Nikolai Gastello - a feat that has not been
Исторические личности и представители мировой культуры
Gastello dropping bombs on accumulated at a gas station German tanks and machine guns shooting crews fascist machines began to walk away from the goal. At this time the fascist car bomb caught Captain Gastello. Gastello burning plane turned and led him into the thick of the enemy tanks.
Nikolai Gastello - a feat that has not been
June, 26 - pilot Captain Gastello NF crew - Burdenok, Skarabahaty and Kalinin - DB-3 led to bomb the Nazis broke into the road Maladzechna-Radoshkovichi. There seemed Radoshkovichi string of enemy tanks. Gastello, dropping bombs on accumulated at a gas station German tanks and machine guns shooting crews fascist machines began to walk away from the goal. At this time, the fascist car bomb caught Captain Gastello. Received a direct hit, the plane in flames, could not go to his base. Gastello burning plane turned and led him into the thick of the enemy tanks. There came a pillar of fire flame tanks and fascist crews. High price paid for the death of the German fascists pilot heroic crew.
June, 26, 1941. The fourth day of the Great Patriotic War. Tanks Gotha and Guderian rush forward on the territory of Belarus, making a day up to 100 kilometers. The Soviet command is trying to stop them from further wedging in battle formations of the Southwestern Front.
Morning from the airfield near Smolensk in Borovskoe air rises squadron of bombers 207th Aviation Regiment, commanded by Captain Nicholas Gastello - three aircraft DB-3F. Exploration reported that in the area of highway Radoshkovichi-Maladzechna there is a concentration of enemy tanks. The task of the squadron was bombed by German machine detected.
Residents of nearby villages have seen at 12:00 on the highway appeared three bombers with red stars on the wings. From open bombing on tanks, armored vehicles and enemy bombs rained down. In the sky rose fatty columns of smoke - three tons of bombs have not been in vain. However, the Germans immediately opened a dense anti-aircraft fire, and two of the three bombers flared.
Airplane lieutenant Vorobyov, not only padded, after the task went to the front line, to the airfield. The second DB-3 with trailing behind him a smoky trail "left in an unknown direction," as witnessed then local farmers. A third bomber made a U-turn and sent burning car right on the accumulation of German armored vehicles...
Fedor Vorobiev, commander of the sole survivor in the raid crew returned safely to the airport in Bryansk (due to the rapid pace of the German offensive Soviet planes often flew from one airfield and landed on another, in the rear). In his report was written that he and navigator Lt. Rybas saw that plane, driven by a squadron commander Gastello made ground ram. June 27th Regiment commander Lobanov wrote about the feat in Moscow, and the 28th of the signature of Kalinin out a decree conferring the title of captain Gastello Hero of the Soviet Union. Since then, the story begins to seem a little strange when you consider that the letter from Lobanov from Belarus to Moscow must get at least a week, and then another month to wait for his turn in the office ... However, later "witnesses" had nothing to say about it - Lieutenant Rybas soon goes missing and Fedor Vorobiev five months later die. However, two days after the departure of the famous, June 28, 1941, the 207th Aviation Regiment ceased to exist. The fifth of July threw the remains of staff under the eagle, and in September the regiment was finally disbanded.
For a long time it was believed that the feat was performed crew Nicholas Gastello. Together with him in a bomber navigator were then Lieutenant Anatoly Burdenyuk main gunner Sergeant Alexei Kalinin and lower (hatch) arrows Lieutenant Gregory Skarabahaty. Somehow, the title of Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded to only one Gastello posthumously. About a third plane, where the commander was Alexander Maslov (the same one that "left in an unknown direction") Soviet propaganda forgotten. Only in May 1942-th Maslov relatives and family members of his crew - navigator Lieutenant Vladimir Balashov, junior sergeant radio operator-gunner Gregory Reutova and junior sergeant gunner Bahturaza Beyskbaeva command of 207th regiment sent notice that their husbands (children) " missing ". Up until the early 90s such wording - "missing" was considered virtually synonymous with "betrayal." After all, you never know what engaged missing? Maybe they surrendered, that is, set an example of cowardice and alarmism? Or maybe they were policemen or at all - fought for the Nazis?When the wife of Captain Maslov Sophia Evgrafovna Maslov in 1944 returned home to Kolomna, her daughter Ira refused to kindergarten - children whose fathers were killed at the front, and it was a lot. A father of Ira died and went missing. For the same reason survivor's pension Maslov family did not receive.
