, when the only possible answer is implied within the boundaries of the question. The form of a rhetorical question is often negative.

Rhetorical question preserves the intonation of a question, though sometimes the assertive sentiment is so strong that both the intonation and the punctuation are changed to those of the exclamatory sentence. Rhetorical question is an indispensable element of oratorical style, but is not confined to it only, more and more penetrating into other style. So it is widely employed in modern fiction for depicting the inner state of a personage, his meditations and reflections.

Through frequent usage some rhetorical questions became traditional (for example, What business is it of yours? What have I to do with him? etc.) Such questions usually imply a negative answer and reflect a strongly antagonistic attitude of the speaker towards his interlocutor or the subject discussed. e.g. Can anybody answer for all the grievances of the poor in this wicked world?

Litotes presents a statement in the form of a negation. The stylistic device of litotes is used to weaken the positive characteristics of a thing or phenomenon. It is based upon discrepancy between the syntactical form, which is negative and the meaning which is positive. E.g. “She said it, but not impatiently” We have here an assertion of a certain positive fact but its form is negative. The obligatory presence of the particle “not” makes the statement less categorical and conveys certain doubts of the speaker as to the quality he mentions. The structure of litotes is rather rigid: its first element is always the negative particle “not” and its second element is, too, always negative in meaning, if not in form. If the second element of litotes is expressed by an adjective or adverb, it has as a rule a negative affix. If the form of a noun or a word-combination, presenting the second component of litotes is not negative, its negative meaning is implied.

The final result of litotes is always the assertion of a positive, though weakened quality or characteristics. e.g. She said it, but not impatiently.

24. The stylistic devices of onomatopoeia, alliteration and assonance.

Onomatopoeia. The stylistic approach to the utterance is not confined to its structure and sense. There is another thing to be taken into account which, in a certain type of communication plays an important role. This is the way a word, a phrase or a sentence sounds. The sound of most words taken separately will have little or no aesthetic value. It is in combination with other words that a word may acquire a desired phonetic effect. The theory of sound symbolism is based on the assumption that separate sounds due to their articulatory and acoustic properties may awake certain ideas, perceptions, feelings, images. Onomatopoeia is a combination of speech sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature, by things, by people and by animals. There are 2 varieties of onomatopoeia: direct and indirect. Direct onomatopoeia is contained in words that imitate natural sounds, as ding-dong, cuckoo and the like. Indirect onomatopoeia is a combination of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense. It is sometimes called ‘echo-writing’. Indirect onomatopoeia demands some mention of what makes the sound. It is sometimes very effectively used by repeating words which themselves are not onomatopoetic. Alliteration is a phonetic stylistic device which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance. The essence of this device lies in the repetition of similar sounds, in particular consonant sounds. Alliteration, like most phonetic expressive means, does not bear any lexical or other meaning. Alliteration is generally regarded as a musical accompaniment of the author’s idea, supporting it with some vague emotional atmosphere which each reader interprets for himself. Alliteration in the EL is deeply rooted in the traditions of E. folklore. The laws of phonetic arrangement in Anglo-Saxon poetry differed greatly from those of present-day E. poetry. In OE poetry alliteration was one of the basic principles of verse and considered to be its main characteristic.

23. Free indirect thought and free indirect speech

Represented speech. There are 3 ways of reproducing actual speech: a) repetition of the exact utterance as it was spoken (direct sp); b) conversion of the exact utterance into the relater’s mode of expression (indirect); c) representation of the actual utterance by a second person, usually the author, as if it had been spoken, whereas it has not really been spoken but is only represented in the author’s words (represented sp). There is also a device which conveys to the reader the unuttered sp of the character, thus presenting his thoughts & feelings. The device is also termed represented sp. To distinguish b/w them we call the representation of the actual utterance through the author’s l-ge uttered represented speech, & the representation of the thoughts & feelings of the character – unuttered (inner) represented speech. Uttered represented speech demands that the tense should be switched from present to past, the personal prns from 1st &2nd to 3rd person as in indirect speech, but the syntactical structure of the utterance doesn’t change. Nowadays the device is used not only in the belles-lettres style, but in newspaper as well. But I the former it is generally used to quote the words of speakers in Parliament or at public meetings. // The thoughts & feelings going on in one’s mind & reflecting some previous experience are called inner speech. Inner speech is a psychological phenomenon. But when it is wrought into full utterance it ceases to be inner speech, acquires a communicative function & becomes a phenomenon of the l-ge. The reader is presented with a complete l-ge unit capable of carrying inf-n. This device is called inner represented speech. In.rep.sp retains the most characteristic features of inner sp. It is also fragmentary, but only to an extent which will not hinder the understanding of the communication. Inn.rep.sp unlike uttered rep.sp expresses feelings & thoughts of the character which were not materialized in spoken or written l-ge by the character. That is why it abounds in excl.words & phrases, elliptical constr-ns, breaks & other means of conveying feelings & psychological states. The tense forms are shifted to the past; the 3rd person personal prns replace the 1st & the 2nd.

