97165

INTRODUCTION INTO ECONOMICS

Книга

Экономическая теория и математическое моделирование

Grammar: Числительные. Глагол. Неправильные глаголы. Глагол to be и его функции. Времена группы Indefinite. Phonetics: Особенности английской артикуляции. Government and politics. Grammar: Имя существительное. Род,число и падеж существительных. Артикль. Phonetics: Понятие гласных и согласных звуков. Grammar: Местоимения. Оборот there + to be.

Английский

2015-10-14

2.48 MB

0 чел.

ЛЕПЕШКИНА Г.Г., СЕМЕНОВА Е.Г.,

СТАВЦЕВА Е.В.

INTRODUCTION

INTO

ECONOMICS


МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ

РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

ОРЛОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ИНСТИТУТ

ЭКОНОМИКИ И ТОРГОВЛИ

ЛЕПЕШКИНА Г.Г., СЕМЕНОВА Е.Г.,

СТАВЦЕВА Е.В.

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

В ЭКОНОМИКУ

Учебное пособие по английскому языку для

студентов 1 курса неязыковых экономических вузов

Рекомендовано редакционно-издательским советом ОрелГИЭТ

ОРЕЛ

Издательство ОрелГИЭТ

2011


ББК 81.432.1

УДК 811.111

Л

Рецензенты: 

к.ф.н., ст. преподаватель Замуруева Н.А.,

ст. преподаватель Щербакова С.П.

Л. – Г.Г. Лепешкина, Е.Г. Семенова, Е.В. Ставцева ВВЕДЕНИЕ В ЭКОНОМИКУ. Учебное пособие по английскому языку. – Орел: Издательство ОрелГИЭТ, 2011, с. 

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса экономических специальностей. Пособие включает тексты по страноведению и основным разделам макро- и микроэкономики из аутентичных монографий и Интернет-сайтов, отредактированные для учебных целей.

ББК 81.432.1

© Лепешкина Г.Г., Семенова Е.Г., Ставцева Е.В.

© Орловский государственный институт экономики и торговли, 2011 г.


Сontents

[1] Сontents

[2]

Предисловие

[3] PART I. COUNTRY STUDIES

[4] UNIT I. THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

[5] LESSON 1. Geographical outline

[5.1] Grammar: Числительные. Глагол. Неправильные глаголы. Глагол “to be” и его функции. Времена группы Indefinite

[6] Phonetics: Особенности английской артикуляции.

[7]
LESSON 2. Government and politics

[7.1] Grammar: Имя существительное. Род,число и падеж существительных. Артикль.

[8] Phonetics: Понятие гласных и согласных звуков.

[9]
LESSON 3 Economy

[9.1] Grammar: Местоимения. Оборот there + to be.

[10] Phonetics: Долгие и краткие гласные звуки.

[11]
LESSON 4. Education

[11.1] Grammar: Имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения прилагательных. Сравнительные конструкции.

[12] Phonetics: Словесное ударение.

[13]
Unit II. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

[13.1]  

[14] LESSON 1 Geograpical Outline

[14.1] Grammar Revision: Страдательный залог

[14.1.0.1] Phonetics:Типы чтения гласных в ударном слоге

[14.2]
LESSON 2. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

[14.3] Grammar Revision: Модальные глаголы

[14.3.0.1] Phonetics: Ритмика

[14.4]
LESSON 3. Economy

[14.5] Grammar: Времена группыPerfect

[14.5.0.1] Phonetics: Транскрипция

[15]
LESSON 4. Education

[15.1] Grammar: Порядок слов в предложении.

[15.1.0.1] Phonetics: Фразовое ударение

[16] TEST ON UNIT 2

[16.1] Unit III. Canada

[17] LESSON 1. GEOGRAPHICAL OUTLINE

[17.1] Grammar Revision: Придаточные предложения времени и условия

[17.1.0.1] Phonetics: Логическое ударение

[18] Geography and Nature OF CANADA. General Facts

[19]
LESSON 2. Political System

[19.1] Grammar: The Perfect Continuous Tenses

[19.1.0.1] Phonetics: Интонация. Нисходящий тон.

[20]
LESSON 3. Economy

[20.1] Grammar: Безличные предложения

[20.1.0.1] Phonetics: Интонация. Восходящий тон.

[21] LESSON 4. Education

[21.1] Grammar: Словообразование

[21.1.0.1] Phonetics: Интонация. Нисходяще-восходящий тон.

[22] TEST ON UNIT 3

[23]
PART II. INTRODUCTION INTO ECONOMICS

[24] LESSON 1. People and Economy

[24.1] Grammar Presentation: Причастие и его функции в предложении.

