Using of audio-visual activities on English lessons
Педагогика и дидактика
Listening is vital in the language classroom because it provides input for the learner. Without understanding input at the right stage, any learning cannot simply begin. Spoken language provides a means of interaction for the learner. Because learners must interact to achieve understanding, access to speakers of the language is necessary.
2.1 English lesson with using audio-visual material…………….....37
Listening is assuming greater and greater importance in many foreign language contexts, which have until relatively recently focused their efforts on the development of listening skills. This growing importance is reflected in the proliferation of commercial listening courses.
The importance of listening is the following:
In short, listening is essential not only as a receptive skill but also to the development of spoken language proficiency.
The use of audio and video equipment in training listening skills is of great importance. The more pupils listen the more they are interested in it. It is very useful in the process of learning a foreign language to do various activities connected with listening, because it enlarge pupils vocabulary and speaking; it develops pupils attention and the ability to understand the gist of a given text. Furthermore, video materials in the English language classroom have the potential to maximize students natural abilities to acquire process and otherwise utilize their knowledge. Moreover, they can be used to actively engage students in the learning process. Students can be encouraged to make the role of the educator through active learning techniques utilizing video materials.
The actuality of our research is value of listening skills for academic success. It means that listening these days get hold of more and more importance.
The object of our research is intensive training listening skills of English as a foreign language.
The subject of the research is using of audio-visual activities on English lessons.
The aim of our term paper is to prove that a modern technical tool of training, such as video and audio equipment, is the reliable exercise machine at learning foreign language.
For realization of our goal it is necessary to carry out the following specific objectives:
- to consider various ways of listening;
- to describe value of audio and video at lessons of a foreign language for ensuring visualization;
In our term-paper we are going to study some approaches to this very process, to work out different ways presenting listening materials: listening various texts, telephoning, using songs, using different films, movies and so on. As for the practical part of our research, here we will focus on using video aids and we will give some examples of listening which are, as we think interesting and productive. They can be used for different purposes, but the main among them is developing listening skills.
1.1 The Subject of Listening, the Most Common Difficulties
'Listening is not merely talking ... it means taking a vigorous human interest in what is being told us. You can listen like a blank wall or like a splendid auditorium where every sound comes back fuller and richer.' (Alice Duer Miller).
Listening and comprehension are difficult for learners because they should discriminate speech sounds quickly, retain them while hearing a word, a phrase, or a sentence and recognize this as a sense unit. Pupils can easily and naturally do this in their own language and they cannot do this in a foreign language when they start learning the language. Pupils are very slow in grasping what they hear because they are conscious of the linguistic forms they perceive by the ear. This results in misunderstanding or a complete failure of understanding.
When auding a foreign language pupils should be very attentive and think hard. They should strain their memory and will power to keep the sequence of sounds they hear and to decode it. Not all pupils can cope with the difficulties entailed. The teacher should help them by making this work easier and more interesting. This is possible condition that we have to take into consideration the following three main factors which can ensure success in developing pupils skills in listening: (1) linguistic material for auding; (2) the content of the material suggested for listening and comprehension; (3) conditions in which the material is presented.
1. Comprehension of the text by the ear can be ensured when the teacher uses the material which has already been assimilated by pupils. However this does not completely eliminate the difficulties in auding. Pupils need practice in listening and comprehension in the target language to be able to overcome three kinds of difficulties: phonetic, lexical and grammatical.
Phonetic difficulties appear because the phonic system of English and Russian differ greatly. The hearer often interprets the sounds of a foreign language as if they were of his own language whish usually results in misunderstanding.
Pupils can hardly differentiate the following words by ear: worked walked, first fast forced, lion line, tired tide, bought boat board.
The difference in intonation often prevents pupils from comprehending a communication. For example: Good morning (when meeting); Good morning (at parting). The teacher should develop his pupils ear for English sounds and intonation.
Lexical difficulties are closely connected with the phonetic ones. Pupils often misunderstand word because they hear them wrong. For example: The horse is slipping. The horse is sleeping.
The opposites are often misunderstood, for the learners often take one word for another. For example: east west, take - put, ask answer. The most difficult words for auding are the verbs with postpositions, such as: put on, put off, put down, take off, see off, go in for, etc.
Grammatical difficulties are mostly connected with the analytic structure of the English language, and with extensive use of infinitive and participle constructions. Besides, English is rich in grammatical homonyms, for example: to work work, to answer answer.