26. The stylistic classification of the English vocabulary. Special colloquial vocabulary.

a) Slang The term slang is ambiguous and obscure. The “New Oxford English Dictionary” defines slang as follows: 1) the special vocabulary used by any set of persons of low or disreputable character; language of a low and vulgar type…; 2) the cant or jargon of a certain class or period; 3) language of highly colloquial type considered as below the level of standard educated speech, and consisting either of new words or current words employed in some special sense. In England and USA slang is regarded as the quintessence of colloquial speech and therefore stands above all the laws of grammar.

b) Jargonism Jargon is a recognized term for a group of words that exist in almost every language and whose aim is to preserve secrecy within one or another social group. Jargonisms are generally old words with entirely new meanings imposed on them. Most of the jargonisms of any language are absolutely incomprehensible to those outside the social group which has invented them. They may be defined as a code within a code. Jargonisms are social in character. In England and in the USA almost any social group of people has its own jargon. There is a common jargon and special professional jargons. Jargonisms do not always remain on the outskirts of the literary language. Many words entered the standard vocabulary.

c) Professionalisms Professionalisms are the words used in a definite trade, profession or calling by people connected by common interests both at work or at home. Professional words name anew already existing concepts, tools or instruments, and have the typical properties of a special code. Their main feature is technicality. They are monosemantic. Professionalisms do not aim at secrecy. They fulfill a socially useful function in communication, facilitating a quick and adequate grasp of the message. Professionalisms are used in emotive prose to depict the natural speech of a character. The skilful use of a professional word will show not only the vocation of a character, but also his education, breeding, environment and sometimes even his psychology.

d) Dialectal words Dialectal words are those which in the process of integration of the English national language remained beyond its literary boundaries, and their use is generally confined to a definite locality. There sometimes is confusion between the terms dialectal, slang and vernacular. All these groups when used in emotive prose are meant to characterize the speaker as a person of a certain locality, breeding, education, etc. Some dialectal words are universally accepted as recognized units of the standard colloquial English. Of quite a different nature are dialectal words which are easily recognized as corruptions of standard English words. Dialectal words are only to be found in the style of emotive prose, very rarely in other styles. And even here their use is confined to the function of characterizing personalities through their speech.

e) Vulgar words The term vulgarism is rather misleading. Webster’s “New International Dictionary” defines vulgarism as “a vulgar phrase or expression, or one used only in colloquial, or, esp. in unrefined or low, speech”. I.R.Galperin defines vulgarisms as expletives or swear-words and obscene words and expressions. There are different degrees of vulgar words. Some of them, the obscene ones, are called “four-letter” words. A lesser degree of vulgarity is presented by expletives and they sometimes appear in euphemistic spelling. The function of vulgarisms is almost the same as that of interjections, that is to express strong emotions. They are not to be found in any style of speech except emotive prose, and here only in the direct speech of the characters.

f) Colloquial coinages Colloquial coinages (nonce-words) are spontaneous and elusive. Most of them disappear from the language leaving no trace in it. Some nonce-words and meanings may acquire legitimacy and thus become facts of the language, while on the other hand they may be classified as literary or colloquial according to which of the meanings is being dealt with. When a nonce-word comes into general use and is fixed in dictionaries, it is classified as a neologism for a very short period of time. This shows the objective reality of contemporary life. Technical progress is so rapid that it builds new notions and concepts which in their turn require new words to signify them.