[24.2] Grammar Revision: Страдательный залог. Модальный глагол “must” и его эквивалент “to be to”.

[25]
LESSON 2. Microeconomics and Macroeconomics

[25.1] Grammar Presentation: Инфинитив и его функции в предложении

[25.2] Grammar Revision: Видовременные формы глагола в страдательном залоге. Причастия I и II в функции определения. Указательные местоимения.

[26]
LESSON 3. Markets and Production

[26.1] Grammar Presentation: Герундий.

[26.2] Grammar Revision: Инфинитив и его функции в предложении. Модальный глагол “can” и его эквивалент “to be able”.

[27]
LESSON 4. The Division of labour

[27.1] Grammar Presentation: Сложное подлежащее

[27.2] Grammar Revision: Страдательный залог. Модальные глаголы. Степени сравнения прилагательных.

[27.3]
LESSON 5. Public and Private Sectors of Economy

[27.4] Grammar Presentation: Независимый причастный оборот.

[27.5] Grammar Revision: Сложное подлежащее. Модальный глагол “мау ” и его эквивалент “to be allowed to”.

[28] LESSON 6. Monopolies and Competition

[29] Grammar Presentation: Сложное дополнение.

[30] Grammar Revision: Сравнительные конструкции. Страдательный залог.

[31] MONOPOLIES AND COMPETITION

[32] LESSON 7. INCOME AND INTERESTS

[33] Grammar Presentation: Условные предложения. Бессоюзные придаточные предложения.

[34] Grammar Revision: Функции инфинитива в предложении. Причастие 2 в функции определения.

[35] LESSON 8. PROFIT AND PROSPERITY

[36] Grammar Presentation: Согласование времен.

[37] Grammar Revision: Побудительные предложении. Функции инфинитива в предложении.

[38] LESSON 9. STOCK MARKETS

[39] Grammar Presentation: Косвенная речь.

[40] Grammar Revision: The Present Perfect Tense

[41] LESSON 10. FOREIGN EXCHANGE

[42] Grammar Revision: Существительное в функции определения. Сложное дополнение. Сложное подлежащее.

[43] ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК

[44] ФОНЕТИКА

[45] §1. Органы речи и их работа

[46] § 2. Классификация английских звуков

[47] § 3. Особенности английского произношения

[48] § 4. Английский алфавит

[49] § 5. Понятие о транскрипции

[50] § 6. Фразовое ударение

[51] § 7. Ритмические группы

[52] § 8. Изменение словесного ударения под влиянием ритма

[53] § 9. Логическое ударение

[54] § 10. Английская интонация

[55] § 11. Нисходящий тон

[56] § 12. Восходящий тон

[57] § 13. Нисходяще - восходящий тон

[58] Таблицы и пояснения для повторения

[59] §1. Словообразование

[60] §2. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты

[60.1] §3. Страдательный залог (Passive Voice)

[60.2] §4. Неличные формы глагола

[60.2.1] §4.1. Participle (Причастие)

[60.2.2] §4.2. Инфинитив и его функции в предложении

[60.2.3] §4.3. The Gerund (Герундий)

[60.3] § 5.Инфинитивные обороты

[60.3.1] §5.1. Объектный инфинитивный оборот «сложное дополнение» (Complex Object)

[60.3.2] §5.2. Субъектный инфинитивный оборот «сложное подлежащее» (Complex Subject)

[60.4] §6. The Absolute Participle Construction (Независимый причастный оборот)

[60.5] §7. Бессоюзное присоединение определительных и дополнительных

[60.6] придаточных предложений

[60.7] §8. Conditional Sentences (Условные предложения)

[60.8] §9. Reported Speech (Косвенная речь)

[61] Irregular Verbs

[62] Лингвострановедческий комментарий

[63] Список использованной литературы:



Предисловие

Учебное пособие «Введение в экономику» предназначено для студентов 1 курса экономических специальностей и рассчитано на 136 часов аудиторной работы.

Учебные материалы пособия соответствуют требованиям государственного стандарта по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» в неязыковом вузе.

Цель данного пособия – формирование у студентов навыков чтения, понимания, извлечения, обработки и воспроизведения информации из англоязычных специальных текстов по экономической тематике, а также подготовка к реферированию и аннотированию профессиональной литературы. Кроме того, материал пособия знакомит студентов с реалиями стран изучаемого языка.