This is difficult for pupils when they aud.
2. The content of the material also influences comprehension. The following factors should be taken into consideration when selecting the material for auding:
3. Conditions of presenting the material are of great importance for teaching auding, namely:
The speed of the speech the pupil is auding. The hearer cannot change the speed of the speaker.
There are different points of view on the problem of the speed of speech in teaching auding a foreign language. The most convincing is the approach suggested by N. V. Eluknina.() She believes that in teaching auding the tempo should be slower than the normal speed of authentic speech. However this slowness is not gained at the expense of the time required for producing words (that might result in violating the intonation pattern of an utterance), but of the time required for pauses which are so necessary for a pupil to grasp the information of each portion between the pauses. Gradually the teacher shortens the pauses and the tempo of speech becomes normal or approximately normal, which is about 150 word per minute. According to investigation carried out by L. Tzesarsky the average speed for teaching auding should be 120 word per minute, the slow speed- 90 words per minute.()
The number of times of presenting the material for auding: whether the pupils should listen to the text once, twice, three times or more, pupils should be taught to listen to the text once and this must become a habit.
The presence or the absence of the speaker. The most favorable condition is when pupils can see the speaker as is the case when the teacher speakers to them in a foreign language.
Visual props which may be of two kinds, objects and motions. Pupils find it difficult to aud without visual props. The eye should help the ear to grasp a text when dealing with beginners.
The voice of the speaker also influences pupils comprehension. Pupils who get used to the teachers voice can easily understand him, but they cannot understand other people speaking the same language.
The listening includes:
Listening can be done in a narrow and limited way, or it can be done in a way that enriches communication.
1.2 Some Troubles with Listening Process and Their Solving
The teacher usually follows a number of familiar steps in a 'listening lesson', which had become comfortable and routine for them:
- do a 'warm up' on the topic of the listening passage
- set some 'gist' questions for the students to answer
- play the tape (it was usually an audio tape) once, and ask the students to answer gist questions
- check the answers
- set some tasks that require the students to listen for details
- play the tape again, probably once for each task
- check the answers
- use the topic or the language of the listening text as input for an 'extension' or 'transfer' activity in which the students use other skills, for example, writing, or speaking.
They begin to realize that there are a number of things wrong with this approach. Some of the features that trouble them are:
1. Not much time is spent actually listening to the tape.
The students perhaps hear a two- to three-minute tape three or four times in the lesson at the mosta total of about 12 minutes' listening. The rest of the lesson is spent discussing the answers, and doing transfer activities.
2. Not much time is spent on analyzing what went wrong
Teachers tend to focus on what the correct answers are to a listening passage, rather than why students fail to get them. We perhaps do not spend enough time looking at how students are / mishearing or failing to hear, or whether there is in fact more than one possible answer. If enough students do not get the right answer, teachers typical reaction is to play that section of the tape once more, and hope that hearing it again will magically help the students to get the answer next time. Teachers do not look at what might be causing the problem. This goes with a tendency for them as the teachers to focus on the product of listening (did the students get the right answers?) rather than the processes that are going on while they are actually listening.
3. The teacher takes on the sole responsibility for building up an understanding of the listening text in the students
The teacher pre-teaches vocabulary and sets tasks which he or she hopes will lead to comprehension and to the development of listening skills. This does not give the students much freedom to develop their own strategies for understanding; nor does it develop individual responsibility.
4. It assumes that there is only one way of listening to something
The task assumes that there are certain features of what is heard which are important, and these are the ones the questions focus on. However, we know that in real life, a number of people can listen to the same thingfor instance, a news broadcastwith different degrees of concentration, and remember different things from it, depending on their interests and reasons for listening. But we expect students in the classroom to all listen in the same way, and remember the same things.
5. Classroom listening very often puts students in the position of passive over hearers
This does not mirror real life, in which we can just as often be active participants in conversations, and can ask the speaker to adjust or repeat what he or she is saying if we do not understand. Too often in the classroom, students are listening to disembodied and unfamiliar voices on a tape recorder which they cannot stop, interrogate, or interact with in any way. The teacher is in control of the video or the tape recorder and he or she tends to stop it so that the students can do a task, rather than when they need to hear something again.
6. The tasks do not stress the links between listening and speaking
Listeners play a very important and active role in keeping conversations going, by showing interest and sympathy, and by causing speakers to modify or repeat things. The roles of speaker and hearer can change rapidly in a conversation, and listeners can become speakers at any moment, so learning how to listen in a second (or indeed a first) language is inextricably linked with learning how to speak. Good listeners make good speakers, and vice-versa.
