Using of audio-visual activities on English lessons


Педагогика и дидактика

Listening is vital in the language classroom because it provides input for the learner. Without understanding input at the right stage, any learning cannot simply begin. Spoken language provides a means of interaction for the learner. Because learners must interact to achieve understanding, access to speakers of the language is necessary.



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  1.  Theory part…..……………….………………………………...…….…4
  2.  The subject of listening, the most common difficulties.......…...…4
  3.  Some troubles with listening process and their solving..……….…7
  4.  Materials for teaching listening comprehension.…………………9
  5.  Listening skills and strategies………………………….…............12
  6.  Telephoning…………………………………………….…….......14
  7.  Using songs in training listening skills………………..……...…..16
  8.  The value of songs in developing listening skills…..………....….18
  9.  The use of various films…………………………………….........20
  10.  THE USE OF VIDEO ON ENGLISH LESSONS...……….………....24

2.1 English lesson with using audio-visual material…………….....37





Listening is assuming greater and greater importance in many foreign language contexts, which have until relatively recently focused their efforts on the development of listening skills. This growing importance is reflected in the proliferation of commercial listening courses.

The importance of listening is the following:

  1.  Listening is vital in the language classroom because it provides input for the learner. Without understanding input at the right stage, any learning cannot simply begin.
  2.  Spoken language provides a means of interaction for the learner. Because learners must interact to achieve understanding, access to speakers of the language is necessary. Furthermore, learner’s failure to understand the language they hear is an impetus, not an obstacle, to interaction and learning.
  3.  Authentic spoken language presents a challenge for the learner to attempt to understand language as native speakers actually use it.
  4.  Listening exercises provide teachers with a means for drawing learners’ attention to new forms (vocabulary, grammar, new interaction patterns) in the language.

In short, listening is essential not only as a receptive skill but also to the development of spoken language proficiency.

The use of audio and video equipment in training listening skills is of great importance. The more pupils listen the more they are interested in it. It is very useful in the process of learning a foreign language to do various activities connected with listening, because it enlarge pupils’ vocabulary and speaking; it develops pupils’ attention and the ability to understand the gist of a given text. Furthermore, video materials in the English language classroom have the potential to maximize student’s natural abilities to acquire process and otherwise utilize their knowledge. Moreover, they can be used to actively engage students in the learning process. Students can be encouraged to make the role of the educator through active learning techniques utilizing video materials.

The actuality of our research is value of listening skills for academic success. It means that listening these days get hold of more and more importance.

The object of our research is intensive training listening skills of English as a foreign language.

The subject of the research is using of audio-visual activities on English lessons.

The aim of our term paper is to prove that a modern technical tool of training, such as video and audio equipment, is the reliable exercise machine at learning foreign language.

For realization of our goal it is necessary to carry out the following specific objectives:

- to consider various ways of listening;

- to describe value of audio and video at lessons of a foreign language for ensuring visualization;

In our term-paper we are going to study some approaches to this very process, to work out different ways presenting listening materials: listening various texts, telephoning, using songs, using different films, movies and so on. As for the practical part of our research, here we will focus on using video aids and we will give some examples of listening which are, as we think interesting and productive. They can be used for different purposes, but the main among them is developing listening skills.


1.1 The Subject of Listening, the Most Common Difficulties

'Listening is not merely talking ... it means taking a vigorous human interest in what is being told us. You can listen like a blank wall or like a splendid auditorium where every sound comes back fuller and richer.' (Alice Duer Miller).

Listening and comprehension are difficult for learners because they should discriminate speech sounds quickly, retain them while hearing a word, a phrase, or a sentence and recognize this as a sense unit. Pupils can easily and naturally do this in their own language and they cannot do this in a foreign language when they start learning the language. Pupils are very slow in grasping what they hear because they are conscious of the linguistic forms they perceive by the ear. This results in misunderstanding or a complete failure of understanding.

When auding a foreign language pupils should be very attentive and think hard. They should strain their memory and will power to keep the sequence of sounds they hear and to decode it. Not all pupils can cope with the difficulties entailed. The teacher should help them by making this work easier and more interesting. This is possible condition that we have to take into consideration the following three main factors which can ensure success in developing pupils’ skills in listening: (1) linguistic material for auding; (2) the content of the material suggested for listening and comprehension; (3) conditions in which the material is presented.

1. Comprehension of the text by the ear can be ensured when the teacher uses the material which has already been assimilated by pupils. However this does not completely eliminate the difficulties in auding. Pupils need practice in listening and comprehension in the target language to be able to overcome three kinds of difficulties: phonetic, lexical and grammatical.

Phonetic difficulties appear because the phonic system of English and Russian differ greatly. The hearer often interprets the sounds of a foreign language as if they were of his own language whish usually results in misunderstanding.

Pupils can hardly differentiate the following words by ear: worked – walked, first – fast – forced, lion – line, tired – tide, bought – boat – board.

The difference in intonation often prevents pupils from comprehending a communication. For example: Good morning (when meeting); Good morning (at parting). The teacher should develop his pupils’ ear for English sounds and intonation.