As a potential traitor to his wife, Sofya Evgrafovna become ill treat all the neighbors. Ceased to communicate with her and Alexander's father, who was then chairman of the kolkhoz "Explorer". Sophia cried a lot - to live with his little daughter in the war-torn country was very hard. It seemed that fate threw another unfair trick - Nikolai Gastello (he and his wife Anna Sophia knew they were friends families) became an overnight idol boys and Hero of the Soviet Union and her Sasha - almost a traitor. But, as it turned out, fate can be transformed fantastic - and that was seen in participants of the departure of the legendary ...
In 1951, the year of Belarus has decided to immortalize the feat Nicholas Gastello Belarusian nationality. By Dekshnyany village, near which was perfect ram (at night on June 27 locals hastily buried pilots crashed bomber in a mass grave, wrapped in their parachutes) Submit a large commission. Process of reburial of heroes led rayvoenkom village Radoshkovichi Colonel Kotelnikov.
On the spot it was found that the bomber crashed in a column of armored vehicles, as it is written in all the Soviet history books, and 180 meters from the highway into the field - either not held, or not rammed tanks and anti-aircraft battery ... However, it was not so important. With a huge gathering of people, on 26th June 1951 a mass grave was officially opened. Boilermakers immediately became interested in the contents of the planchette one of the pilots, who for 10 years, almost not affected. It turned out that it contains the documents in the name ... Captain Alexander Maslov Spiridonovich. Also, one of the pilots was found medallion to the radio operator-gunner Reutova Gregory, a crew memberCaptain Maslov. It turns out that this bomber rammed Maslov made, and the plane Nikolai Gastello just "left in an unknown direction"?
Lieutenant Colonel Kotelnikov did not share with others their findings, and the ashes of "the brave crew Gastelllo" was safely reburied in the village square Radoshkovichi. Nicholas himself Gastello placed over the grave of a bronze monument.
The same evening Kotelnikov classified as "Secret" sent a letter to the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Belarus, where he informed about the discovery and asked - what to do? Soon also classified as "Secret" came the answer under the signature of the head. Administrative Department of the Central Committee Perepelytsina: "Refer to the department of accounting losses of the Soviet Army."
Received "good" to identify information about the details of the death of the crew of Alexander Maslov, Kotelnikov began collecting information. Soon he found in the archives of an interesting document - a list of "irretrievable loss of officers and other ranks 42nd Air Division from 22.06 to 06.28.41 (series" B "№138)". He was signed by the assistant chief of the department of the drill sergeant of the corner. In the list was Gastello and crew: the captain himself, as well as Burlenyuk, Skarabahaty and Kalinin. In the "notes" it is said that "one person from that crew bailed out with a burning plane, who - is unknown." Around it appeared that rammed the Germans still crew Maslov, not Gastello ...
Results of their research Kotelnikov shared with Artemyevsrayvoenkomom Colonel Gladkov. In the 1952nd contacted Maslow and his wife gave her all the materials of the investigation. Presentation of the wells, and the miraculously preserved goggles and comb her husband she immediately identified. Soon Sophia Evgrafovna submits an application to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, in which he asked to restore her family in the civil rights and assign her husband the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, since it was he (and his crew) accomplished the feat.
Soon, November 22 (the day of the birth of Alexander Maslov) Sophia comes Evgrafovna note: "Read Captain Maslov's not missing, and who died in a combat mission of 6/26/41." A day comes to Maslova security officer and politely asks no longer disturb the Supreme Council of his conjectures. Awarding Maslov Hero of it does not even comes ...
But Nyquist have more questions for which there are no answers yet. For example, why the whole country knows that the only survivor of the crew had a crew of Lieutenant Vorobyev. Whereas in the archives of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR meant that Rybas and Vorobiev served in the 96th Regiment. However, we know that the famous flight squadron committed 207th Aviation Regiment. Maybe the bombers were not three, but two - Maslow and Gastello?