25. The stylistic classification of the English vocabulary. Special literary vocabulary.

In accordance with the division of language into literary and colloquial, we may represent the whole of the word stock of the English language as being divided into 3 main layers: the literary layer, the neutral layer and the colloquial layer. The literary layer of words consists of groups accepted as legitimate members of the English vocabulary. They have no local or dialect character. The literary vocabulary consists of the following groups of words: 1. common literary; 2. terms and learned words; 3. poetic words; 4. archaic words; 5. barbarisms and foreign words; 6. literary coinages including nonce-words. The aspect of the neutral layer is its universal character. That means it is unrestricted in its use. It can be employed in all styles and in all spheres of human activity. It is this that makes the layer the most stable of all.

The colloquial layer of words as qualified in most English or American dictionaries is not infrequently limited to a definite language community or confined to a special locality where it circulates. The colloquial vocabulary falls into the following groups: 1. common colloquial words; 2. slang; 3. jargonisms; 4. professional words; 5. dialect words; 6. vulgar words; 7. colloquial coinages. The common literary, neutral and common colloquial words are grouped under the term standard English vocabulary. Other groups in the literary layer are regarded as special literary vocabulary and those in the colloquial layer are regarded as special colloquial (non-literary) vocabulary.

Neutral words, which form the bulk of the English vocabulary, are used in both literary and colloquial language. Neutral words are the main source of synonymy and polysemy. It is the neutral stock of words that is so far prolific in the production of new meanings. Common literary words are chiefly used in writing and in polished speech. Common colloquial vocabulary overlaps into the standard English vocabulary and is therefore to be considered part of it. It borders both on the neutral vocabulary and on the special colloquial vocabulary, which falls out of the standard English altogether. The stylistic function of the different strata of the English vocabulary depends not so much on the inner qualities of each of the groups, as on their interaction when they are opposed to one another.

Specific literary vocabulary

a) Terms Terms are generally associated with a definite branch of science and therefore with a series of other terms belonging to that particular branch of science. They know no isolation; they always come in clusters, either in a text on the subject to which they belong, or in special dictionaries which, unlike general dictionaries, make a careful selection of terms. All these clusters of terms form the nomenclature, or system of names, for the objects of study of any particular branch of science. Terms are characterized by a tendency to be monosemantic and therefore easily call forth the required concept. Terms may appear in scientific style, newspaper style, publicistic style, the belles-lettres style, etc. Terms no longer fulfill their basic function, that of bearing an exact reference to a given notion or concept. The their function is either to indicate the technical peculiarities of the subject dealt with, or to make some references to the occupation of a character whose language would naturally contain special words and expressions. A term has a stylistic function when it is used to create an atmosphere or to characterize a person.

b) Poetic and highly literary words First of all poetic words belong to a definite style of language and perform in it their direct function. If encountered in another style of speech, they assume a new function, mainly satirical, for the two notions, poetry and prose, have been opposed to each other from time immemorial. Poetic language has special means of communication, i.e. rhythmical arrangement, some syntactical peculiarities and certain number of special words. The specific poetic vocabulary has a marked tendency to detach itself from the common literary word stock and assume a special significance. Poetic words claim to be, as it were, of higher rank. Poetic words and ser expressions make the utterance understandable only to a limited number of readers. It is mainly due to poeticisms that poetical language is sometimes called poetical jargon.

c) Archaic words The word stock of a language is in an increasing state of change. In every period in the development of a literary language one can find words which will show more or less apparent changes in their meaning or usage, from full vigour, through a moribund state, to death, i.e. complete disappearance of the unit from the language. We’ll distinguish 3 stages in the aging process of words: 1) the beginning of the aging process when the word becomes rarely used. Such words are called obsolescent, i.e. they are in the stage of gradually passing out of general use; 2) The second group of archaic words are those that have already gone completely out of use but are still recognized by the English speaking community. These words are called obsolete. 3) The third group, which may be called archaic proper, are words which are no longer recognized in modern English, words that were in use in Old English and which have either dropped out of the language entirely or have changed in their appearance so much that they have become unrecognizable. There is another class of words which is erroneously classed as archaic, historic words. Words of this type never disappear from the language. Archaic words are used in historical novels, in official and diplomatic documents, in business letters, legal language, etc. Archaic words, word-forms and word combinations are also used to create an elevated effect.