Учебное пособие состоит из 3 частей. Первая часть представляет собой страноведческий материал о географии, политическом устройстве, экономике и системе образования Соединенного Королевства, США и Канады. Информация представлена не только в текстах, но и в упражнениях. При работе с первой частью пособие рекомендуется обратить внимание на фонетическую отработку имен собственных перед чтением основного текста. При чтении страноведческих текстов следует повторить грамматику школьного курса. В зависимости от количества часов, отведенных на дисциплину, преподаватель может использовать материал этой части по своему усмотрению. С точки зрения авторов, обязательными для изучающего чтения являются тексты, посвященные географии и экономики каждой страны, два других текста можно использовать для ознакомительного чтения.

Вторая часть состоит из 10 уроков. Все они имеют единую структуру. Основой каждого урока является текст, заимствованный из аутентичных монографий или материалов Интернет и отредактированный для учебных целей. Тематика текстов освещает основные понятия макро- и микроэкономики. Словарный минимум, предлагаемый в каждом уроке, включает как слова и выражения общеупотребительной лексики, так и термины, необходимые для понимания экономических текстов. К тексту прилагается система упражнений, предназначенная для работы на разных этапах (предтекстовом, текстовом и послетекстовом).

Кроме того, учебное пособие включает грамматический справочник, словарь и лингвострановедческий комментарий.

Грамматический справочник представляет теоретический грамматический материал, необходимый для чтения литературы по специальности:

  •  Инфинитив.
  •  Инфинитивные конструкции. (Сложное дополнение. Сложное подлежащее)
  •  Причастия.
  •  Независимый причастный оборот.
  •  Герундий.
  •  Бессоюзные придаточные предложения.
  •  Условные предложения.

Грамматический материал объясняется просто и доходчиво и иллюстрируется примерами. Грамматика для повторения школьного курса представлена в виде таблиц и схем с небольшим комментарием.

Словарь содержит лексический минимум всех уроков. В словарной статье помимо текстового значения дается одно-два наиболее употребительных значения каждой лексической единицы, что позволяет использовать словарь и для чтения дополнительных текстов, не прибегая к помощи других источников.

Лингвострановедческий комментарий дает перевод и толкование имен собственных и культурологических понятий.

Авторы


PART I. COUNTRY STUDIES

UNIT I. THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

LESSON 1. Geographical outline

Grammar: Числительные. Глагол. Неправильные глаголы. Глагол “to be” и его функции. Времена группы Indefinite

Phonetics: Особенности английской артикуляции.

Before you read the text, see if you know the answers to the following questions?

Where is the UK situated?

What is Great Britain?

What seas is the UK washed by?

What is the UK separated by from the Continent?

What are the main countries of the UK?

What are the capitals of the UK main countries?

What is the population of the UK?

What languages do people speak in the UK?

What is the flag of the UK?

What are the symbols of the UK main countries?

What mountains, rivers and lakes of Great Britain can you name?

What is the climate of Great Britain?

Read the proper names paying attention to their pronunciation and the use of article. Be sure that you know Russian variants of these geographical names.

Anglesey [΄æŋglsi]

Belfast [bel΄fa:st]

Ben Nevis

Cardiff [΄ka:dif]

Caithness [

Cornwall [΄kɔ:nwɔ:l]

Edinbourgh [΄edinbərə]

England [΄inglənd]

France [΄fra:ns]

Glasgow [΄gla:zgəu]

Great Britain [,greit΄britn]

John o΄Groats [

the Highlands [΄hailəndz]

Ireland [΄aiələnd]

Logh Neagh  [΄lɔk΄nei]

London [΄lʌndən]

Moume Mountains [΄mɔ:n΄mauntinz]

Northern Ireland [,nɔ:ðn΄aiələnd]

Penzance [

Scotland [΄skɔtlənd]

Snowdonia [snou΄dounjə]

the Atlantic Ocean  [ət΄læntik ΄əu∫n]

the Celtic Sea [΄keltik΄si:]

the English Channel [,iŋgli∫΄t∫ænl]

the Firth of Clyde [,fə:θəv΄klaid]

the Hebrides [΄hebrədi:z]

the Humber Estuary [,hʌmbə΄estjuəri]

the Lake District [leik΄distrikt]

the North Sea [,nɔ:θ΄si:]

the Orkney Islands [,ɔ:kni΄ailəndz]

the Pennines [΄penainz]

the Severn [΄sevn] 

the Thames [΄temz]

the Cumbrian Mountains [΄kʌmbriən΄mauntinz]

the Shetland Islands [,∫etlənd΄ailəndz]

the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

[juˌnaitid,kiŋdəməv,greit,britnən,nɔ:ðn΄aiələnd]

Read the text “Geographical outline OF THE UK” and translate it into Russian.