In an attempt to solve some of these problems, there are some suggestions which can involve pupils in the process of listening. The activities allow the students to do one or more of the following things:
- reflect on their problems in understanding and on strategies they could use to overcome those problems;
- reflect on the links between listening and speaking;
- become active participants in the listening process rather than passive over hearers
- control the equipment (tape recorder, etc.);
- give the instructions;
- choose what they listen to;
- design the listening tasks;
- make their own listening materials.
1.3 Materials for Teaching Listening Comprehension.
Traditionally, much classroom practice consisted of the teacher reading aloud a written text, one or more times, slowly and clearly, and then asking a number of comprehension questions about it. The skill itself was not given much attention, nor was the characteristics of natural spoken English. The objective was to provide an alternative way of presenting language and testing that it had been understood.
There is nothing wrong with this approach in itself, but it could not claim to be teaching listening comprehension. Many current materials, on the other hand, manipulate both language and tasks, and take into account a range of micro-skills, listener roles, topics and text types.
The first thing to say is that the components of listening - processing sound, organizing meaning, and using knowledge and context - provide a convenient way of laying out the issues, but they are not there to be transferred directly to a teaching sequence. The way they are used depends on the objectives and levels of particular courses, although certain kinds of tasks draw more heavily on some micro-skills than on others.
It is now conventional - and helpful - to divide activities into pre-, while- and post-listening.
The principal function of these activities, which are now common in teaching materials, is to establish a framework for listening so that learners do not approach the listening practice with no points of reference. This perspective is clearly in line with the use of 'knowledge schema' and the establishing of a context. Activities include the following:
Any such activity is bound to generate language. However, in some cases more explicit attention is given to language practice, particularly to the activation and learning of topic-related vocabulary. Clearly a reading activity can serve both functions of framework-setting and language practice quite well, provided that it does not become too important a focus in its own right.
By this we mean tasks carried out during or after listening that directly require comprehension of the spoken material. We find here a basic and quite standard distinction between 'extensive' and 'intensive' listening.
Extensive listening practice, or whatever term is used, is mainly concerned to promote overall global comprehension, and encourages learners not to worry if they do not grasp every word. The range of possible activities is enormous, and which ones are selected will depend largely on proficiency. At lower levels, learners cannot be expected to 'organize' mentally what they hear without considerable support. In the early stages, this support may be in a non-verbal form:
As proficiency develops, tasks will gradually become more language based, eventually requiring students to construct a framework of meaning for themselves, and to make inferences and interpret attitudes as well as understand explicitly stated facts. For example:
Intensive listening, as the name implies, deals with specific items of language, sound or factual detail within the meaning framework already established:
Note that sequencing and grading can be carried out using both linguistic and psychological criteria: in other words, grading only according to some notion of syntactic complexity is no longer regarded as satisfactory. Further possibilities for grading include (a) task complexity, whether global » specific or vice versa, or indeed global -» specific -> global; (b) varying the amount of language to be processed, for example, from shorter stretches to longer ones; and (c) using a range of authentic and specially written material.
Two of our earlier observations аre relevant here. Firstly, we distinguishеd 'interactional' and 'transactionаl' listening. Secondly, wе sаw that listeners cаn have a numbеr of rоles, оn a scаle from participant to addressee to overhearer. Both these elements аrе rеpresentеd in listening materials. The most straight forward cаsе is where the learner is аn addressee оr overhearer in a transactionаl context, such аs:
Attending a lecture
Following instructions or directions
Listening to an interview, or a story, or to people describing their jobs
At the same time, it is clearly important that learners are exposed to the interactional nature of everyday conversation (quite distinct from fixed 'dialogues' to be read aloud). This is rather more difficult to construct in the classroom environment, except artificially. In a way it is a paradox that students may overhear on tape what others say when it would be more 'natural' for them to participate. (This is not always negative, however: learners have the opportunity to listen to the spoken language in an unthreatening situation.)