Lexical difficulties are closely connected with the phonetic ones. Pupils often misunderstand word because they hear them wrong. For example: The horse is slipping. The horse is sleeping.

The opposites are often misunderstood, for the learners often take one word for another. For example: east – west, take - put, ask – answer. The most difficult words for auding are the verbs with postpositions, such as: put on, put off, put down, take off, see off, go in for, etc.

Grammatical difficulties are mostly connected with the analytic structure of the English language, and with extensive use of infinitive and participle constructions. Besides, English is rich in grammatical homonyms, for example: to work – work, to answer – answer.

This is difficult for pupils when they aud.

2. The content of the material also influences comprehension. The following factors should be taken into consideration when selecting the material for auding:

  1.  the topic of communication: whether it is within the ability of the pupils to understand, and what difficulties pupils will come across (proper names, geographical names, terminology, etc);
    1.  the type of communication: whether it is a description or a narration;
    2.  The context and pupils’ readiness (intellectual and situational) to understand it;
    3.  The way the narrative progresses: whether the passage is taken from the beginning of the story, the nucleus of the story, the progress of the action or, finally, the end of the story. The title of the story may be helpful in comprehending the main idea of the text;
    4.  The form of communication: whether the text is a dialogue or a monologue.

3. Conditions of presenting the material are of great importance for teaching auding, namely:

The speed of the speech the pupil is auding. The hearer cannot change the speed of the speaker.

There are different points of view on the problem of the speed of speech in teaching auding a foreign language. The most convincing is the approach suggested by  N. V. Eluknina.() She believes that in teaching auding the tempo should be slower than the normal speed of authentic speech. However this slowness is not gained at the expense of the time required for producing words (that might result in violating the intonation pattern of an utterance), but of the time required for pauses which are so necessary for a pupil to grasp the information of each portion between the pauses. Gradually the teacher shortens the pauses and the tempo of speech becomes normal or approximately normal, which is about 150 word per minute. According to investigation carried out by L. Tzesarsky the average speed for teaching auding should be 120 word per minute, the slow speed- 90 words per minute.()

The number of times of presenting the material for auding: whether the pupils should listen to the text once, twice, three times or more, pupils should be taught to listen to the text once and this must become a habit.

The presence or the absence of the speaker. The most favorable condition is when pupils can see the speaker as is the case when the teacher speakers to them in a foreign language.

Visual ‘props’ which may be of two kinds, objects and motions. Pupils find it difficult to aud without visual props. The eye should help the ear to grasp a text when dealing with beginners.

The voice of the speaker also influences pupils’ comprehension. Pupils who get used to the teacher’s voice can easily understand him, but they cannot understand other people speaking the same language.

The listening includes:

  1.  Listening to the radio news, a play, Parliament, a comedy programmer (sometimes on a car radio);
  2.  Conversations with neighbors, colleagues, friends;
  3.  Answering the telephone at home and at work;
  4.  Overhearing other people talking to each other: on a bus, in the office;
  5.  Attending a lecture;
  6.  Listening to arrival and departure announcements at the railway station;
  7.  Watching TV;
  8.  Listening to a list of names being read out at prize-giving;
  9.  While working in the library, trying not to listen to other people talking.

Listening can be done in a narrow and limited way, or it can be done in a way that enriches communication.

1.2 Some Troubles with Listening Process and Their Solving

The teacher usually follows a number of familiar steps in a 'listening lesson', which had become comfortable and routine for them:

-  do a 'warm up' on the topic of the listening passage

-  set some 'gist' questions for the students to answer

-  play the tape (it was usually an audio tape) once, and ask the students to answer gist questions

-  check the answers

-  set some tasks that require the students to listen for details

-  play the tape again, probably once for each task

-  check the answers

-  use the topic or the language of the listening text as input for an 'extension' or 'transfer' activity in which the students use other skills, for example, writing, or speaking.

They begin to realize that there are a number of things wrong with this approach. Some of the features that trouble them are:

1.  Not much time is spent actually listening to the tape.

The students perhaps hear a two- to three-minute tape three or four times in the lesson at the most—a total of about 12 minutes' listening. The rest of the lesson is spent discussing the answers, and doing transfer activities.

2.  Not much time is spent on analyzing what went wrong

Teachers tend to focus on what the correct answers are to a listening passage, rather than why students fail to get them. We perhaps do not spend enough time looking at how students are / mishearing or failing to hear, or whether there is in fact more than one possible answer. If enough students do not get the right answer, teacher’s typical reaction is to play that section of the tape once more, and hope that hearing it again will magically help the students to get the answer next time. Teachers do not look at what might be causing the problem. This goes with a tendency for them as the teachers to focus on the product of listening (did the students get the right answers?) rather than the processes that are going on while they are actually listening.

3. The teacher takes on the sole responsibility for building up an understanding of the listening text in the students

The teacher pre-teaches vocabulary and sets tasks which he or she hopes will lead to comprehension and to the development of listening skills. This does not give the students much freedom to develop their own strategies for understanding; nor does it develop individual responsibility.