Geographical outline OF THE UK

The total area of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is approximately 245000 km2 comprising of the island of Great Britain, the northeastern one-sixth of the island of Ireland (Northern Ireland) and smaller islands. It lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea to the northwest from the coast of France. It is separated from France by the English Channel. The Royal Greenwich Observatory, near London, is the defining point of the Prime Meridian. When measured directly north-south, Great Britain is a little over 1100 km in length and is a fraction under 500 km at its widest, but the greatest distance between two points is 1350 km between Land's End in Cornwall (near Penzance) and John o' Groats in Caithness (near Thurso). Northern Ireland shares a 360 km on land boundary with Ireland.

The United Kingdom has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. The temperature varies with the seasons but seldom drops below 10°C or rises above 35°C. The prevailing wind is from the southwest, bearing frequent spells of mild and wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean. Eastern parts are most sheltered from this wind and are therefore the driest. Atlantic currents, warmed by the Gulf Stream, bring mild winters, especially in the west, where winters are wet, especially over high ground. Summers are warmest in the south east of England, being closest to the European mainland, and coolest in the north. Snowfall can occur in winter and early spring, though it rarely settles to great depth away from high ground.

England accounts for just over half of the total area of the UK, covering 130410 km2. Most of the country consists of lowland and mountainous terrain. Mountain chains are found in the north-west (the Cumbrian Mountains of the Lake District), north (the upland moors of the Pennines and limestone hills of the Peak District) and south-west (Exmoor and Dartmoor). Lower ranges include the limestone hills of the Isle of Purbeck, Cotswolds and Lincolnshire Wolds, and the chalk downs of the Southern England Chalk Formation. The main rivers and estuaries are the Thames, the Severn and the Humber Estuary. England's highest mountain is Scafell Pike, which is in the Lake District 978 m. England has a number of large towns and cities and, in terms of Larger Urban Zones, has six of the top 50 Zones in the European Union.

Scotland accounts for about a third of the total area of the UK, covering 78772 km2. The faultline separates two distinctively different regions; namely the Highlands to the north and west and the lowlands to the south and east. The more rugged Highland region contains the majority of Scotland's mountainous terrain, including the highest peak, Ben Nevis, 1344 m. The Lowland areas, in the southern part of Scotland, are flatter and home to most of the population, especially the narrow waist of land between the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth known as the Central Belt. Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland, although Edinburgh is the capital and political centre of the country. Scotland also has nearly eight hundred islands, mainly west and north of the mainland, notably the Hebrides, the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands.

Wales accounts for less than a tenth of the total area of the UK, covering 20758 km2. Wales is mostly mountainous, though south Wales is less mountainous than north and mid Wales. The main population and industrial areas are in south Wales, consisting of the coastal cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport and the South Wales Valleys to their north. The highest mountains in Wales are in Snowdonia, and include Snowdon, which, at 1,085 m (3,560 ft) is the highest peak in Wales. The 14 (or possibly 15) Welsh mountains over 3,000 feet (914 m) high are known collectively as the Welsh 3000s. Wales borders England to the east and the sea in the other three directions: the Bristol Channel to the south, the Celtic Sea to the west, and the Irish Sea to the north. Wales has over 1,200 km (750 miles) of coastline. There are several islands off the Welsh mainland, the largest of which is Anglesey in the northwest.

Northern Ireland accounts for just 14160 km2 and is mostly hilly. It includes Lough Neagh, 388 km2, the largest body of water in the UK and Ireland. The highest peak is Slieve Donard 849 m in the province's Mourne Mountains.

Vocabulary on the text

account, v – (for) входить во (что-л.) в размере, количестве; составлять (определённую) часть от общего количества (чего-л.)

approximately, adv. – приблизительно, около, почти (Syn: about, roughly, almost, nearly) (Ant: exactly, precise)

bear (bore, born), v – носить, нести; переносить. (Syn: carry)

border, v (smth) граничить; находиться рядом. (Syn: verge)

boundary, n – (with) граница (Syn: border, frontier)

coast, n – 1) морское побережье (Syn: shore, seashore)

coastal, adj. – 1. береговой, прибрежный

comprise, v – 1) включать (Syn: include), 2) составлять (Syn: compose, constitute)

consist, v – (of) состоять, быть составленным из (чего-л., кого-л.)

estuary, n – эстуарий, дельта; устье реки

faultline, n – линия сброса (породы); линия активного нарушения

lie (lay, lain), v – 1) быть расположенным, простираться (Syn: sit, extend), 2) находиться (Syn: sit)

limestone, n – известняк 

lowland, n – 1) низкая местность, низина, долина 2) (the Lowlands) южная часть Шотландии (менее гористая, чем северная)

mountainous, adj. – гористый (Syn: hilly)

notably, adv. – особенно, в особенности, больше всего

occur, v – происходить, случаться, совершаться (Syn: happen)

plentiful, adj. –изобилующий, изобильный, обильный. (Syn: prevalent, abundant, rich)

prevailing, adj. – господствующий, превалирующий, доминирующий, преобладающий (Syn: outstanding, predominant, prevalent)

range, v – 1) выстраивать в ряд; ставить, располагать в порядке. (Syn: arrange) 2) простираться, тянуться (вдоль чего-л.) 3) колебаться в известных пределах.