We shall only comment briefly here on these activities, because they are usually not listening exercises as such. The category is open-ended, and looks ahead to our discussion on the integration of skills at the end of this part of the book. Essentially, the post-listening stage is an opportunity for many kinds of follow-up work - thematic, lexical, grammatical, skills developmental and so on. Here are just a few examples:
Using notes made while listening to write a summary
Reading a related text
Doing a role-play
Writing on the same theme
Studying new grammatical structures
Listening comprehension has a number of roles to play within a language course, and its importance clearly depends on the aims of the programme as a whole. It may only be a minor feature, just to give learners exposure to what English sounds like: alternatively, it may have a major function for someone planning to study in an English-speaking country or to interact extensively in the language.
1.4 Listening Skills and Strategies
There are an enormous number of sub-skills which go to make up the overall skill of listening, and each book seems to give different ones. Most experts distinguish between 'bottom-up' skills, which involve recognizing small bits of language, such as sounds and words, and 'top-down' skills, which involve using larger-scale clues, such as knowledge of the topic a speaker is talking about, the setting he or she is speaking in, or the gestures he or she makes, in order to make deductions about what is being said. Sometimes the 'bottom-up' skills are called 'micro' skills. Here is checklist of sub-skills involved in listening, which shows the wide range of possible skills.
- recognizing individual sounds
- discriminating between sounds
- identifying reduced forms in fast speech (for example, elision and assimilation)
- identifying stressed syllables
- identifying stressed words in utterances
- recognizing intonation patterns.
- identifying individual words and groups and building up possible meanings for them
- identifying discourse markers which organize what is being said, for example then, as I was saying, as a matter of fact, to start with.
Using knowledge of the world
- connecting groups of words to non-linguistic features such as expressions, gestures, or objects in order to get clues to meaning
- using knowledge of a topic to guess what the speaker might be saying about it
- using knowledge about the patterns that certain oral interactions typically take in order to predict what is being said, for example, ordering in a restaurant, making a telephone call.
Dealing with information
- understanding gist meaning (the overall idea of what you hear)
- understanding the main points
- understanding details, for example, train times
- inferring information which is not explicitly stated, or which has been missed.
Interacting with a speaker
- coping with variations among speakers, for example, differences in speed of talking and accent
- recognizing the speaker's intention
- identifying the speaker's mood/attitude
- recognizing the speaker's cues about things such as when to take a turn at speaking or when there is a change of topic
- predicting what the speaker will say next.
Good listeners need to be able to use a combination of sub-skills simultaneously when processing spoken language; the skills they will need at any particular moment will depend on the kind of text they are listening to, and their reasons for listening to it. Of course, language learners will not be very good at these skills to begin with, and teachers will need to teach them strategies for coping with what they have missed or misunderstood.
Strategies are efforts to compensate for uncertainties in understanding, and could include making inferences, realizing where misunderstandings have occurred, and asking for clarification. Students should need these strategies less and less as they get more familiar with the language and more competent at listening skills, although even very proficient native speakers will need to rely on them occasionally. Strategies can only really be taught effectively by interrupting the listening process and getting students to reflect on what they have just been doing.
Language learners often think that all their difficulties in listening are due to their inadequate knowledge of the target language. But native speakers also experience problems with listening. Listening well involves motivation and concentration, and you can listen badly if you are not interested in the subject, or it is one that you do not know much about, or if there are a lot of distractions which make it difficult to focus on listening.
Telephoning in a foreign language tends to be an extremely stressful activity. There are a number of reasons for this. You are often telephoning strangers (if you were phoning family and friends you might use your own language). When you are telephoning, you cannot see the person you are speaking to, or their expressions, gestures, or surroundings, and so you miss a lot of the clues which usually help you to understand the meaning of what they are saying. It seems to be more difficult to ask people to repeat things on the telephone than it would be if you were speaking to them face-to-face. There is also the problem of unfamiliar 'telephone language', such as just connecting you, or the formulas which staff in businesses are now taught to use when answering the telephone, such as Hello, this is Edinburgh Insurance, Diane speaking; how may I help you?, all said extremely fast. Digitized messages, such as You are through to the Gaiety Cinema. If you require the times of programmes, press 1. If you want to book a ticket, press 2 are also common now. Finally, telephone habits vary from culture to culture. Some cultures, for instance, put most or all of the responsibility on the caller for identifying him/herself and pursuing what he or she wants, and some make the recipient equally responsible for doing so.