4.  It assumes that there is only one way of listening to something

The task assumes that there are certain features of what is heard which are important, and these are the ones the questions focus on. However, we know that in real life, a number of people can listen to the same thing—for instance, a news broadcastwith different degrees of concentration, and remember different things from it, depending on their interests and reasons for listening. But we expect students in the classroom to all listen in the same way, and remember the same things.

5.  Classroom listening very often puts students in the position of passive over hearers

This does not mirror real life, in which we can just as often be active participants in conversations, and can ask the speaker to adjust or repeat what he or she is saying if we do not understand. Too often in the classroom, students are listening to disembodied and unfamiliar voices on a tape recorder which they cannot stop, interrogate, or interact with in any way. The teacher is in control of the video or the tape recorder and he or she tends to stop it so that the students can do a task, rather than when they need to hear something again.

6.  The tasks do not stress the links between listening and speaking

Listeners play a very important and active role in keeping conversations going, by showing interest and sympathy, and by causing speakers to modify or repeat things. The roles of speaker and hearer can change rapidly in a conversation, and listeners can become speakers at any moment, so learning how to listen in a second (or indeed a first) language is inextricably linked with learning how to speak. Good listeners make good speakers, and vice-versa.

Other approaches

In an attempt to solve some of these problems, there are some suggestions which can involve pupils in the process of listening. The activities allow the students to do one or more of the following things:

-  reflect on their problems in understanding and on strategies they could use to overcome those problems;

-  reflect on the links between listening and speaking;

-  become active participants in the listening process rather than passive over hearers

-  control the equipment (tape recorder, etc.);

-  give the instructions;

-  choose what they listen to;

-  design the listening tasks;

-  make their own listening materials.

1.3 Materials for Teaching Listening Comprehension.

Traditionally, much classroom practice consisted of the teacher reading aloud a written text, one or more times, slowly and clearly, and then asking a number of comprehension questions about it. The skill itself was not given much attention, nor was the characteristics of natural spoken English. The objective was to provide an alternative way of presenting language and testing that it had been understood.

There is nothing wrong with this approach in itself, but it could not claim to be teaching listening comprehension. Many current materials, on the other hand, manipulate both language and tasks, and take into account a range of micro-skills, listener roles, topics and text types.

The first thing to say is that the components of listening - processing sound, organizing meaning, and using knowledge and context - provide a convenient way of laying out the issues, but they are not there to be transferred directly to a teaching sequence. The way they are used depends on the objectives and levels of particular courses, although certain kinds of tasks draw more heavily on some micro-skills than on others.

It is now conventional - and helpful - to divide activities into pre-, while- and post-listening.

Pre-listening activities

The principal function of these activities, which are now common in teaching materials, is to establish a framework for listening so that learners do not approach the listening practice with no points of reference. This perspective is clearly in line with the use of 'knowledge schema' and the establishing of a context. Activities include the following:

  1.  A short reading passage on a similar topic
  2.  Predicting content from the title
  3.  Commenting on a picture or photograph
  4.  Reading through comprehension questions in advance
  5.  Working out your own opinion on a topic

Any such activity is bound to generate language. However, in some cases more explicit attention is given to language practice, particularly to the activation and learning of topic-related vocabulary. Clearly a reading activity can serve both functions of framework-setting and language practice quite well, provided that it does not become too important a focus in its own right.

Listening activities

By this we mean tasks carried out during or after listening that directly require comprehension of the spoken material. We find here a basic and quite standard distinction between 'extensive' and 'intensive' listening.

Extensive listening practice, or whatever term is used, is mainly concerned to promote overall global comprehension, and encourages learners not to worry if they do not grasp every word. The range of possible activities is enormous, and which ones are selected will depend largely on proficiency. At lower levels, learners cannot be expected to 'organize' mentally what they hear without considerable support. In the early stages, this support may be in a non-verbal form:

  1.  Putting pictures in a correct sequence
  2.  Following directions on a map
  3.  Checking off items in a photograph
  4.  Completing a grid, timetable, or chart of information

As proficiency develops, tasks will gradually become more language based, eventually requiring students to construct a framework of meaning for themselves, and to make inferences and interpret attitudes as well as understand explicitly stated facts. For example:

  1.  Answering true/false or multiple-choice questions
  2.  Predicting what comes next (preceded by a pause)
  3.  Constructing a coherent set of notes
  4.  Inferring opinions across a whole text

Intensive listening, as the name implies, deals with specific items of language, sound or factual detail within the meaning framework already established:

  1.  Filling gaps with missing words
  2.  Identifying numbers and letters
  3.  Picking out particular facts
  4.  Recognizing exactly what someone said

Note that sequencing and grading can be carried out using both linguistic and psychological criteria: in other words, grading only according to some notion of syntactic complexity is no longer regarded as satisfactory. Further possibilities for grading include (a) task complexity, whether global —» specific or vice versa, or indeed global specific -> global; (b) varying the amount of language to be processed, for example, from shorter stretches to longer ones; and (c) using a range of authentic and specially written material.