d) Barbarisms and foreign words Barbarisms are words of foreign origin which have not entirely been assimilated into the English language. They bear the appearance of a borrowing and are felt as something alien to the native tongue. The great majority of the borrowed words now form part of the rank and file of the English vocabulary. There are some words which retain their foreign appearance to greater or lesser degree. These words, which are called barbarisms, are also considered to be on the outskirts of the literary language. Most of them have corresponding English synonyms. Barbarisms are not made conspicuous in the text unless they bear a special load of stylistic information. Foreign words do not belong to the English vocabulary. In printed works foreign words and phrases are generally italicized to indicate their alien nature or their stylistic value. There are foreign words which fulfill a terminological function. Many foreign words and phrases have little by little entered the class of words named barbarisms and many of these barbarisms have gradually lost their foreign peculiarities, become more or less naturalized and have merged with the native English stock of words. Both foreign words and barbarisms are widely used in various styles of language with various aims, aims which predetermine their typical functions. One of these functions is to supply local color. Barbarisms and foreign words are used in various styles of writing, but are most often to be found in the style of belles-lettres and the publicistic style.

e) literary coinages Every period in the development of a language produces an enormous number of new words or new meanings of established words. Most of them do not live long. They are coined for use at the moment of speech, and therefore possess a peculiar property – that of temporariness. The given word or meaning holds only in the given context and is meant only to “serve the occasion”. However, a word or a meaning once fixed in writing may become part and parcel of the general vocabulary irrespective of the quality of the word. The coining of new words generally arises with the need to designate new concepts and also with the need to express nuances of meaning called forth by a deeper understanding of the nature of the phenomenon in question. There are 2 types of newly coined words: 1) those which designate new-born concepts, may be named terminological coinages or terminological neologisms; 2) words coined because their creators seek expressive utterance may be named stylistic coinages or stylistic neologism.

Neologisms are mainly coined according to the productive models for word-building in the given languages. Most of the literary coinages are built by means of affixation and word compounding.

30. Poetry. The notion of poetic conventions. Types of poetic conventions.

Language of poetry

The first substyle is verse. Its first differentiating property is its orderly form, which is based mainly on the rhythmic and phonetic arrangement of the utterances. The rhythmic aspect calls forth syntactical and semantic peculiarities which also fall into a more or less strict orderly arrangement. Both the syntactical and semantic aspects of the poetic substyle may be defined as compact, for they are held in check by rhythmic patterns. Syntactically this brevity is shown in elliptical and fragmentary sentences, in detached constructions, in inversion, asyndeton and other syntactical peculiarities.

Rhythm and rhyme are immediately distinguishable properties of the poetic substyle provided they are wrought into compositional patterns. The various compositional forms of rhyme and rhythm are generally studied under the terms versification or prosody.

The poetical language remains and will always remain a specific mode of communication differing from prose. The poetic words and phrases, peculiar syntactical arrangement, orderly phonetic and rhythmical patterns have long been the signals of poetic language. But the most important of all is the power of the words used in poetry to express more than they usually signify in ordinary language.

27. The notion of functional style. Approaches to the research into functional style. Classifications of FS.

F.S. is a variety of the lang. used to identify specific socioling. situations. Concept of F.S. we need to mention that there are 2 major approaches to the concept of f.s.: functional and variation ones. 1) Func. app. - -I 925 a russ. researcher Vinokur differentiated functionally motivated ling. syst. For ex. colloquial, poetic, scientific, newspaper, belle-lettres. The notion of F.S. was introduced by Prague ling. group. F.S. – lang. mans which function as instrument for stylistic purposes. These ling means form only a specific manner of organization of concrete utterances. F.S. do not exist separately from the rest of lang. The func. app. falls into monofunc. & polyfunc. app-s. Monofunc. app – func. corresponds to style or 1 func can correspond to several styles. Гальперин – F.S. – a syst. of interrelated lang. means & the syst. serves a definite aim in communication. Виноградов singles out 3 functions and 5 f.s.: communicative func., which corresponds with style of conversation; informative func. – style of scientific prose; style of official docs; pragmatic – belle-letrres style; journalism. Polyfunc. app. – the same fun car inherent in diff. styles. Степанов: a f.s. as a historically developed & socially cognized subsist. within the syst. of a national lang. assigned to certain communicative situations known as speech situations and characterized by a set of means of expressions and the underlying principles of their selection from the national lang. Швейцер: spoke about f.s. as not a particular social speech situation but a class of such situations. 2) Variation app. Ленквист offers a number of definitions of f.s. – a kind of ling. variation., it can be described as fuzzy set of texts, conditioned variation. Проф. Наер: f.s. – socially recognized and functionally conditioned model of syst. ling. var.

