Cinematography. Cinema in our lives


Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

hen specialists translate the title of the film they are faced with a problem: how to translate it title correctly to attract more audience? There is a translation problem. This problem existed when there was neither English language nor cinema. In a primitive society women were translators.



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Cinematography (from Greek: κίνημα, kinema "movements" and γράφειν, graphein "to record") is the art or science of motion picture photography.[1] It is the technique of movie photography, including both the shooting and development of the film. (2)

This art is an integral part of human life, in every house there is a modern TV with hundreds of different channels. The leading country in the production of films is the USA. The movies created in this country are known all over the world. There are several secrets of this success, and one of the secrets is an attractive title of a film. When a person goes to the cinema, first of all, he selects the film he wants to watch. He looks at the names of all submitted films. At this moment a movie title plays a great role.There is some impact, influence on people.

When specialists translate the title of the film they are faced with a problem: how to translate it title correctly to attract more audience? There is a translation problem. This problem existed when there was neither English language nor cinema. In a primitive society women were translators. That time the language was only in oral form, and the interpreter was limited in time. So they were often stolen from the tribe.

In antiquity to translate the book into one language first it was necessary to translate it into Greek, then into Latin, and then on the desired language. At that time, everything was translated literally.

In the middle Ages monks were translators. In this period of time there were translated texts of all types. And in the Renaissance a literary translation appeared.

Translation problem have been studied by many linguists from different countries for years, they are Eugene Albert Nida, V.N. Komissarov, A. Schweitzer, S.G. Barhudarov, Y.A. Retsker and others. The authors also have studied this problem on the examples of film’s titles in the research paper.

The object of the study: titles of American films.

The subject of the research work: differences in translation of movies’ names from English into Russian.

There were examined the most popular films among teenagers, such as “Avatar”, “Fast and Furious”, “Titanic” etc.

Methods of study: method of critical analyses of scientific sources, contextual and interpretive method, questionnaire survey, observation, descriptive-comparative method, content and quantitative analysis.

Practical significance: information of this work may be used on classes of Stylistics, Grammar, Text Interpretation in higher educational institutions and other educational institutions, and also will be interesting for those who are fond of studying English.

The aim of the research work is to analyse ways of translation of films’ titles and to determine the most popular type of translation.

Besides, the authors tried to find out why translators changed the movie titles.

For this purpose in theoretical part of the work the authors have studied cinema development, found out features of a foreign cinema, examined its influence on life of people, in particular on teenagers, and revealed the most popular movies among adolescents. Practical part is devoted to the analyses of movie titles’ translation.

Chapter I. Cinema in our lives

If eyes are the mirror of the soul, than cinema is the mirror of our lives.

It is difficult to overestimate the importance the film industry has in our lives. With the help of it you can see the stories of not only this life but also look into the past and even in the future.

The history of a cinema totals hardly more than hundred years. And during that time, constantly changing and being improved, it has won hearts of hundreds millions people in the whole world. Variations have mentioned all areas of a cinema. Scripts and plots of films were transformed significantly, the equipment for shootings and presentation of films today allows to give out to spectators magnificent effects, both visual, and sound.

Every day there are dozens of world film premieres, among them there are films of different genres and varying degrees of skill. And only a tenth of them becomes a real masterpiece and is accepted by the public worldwide.

The circumstances are such that the cinema is increasingly moving into the TV or monitor screen. Home theaters allow to watch movies with comfort, people can choose any movie to their taste. However, cinema theatres do not give up and offer viewers new possibilities of perception and sensation, even smells and tactile sensations.

So, what was the first movie? Who made the first steps? And what is the development of cinema? [4]

  1.  History of cinema

Of course, the invention of film was not sudden. People were coming to this for generations. It was the process of addition separate fragments of a mosaic stretched in time. The first component of the cinema giving the beginning to it was a projection. It originated in prehistoric times when the primitive boy admired a shadow of the hands on a wall. Game of light and shadows bewitched people in Ancient Greece. Puppeteers of medieval Java, China and India, arranging concepts on the basis of local myths and legends, used game of light and a shadow to project silhouettes of the dolls made from leather on the translucent screen.

But it was not a cinema, it was only an attempt to its creation. People needed a device that could record and play back. To create it, mankind had to do 3 steps.