Language material

Two of our earlier observations аre relevant here. Firstly, we distinguishеd 'interactional' and 'transactionаl' listening. Secondly, wе sаw that listeners cаn have a numbеr of rоles, оn a scаle from participant to addressee to overhearer. Both these elements аrе rеpresentеd in listening materials. The most straight forward cаsе is where the learner is аn addressee оr overhearer in a transactionаl context, such аs:

Attending a lecture

Following instructions or directions

Listening to an interview, or a story, or to people describing their jobs

At the same time, it is clearly important that learners are exposed to the interactional nature of everyday conversation (quite distinct from fixed 'dialogues' to be read aloud). This is rather more difficult to construct in the classroom environment, except artificially. In a way it is a paradox that students may overhear on tape what others say when it would be more 'natural' for them to participate. (This is not always negative, however: learners have the opportunity to listen to the spoken language in an unthreatening situation.)

Post-listening activities

We shall only comment briefly here on these activities, because they are usually not listening exercises as such. The category is open-ended, and looks ahead to our discussion on the integration of skills at the end of this part of the book. Essentially, the post-listening stage is an opportunity for many kinds of follow-up work - thematic, lexical, grammatical, skills developmental and so on. Here are just a few examples:

Using notes made while listening to write a summary

Reading a related text

Doing a role-play

Writing on the same theme

Studying new grammatical structures

Practicing pronunciation

Listening comprehension has a number of roles to play within a language course, and its importance clearly depends on the aims of the programme as a whole. It may only be a minor feature, just to give learners exposure to what English sounds like: alternatively, it may have a major function for someone planning to study in an English-speaking country or to interact extensively in the language.

1.4 Listening Skills and Strategies

There are an enormous number of sub-skills which go to make up the overall skill of listening, and each book seems to give different ones. Most experts distinguish between 'bottom-up' skills, which involve recognizing small bits of language, such as sounds and words, and 'top-down' skills, which involve using larger-scale clues, such as knowledge of the topic a speaker is talking about, the setting he or she is speaking in, or the gestures he or she makes, in order to make deductions about what is being said. Sometimes the 'bottom-up' skills are called 'micro' skills. Here is checklist of sub-skills involved in listening, which shows the wide range of possible skills.

Perception skills

-  recognizing individual sounds

-  discriminating between sounds

- identifying reduced forms in fast speech (for example, elision and assimilation)

-  identifying stressed syllables

-  identifying stressed words in utterances

-  recognizing intonation patterns.

Language skills

-  identifying individual words and groups and building up possible meanings for them

-  identifying discourse markers which organize what is being said, for example then, as I was saying, as a matter of fact, to start with.

Using knowledge of the world

-  connecting groups of words to non-linguistic features such as expressions, gestures, or objects in order to get clues to meaning

-  using knowledge of a topic to guess what the speaker might be saying about it

-  using knowledge about the patterns that certain oral interactions typically take in order to predict what is being said, for example, ordering in a restaurant, making a telephone call.

Dealing with information

-  understanding gist meaning (the overall idea of what you hear)

-  understanding the main points

-  understanding details, for example, train times

-  inferring information which is not explicitly stated, or which has been missed.

Interacting with a speaker

- coping with variations among speakers, for example, differences in speed of talking and accent

-  recognizing the speaker's intention

-  identifying the speaker's mood/attitude

-  recognizing the speaker's cues about things such as when to take a turn at speaking or when there is a change of topic

-  predicting what the speaker will say next.

Good listeners need to be able to use a combination of sub-skills simultaneously when processing spoken language; the skills they will need at any particular moment will depend on the kind of text they are listening to, and their reasons for listening to it. Of course, language learners will not be very good at these skills to begin with, and teachers will need to teach them strategies for coping with what they have missed or misunderstood.

Strategies are efforts to compensate for uncertainties in understanding, and could include making inferences, realizing where misunderstandings have occurred, and asking for clarification. Students should need these strategies less and less as they get more familiar with the language and more competent at listening skills, although even very proficient native speakers will need to rely on them occasionally. Strategies can only really be taught effectively by interrupting the listening process and getting students to reflect on what they have just been doing.

Language learners often think that all their difficulties in listening are due to their inadequate knowledge of the target language. But native speakers also experience problems with listening. Listening well involves motivation and concentration, and you can listen badly if you are not interested in the subject, or it is one that you do not know much about, or if there are a lot of distractions which make it difficult to focus on listening.

1.5 Telephoning

Telephoning in a foreign language tends to be an extremely stressful activity. There are a number of reasons for this. You are often telephoning strangers (if you were phoning family and friends you might use your own language). When you are telephoning, you cannot see the person you are speaking to, or their expressions, gestures, or surroundings, and so you miss a lot of the clues which usually help you to understand the meaning of what they are saying. It seems to be more difficult to ask people to repeat things on the telephone than it would be if you were speaking to them face-to-face. There is also the problem of unfamiliar 'telephone language', such as just connecting you, or the formulas which staff in businesses are now taught to use when answering the telephone, such as Hello, this is Edinburgh Insurance, Diane speaking; how may I help you?, all said extremely fast. Digitized messages, such as You are through to the Gaiety Cinema. If you require the times of programmes, press 1. If you want to book a ticket, press 2 are also common now. Finally, telephone habits vary from culture to culture. Some cultures, for instance, put most or all of the responsibility on the caller for identifying him/herself and pursuing what he or she wants, and some make the recipient equally responsible for doing so.