share, v – разделять (что-л. с кем-л.); использовать совместно

shelter, v  защищать, спасать, укрывать (Syn: protect)

spell, n (of) промежуток времени, срок, период (чего-л.) (Syn: period, stretch)

temperate, adj. – умеренный (о климате и т.п.) temperate zone — умеренный пояc

terrain, n – местность, территория, район hilly terrain — холмистая местность; mountainous terrain — гористая местность; smooth terrain — равнинная местность (Syn: region, district)

therefore, conj. – по этой причине; вследствие этого; поэтому, следовательно. (Syn: consequently, and so)

topography, n –географические и геометрические особенности местности

waist, n – сужение, суженная часть, перехват; горловина

a fraction under – чуть меньше

a little over – чуть больше

Phonetic and lexical exercises

3. Pronounce the following words paying attention to the pronunciation of ending -(e)s.

islands – parts

cities – points

oceans – peaks

halves – half

areas – tops

regions – rocks

lie – lies

spell – spells

include – includes

contain – contains

border – borders

drop - drops

account - accounts

consist - consists

separate - separates

4. Pronounce the following words paying attention to the short and long vowels.

[ a: - ʌ]

[ɔ: - ɔ]

[i: - i]

[u: - u]

large – number

France – industrial

part – gulf

north – drop

chalk – topography

border – province

sea – little

feet – direction

include – took

5. Pronounce the following words. Pay attention to the pronunciatiation of the italicized letters.

length   wide     boundary

depth    between    observatory

north     wind     approximately

third     west     temperate

south     winter    geological

northern    waist

southern    northwest

although

therefore

Grammar exercises

6. Read the following numerals:

1) 500; 360; 388; 245,000; 78,772; 1,200; 130,410; 5,777,289.

2) 2002; 1215; 1994; 1264; 1679; 1496.

3) 1/5; 1/7; 3/8; 4/7; 2/7.

4) 2.75; 45.18; 31.67; 21.5; 17.25.

5) 58,4 миллионов; 242,5 тыс. кв. км; 1,5%; 9,7 миллионов посетителей. 

7. Use the verb “to be” in the proper form.

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland … washed by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the Atlantic Ocean.

2. The most famous educational centres … Oxford and Cambridge.

3.There … three main political parties in Great Britain.

4. Wales … one of the big mining districts in the country.

5. Long before our era the island … inhabited by the Celtic tribes.

6. Trafalgar Square … one of London’s sights . It … named in the memory of Admiral Nelson’s victory at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

7. There … a lot of rivers in GB. The Severn … the longest river.

8. The scientists suppose that the climate … warmer in some decades.

8. Make the following sentences negative and interrogative. Ask special questions about the words in italics.

1. GB is situated on the British Isles.

2. The highest mountain in Great Britain is Ben Nevis.

3. The main branches of British economy are engineering, mining, ship-building, textile, chemistry and food processing.

4. The power of the Queen is limited by the Parliament.

5. Buckingham Palace was built in the 18-th century.

6. Snowdon is 1, 085 m.

7. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland.

9. Define the meaning of the verb “to be”.

1. The UK is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

2. The weather is the favorite conversational topic in GB.

3. Romans, Angels, Saxons, Vikings were the first inhabitants of the British Isles.

4. There are no big rivers in Great Britain.

5. London was founded by the Romans.

6. Ship-building is of great importance for Great Britain.

7. They are to begin this work at once.

10. Translate the following verbs into English. Give their four forms.

Be, lie, separate, have, vary, rise, bear, bring, consist, find, include, know, account,

comprise, drop, occur, spell, distinguish, find, measure.

11. Explain the use of the Indefinite Tenses in the following sentences.

1. Charles Darwin is the greatest English writer.

2. He was born in Britain in 1809.

3. In 2059 it will be his 250ßth anniversarу.

12. Give the plural of the following nouns. Translate them into Russian.

Area, island, boundary, wind, part, country, range, city, centre, sea, mountain.