It is good to lead pupils gently through several stages before they actually make telephone calls to people they do not know:
Help the learners to find their way around telephone directories. This is a non-threatening way of introducing them to reasons for making telephone calls and to ways of finding out telephone numbers. It is a good idea to start with the 'white pages' and 'yellow pages' of telephone directoriesto show them the ways in which these are organized and the kind of information they contain. If you are in a non-English speaking country, there is nothing to stop you using the local directories, because this will also give you and the learners the chance to identify possible English-speaking individuals and companies in your town who can be used when the pupils actually reach the stage of making telephone calls Stage 2
Teach 'telephone language' and how to be polite on the telephone, for example:
Hello, I wonder if I could speak to ...
Thanks for your help.
Would it be possible to leave a message for her/him? At this stage the pupils could also practise role-playing telephone calls to each other in class.
Get the students to make real telephone calls, but to each other, so that they are speaking to familiar and tolerant listeners
Finally, the pupils should be confident enough to make transactional telephone calls to strangers, although you might still want to rehearse the conversations first in class. You could also help learners towards this final stage by recording typical answering messages from companies and information lines (you can buy a simple telephone attachment which will enable you to do this) and playing them in class with an accompanying task, so that the students get used to this kind of telephoning.
1.6 The Value of Songs in Developing Listening Skills
The value of songs in motivating students to learn English and enhancing learner involvement is widely acknowledged by ESL practitioners Teachers and students alike find singing songs entertaining and relaxing. Songs offer a change from the routine procedures in the classroom. They are invaluable tools to develop pupils language abilities in listening, speaking, reading and writing and can be used to teach a variety of language items such as sentence patterns, vocabulary, pronunciation, rhythms, adjectives, adverbs and so on. Learning English through songs also provides a non-threatening atmosphere for pupils, who usually have great tension when speaking English in a formal classroom setting. Although the communicative approach has become the mainstream in language teaching, learners are still very passive recipients of knowledge and play only a minimal role in the selection of learning materials and teaching methodology. Such under involvement constitutes a hindrance to successful language learning. In order to enhance learner commitment, learners should take part in developing materials for themselves. There are a number of various activities in which songs are used:
1. Song dictation. The purpose of this activity is to sharpen pupils listening ability in the pronunciation of shortened verb forms such as Im, Ive, Its, Ill, and the like, as well as the distinction between long and short vowels (/i/ and /I:/) in words like coming, receive, free, still, ribbon, three, see, and so on. The song used in the activity is "Tie a yellow ribbon round the old oak tree."
Pupils are first handed out the lyrics with the words missing. They are asked to go through the lyrics and try to guess the words in the blanks. The teacher then explains difficult words and lets students read the lyrics. This is followed by the teacher asking simple questions to check the pupils overall comprehension of the song. Learners can listen to the song three times: the first time purely listening and trying to work out what the missing words are; the second time filling in the gaps and the third time checking to confirm whether the answers are correct or not.
2. Song reading. This activity aims at developing pupils ability to comprehend the literal meaning of the song and at the same time analyzes the hidden message.
3. Split song. This activity provides an opportunity for the learners to improve their comprehension ability through approaching a song in an interesting way. It may be done in groups to promote interaction among pupils.
4. Word portraits. This activity attempts to stimulate pupils imagination through construction of a story based on the words given to them. The words are taken from the song chosen by the teacher. The combination of materials development with the uses of songs can definitely enhance learner involvement. Teachers might find the activities outlined here suitable in a variety of teaching contexts: after school enrichment programme, extracurricular activities, ordinary classroom activities and so on. The design can be a relief for the overworked teacher who usually does not have sufficient preparation time for innovative classroom activities but wants to conduct his/her teaching in an interesting way to help learners learn more effectively. The activities are able to diversify teaching methodologies and transform passive learners to active participants in the process of learning.
1.7 The Use of Films in Training Listening Skills
Methodological aims of the use of films can be different. But, of course, the main of them in teaching a foreign language is training listening skills.
Due to the effort of the process of listening in a foreign language and the age of the pupils the most suitable time of the film on the elementary level should not be more then 4-5 minutes, that is confirmed by methodological investigations.
The process of getting foreign information is one of the most important parts of speech. Therefore, listening skills assume the availability of certain habits. Moreover, listening is not only the aim of studying but also means, which assists to acquire habits and skills of all types of speech activity.
There are very important thesises with the help of which educational films are created:
In order to concentrate the pupils attention on a certain speech structure in some films an animated insertion with the subtitles is used. This can help pupils to learn that very structure which has been used in the film dialogue.