No, I'm sure Kotelnikov, bombers was just three. Villagers Dekshnyany, near which was accomplished the feat, claimed to have seen three aircraft. Also miraculously survived Aircraft 207th Aviation Regiment Borodin, June 26th, preparing the DB-3 squadron Gastello to fly confidently said that the aircraft was three. Their commanders were Gastello, butter and "someone else", whose name Borodin remembers. Means Rybas and Vasiliev could not see anything, and the testimony of the special department gave the unknown, surviving bomber piloted?However, at this amazing discoveries for Nyquist is not over. He soon learned that on June 27th the villagers and the village DekshnyanyRadoshkovichi went to Matskovskie swamp - wherever flew "in an unknown direction," the stricken bomber. Were soon discovered the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as two charred corpse. In the pocket of one of them was found a letter addressed to Skorobogataya - Lieutenant Skarabahaty (and it was he) did not have time to send his wife. The second victim was found the medallion, which was able to make out the initials "A.A.K.." Apparently, it belonged to the gunner Alexei Alexandrovich Kalinin. Since it was found two of the four crew members Nikolai Gastello, this meant that, at first, had fallen into the swamp bomber piloted by it (and not butter), and secondly, Gastello any time to throw a parachute and survive, or his corpse and was not found.
So where did he got to Gastello? The answer to this question testify villager Matzke, which is 25 kilometers from the village Radoshkovichi (unfortunately, his last name is unknown, although evidence recorded on film). Then, on June 26 1941st he was 15 years old, but he remembers very well what is happening:
"I saw from the left wing of the burning bomber jumped parachutist. He landed at 300 meters from me. To him in a car drove by German soldiers - the village has entered the Germans. Skydiver jumped to his feet, but the Germans gave the machine gun fire, and he fell again. But he was not killed and wounded - as he walked to the car, Germans held both his hands ... ".
It is necessary to conduct a small technical educational program in order to figure out who was this pilot descended - Gastello or Burdenok, whose body was never found? Thus, in case of an emergency evacuation bomber gunner jumping from the top hatch, navigator - from the bottom. On the wing can jump only pilot who, remember, in the flight and was Nikolai Gastello. By the way, the fact that the pilot was rescued and Skarabahaty, Kalinin and presumably Burdenok could not, does not speak in favor of the commander. Says the deputy commander of the Soviet Air Force Colonel-General Reshetnikov, who began the war as a junior lieutenant bombers DB-3:"I had a case where my plane was hit in the air and it caught fire. At first, I waited until the parachute jump out of the crew - to keep aircraft at maximum height. And then jumped himself. "
It turns out Gastello did not wait until evacuated the rest of his crew (the holding plane straight to give the greatest possible chance of recovery) and jumped before? The charred bodies of comrades and escaped Nicholas speak in favor of this version ...
And what happened to him then? Germany at the request of the captured pilots June 26, 1941 near the village of Radoshkovichi still silent. However, it is known that at the beginning of the war Soviet pilots Germans shot immediately after the interrogation ...
Instead of ending
What has been done to the real heroes? In 1992, all members of the crew of Alexander Maslov posthumously were awarded with medals of the Patriotic War 1st degree, and in 1996, the year of all the members of the crew was posthumously awarded the title Hero of Russia. However, the wording of the feat was some strange - "At one time and in one place, at one and the same air combat bomber crew of Captain Maslov anticipated feat Gastello Nicholas." However, it is understandable - why rewrite Soviet history and declare that no feat Gastello did not commit, when it can be refined? ..
Wife of Alexander Maslov did not wait rehabilitation of her husband, who died in 1985, the year. Star of the Hero for his father got a daughter - Gurney Irina.
However, despite the official version, and the oil, and Gastello, and the rest of the pilots 207th Regiment were heroes. Depart on a mission without the support of fighters, long-range bombers to the clumsy - is not a feat? This is evidenced by the fact that on the same day regiment lost 27 aircraft, and two days later there was not a single problem has been solved.
Until the end of World War II ground ram was repeated 503 times ...