13. Make the following sentences negative and interrogative.

1. The UK lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea to the northwest from the coast of France.

2. The UK has a temperate climate.

3. The Cambrian Mountains occupy the greater part of Wales.

4. Scotland became a part of the UK in 1707.

5. England and Wales were formally united in 1536.

6. In the уear of 2050 people will visit the British Isles as thez do now.

14. Complete the following sentences using Present Indefinite, Past indefinite and Future Indefinite.

1. The British Isles (to include) Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands.

2. Great Britain (to consist) of England, Scotland and Wales.

3. The UK (to be) an island state.

4. The Irish Sea (to separate) Great Britain from Ireland.

5. In ten years’ time everything probably (to be) different.

6. The larger part of Ireland (to gain) the status of a British dominion in 1921.

7. Around 10,000 years ago Great Britain (not, to be) an island, but an upland region of northwestern Europe.

8. London (to be) a very old city. It (to be) founded in A.D. 43. It (to be) … 2000 years old in 2043.

9. The train (to leave) Plуmouth at 11.30 and (to arrive) in London at 14.45.

10. We (to go) to the theatre the daz after tomorrow if we (to get) tickets.

11. Now Scotland (to be) a part of the UK. But many year ago it (to be) an independent state. After a long struggle it (to be) joined into the UK in 1707.

12. Every year the Festival of Music and Drama (to take place) in Edinburgh. The Festival (to be) first held in 1947. Next year it also (to take place) in the capital of Scotland.

15. Insert its or it’s.

  1.  Scotland is famous for … beauty.
  2.  You can’t see the top of this mountain from here because … so high.
  3.  St. Paul’s Cathedral is in the City. … Beautiful columns can be seen above the high buildings.

16. Supply articles where necessary.

… Great Britain is situated on … British Isles. … British Isles lie to … west of the continent of … Europe. The total land area of … United Kingdom is 244,000 square kilometers. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by … Atlantic Ocean and … Irish Sea. The eastern coast is washed by the waters of … North Sea. … English Channel, which is 32 kilometers wide, separates the south-east of Great Britain from … France. Not far from the British Isles there is warm the Golf Stream. All these facts influence … climate of the country. The climate of Great Britain is mild, temperate and wet.

17. Insert prepositions.

Great Britain is one … the most densely populated countries … the world, the average density is over 200 people per square kilometer, 80 per cent of the population lives … towns. The population of Great Britain is more than 57 million. 57, 1 (1991)

The people who now inhabit the British Isles are descended mainly … the people who inhabited them nearly nine centuries ago. It is neither possible nor suitable to attempt here to estimate the relative importance of various people - pre-Celts, Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons and the Norsemen, including the Danes … the ancestry of the present English, Scots, Welsh and Irish. It is significant, however, that … most of England and the Lowlands of Scotland the language which soon came to predominate was English, mainly a marriage of Anglo-Saxons and Norman French, while the use … Celtic languages persisted … Wales, Cornwall, the Isle of Man, the Highlands of Scotland and in Ireland.

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

18. Read the text and a) pick out all proper names and arrange them into two groups – nouns with the definite article and without it; explain the use of the article; b) pick out all the adjectives that go together with the following nouns: sea, lake, mountains, hills, area, climate, rainfall, terrain, district.

19. Give Russian equivalents.

Approximately; a fraction under; a little over; all year round; with the seasons; frequent spell of mild and wet weather; away from high ground; lowland and mountainous terrain; topography; distinctively different regions; namely; the narrow waist of land; notably; coastal city.

20. Give English equivalents. Consult the text if necessary.

Составлять; находиться; разделять; граница с; преобладать; быть защищенным от; составлять определенную часть; пересеченная местность; известняк; дельта реки; промышленный район; случаться, происходить; самая высокая точка; политический центр страны; изменяться в зависимости от сезона.

21. Supply the suggested adjectives.

chalk, plentiful, the warmest, limestone, the coolest, beautiful

  1.  Cornwall is famous for its … cliffs.
  2.  Peak District is famous for … hills.
  3.  The UK is famous for … rainfall.
  4.  The South-East of England is famous for … summers.
  5.  The North of England is famous for … summers.
  6.  Lake District is famous for … lakes.

22. Match the words from two columns to say what these places are famous for.

Model: London is famous for its places of interest.

1. London

a. the biggest airport in England

2. The Lake District

b. its places of interest

3. Oxford

c. its lakes and beautiful scenery

4. Heathrow

d. its 12th century university

23. Write what these cities are famous for.

Model: London is famous for its fine historical buildings.