3. The animated films must be real, vital.
4. The film should be built on the already known for pupils language material.
5. The film is an inalienable part of teachers work, more over, it must have a certain methodological aim. It should be taken into consideration that it would be better to use the film when finishing the work with a certain theme of the textbook. Those speech patterns, which pupils have met in their textbooks, are used in different situations now. In such manner the lesson in which there is a work with the film in order to develop listening skills is also a repetition of a certain material.
6. The age and the level of pupils also must be taken into consideration.
7. The film must include some kind of humor.
8. The materials of the film have to show the life of the country where the target language is spoken.
The main methodological aim of the work with the film is to be a means of developing listening skills.
The work with the film includes:
As many teachers can attest, learners seem to become more motivated about language learning when authentic video is used. Motivation is the key element in the learning process. It is a factor that must be considered and maintained throughout any lesson, and throughout a course or program.
Feature films attract learners attention with dazzling Hollywood effects, and because they are not designed for instructional purposes, they reflect authentic use of target language. However, because of the authenticity of the language, teachers tend to limit their use of feature films to intermediate-to-advanced level classroom. Some instructors prefer dealing with video clips, rather than an entire film. This is unfortunate because there are advantages to using a full-length feature film for beginners.
Authentic full-length film brings extended context to the classroom. By using a film, an oral skills course and other skills courses may be integrated through the use of common themes, functions, and/or grammar featured in the film. The use of film, however, provides a rich context by which students can improve comprehension and practice listening.
II THE USE OF VIDEO ON ENGLISH LESSONS
2.1 English lesson With Using Audio-visual Material
In this part of our term-paper we suggest a number of activities developing pupils listening skills focusing on video materials. We have planned a lesson which can help us to size up the advantages of using video films on English lessons. In one group named the experimental group we have organized a lesson including all the stages of listening activities using also video-film. To compare the results in another group names the control croup we have organized a similar lesson but with using only the very listening activity without any visual activities.
Class: 7 “V”
Time: 3 lessons
The number of students: 22
The experimental group: 11
The control group: 11
The theme of the lesson is “In the morning/Present continuous tense”
The aims of the lesson are
The objectives of the lesson - by the end of the lesson students should be able to:
- know the difference between present continuous and present simple;
- use Present continuous tense in their speech;
The materials are
To make pupils ready for further work and activity the teacher asks some questions to review the Present Simple Tense (See Appendix #1) and the Present Continuous Tense. But during the lesson there were some difficulties when reviewing the Present Continuous Tense. That is why we spent one lesson to review this tense. For that reason we used the task from their book. (18, ) (See also Appendix #6)
The teacher explains that the students should answer the questions which she will ask during watching the video-film. Furthermore, she gives them a sheet of paper on which there is filling the gaps task. (See Appendix #5)
The group was prepared for as much of the vocabulary as possible short of giving away what happens in the film. (See Appendix #2) When the vocabulary lesson is finished, learners are supplied with a scene title and short description of the scene. In our example this is “In the morning”. (See Appendix #3)
Listening activities with the Experimental group using visual aid:
Listening strategy is emphasized by having the listeners write down key words and pay attention on the tone of voice, intonation, and pauses. Students can write key verbs that describe the actions in the scene, and pay attention to non-verbal communication (body posture, gestures and facial expressions) and the setting to get a general idea of what is happening in the scene. The video clip (See Appendix #3) was played three times. During watching the video the teacher does pauses and asks the students true or false questions, on the first listening stage. (See Appendix #4) Then students listen and watch the film second time. There students are given filling the gaps task. (See Appendix #5) After watching the third time students were given the task to discuss the video-film in pairs, paying their attention to the Present Simple and Present Continuous.
Listening activities with the control group was, of course, different without any visual aids. They were just listening to the text which the teacher was reading aloud. They were also given filling the gaps task and true or false statements. After listening to the text they were asked to discuss the given text.
2.2 The Analysis of the Lesson
In spite of the difficulties at the beginning of the lesson students show their interest of this topic. At the end of the lesson they were given the home task to write a letter using Present Continuous and Present Simple Tenses.
In our research there have been arranged three lessons which included listening and video activities. Lesson with the experimental group was done using video film. This lesson included all the stages of listening pre listening task, listening task and after listening task. We observed with great attention two groups. We suppose our lesson as successful down to carrying out all the activities and realizing all the goals. We can see the analysis of the students work on the diagram 1 below. There we can see that the students participation in the experimental group was more active and the amount of correct answers were higher than in another group named control group. We can compare it with the diagram 2, also below.