It is good to lead pupils gently through several stages before they actually make telephone calls to people they do not know:

Stage 1

Help the learners to find their way around telephone directories. This is a non-threatening way of introducing them to reasons for making telephone calls and to ways of finding out telephone numbers. It is a good idea to start with the 'white pages' and 'yellow pages' of telephone directories—to show them the ways in which these are organized and the kind of information they contain. If you are in a non-English speaking country, there is nothing to stop you using the local directories, because this will also give you and the learners the chance to identify possible English-speaking individuals and companies in your town who can be used when the pupils actually reach the stage of making telephone calls Stage 2

Teach 'telephone language' and how to be polite on the telephone, for example:

Hello, I wonder if I could speak to ...

Thanks for your help.

Would it be possible to leave a message for her/him? At this stage the pupils could also practise role-playing telephone calls to each other in class.

Stage 3

Get the students to make real telephone calls, but to each other, so that they are speaking to familiar and tolerant listeners

Stage 4

Finally, the pupils should be confident enough to make transactional telephone calls to strangers, although you might still want to rehearse the conversations first in class. You could also help learners towards this final stage by recording typical answering messages from companies and information lines (you can buy a simple telephone attachment which will enable you to do this) and playing them in class with an accompanying task, so that the students get used to this kind of telephoning.

1.6 The Value of Songs in Developing Listening Skills

The value of songs in motivating students to learn English and enhancing learner involvement is widely acknowledged by ESL practitioners Teachers and students alike find singing songs entertaining and relaxing. Songs offer a change from the routine procedures in the classroom. They are invaluable tools to develop pupils’ language abilities in listening, speaking, reading and writing and can be used to teach a variety of language items such as sentence patterns, vocabulary, pronunciation, rhythms, adjectives, adverbs and so on. Learning English through songs also provides a non-threatening atmosphere for pupils, who usually have great tension when speaking English in a formal classroom setting. Although the communicative approach has become the mainstream in language teaching, learners are still very passive recipients of knowledge and play only a minimal role in the selection of learning materials and teaching methodology. Such under involvement constitutes a hindrance to successful language learning. In order to enhance learner commitment, learners should take part in developing materials for themselves. There are a number of various activities in which songs are used:

1. Song dictation. The purpose of this activity is to sharpen pupils’ listening ability in the pronunciation of shortened verb forms such as I’m, I’ve, It’s, I’ll, and the like, as well as the distinction between long and short vowels (/i/ and /I:/) in words like coming, receive, free, still, ribbon, three, see, and so on. The song used in the activity is "Tie a yellow ribbon round the old oak tree."

Pupils are first handed out the lyrics with the words missing. They are asked to go through the lyrics and try to guess the words in the blanks. The teacher then explains difficult words and lets students read the lyrics. This is followed by the teacher asking simple questions to check the pupils’ overall comprehension of the song. Learners can listen to the song three times: the first time purely listening and trying to work out what the missing words are; the second time filling in the gaps and the third time checking to confirm whether the answers are correct or not.

 2. Song reading. This activity aims at developing pupils’ ability to comprehend the literal meaning of the song and at the same time analyzes the hidden message.

3. Split song. This activity provides an opportunity for the learners to improve their comprehension ability through approaching a song in an interesting way. It may be done in groups to promote interaction among pupils. 

4. Word portraits. This activity attempts to stimulate pupils’ imagination through construction of a story based on the words given to them. The words are taken from the song chosen by the teacher. The combination of materials development with the uses of songs can definitely enhance learner involvement. Teachers might find the activities outlined here suitable in a variety of teaching contexts: after school enrichment programme, extracurricular activities, ordinary classroom activities and so on. The design can be a relief for the overworked teacher who usually does not have sufficient preparation time for innovative classroom activities but wants to conduct his/her teaching in an interesting way to help learners learn more effectively. The activities are able to diversify teaching methodologies and transform passive learners to active participants in the process of learning. 

1.7 The Use of Films in Training Listening Skills

Methodological aims of the use of films can be different. But, of course, the main of them in teaching a foreign language is training listening skills.

Due to the effort of the process of listening in a foreign language and the age of the pupils the most suitable time of the film on the elementary level should not be more then 4-5 minutes, that is confirmed by methodological investigations.

The process of getting foreign information is one of the most important parts of speech. Therefore, listening skills assume the availability of certain habits. Moreover, listening is not only the aim of studying but also means, which assists to acquire habits and skills of all types of speech activity.

There are very important thesises with the help of which educational films are created:

  1.  The film has great power of emotional influence, especially, on children. Therefore the film must have an aesthetic and pedagogical value.
  2.  The basis of the film has not only speech activity but also with the help of this activity not spoken one can be built.