Conditioning factors: 1) aim of communication 2) sphere of communication 3) sociocultural development 4) individual and communal choices. the features of the style can be divided into 2 categ.: primary & secondary. Primary – predominant specific features conditioned by extra-ling. properties of th style: prescriptive, mandatory, precise & impersonal. Secondary: style markers, they are lang. properties attributed to this or that f.s.: passive constr., parallel struct.

Classific. of F.S.^ by Galperin: belle-lettres, publicist, newspaper, scientific, official docs. Наер: гальперин + technical style. Арнольд: гальперин + style of conversation. Кристалл & Дэви + style of religion, style of legal docs. The syst of f.s. is in constant development. F.S. is a patterned variety of literary text characterized by the greatr or lesser typification of its constituence, superphrasal units, in which the choice & arrangements of interdependent and intervowen lang are calculated for the purpose of communication.

29. Emotive prose.

The substyle of emotive prose has the same common features as has for the belles-lettres style in general; but all these features are correlated differently in emotive prose. The imagery is not so rich as it is in poetry; the percentage of words with contextual meanings is not so high as in poetry; the idiosyncrasy of the author is not so clearly discernible. It is a combination of the literary variant of the language, both in words and syntax, with the colloquial variant. It is more exact to define it as a combination of the spoken an written varieties of the language, inasmuch as there are always 2 forms of communication present – monologue (the writer’s speech) and dialogue (the speech of the characters).

The language of the writer conforms or is expected to conform to the literary norms of the given period in the development of the English literary language.

Emotive prose allows the use of elements from other styles as well. Thus we find elements of the newspaper style, the official style, the style of scientific prose.

Present-day emotive prose is to a large extent characterized by the breaking-up of traditional syntactical designs of the preceding periods.


28. The belles-lettres style

A style of language can be defined as a system or coordinated, interrelated and interconditioned language means intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect.

Each style is a relatively stable system at the given stage in the development of the literary language. Therefore style of language is a historical category.

The development of each style is predetermined by the changes in the norms of standard English.

The belles-lettres style

The belles-lettres style is a generic term for 3 substyles:

1. the language of poetry or simply verse;

2. emotive prose, or the language of fiction;

3. the language of the drama.

The purpose of the belles-lettres style is to suggest a possible interpretation of the phenomena of life by forcing the reader to see the viewpoint of the writer. This is the cognitive function of the belles-lettres style. An aesthetico-cognitive effect is a system of language means which secure the effect sought.

The belles-lettres style rests on certain indispensable linguistic features which are:

1. genuine, not trite, imagery, achieved by purely linguistic devices.

2. the use of words in contextual and very often in more than one dictionary meaning, or at least greatly influenced by the lexical environment.

3. a vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser degree the author’s personal evaluation of things or phenomena.

4. a peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax, a kind of lexical and syntactical idiosyncrasy.

5. the introduction of the typical features of colloquial language to a full degree(in plays) or a lesser one(in emotive prose) or a slight degree, if any(in poems).

The belles-lettres style is individual in essence. This is one of its most distinctive properties.

a) Language of poetry The first substyle is verse. Its first differentiating property is its orderly form, which is based mainly on the rhythmic and phonetic arrangement of the utterances. The rhythmic aspect calls forth syntactical and semantic peculiarities which also fall into a more or less strict orderly arrangement. Both the syntactical and semantic aspects of the poetic substyle may be defined as compact, for they are held in check by rhythmic patterns. Syntactically this brevity is shown in elliptical and fragmentary sentences, in detached constructions, in inversion, asyndeton and other syntactical peculiarities. Rhythm and rhyme are immediately distinguishable properties of the poetic substyle provided they are wrought into compositional patterns. The various compositional forms of rhyme and rhythm are generally studied under the terms versification or prosody. The poetical language remains and will always remain a specific mode of communication differing from prose. The poetic words and phrases, peculiar syntactical arrangement, orderly phonetic and rhythmical patterns have long been the signals of poetic language. But the most important of all is the power of the words used in poetry to express more than they usually signify in ordinary language.

c) Language of the drama The first thing to be said about the parameters of this variety of belles-lettres is that the language of plays is entirely dialogue. The author’s speech is almost entirely excluded, except for the playwright’s remarks and stage directions. The degree to which the norms of ordinary colloquial language are converted into those of the language of plays, that is, the degree to which the spoken language is made literary varies at different periods in the development of drama and depends also on the idiosyncrasies of the playwright himself. Any presentation of a play is an aesthetic procedure and the language of plays is of the type which is meant to be reproduced. Therefore even the language of a play approximates that of a real dialogue, it will none the less be stylized.