  •  Stratford-upon-Avon
  •  Oxford
  •  Cambridge
  •  Liverpool
  •  London

24. Complete the sentences using the information of the text.

1. The UK lies between … .

2. The UK is separated from … .

3. The UK occupies the territory … .

4. The climate of the country is … .

5. The country has such climate thanks to …

6. Mountains in England are …

7. Scotland occupies about …

8. There are two different regions in Scotland … .

9. The largest cities in Scotland are … .

10. Wales is mostly … .

11. The highest mountains in Wales are … .

12. In South Wales there are … .

13. Northern Ireland is … .

  1.  Answer the questions. Begin your answer with the phrases suggested below.

The text tells the reader that…

I think…

I suppose…

If I got it right…

It seems to me that …

In my opinion …

  1.  What is the total area of the UK?
  2.  What islands does the UK consist of?
  3.  Where is the UK situated?
  4.  What climate does the UK have?
  5.  Where are the warmest summers and coldest winters?
  6.  Which part occupies over half of the total area of the UK?
  7.  Which part occupies about a third of the total area of the UK?
  8.  Which part occupies less than a tenth of the total area of the UK?
  9.  What are the rivers of the country?
  10.  What are the mountains in the country?

26. Agree or disagree. Make use of the conversational formulas given below.

Agreement      Disagreement

I (quite) agree (with you).   I don’t think so.

I think so too.     I don’t agree.

Certainly!      I think you are mistaken.

Just so.      You are wrong.

  1.  The UK is situated off the northwest coast of France.
  2.  The UK is separated from France by the North Sea.
  3.  The country is washed by the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.
  4.  The UK consists of four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
  5.  Great Britain is divided into two parts: England and Scotland.
  6.  Southwest wind brings wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean.
  7.  Strait of Dover is the narrowest part of the English Channel.
  8.  The Irish Sea separates Great Britain from France.
  9.  Scotland Includes both the Highlands and the Lowlands.
  10.  Wales is a plain part in the country.

27. Arrange the sentences according to the text.

1. The largest part of the country is England.

2. There are the Cumbrian Mountains of the Lake District, the Pennines and Peak District in the North.

3. It is separated from the continent by the English Channel and is washed by the Atlantic Ocean.

4. It is divided into the Lowlands and  the Highlands.

5. The smallest part, Northern Ireland, is mostly hilly with the highest peak Slieve Donard.

6. Wales occupies the western part of the country.

7. The largest city in Scotland is Glasgow, but the capital and the political centre is Edinburgh.

8. This part is lowland and mountainous terrain.

9. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland covers an area of about 245 thousand square kilometers.

10. The highest mountains are in Snowdonia with its peak Snowdon.

11. The second largest part is Scotland.

12. The climate in the country is temperate with enough rainfall all year round.

28. Match the part of the country with its description.

1. England; 2. Wales; 3. Northern Ireland; 4. Scotland

  1.  It is in the western part of the country, between the Bristol Channel and the Dee estuary. It was united with England in the 14th century. It is home to the highest mountain in Britain, Mount Snowdon, which also lent its name to the Snowdonia National Park.
  2.  It is the largest and most important part of Great Britain. It includes the capital city of London, which is the seat of national government. It was first settled by Celtic tribes 3000 years ago, then conquered by the Saxons, colonized by the Vikings and then overrun by the Normans.
  3.  It is in the northern part of Great Britain. It had its own parliament until 1704 when it was united with the Kingdom of England and Wales to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. People are also special men: very proud of their culture and the Celtic language – Gaelic – and try to preserve their distinct culture as much as possible.
  4.  It consists of six counties that decided to remain in union with Great Britain, while the remaining 26 counties chose autonomy. The capital of the country is Belfast and it has its own parliament, while, at the same time, its members also sit in the British Parliament.

29. Fill in the chart. Use the information from text 1 and the exercises. If necessary, consult maps and encyclopedias.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

England

Scotland

Wales

Northern

Ireland

Total area

Mountains

Rivers

Lakes

Capital

Largest cities

30. Translate into English.

1. Озерный край Англии расположен на северо-западе страны. Это очень романтичное место, известное своими долинами, горами, озерами и водопадами.

2. Долины и луга Шотландии всегда привлекают множество туристов.

3. Туристы со всего мира приезжают полюбоваться на красоту шотландских пейзажей.

4. Оксфорд – старый университетский город. Он расположен в Центральных графствах (The Midlands) Великобритании к северо-западу от Лондона.

5. Пролив Ламанш отделяет Великобританию от Континента. Пролив неширокий, не более 32 километров.

6. Великобритания одна из наиболее густонаселенных стран мира.

7. Северная Ирландия была первой колонией Англии.

31. Ask your friend,

  •  знает ли он официальное название Великобритании;
  •  знает ли он, почему страну часто называют Англией;
  •  знает ли он, из скольких частей состоит Объединенное Королевство;
  •  знает ли он, сколько островов относится к Британским островам;
  •  знает ли он самые большие из Британских островов;
  •  что он знает о климате Великобритании.