In order to concentrate the pupils’ attention on a certain speech structure in some films an animated insertion with the subtitles is used. This can help pupils to learn that very structure which has been used in the film dialogue.

3. The animated films must be real, vital.

4. The film should be built on the already known for pupils language material.

5. The film is an inalienable part of teacher’s work, more over, it must have a certain methodological aim. It should be taken into consideration that it would be better to use the film when finishing the work with a certain theme of the textbook. Those speech patterns, which pupils have met in their textbooks, are used in different situations now. In such manner the lesson in which there is a work with the film in order to develop listening skills is also a repetition of a certain material.

6. The age and the level of pupils also must be taken into consideration.

7. The film must include some kind of humor.

8. The materials of the film have to show the life of the country where the target language is spoken.

The main methodological aim of the work with the film is to be a means of developing listening skills.

The work with the film includes:

  1.  the work with unknown words. Here the main problem is how many words the teacher should give to his pupils and all the unknown words should be presented or not. The teacher should not present that part of new vocabulary the meaning of which pupils can guess from the context and these phrases do not influence on understanding the gist of the film. The work with new words should be done orally, because the pupils will meet the oral form of the words. This work should be started two or three lessons before watching the film and should not take more than 3-4 minutes.
  2.  the introductory conversation. The teacher must be ready to his pupils’ incomprehension that can lead to disappointment and lack of interest to the process of listening at the beginning stage. Therefore, the teacher should start from the conversational tasks. He’d better explain to pupils if they understand just some separate word it will be a great progress and soon they will understand everything. Before starting showing a film the teacher should explain the meaning of the title of the film if it is not clear for pupils, because it can lead to false direction of pupils’ thoughts.
  3.  the very process of watching the film. At the very beginning the film should be shown no less than two times. If pupils cannot understand the film the teacher should show it without sounds commenting it with his own words. And then let the pupils watch it one more time.
  4.  The check-up of the comprehension of the film. The main task here is to control pupils’ understanding. The teacher can use various ways of work here:
  5.  the dialogue between the teacher and pupils. The teacher can ask different questions (general, alternative, etc). In such manner the gist of the film is discussed more than one time.
  6.  The determination by the pupils a certain statement corresponds to the film or not. If it corresponds the pupils should answer: “That’s right” and repeat the phrase after the teacher. If it is not true the pupils say: “That’s not right” and give their own true version.
  7.  The teacher can retell the content of the film with wrong statements. And pupils should find them and correct.
  8.  After every exercise the teacher can show the film again but it’s not obligatory.

As many teachers can attest, learners seem to become more motivated about language learning when authentic video is used. Motivation is the key element in the learning process. It is a factor that must be considered and maintained throughout any lesson, and throughout a course or program.

Feature films attract learners’ attention with dazzling Hollywood effects, and because they are not designed for instructional purposes, they reflect authentic use of target language. However, because of the authenticity of the language, teachers tend to limit their use of feature films to intermediate-to-advanced level classroom. Some instructors prefer dealing with video clips, rather than an entire film. This is unfortunate because there are advantages to using a full-length feature film for beginners.

Authentic full-length film brings extended context to the classroom. By using a film, an oral skills course and other skills courses may be integrated through the use of common themes, functions, and/or grammar featured in the film. The use of film, however, provides a rich context by which students can improve comprehension and practice listening.


2.1 English lesson With Using Audio-visual Material

In this part of our term-paper we suggest a number of activities developing pupils’ listening skills focusing on video materials. We have planned a lesson which can help us to size up the advantages of using video films on English lessons. In one group named ‘the experimental group’ we have organized a lesson including all the stages of listening activities using also video-film. To compare the results in another group names ‘the control croup’ we have organized a similar lesson but with using only the very listening activity without any visual activities.

Class: 7 “V”

Time: 3 lessons

The number of students: 22

The experimental group: 11

The control group: 11

The theme of the lesson is “In the morning/Present continuous tense”

The aims of the lesson are

  1.  to improve students’ listening skills;
  2.  to check pupils’ comprehension of the video fragment.;
  3.  to learn the difference between present continuous and present simple;

The objectives of the lesson -  by the end of the lesson students should be able to:

- know the difference between present continuous and present simple;

- use Present continuous tense in their speech;

The materials are

  1.  video-film ‘In the morning’(for experimental group);
  2.  the listening text “In the morning”(for control group);
  3.  improve pronunciation;

Pre-listening activity:

To make pupils ready for further work and activity the teacher asks some questions to review the Present Simple Tense (See Appendix #1) and the Present Continuous Tense. But during the lesson there were some difficulties when reviewing the Present Continuous Tense. That is why we spent one lesson to review this tense. For that reason we used the task from their book. (18, ) (See also Appendix #6)

The teacher explains that the student’s should answer the questions which she will ask during watching the video-film. Furthermore, she gives them a sheet of paper on which there is filling the gaps task. (See Appendix #5)