The first step was the invention of the device which received the optical image of objects – the camera obscura or “the Magic lantern”. The arrangement represented a light-tight box with an aperture in one of sides and the screen in another. The image was turned and of small sharpness. But it was not enough.The camera obscuracouldn’t create films. [9]

The second step was made byJoseph Plateau who createdphenakistoscope (also spelled phenakistiscope or phenakitiscope). It was an early animation device that used the persistence of vision principle to create an illusion of motion. [10]

But still people were trying to create a device which could simultaneously display the movement phase and photograph them. The American photographer Eadweard Muybridge created zoopraxіscope .This device projected images from rotating glass disks in rapid succession to give the impression of motion. The stop-motion images were initially painted onto the glass, as silhouettes. Paper executed the function of it. All in all, it was that 20 years later the Lumière brothers called “cinema”.

The Lumiere brothers invented a camera and discovered cinema as art.Their first projector passed successful tests on public in 1895. The start of propagation of a cinema began from public demonstration of the first short-footage films. Already on December, 28th, 1895 in Paris the Lumiere brothers showed their first cinema.Further public demonstrations of short-footage films were produced in all the world's capitals.

The premiere of the first film took place in 1895, on the Boulevard des Capucines in “the Grand Café”. And during the screening of the film “Arrival of a Train”, the audience in horror ran out of the Hall, thinking that the looming train was real! [1]

Nowadays cinema has already deeply got into a life of the modern person. And there is nothing surprising. In fact we perfectly understand that it is better to be transferred into the magic world by means of cinema, having disconnected for a while from the real life. [3]

Everyone is free to choose a film-masterpiece created by titans of a cinema. It is possible depending on mood and taste to watch a comedy or a detective film, a historical movie or just a popular serial.

  1.  Survey to find out favourite teenagers’ films

To find out, what films are preferred by teenagers, authors of the work conducted a survey among students from 13 till 17. In total there were interviewed 107 students: 59 girls, 48 boys. Data from the survey can be seen in the chart number 1.

According to the chart, it can be seen that 13 people prefer Russian movies, 88 people favor foreign films, 6 people embarrassed to answer. Percentage is 12%: 82%; 6% embarrassed to answer.

The authors made the list of the most favorite foreign films of students. Data on this research can be seen in the table №1 “Тоp-80”, table №2 “Тop-5-girls” (five favorite films of girls), table №3 “Top-5-boys” ( five best movies according to the boys’ opinion). (see the appendix p. )

According to the results of the survey authors came to the conclusion that the majority of students prefer foreign films, mainly British and American. It is caused by set of factors. First of all – great influence of foreign cinema on teenagers. So, why is that? The authors tried to find it out.

  1.  Peculiarities of foreign cinema

What do we imagine when we say the words “movie”, “cinema”? It is likely that most people have an association with Hollywood. And no wonder, because it is Hollywood, the USA, is the most popular and largest developed country in the field of cinema. But why? As you know cinema wasn’t born in America, it appeared in Europe where the most prosperous country was France. Why is American film-industry so successful? Why are their films the most popular and paying off?

The answer is obvious: first of all special effects. The American blockbusters simply dazzle with them. The second reason: a popular actor in the form of impenetrable, fearless, all-powerful and attractive superhero who saves the world from imminent destruction with his arsenal of very exotic weapons. It’s important to notice that the world cinema began to create main heroes on the American model much later.

If earlier the USSR’s main characters in cinema were ordinary people - soldiers, war heroes, and in the mid 90’s, the leaders of the criminal gangs (like Sasha Beliy), these days their place was taken by “Russian superman”.

By the way, people also like spectators and villains, so-called antagonists. These characters are attractive, witty, charismatic, possessing venomous sarcasm, sense of humor at all power and necessarily engaging a leader position. Sometimes even the main character cannot compete with the villain.

However, in addition to the blockbusters the Americans love creating movies that reflect our reality: comedies, dramas and melodramas. They show real people with their emotions, ups and downs.

There is a genre called horrors. Their goal is clear - scare us to death. These films have already gained the popularity. The reason is that human genes laid the passion of fear. A large number of people even like when they are scared by someone. Besides, it’s proved that fear makes people smarter. But horror is not an independent genre. It takes as a basis for such genres as science fiction, thriller, drama and cyberpunk.

The USA chooses the way of entertainment. The main task is to surprise the audience, made people experience a real shock. America attracts talented filmmakers. And certainly they are much more likely to be published than other countries. Therefore, the U.S. continues to grow, creating more and more stars, celebrities, cinema masterpieces.