33. The language of drama

The first thing to be said about the parameters of this variety of belles-lettres is that the language of plays is entirely dialogue. The author’s speech is almost entirely excluded, except for the playwright’s remarks and stage directions.

The degree to which the norms of ordinary colloquial language are converted into those of the language of plays, that is, the degree to which the spoken language is made literary varies at different periods in the development of drama and depends also on the idiosyncrasies of the playwright himself.

Any presentation of a play is an aesthetic procedure and the language of plays is of the type which is meant to be reproduced. Therefore even the language of a play approximates that of a real dialogue, it will none the less be stylized.

31. Rhyme, metre and rhythm.

Rhythm is a regular alteration of similar or equal units of speech. It is sometimes used by the author to produce the desired stylistic effect, whereas in poetry rhythmical arrangement is a constant organic element, a natural outcome of poetic emotion. Poetic rhythm is created by the regular recurrence of stressed and unstressed syllables or equal poetic lines. The regular alternations of stressed and unstressed syllables form a unit – the foot. There are 5 basic feet: iambus(a foot consisting of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable), trochee(a foot consisting of one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed syllable), dactyl(a foot consisting of one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables), anapest(a foot consisting of two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable) and amphibrach(a foot consisting of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed and one unstressed syllable).

 Rhyme is a characteristic feature of poetry but in prose euphony final sound (ending). Such recurrence takes place at the end of a poetic line. With regard to the similarity of sounds we distinguish: full rhymes, imperfect rhymes. With regard to the structure of rhymes we distinguish: masculine (or single) rhyme, feminine (or double) rhyme, dactylic (or triple) rhyme, full double or broken rhyme. The arrangements of rhymes may assume different schemes: couplet rhyme, cross rhyme, frame rhyme. The functions of rhyme in poetry are very important: it signalizes the end of a line and marks the arrangement of lines into stanza.

M e t r e is any form of periodicity in verse, its kind being determined by the character and number of syllables of which it consists. The metre is an ideal phenomenon characterized by its strict regularity, consistency and unchangeability.2 Rhythm is flexible and sometimes an effort is required to perceive it. In classical verse it is perceived at the background of the metre. In accented verse—by the number of stresses in a line. In prose—by the alternation of similar syntactical patterns. He gives the following definition of verse rhythm. It is "the actual alternation of stress which appears as a result of interaction between the ideal metrical law and the natural phonetic properties of the given .language material." 3 He holds the view that romantic poetry regards metrical forms as a conventional tradition, which hinders the vigorous individual creativity of the poet and narrows the potential variety of poetic material.

the most recognizable English metrical pa ft e r n-s.

There are five of them:

1. Iambic metre, in which the unstressed syllable is followed by a stressed one. It is graphically represented thus: (w-).

2. Trochaic metre, where the order is reversed, i.e.. a stressed syllable is followed by one unstressed (-^).

3. Dactylic me t r e—one stressed syllable is followed by two unstressed (-w).

4. Amphibrach i с metre—one stressed syllable is framed by two unstressed ^~w.

1 Many linguists hold that verse rhythm is based on alternation between stronger and weaker stresses. They maintain that four degrees of stresses are easily recognizable. But for the sake of abstraction—an indispensable process in scientific investigation — the opposition of stressed—unstressed syllables is the only authentic way of presenting tne problem of verse rhythm.

5. Anapaestic me tr e—iwo unstressed syllables are followed by one stressed (w-). These arrangements of qualitatively different syllables are the units of the metre, the repetition of which makes verse. One unit is called a foot. The number of feet in a line varies, but it has its limit; it rarely exceeds eight.

35. The style of scientific discourse.

Scientific prose style

The language of science is governed by the aim of the functional style of scientific prose, which is to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal laws of existence, development, relations between different phenomena, etc. The language means used, therefore, tend to be objective, precise, unemotional, devoid of any individuality; there is a striving for the most generalized form of expression. There are following characteristic features of scientific style:

1. the logical sequence of utterances;

2. the use of terms specific to each given branch of science;

3. so-called sentence-patterns. They are of 3 types: postulatory, argumentative and formulative.