The group was prepared for as much of the vocabulary as possible short of giving away what happens in the film. (See Appendix #2) When the vocabulary lesson is finished, learners are supplied with a scene title and short description of the scene. In our example this is “In the morning”. (See Appendix #3)

Listening activities with the Experimental group using visual aid:

Listening strategy is emphasized by having the listeners write down key words and pay attention on the tone of voice, intonation, and pauses. Students can write key verbs that describe the actions in the scene, and pay attention to non-verbal communication (body posture, gestures and facial expressions) and the setting to get a general idea of what is happening in the scene. The video clip (See Appendix #3) was played three times. During watching the video the teacher does pauses and asks the students true or false questions, on the first listening stage. (See Appendix #4) Then students listen and watch the film second time. There students are given filling the gaps task. (See Appendix #5) After watching the third time students were given the task to discuss the video-film in pairs, paying their attention to the Present Simple and Present Continuous.

Listening activities with the control group was, of course, different without any visual aids. They were just listening to the text which the teacher was reading aloud. They were also given filling the gaps task and true or false statements. After listening to the text they were asked to discuss the given text.

2.2 The Analysis of the Lesson

  1.  The goals of our lesson have been achieved:
  2.  We have checked students comprehension of video fragment;
  3.  Listening skills have been pointed up;
  4.  Students can distinguish Present Simple and Present Continuous;
  5.  The objectives of the lesson have been achieved
  6.  Students learned the differences between Present Simple and Present Continuous;
  7.  Students can correctly use Present Continuous Tense and Present Simple Tense in their conversations, dialogs etc.;
  8.  All the activities we proposed were done during the lesson. Students were interested in the lesson.
  9.  The lesson seems to be productive and interesting. All the stages of the listening activity during our lesson. Our work seems to be successful; every student was involved; they participated in all the tasks, discussions, answering the questions and given exercises.
  10.   The topic of the lesson was interesting and it captivated their attention. They were involved in each activity.

In spite of the difficulties at the beginning of the lesson students show their interest of this topic. At the end of the lesson they were given the home task to write a letter using Present Continuous and Present Simple Tenses.

    The Analysis of the Research Work

In our research there have been arranged three lessons which included listening and video activities. Lesson with the experimental group was done using video film. This lesson included all the stages of listening – pre listening task, listening task and after listening task. We observed with great attention two groups. We suppose our lesson as successful down to carrying out all the activities and realizing all the goals. We can see the analysis of the students work on the diagram 1 below. There we can see that the students participation in the experimental group was more active and the amount of correct answers were higher than in another group named control group. We can compare it with the diagram 2, also below.

Diagram #1 (Experimental group)

    Diagram #2 (Control group)

According to the lesson we also saw that the experimental group was doing their tasks with more interest and their participation during the lesson was energetic. Students gave more correct answers after they saw it with their own eyes. Overall, students were more motivated to study. They not just enjoyed, but they also found that they learned more through the video.

As for the control group there were some difficulties on making the dialogs. They hardly can pronounce some words in a right way. Moreover, they showed the less interest on the topic. The mood of students was sleepy and they seemed not to do anything.

Analyzing two groups’ results we can make a conclusion that the film has great power of emotional influence. Video is a powerful tool in today’s classroom.  We proved that the video materials can raise the motivation of students on the lesson. We became convinced that video is one of the new tools that have become available to educators to impact the learning process.

To sum up our research work we should emphasize that the main purpose of foreign language as the object domain of teaching is acquisition of the ability to communicate in a foreign language. The ability to communicate in a foreign language might not be accomplished without the skill of audio perception to a foreign language. Listening is not the simplest way of the speech activity, listening is studying by many of different researchers.

Listening is one of the most important processes in learning a foreign language. It develops pupils’ ability to comprehend the speech of foreigners, to discriminate words and sounds. With the help listening the pupils enlarge their vocabulary also. When listening to a foreign speech, pupils should be very attentive and think hard. This helps them to train their memory. Therefore, teachers must develop learners’ listening skill. And the ways can be different. We can use audio tapes, telephoning conversations, authentic films, video clip and so on.

The use of video aids is the visual perception of the information. It is the organs of sight and organs of hearing through what the human receive the basis range of information about the environment.

Furthermore, the use of video aids on the English lessons enlarges activity of learners. It creates certain conditions for students’ independent work. The method of utilizing video aids implies teaching and educative functions. The information which is presented in visual way is more available for sense. And this information is learned easily and fast. Moreover, the use of video equipment helps to satisfy students’ needs, demands and interests.

To solve the objectives students must have known not only the contents of the given video material but also they must remember all the details. They should know how to size up the events. Students also should give the description about the characters of the given video. Moreover they must do it using some phrases and key words from the given video.

In our term paper we have shown that there are a number of different activities through which students can improve their listening comprehension. And we focused our attention on visual aids which are considered as the most effective equipment to use on English lessons.

Thus we can say that all the goals we wanted to reach were achieved. In the result of our research we introduced and analyzed as more theoretical basis of the listening skills as we could. We have proved that the use of audio and video equipment in training listening skills is of great importance.