Certainly, some people can argue, approving, that the cinema of the USA is too mainstream, but the USA has prepared the answer – independent cinema. Every possible direction, so-called experimental and underground cinema are developed in the USA as strongly, as well as production of the largest companies of Hollywood.  Doesn’t it prove that the USA film-industry is developed and multilateral? [4]

  1.  Role of foreign cinema in teenagers’ lives

Since 1890 a cinema began to gain its popularity year after year. Today there arealmost no those people who would not be the admirer of a good cinema. As well as many years ago, the cinema also plays a huge role in human life, but nowadays it became more available – it is possible to watch it on large-format screens at cinemas, on the TV and on the screen of monitors of a computer through the Internet, online.Of course, the judges of new technologies are teenagers, the young generation.

The cinema shapes outlook of the person, enriches it spiritually, sates with the helpful information. There is also a psychological influence of a cinema on the person, in fact under its influence there can be a varied scale of unique feelings. A film or a serial can cause a smile or tears, pleasure or grief, excitation or sensation of inner peace. Movies can change a person, his internal status, behavior, character. Such effects are mostly typical for teenagers. Of course, it should be noticed, that movie may have a negative impact on the development of a person. While watching a movie, young people often put themselves in the place of the hero, they empathize to him and share his feelings with him virtually. And this is a great property! Often teenagers somehow live in a fictional world, in the world of dreams.[5]

Without a doubt, cinema is one of the most important and the most popular types of arts, which has a great influence on the life of a person. It can also impact on the world’s cultural development.

Conclusion to chapter I

Summarizing chapter I it’s possible to say that cinema, created more than 100 years ago, is an integral part of human culture. During its life, cinema has quickly and unevenly developed, going through various stages beginning from ranging of the shadows on the wall and ending at 3D movies. During the development of cinema appeared a wide variety of devices to create new types of cinema. It was sound, light, and special effects.

Nowadays there is a set of genres of cinema which have their own style. Therefore, each inhabitant of our planet can find a film to his taste. However, the authors have found out that Russian teenagers prefer foreign films, mainly British and American. Survey results showed that from 107 students 88 prefer foreign cinema, percentage ratio is 12%: 82%; 6% embarrassed to answer. This can be explained by the fact that Hollywood in its development overtakes many countries, along with France, Germany, etc. It fights for superiority making fascinating masterpieces from comedies to horror movies which make us smile, laugh and fear and the aim of modern cinema is to entertain us, to make the world a better place, reflect on and simply tell us about our lives.

Chapter II. Translation peculiarities of foreign films’ titles

Since a large number of people prefer foreign films, it is natural that they are imported. All the films that come to us are translated from the original title in the way to be clear to the residents of our country. But such translations do not always coincide. The translators have to do not an easy task. On the one hand it is necessary to keep the meaning of the selected title, and on the other – to think whichtitle will be interesting to the public, and it’s often very difficult to do. Movie title plays an important role in understanding of the film in general and the information contained there. Consequently, the translator must be very careful translating the title of the film to make it as resonant and meaningful as in original.[7]

2.1 Concept of equivalence in translation

So, as it was already said, one of the reasons for the success of foreign film is an attractive title of it. But there is a question: how to translate the title correctly? In fact it is necessary to remember, that in the English language there are words which can’t be translated into Russian, and sometimes the same title won’t be pleasant both for the public of the USA and Russia [8]. When translating English sentences specialists often have a problem: in Russian the literal translation of the text sounds crazy (in English there are only two cases). For this purpose there is a literary translation. But in literary translation it is necessary to change the word order and replace synonymous words. As a result, the text or a phrase is not translated word for word, but the meaning is clear [11]. According to the Russian linguist V. N. Komissarov, equivalence is a generality of a content, i.e. semantic proximity of the original and translation.[2]

2.1.2 Types of equivalence in translation

Linguistic scholars, such as N.V. Komissarov, S. G. Barkhudarov identify several types of equivalence. Authors of the research decided to allocate their own classification of translation equivalence and to use it to analyze and identify the most common type in the translation of film titles. They are:

I – complete match translation;

II – partial match translation;

III – complete mismatch translation.

There is a question to each film with transformed title: why was it changed? [12]

2.2 Titles with complete match translation

Complete match translation – is a type of translation when the name of film in the language of translation coincides with the original title on all grounds.

Complete match translation meets in most cases. So, from 75 movies which were chosen by students, 56 coincided with the original title.

Some of them were examined.