4. the use of quotations and references;

5. the frequent use of foot-note, of the reference kind, but digressive in character.

The impersonality of scientific writings can also be considered a typical feature of this style.

32. Lexical and syntactical features of poetry.

Lexical and syntactical peculiarities, together with those just analysed, will present the substyle as a stylistic entity.

Among the lexical peculiarities of verse the first to be mentioned is imagery, which being the generic feature of the belles-lettres style assumes in poetry a compressed form: it is rich in associative power, frequent in occurrence and varied in methods and devices of materialization.

We here define imagery as a use of language media which will create a sensory perception of an abstract notion by arousing certain associations between the general and the particular, the abstract and the concrete, the conventional and the factual. It is hardly possible to under-estimate the significance of imagery in the belles-lettres style of language.

Then the passive constructions ('fish was brought', 'it was handed', 'the fish was taken away', 'cutlets were handed', 'They were refused', 'they were borne away', 'chicken was removed', -'sugar was handed her', 'the charlotte was removed', 'olives... caviare were placed', 'the olives were removed', 'a silver tray was brought', and so on) together with parallel construction and asyndeton depict the slow progress of the dinner, thus revealing the strained atmosphere of which all those present were aware.

This example illustrates the means by which an image can be created by syntactical media and repetition. Actually we do not find any transferred meanings in the words used here, i.e. all the words are used in their literal meanings. And yet-so .strong is the power of syntactical arrangement and repetition that the reader cannot fail to experience himself the tension surrounding the dinner table.

Another feature of the poetical substyle is its volume of emotional colouring. Here again the problem of quantity comes up. The emotional element is characteristic of the belles-lettres style in general. But poetry has it in full measure. This is, to some extent, due to the rhythmic foundation of verse, but more particularly to the great number of emotionally coloured words. True, the degree of emotiveness in works of belles-lettres depends also on the idiosyncrasy of the writer, on the content, and on the purport. But emotiveness remains an essential property of the style in general and it becomes more compressed and substantial in the poetic substyle. This feature of the poetic substyle has won formal expression in poetic words which have beenjegarded as conventional symbols of poetic language.

But poetical language remains and will always remain a specific mode of communication differing from prose. This specific mode of communication uses specific means. The poetic words and phrases, peculiar syntactical arrangement, orderly phonetic and rhythmical patterns have long been the signals, of poetic language. But the most important of all is the power of the wofds^used in poetry to express more than they usually signify in ordinary language.

Syntax also underwent noticeable changes' but hardly ever to the extent of making the utterance unintelligible* The liberalization of poetic language reflects the general struggle for a freer development of the literary language, in contrast to the rigorous restrictions imposed on it by the language lawgivers of the 18th century In poetry words become more conspicuous, as if they were attired in some mysterious manner, and mean more than they mean in ordinary neutral communications. Words-in poetic language live a longer life than ordinary words. They are intended to last. This is, of course achieved mainly by the connections the words have with one another and^ to some extent, by the rhythmical design which makes the words stand out in a more isolated manner so that they seem to possess a greater degree of independence and significance.

34. Publicist style.

Publicistic style has spoken varieties, in particular, the oratorical substyle. The new spoken varieties are the radio commentary, the essay and articles. The general aim of publicistic style is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech, essays or article. Due to its characteristic combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal, publicistic style has features in common with the style of scientific prose, on the one hand, and that of emotive prose, on the other. Its emotional appeal is generally achieved by the use of words with emotive meaning; but the stylistic devices are not fresh or genuine. Publicistic style is also characterized by brevity of expression.

1. Oratory and speeches Oratorical style is the oral subdivision of the publicistic style.

Direct contact with the listeners permits the combination of the syntactical, lexical and phonetic peculiarities of both the written and spoken varieties of language. Certain typical features of the spoken variety of speech present in this style are: direct address to the audience (ladies and gentlemen, honorable member(s), the use of the 2nd person pronoun you, etc.), sometimes constractions (I’ll, won’t, haven’t, isn’t and others) and the use of colloquial words. The stylistic devices employed in oratorical style are determined by the conditions of communication. Repetition can be regarded as the most typical stylistic device of English oratorical style. Almost any piece of oratory will have parallel constructions, antithesis, suspense, climax, rhetorical questions and questions-in-the-narrative.