Nowadays, students are very much visual learners. Further, with the quick spread of broadband internet access, is making the use of video in the classroom much more reliable. It is changing both the way we learn and the way we interact with each other.


  1.  English Teaching Forum, January 2004, Number 43
  2.  English Teaching Forum, April 2000
  3.  English Teaching Forum, Number 1, 2006
  4.  English Teaching Forum, April 2001, Number 1
  5.  English Teaching Forum, January 2004, Number 42
  6.  David Nunan, Lindsay Miller, New Ways in Teaching listening:1995
  7.  Goodish White, Listening, Oxford University Press:1998
  8.  Richard Cooper, Mike Lalary, and Mario Rinvolucri, “Video”: 1997
  9.  Rogova G. V., Methods of teaching English, M.: 1983
  10.  1 September, 23/2005
  11.   1 September, 14/2005
  12.   1 September, 16/2005
  13.   1 September, 31/2004
  14.   1 September, 20/2006
  15.   1 September, 6/2005
  16.   www.1september.ru
  17.   Дубровин М. И., «Учебное кино и диафильмы в обучении английскому языку в средней школе»
  18.  Т.Аяпова, З.Абильдаева, Ж.Тутбаева, «Английский язык» (учебник для 7 класса общеобразовательной школы, издание 3-е, переработанное):Алмата «Атамура» 2012г.


Appendix #1

1. What do you usually do when you get up?

2. Do you often clean your teeth on the evening?

3. When you usually get up?

4. Do you usually do physical exercises?

5. What do you usually do on your free time?

Appendix #2

New vocabulary:

Sleep – спать

School – школа

Must – должен

Morning exercises – зарядка

Bathroom – ванная

Dining room – кухня, столовая

Lazy – ленивый

Medicine – лекарство

Get up – просыпаться.

Wash – мыть

Appendix #3

The scene:

Bill is still sleeping, his eyes are closed.

(his voice out of the still): I am in bed, but I am not sleeping. What’s the time? It’s eight o’clock. It’s time to get up and go to school. But I don’t want to get up.

Mother (is entering the room and coming up to Bill’s bed): Oh, Bill! Are you still in bed? (take out the blanket. He is going under the sheet) Look at the time. It’s eight o’clock. It’s time to get up. You must go to school. Get up!

The mother goes away. Bill is still in the bed.

Bill’s voice out of the still: I am not sleeping. But I don’t want to go to school today. What’s the time? It’s ten minutes past eight.

Mother (enters the room again): Get up, Bill! You cannot sleep all day. What a lazy boy!

Bill (getting up): good morning, mum.

Mother: Good morning, Bill. You are very late this morning. We must do our morning exercises. (They start doing exercises). One, two, three, four. One, two, three, four. (Bill is going away imperceptibly). One, two… (Having noticed the absence of her child the mother is looking for him). Oh!

Bill goes to the bathroom, washes his face, and cleans his teeth.

Bill’s voice out of the still: Well, I’m going to the bathroom, cleaning my teeth, washing my face and hands and my neck. I’m washing behind my ears too. But still I don’t want to go to school today.


Bill is seating in the dining room. He is sad. He eats nothing.  His mother enters the room and seats down.

Mother (anxiously): Why aren’t you eating your breakfast? What’s the matter with you? Aren’t you well?

Bill: I can’t eat, mum.

Mother: Are you ill?

Bill: I think I’m not well today.

Mother (has understood what the matter is): Are you, really? Then you must have a doctor. And you must take some medicine.

Bill (horrified): No, no. no doctor, please. I’m well, mum. I’m going to school.

Bill eats his breakfast very quickly, runs to another room, and takes his bag, having kissed the mother runs away.


Then some stills from the film are used. All Bill’s words are written on the screen.

Bill (is cleaning the teeth): I am cleaning my teeth.

Bill (putting on the T-shirt): I clean my teeth every day.

Bill (washing): I am washing my face and my hands.

Bill: I wash my hands and face every morning.

Bill: I am washing my neck.

Bill (putting on his sweater): I wash my neck every… No, I don’t wash my neck every morning.

Appendix #4

  1.  Bill is still sleeping. (True/False)
  2.  Bill’s mother enters the room. (True/False)
  3.  His mother went away. (True/False)
  4.  Both Bill and his mother are doing exercises. (True/False)
  5.  Bill is ill. (True/False)

Appendix# 5

  1.  Bill is still sleeping, his eyes are closed.(is sleeping)
  2.  I am going to the bathroom.(am going)
  3.  Why aren’t you eating your breakfast?(eating)
  4.  I clean my teeth every day.(clean)
  5.  I wash my hands and face every morning.(wash)
  6.  I don’t wash my neck every morning.(don’t wash)
  7.  Bill is seating in the dining room.(is seating)

Appendix #6

Hi, Saule.

I’m having a nice holiday, though the weather is not very nice. The hostel I’m staying is very nice. I have a nice view of the sea and the beach from my room. Tomorrow I’m going to visit a nice castle which was built hundred years ago.

Every evening I have a nice walk by the sea.

Are you having a nice time in Kapchagai?

I’ll come next week.



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