Diagram #1 (Experimental group)
Diagram #2 (Control group)
According to the lesson we also saw that the experimental group was doing their tasks with more interest and their participation during the lesson was energetic. Students gave more correct answers after they saw it with their own eyes. Overall, students were more motivated to study. They not just enjoyed, but they also found that they learned more through the video.
As for the control group there were some difficulties on making the dialogs. They hardly can pronounce some words in a right way. Moreover, they showed the less interest on the topic. The mood of students was sleepy and they seemed not to do anything.
Analyzing two groups results we can make a conclusion that the film has great power of emotional influence. Video is a powerful tool in todays classroom. We proved that the video materials can raise the motivation of students on the lesson. We became convinced that video is one of the new tools that have become available to educators to impact the learning process.
To sum up our research work we should emphasize that the main purpose of foreign language as the object domain of teaching is acquisition of the ability to communicate in a foreign language. The ability to communicate in a foreign language might not be accomplished without the skill of audio perception to a foreign language. Listening is not the simplest way of the speech activity, listening is studying by many of different researchers.
Listening is one of the most important processes in learning a foreign language. It develops pupils ability to comprehend the speech of foreigners, to discriminate words and sounds. With the help listening the pupils enlarge their vocabulary also. When listening to a foreign speech, pupils should be very attentive and think hard. This helps them to train their memory. Therefore, teachers must develop learners listening skill. And the ways can be different. We can use audio tapes, telephoning conversations, authentic films, video clip and so on.
The use of video aids is the visual perception of the information. It is the organs of sight and organs of hearing through what the human receive the basis range of information about the environment.
Furthermore, the use of video aids on the English lessons enlarges activity of learners. It creates certain conditions for students independent work. The method of utilizing video aids implies teaching and educative functions. The information which is presented in visual way is more available for sense. And this information is learned easily and fast. Moreover, the use of video equipment helps to satisfy students needs, demands and interests.
To solve the objectives students must have known not only the contents of the given video material but also they must remember all the details. They should know how to size up the events. Students also should give the description about the characters of the given video. Moreover they must do it using some phrases and key words from the given video.
In our term paper we have shown that there are a number of different activities through which students can improve their listening comprehension. And we focused our attention on visual aids which are considered as the most effective equipment to use on English lessons.
Thus we can say that all the goals we wanted to reach were achieved. In the result of our research we introduced and analyzed as more theoretical basis of the listening skills as we could. We have proved that the use of audio and video equipment in training listening skills is of great importance.
Nowadays, students are very much visual learners. Further, with the quick spread of broadband internet access, is making the use of video in the classroom much more reliable. It is changing both the way we learn and the way we interact with each other.
1. What do you usually do when you get up?
2. Do you often clean your teeth on the evening?
3. When you usually get up?
4. Do you usually do physical exercises?
5. What do you usually do on your free time?
Morning exercises зарядка
Dining room кухня, столовая
Get up просыпаться.
Bill is still sleeping, his eyes are closed.
(his voice out of the still): I am in bed, but I am not sleeping. Whats the time? Its eight oclock. Its time to get up and go to school. But I dont want to get up.
Mother (is entering the room and coming up to Bills bed): Oh, Bill! Are you still in bed? (take out the blanket. He is going under the sheet) Look at the time. Its eight oclock. Its time to get up. You must go to school. Get up!
The mother goes away. Bill is still in the bed.
Bills voice out of the still: I am not sleeping. But I dont want to go to school today. Whats the time? Its ten minutes past eight.
Mother (enters the room again): Get up, Bill! You cannot sleep all day. What a lazy boy!
Bill (getting up): good morning, mum.
Mother: Good morning, Bill. You are very late this morning. We must do our morning exercises. (They start doing exercises). One, two, three, four. One, two, three, four. (Bill is going away imperceptibly). One, two… (Having noticed the absence of her child the mother is looking for him). Oh!
Bill goes to the bathroom, washes his face, and cleans his teeth.
Bills voice out of the still: Well, Im going to the bathroom, cleaning my teeth, washing my face and hands and my neck. Im washing behind my ears too. But still I dont want to go to school today.
Bill is seating in the dining room. He is sad. He eats nothing. His mother enters the room and seats down.
Mother (anxiously): Why arent you eating your breakfast? Whats the matter with you? Arent you well?
Bill: I cant eat, mum.
Mother: Are you ill?
Bill: I think Im not well today.
Mother (has understood what the matter is): Are you, really? Then you must have a doctor. And you must take some medicine.