  1.  “Harry Potter” – «Гарри Поттер»

This is the name of the main hero of the film and it would be incorrect to translate the film in another way. One more example –“Sherlock Holmes” – «Шерлок Холмс».

  1.  Titanic – «Титаник»

It is translated so because this is the name of the ship which really existed, it’s a proper name and the movie is shot on real events.

  1.  “Doom”

Strangely this title isn’t translated at all. Maybe its translation (“death” – «смерть») is too sharp, causes fear in public. “Doom” doesn’t frighten the Russians,some people even don’t realize what is this film about. Besides, this film is a certain screen version of the game “Doom”. Translators decided not to change and translate this title for lovers of the game.

  1.  “Inception” – «Начало»

«Начало» – is one of the meanings to the word “inception”. Having seen the movie, it becomes unclear why translators gave it such a name. One of the heroes only once said: “inception”, but he didn’t speak about “beginning”, it was “introduction” – «внедрение». Maybe the translators meant the beginning of some action or activity, or they just didn’t watch the film properly. Anyway, whether it is “beginning”, whether “introduction” – all these words remain synonyms to the word inception.

  1.  “Avatar” – «Аватар»

The avatar is a hybrid of the person’s DNA and the aboriginal of a planet Pandora –Na’vi. The movie is about one of such avatars. That’s why the translation from English into Russian completely coincides.

  1.  “Street Dance” – «Уличныетанцы»

The title sounds impressively, youth. The capacious name explains at once that the movie will be about dances and young people, the teenagers, who love to be engaged in them.

  1.  “What Dreams May Come” – «Кудаприводятмечты»

The movie was called so because it was shot on a novel of the same name “What Dreams May Come”. Respectively, this novel was already known before and that’s why it wasn’t correct to change the title.

  1.  “The Butterfly Effect” – «Эффектбабочки»

The film is called “The Butterfly Effect” because it is the term in natural science which designates property of some chaotic systems.

  1.  “The Green Hornet” – «ЗелёныйШершень»

The name of the movie came from the superhero of the same name from the American radio - and telecasts of the 60’s.

According to the analyses of the first type of equivalence it’s possible to draw a conclusion that some translations of films’ names coincide with the original titles because the name of the movieis the name of the main hero;may be an extra notion like a scientific term;is a screen version of some novel or a computer game;is bright and suitable for the public of both countries.

2.3 Titles with partial match translation

Partial match translation – is a type of translation when the film’s title isn’t translated literally, some part of a phrase may be changed.

The films’ titles were examined by the authors, here are some examples of the movies’ titles which were translated not literally, something was changed.

  1.  “Madhouse” – «Домстраха»

If to translate the title literally it will be “madhouse” – «сумасшедшийдом». It is clear to any British person – the action happens in a psychiatric clinic. But if a Russian person hears such a name, he won’t think that it is a horror film. The title isn't attractive for the Russians, that’s why the translators decided to change the title a little bit and to give a hint at the genre of the film.

  1.  “Despicable Me” – «Гадкий я»

“Despicable Me” – is a cartoon, in literal translation – «Презренныйя». This heading sounds too serious for a kids’ movie. The translators changed the word «презренный» into the word «гадкий». No doubt, it sounds better, a cartoon with this name can get more money.

  1.  “World War Z” – «ВойнаМиров Z»

In English “World war of Z” is considered to be a norm. But in Russian people can't use such word order because of difference in grammar. Besides the name «Мироваявойна Z» doesn't retell the movie’s idea. Moreover the trailer was unclear and explained nothing.

  1.  “Real Steel” – «Живаясталь»

Those who changed the name wanted to touch hearts of the audience. Translators wanted to show that steel is able to feel. The name «Живаясталь» suits this movie better because the film is about the human relations, fights of robots – only a background.

  1.  “Grave Encounters” – «Искателимогил»

In Russian there is no precise equivalent to the word “encounters”. Therefore the translators replaced “those who came across” to “hunters”.

  1.  “Pirates of the Caribbean” – «ПиратыКарибскогоморя»

This is the same example as “Grave Encounters”. In original “Caribbean” – islands in the Caribbean Sea. In Russian there is no similar word. The translators had to add one more word – «море».

  1.  ResidentEvil” – «Обитель зла»

Everything here is done for the sake of commercial success. “Resident Evil” could be translated as «Резидентзлой». This title isn’t attractive to the Russian public, it would also frighten off the fans of game “Resident Evil” (the film is based on it). Similar case: “Meet the Spartans” (the Meeting of Spartans) – Acquaintance to Spartans (The name didn't prevent a failure).