2. The essay The essay is a literary composition of moderate length on philosophical, social, aesthetic or literary subjects. It never goes deep into the subject, but merely touches upon the surface. Personality in the treatment of theme and naturalness of expression are 2 of the most obvious characteristics of the essay. An essay is rather a series of personal and witty comments than a finished argument or a conclusive examination of any matter. This literary genre has definite linguistic traits which shape the essay as a variety of publicistic style. In the 19th century the essay as a literary term gradually changed into what we now call the journalistic article or feature article which covers all kinds of subjects from politics, philosophy or aesthetics to travel, sport and fashions. Feature articles are generally published in newspapers, especially weeklies and Sunday editions. In comparison with oratorical style, the essay aims at a more lasting, hence at a slower effect.

3. Articles Irrespective of the character of the magazine and the divergence of subject matter – whether it is political, literary, popular-scientific or satirical, all the features of publistic style are to be found in any article. The character of the magazine as well as the subject chosen affects the choice and use of stylistic devices. There are popular scientific articles, satirical articles, political magazine articles, newspaper articles, etc. Literary reviews stand closer to essay both by their content and by their linguistic form. More abstract words of logical meaning are used in them, they more often resort to emotional language and less frequently to traditional set expressions.

36. The style of official documents.

The style of official documents

In standard literary English this is the style of official documents. It is not homogeneous and is represented by the following substyles or variants: 1. the language of business documents; 2. the language of legal documents; 3. that of diplomacy; 4. that of military documents.

The main aim of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking. The most general function of the style of official documents predetermines the peculiarities of the style. The most noticeable of all syntactical features are the compositional patterns of the variants of this style.

The over-all code of the official style falls into a system of subcodes, each characterized by its own terminological nomenclature, its own compositional form, its own variety of syntactical arrangements. But the integrating features of all these subcodes emanating from the general aim of agreement between parties, remain the following: 1. conventionality of expression; 2. absence of any emotiveness; 3. the encoded character of language; symbols and 4. a general syntactical mode of combining several pronouncements into one sentence.

37. The style of mass communication. The British Newspaper style.

English newspaper style may be defined as a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by the community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing and instructing the reader. Since the primary function of newspaper style is to impart information, only printed matter serving this purpose comes under newspaper style proper. Such matter can be classed as:

1. brief news items and communiqués;

2. press reports (parliamentary, of court proceedings, etc.);

3. articles purely informational in character;

4. advertisements and announcements.

The most concise form of newspaper informational is the headline. The headlines of news items, apart from giving information about the subject-matter, also carry a considerable amount of appraisal (the size and arrangement of the headline, the use of emotionally colored words and elements of emotive syntax), thus indicating the interpretation of the facts in the news item that follows.

a) Brief news items The function of a brief news item is to inform the reader. It states only facts without giving comments. Newspaper style has its specific vocabulary features and is characterized by an extensive use of: 1. special political and economic terms; 2. non-term political vocabulary; 3. newspaper cliché; 4. abbreviations; 5. neologisms. The following grammatical peculiarities of brief news items are of paramount importance, and may be regarded as grammatical parameters of newspaper style: 1. complex sentences with a developed system of clauses; 2. verbal constructions; 3. syntactical complexes; 4. attributive noun groups; 5. specific word order.

b) The headline The headline is the title given to a news item of a newspaper article. The main function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly of what the news that follows is about.

Syntactically headlines are very short sentences or phrases of a variety of patterns: 1. full declarative sentences; 2. interrogative sentences; 3. nominative sentences; 4. elliptical sentences; 5. sentences with articles omitted; 6. phrases with verbals; 7. questions in the forms of statements; 8. complex sentences; 9. headlines including direct speech.

c) Advertisements and announcements The function of advertisement and announcement is to inform the reader. There are 2 basic types of advertisements and announcements in the modern English newspaper: classified and non-classified(separate). In classified advertisements and announcements various kinds of information are arranged according to subject-matter into sections, each bearing an appropriate name. As for the separate advertisements and announcements, the variety of language form and subject-matter is so great that hardly any essential features common to all be pointed out.

d) The editorial Editorials are an intermediate phenomenon bearing the stamp of both the newspaper style and the publistic style. The function of the editorial is to influence the reader by giving an interpretation of certain facts. Emotional coloring in editorial articles is also achieved with the help of various stylistic devices(especially metaphors and epithets), both lexical and syntactical, the use of which is largely traditional.


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