Bill (horrified): No, no. no doctor, please. Im well, mum. Im going to school.
Bill eats his breakfast very quickly, runs to another room, and takes his bag, having kissed the mother runs away.
Then some stills from the film are used. All Bills words are written on the screen.
Bill (is cleaning the teeth): I am cleaning my teeth.
Bill (putting on the T-shirt): I clean my teeth every day.
Bill (washing): I am washing my face and my hands.
Bill: I wash my hands and face every morning.
Bill: I am washing my neck.
Bill (putting on his sweater): I wash my neck every… No, I dont wash my neck every morning.
Im having a nice holiday, though the weather is not very nice. The hostel Im staying is very nice. I have a nice view of the sea and the beach from my room. Tomorrow Im going to visit a nice castle which was built hundred years ago.
Every evening I have a nice walk by the sea.
Are you having a nice time in Kapchagai?
Ill come next week.
А также другие работы, которые могут Вас заинтересовать
|84116.||Место теории государства и права в системе юридических наук||21.88 KB|
|Теория государства и права в системе юридических наук. Теория государства и права как общетеоретическая отрасль юридической науки. Историко-правовые науки к которым относятся история государства и права России зарубежных стран история политических и правовых учений.|
|84117.||Взаимосвязь теории государства и права с общественными науками||21.54 KB|
|Теория государства и права в системе гуманитарных наук. Прежде всего теория государства и права связана с историей изучающей прошлое человечества во всей его конкретности и многообразии. Так выясняя причины происхождения государства и права и исследуя их поступательное развитие теория государства и права опирается на конкретные данные исторической науки.|
|84118.||Общенаучные и частные методы изучения государства||23.46 KB|
|Философские методы определяют подход к изучению государства и права в целом. 2 Идеализм связывают существование государства и права либо с объективным разумом объективные идеалисты либо с сознанием человека его переживаниями субъективными и осознанными усилиями субъективные идеалисты. Не внешние факторы определяют развитие государства и права а внутреннее духовное начало. 5 Аксиологический анализ государства и права как специальных ценностей которые регулируют поведение отдельных личностей.|
|84119.||Характеристика общественной власти и социальных норм первобытного общества||22.37 KB|
|Исторически первой формой организации догосударственного общества являлась родовая община. Таким образом род был одновременно древнейшим социальным институтом и самой первой формой организации догосударственного общества. не отделенной от общества и не политической.|
|84120.||Закономерности возникновения государства и права и его формы||22.03 KB|
|Формы возникновения государств: восточные раннеклассовые государства и западные. Восточный путь возникновения государства. Западный путь возникновения государства.|
|84121.||Теории происхождения государства в прошлой и современной науке о государстве||27.12 KB|
|Одной из первых теорий происхождения государства и права была теологическая объясняющая их возникновение божественной волей. В то же время она отстаивает идеи незыблемости вечности государства необходимости всеобщего подчинения государственной воле как власти от Бога но вместе о тем и зависимости самого государства от божественной воли которая проявляется через церковь и другие религиозные организации. Глава этой семьи становится главой государства монархом.|
|84122.||Признаки государства, отличающие его от общественной власти первобытного общества||18.75 KB|
|Наличие отделенной от общества публичной власти. Публичная власть существовала и в первобытном обществе но она выражала интересы всего общества и не была отделена от него. В любом же государстве власть реально осуществляется государственным аппаратом который отделен от остального общества.|
|84123.||Государственная власть как особая разновидность социальной власти и методы ее осуществления||21.25 KB|
|В литературе поразному понимается соотношение категорий государственная власть и политическая власть . Согласно одной точке зрения государственная власть более узкая категория чем политическая власть ибо последняя осуществляется не только государством но и другими звеньями политической системы общества: органами местного самоуправления партиями политическими движениями общественными организациями и т. Так в соответствии с Конституцией Российской Федерации органы местного самоуправления не входят в систему органов государственной...|
|84124.||Признаки государства, отличающие его от других политических организаций общества||18.91 KB|
|Государство единственная организация власти в масштабе всей страны. Каждый человек уже в силу своего рождения устанавливает определенную связь с государством становясь его гражданином или подданным и обретает с одной стороны обязанность подчиняться государственновластным велениям а с другой право на покровительство и защиту государства. Государство обладает суверенитетом как внешним т. Только государство включает такие структуры как суд прокуратура органы внутренних дел и т.|