  1.  MeettheSpartans” – «Знакомство со Спартанцами»

The translators decided to change the part of speech, instead of verb they put a noun. Besides, they changed the meaning of the word “meet”, it became “acquaintance” – «знакомство». As a result the title was changed from «ВстречайтеСпартанцев» to «ЗнакомствосоСпартанцами».

Making a conclusion it’s important to notice that films’ titles are translated not literally but with some changes becausesome word in the title can’t be translated because of difference in grammar of languages;translators think that another title would be more attractive to the public;there is no equivalence to some word in another language;translators want to get commercial success.

2.4 Titles with complete mismatch translation

Complete mismatch translation – is a type of translation when the name of film in the language of translation does not coincide with the original title on any grounds.

Here are several examples.

  1.  “Fast & Furious” – «Форсаж»

Let's take a look at the most popular movie among adolescents, in original it’s called “Fast & Furious”. Then why “Форсаж”? When a Russian person hears or sees the word “Форсаж”, it is associated with something very rapid and breathtaking, and that is the basis for this film. Also the name “Fast and Furious” is too long and not intriguing. Perhaps that's why the translators have decided to change the name of the movie completely.

  1.  TheHangover”–  «Мальчишник в  Вегасе»

The Bachelor Party is always loud and fun time with friends, but when it happens in Las Vegas, which is always associated with wealth, with a riot of colors and delight, it’s even more hilarious adventure. The original name means «похмелье» that usually most people associate with bad health and a headache, so this title can be considered inadmissible and incorrect for our society. Though, the hangover is exactly the thing which is described in the film, in the result of which actions are developed.

  1.  “Grown Ups” – «Одноклассники»

In translation – adults. They are former classmates. Therefore, it can be said that in this case, changing of the translation has not influenced the perception of the public a lot, because the titles are very close. But the name “adults”, seems to be not as expressive as “Classmates” –«Одноклассники», because this word evokes nostalgia of school years, old friends, as well as the set of forgotten memories.

  1.  “Now You See Me” – «Иллюзияобмана»

“Now You See Me” – the original name of this American film. It is an introductory phrase in the focus with disappearance. But this title is very long, it would be hardly remembered by thepublic. But “illusion of deception” is known by many people. Sometimes, even at once you won’t understand this expression –«иллюзияобмана», in fact illusion is the same as a deception, but however it is possible to pick up another word – seeming, and it will turn out: “seeming deception” it is very interesting and mysterious.

  1.  Abduction – «Погоня»

Abduction means kidnapping. It is strange that the film was named «Погоня» because kidnapping and abduction are different things, they can be called antonyms. Although this name could appear if the translators were guided by the pursuit – a consequence of the abduction, i.e. abduction occurs when someone tries to find the object, so he is in his quest, in abduction. It turns out that American authors have given the name “Abduction” because of the first scene (the hero thinks he’s kidnapped by his own parents). Russian translators chose the opposite word –«Погоня», this title reflects the main plot of the film (the hero investigates the situation). It may be the reason for changing of the movie’s title.

  1.  “Insidious” – «Астрал»

At first founders of this movie wanted to give the name “Astral”, but then they came to “Insidious” (means “artful” – «коварный»). But our Russian translators used the initial name. It is more clear, concrete and already comprising the main idea of a picture. It is easier to understand the idea of the film. Also it is possible to add that the English-language name was an adjective, and in the Russian cinema the adjective as heading of the movie is not used as a rule.

  1.  “Chernobyl Diaries” – «Запретнаязона»

From “Chernobyl diaries” to“Prohibited Zone”. There several reasons of complete mismatch translation here. Chernobyl accident was one of the most powerful nuclear accidents, it carried away many lives, many people were infected with radiation sickness, the environment was completely radiated. For this reason such name as “Chernobyl Diaries” could not only blow to feelings of the people of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, but also could insult them because the word “diaries” says that the events described in movies, really occurred. Of course, a person can have a thought: “ Is that movie art or documentary?” Surely it is a fantasy mixed with horrors. Therefore because of all these reasons the translators decided to change the name “Chernobyl Diaries” to “Prohibited Zone” which was more suitable under all parameters.[6]

So, having analysed all above-mentioned movies’ titles it is possible to tell that complete mismatch translation occurs because in a literal translation the initial name doesn’t look attractive, intriguing and interesting to the audience of the country;the new chosen heading shows the main idea of the movie better;the original title can’t be understand by people of another country; in the original name there is something that could offend the audience and even to cause the conflict;the original title can be an adjective, in Russia it is accepted to call movies nouns or adjectives and the verbs which are coordinating with nouns.

2.5 Frequency analysis of movies’ titles for identification of the most widespread type of translation equivalence

To reveal the most widespread type of translation equivalence according to the examples of movies’ titles, the authors made a frequency analysis. The results of this analysis can be seen in the frequency table №1 and №2 (see the appendix p. ), and in the chart №3.

Frequency Тable 1

Type of equivalence

Number of movies’ titles acc. to the type of equivalence

Complete match translation


Partial match translation


Complete mismatch translation


According to the results of the frequency analysis it turned out that the most widespread type of equivalence is complete match translation – the 1st type, less widespread is the 2nd type – partial match translation, and the 3rd type – complete mismatch translation is the rarest. The percentage ratio is 72%:19%:9%.

Such results can be explained. It is known that success of the film depends on the name of it. If the title of a movie is bright and interesting, the film attracts more audience. Translators try to intrigue the viewers not only in Russia, foreign film-makers think out the name of the filminitially. Respectively Americans try to pick up the most successful name, and our translators, seeing the success of this movie in the USA, translate the heading literally, if it’s possible. As a result the movie gains popularity in Russia.Also, complete match translation meets in 72% can be explained by the fact that it’s the easiest way of translation. But there are other situations when it is necessary to change the translation completely or partially.It is caused by various factors: difference in grammar and vocabulary. Anyway specialists do it for the sake of commercial success which in based on psychological perception.

Conclusion to chapter II

Summing up the 2nd chapter the authors can conclude that the main task of a translator is the right choice of the movie’s name because a commercial success depends on it. The title of a movie should be bright, intriguing, interesting and attractive for the audience. As a result sometimes the original name doesn’t coincide with the new translated title. This phenomenon is called equivalence of translation. This theory has been studied by many linguists for years, such as Eugene Albert Nida, V.N. Komissarov, A. Schweitzer, S.G. Barhudarov, Y.A.Retsker and others. According to this theory the authors managed to create their own classification of translation equivalence. They found out three the most widespread types:1sttype–complete match translation, 2ndtype – partial match translation, 3rd type–complete mismatch translation.

Making a frequency analysis of all movie titles, the authors found out that the most widespread type of equivalence was complete match translation, less popular type – partial match translation and the rarest type – complete mismatch translation. Percentage ratio is 72%19%:9%.  The authors explained such results in the 2nd chapter.


Cinema plays a huge role in our lives, it embodies and reflects our life, it is able to move us to the past and even in the future. In the modern world the main centre of the world cinematograph is the USA. The most successful films are produced here. The survey results proved this fact. To find out, what films are preferred by teenagers, authors of the work conducted a survey among students from 13 till 17. In total there were interviewed 107 students: 59 girls, 48 boys. According to the survey it was seen that 13 people prefer Russian movies, 88 people favor foreign films, 6 people embarrassed to answer.

Besides, it turned out that % of the most famous films among teenagers were created in the USA (21% of the films were created by the United States in cooperation with other English-speaking countries, and 7% – movies of English speaking countries). The main features of the US films were examined by the authors. It turned out that the main reasons for that popularity are special effects, professional actors, the wide range of different genres, interesting scenario, the plot, the characters, advertising and historically entrenched development. Surely, American cinema has a great influence on teenagers.

In the second Chapter the authors examined the notion of translation equivalence and revealed their own qualification of equivalence. According to this classification there are three types:  1st type – complete match translation, 2nd type – partial match translation, 3rd type – complete mismatch translation. Making a frequency analysis of all movie titles, the authors found out that the most widespread type of equivalence was complete match translation, less popular type – partial match translation and the rarest type – complete mismatch translation. Percentage ratio is 72%19%:9%.

The authors explained such results. It’s known that success of the film depends on the name of it. If the title of a movie is bright and interesting, the film attracts more audience. Translators try to intrigue the viewers not only in Russia, foreign film-makers think out the name of the film initially. Respectively Americans try to pick up the most successful name, and our translators, seeing the success of this movie in the USA, translate the heading literally, if it’s possible. As a result the movie gains popularity in Russia. Also, complete match translation meets in 72% because it’s the easiest way of translation and despite the translation problem, totally different culture, understanding of the film, in most cases, it’s really possible to find the exact equivalent. But there are other situations when it is necessary to change the translation partially or completely. It is caused by various factors: difference in grammar and vocabulary. Anyway specialists do it for the sake of commercial success which is based on psychological perception.



Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistic /        J.C. Richards, R.Schmidt.  – ThirdEdition. – PearsonEducation, Longman, 2002.

ABBYY Lingvo Dictionary 2013


1) http://filmotzyv.com/ -  сайтокиноирецензияхнафильмы (киноблог)


3)BBC — World’s first color moving pictures discovered – журналвыпуска, годвыпуска

4)↑ The Guardian — Color film of 1901, judged world’s earliest ever, found at media museum –интернет - журнал, 2012 год.

5)↑ National Media Museum — World’s First Moving Color Pictures – интернет-музейкино.

6) Дмитрий Масуренков Киноаппараты для цветных съемок (рус.) // «Техника и технологии кино» : журнал. № 5, 2007 год

7) Языкознание. Ру – лингвистический справочник.

8) Комиссаров В.Н. "Теория перевода”

9) http://pripyat.com – форум жителей окрестностей Припяти.

10) Transeurope.ru – статья из бюро переводов.

11) translate.msk.ru – статья из сайта переводов.

12) http://fb.ravnovesie.com – сайт о трудах ученых, занимавшихся проблемой перевода.

*извведения1 - Merriam-Webster dictionary : http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cinematography

2. Тhe Free Dictionary by Farlex: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/cinematography

Appendix 1

Table №1 “Тоp-75”


Original title

Russian title









«Гарри Поттер»


“Pirates of the Caribbean”

«Пираты Карибского моря»



«Искатели могил»


The GreenMile

«Зеленая миля»





Hachi: A Dog'sTale



“I Spit on Your Grave”

«Я плюю на ваши могилы»



«Шаг вперед»









«Обитель зла»









«Перси Джексон»





“The Lord of the Rings”

«Властелин колец»






«Тихоокеанский рубеж»


The Grudge



“Now You See Me”

«Иллюзия обмана»


“What Dreams May Come”

«Куда приводят мечты?»



«Паранормальное явление»





WorldWar Z

«Война миров  Z»








The Avengers



The HungerGames

«Голодные игры»



«Сайлент Хилл»


DespicableMe 2

«Гадкий Я-2»



«Еще одна история о Золушке»









«Тело Дженнифер»



«Брюс Всемогущий»



«Перл Харбор»


We're the Millers

«Мы Миллеры»


The Hangover

«Мальчишник в  Вегасе»


The Sorcerer'sApprentice

«Ученик чародея»



«Тепло наших тел»


The LastSong

«Последняя песня»



«Остров Проклятых»



«Железный человек»


“Zeus and Roxanne”

«Зевс и Роксана»



«Час пик»


Meet the Spartans

«Знакомство со спартанцами»



«Морской бой»





The Ring



The LastAirbender

«Повелитель стихий»



«Город грехов»


The GreenHornet

«Зеленый шершень»



«Живая сталь»





The Expendables



The ButterflyEffect

«Эффект бабочки»


Mr. Nobody

«Господин Никто»


“Four Weddings and a Funeral”

«4 Свадьбы и одни похороны»


“Charlie and the Chocolate Factory”

«Чарли и шоколадная фабрика»





Knockin’ OnHeaven’sDoor

«Достучаться до небес»





The Smurfs 2




«Звездные войны»



«Очень страшное кино»









«Клик с пультом по жизни»



«Шерлок Холмс»





Street Dance

«Уличные танцы»






«Дом страха»



«Запретная зона»

Table №2 Тop-5-girls”





“Pirates of the Caribbean”




«Гарри Поттер»


“The Fast and the Furious”






“Hachi: A Dog's Tale”


Table3 “Top-5-boys”





“The Fast and the Furious”














Appendix 2

Frequency table № 2

Original title

Title translated into Russian

Complete match translation

  1.  Transformers
  2.  HarryPotter
  3.  Titanic
  4.  The GreenMile
  5.  “I Spit on Your Grave”
  6.  StepUp
  7.  Saw
  8.  Inception
  9.  Mama
  10.  PercyJackson
  11.  Avatar
  12.  “The Lord of the Rings”
  13.  “What Dreams May Come”
  14.  PrettyWoman
  15.  “Paranormal Activity”
  16.  “Troy”
  17.  “World War Z”
  18.  “Quarantine”
  19.  “Edward Scissorhands”
  20.  “The Avengers”
  21.  “Silent Hill”
  22.  “Spider-Man”
  23.  “Alexander”
  24.  “Jennifer’s Body”
  25.  “Bruce Almighty”
  26.  “Pearl Harbor”
  27.  “We're the Millers”
  28.  “The Sorcerer's Apprentice”
  29.  WarmBodies
  30.  The LastSong
  31.  IronMan
  32.  “Zeus and Roxanne”
  33.  “Meet the Spartans”
  34.  “Doom”
  35.  “The Ring”
  36.  “Sin City”
  37.  “The Green Hornet”
  38.  “Real Steel”
  39.  “The Butterfly Effect”
  40.  “Mr. Nobody”
  41.  “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory”
  42.  “Thor”
  43.  “The Smurfs 2”
  44.  “Star Wars”
  45.  “Scream”
  46.  InTime
  47.  “Sherlock Holmes”
  48.  “Street Dance”
  49.  “The Grudge”
  50.  The Expendables
  51.  “Dead End”
  52.  AnotherCinderellaStory

  1.  «Трансформеры»
  2.  «Гарри Поттер»
  3.  «Титаник»
  4.  «Зеленая миля»
  5.  «Я плюю на ваши могилы»
  6.  «Шаг вперед»
  7.  «Пила»
  8.  «Начало»
  9.  «Мама»
  10.  «Перси Джексон»
  11.  «Аватар»
  12.  «Властилин колец»
  13.  «Куда приводят мечты»
  14.  «Красотка»
  15.  «Паранормальное явление»
  16.  «Троя»
  17.  «Война миров»
  18.  «Карантин»
  19.  «Эдвард – Руки – Ножницы»
  20.  «Мстители»
  21.  «Сайлент Хил»
  22.  «Человек – паук»
  23.  «Александр»
  24.  «Тело Дженифер»
  25.  «Брюс Всемогущий»
  26.  «Перл Харбер»
  27.  «Мы Миллеры»
  28.  «Ученик чародея»
  29.  «Тепло наших тел»
  30.  «Последняя песня»
  31.  «Железный человек»
  32.  «Зевс и Роксана»
  33.  «Знакомство со спартанцами»
  34.  “Doom”
  35.  «Звонок»
  36.  «Город грехов»
  37.  «Зеленый шершень»
  38.  «Живая сталь»
  39.  «Эффект бабочки»
  40.  «Господин Никто»
  41.  «Чарли и шоколадная фабрика»
  42.  «Тор»
  43.  «Смурфики 2»
  44.  «Звездные войны»
  45.  «Крик»
  46.  «Время»
  47.  «Шерлок Холмс»
  48.  «Уличные танцы»
  49.  «Проклятие»
  50.  «Неудержимые»
  51.  «Тупик»
  52.  «Еще одна история о Золушке»

Partial match translation

  1.  “Pirates of the Caribbean”
  2.  GraveEncounters
  3.  Hachi: A Dog'sTale
  4.  ResidentEvil
  5.  PacificRim
  6.  ShutterIsland
  7.  RushHour
  8.  Battleship
  9.  Knockin’ OnHeaven’sDoor
  10.  ScaryMovie
  11.  Click
  12.  Madhouse
  13.  The LastAirbender
  14.  DespicableMe 2
  15.  “Four Weddings and a Funeral”
  16.   “The Hunger Games”
  1.  «Пираты Карибского моря»
  2.  «Искатели могил»
  3.  «Хатико»
  4.  «Обитель зла»
  5.  «Тихоокеанский рубеж»
  6.  «Остров Проклятых»
  7.  «Час пик»
  8.  «Морской бой»
  9.  «Достучаться до небес»
  10.  «Очень страшное кино»
  11.  «Клик с пультом по жизни»
  12.  «Дом страха»
  13.  «Повелитель стихий»
  14.  «Гадкий Я 2»
  15.  «Две свадьбы, одни похороны»  
  16.  «Голодные игры»  

Complete mismatch translation

  1.  “The Fast and the Furious”
  2.  Khk
  3.  Kjhjg
  4.  Kjhjg
  5.  Kjghjg
  6.  Ug
  7.  gg


  1.  «Астрал»
  2.  «Иллюзия обмана»
  3.  «Мальчишник в Вегасе»
  4.  «Одноклассники»
  5.  «Погоня»
  6.  «Запретная зона»


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