Do you know that:

  •  The British Isles haven't always been a separate part of Europe. Long time ago Britain was a part of the European continent. Then about ten thousand years ago during the end of the last Ice Age, when the climate grew warmer, new rivers and sees were formed Europe slowly moved into its present shape.

  •  The British Isles include 5000 small islands and some of them appear and disappear during ebbs and tides.

  •  The North Sea and the English Channel are also called the Narrow Seas because they are difficult for navigation as they are very shallow.

  •  The Straight of Dover, the narrowest part of the English Channel which is 32 kilometers wide, presents three obstacles for swimmers: strong currents, icy water and a lot of medusas, whose cuts are as cuts of a knife.

32. Review the information you’ve got from Lesson 1. Summarize it using the suggested words and word combinations.

To be separated from, to be washed by, to border on, to account for, to consists of, to be situated, a temperate climate, wet weather, mold winters, mountain chains, the main rivers.


LESSON 2. Government and politics

Grammar: Имя существительное. Род,число и падеж существительных. Артикль.

Phonetics: Понятие гласных и согласных звуков.

Before you read text 2 see if you know answers to the following questions.

What type of state is the UK?

Who is the Head of State?

Who appoints the Prime Minister?

What is the Commonwealth?

Who is the Head of the Commonwealth?

What is the role of the British Parliament?

What parts does British Parliament consist of?

Which of the chambers is elected?

What is the role of each chamber in law-making?

Who becomes the Prime Minister?

Who is the Speaker?

What is “Shadow Cabinet”?

What are the main political parties in the United Kingdom?

What are the powers of the Queen?

1. Read the text “POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE UK” and translate it into Russian.

POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE UK

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state; the monarch of the UK also serves as head of state of fifteen other Commonwealth countries, putting the UK in a personal union with those other states. The Crown has sovereignty over the Isle of Man and the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey. Collectively, these three territories are known as the Crown Dependencies, lands owned by the British monarch but not part of the United Kingdom. They are not part of the European Union. However, the Parliament of the United Kingdom has the authority to legislate for the dependencies, and the British government manages their foreign affairs and defense.

The UK has fourteen overseas territories around the world, the last remaining territories of the British Empire. The overseas territories are not considered part of the UK, but in most cases the local populations have British citizenship and the right of abode in the UK. This has been the case since 2002.

The UK has a parliamentary government based on strong traditions: the Westminster system has been emulated around the world — a legacy of the British Empire.

The UK's constitution governs the legal framework of the country and consists mostly of written sources, including statutes, judge made case law, and international treaties. As there is no technical difference between ordinary statutes and law considered to be "constitutional law," the British Parliament can perform "constitutional reform" simply by passing Acts of Parliament and thus has the power to change or abolish almost any written or unwritten element of the constitution. However, no Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change. The United Kingdom is one of the three countries in the world today that does not have a codified constitution (the other two being New Zealand and Israel).

The position of Prime Minister, the UK's head of government, belongs to the Member of Parliament who can obtain the confidence of a majority in the House of Commons, usually the current leader of the largest political party in that chamber. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are formally appointed by the Monarch to form Her Majesty's Government. Though the Prime Minister chooses the Cabinet, and by convention HM the Queen respects the Prime Minister's choices. The Cabinet is traditionally drawn from members of the Prime Minister's party in both legislative houses, and mostly from the House of Commons, to which they are responsible. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and Cabinet, all of whom are sworn into Her Majesty's Most Honorable Privy Council, and become Ministers of the Crown. "The Rt Hon" Gordon Brown MP, leader of the Labor Party, has been Prime Minister, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service since 27 June 2007.

The Parliament of the United Kingdom that meets in the Palace of Westminster is the ultimate legislative authority in the United Kingdom. It has two houses: an elected House of Commons and an appointed House of Lords, and any Bill passed requires the assent of HM the Queen to become law. A devolved parliament in Scotland and devolved assemblies in Northern Ireland, and Wales were established following public approval as expressed in referenda, but these are not sovereign bodies and could be abolished by the UK parliament.

For elections to the House of Commons, the UK is currently divided into 646 constituencies, with 529 in England, 18 in Northern Ireland, 59 in Scotland and 40 in Wales, though this number will rise to 650 at the next General Election. Each constituency elects one Member of Parliament by simple plurality. General Elections are called by the Monarch when the Prime Minister so advises. Though there is no minimum term for a Parliament, a new election must be called within five years of the previous general election.

The UK's three major political parties are the Labor Party, the Conservative Party, and the Liberal Democrats, winning between them 616 out of the 646 seats available in the House of Commons at the 2005 general election. Most of the remaining seats were won by parties that only contest elections in one part of the UK such as the Scottish National Party (Scotland only), Plaid Cymru (Wales only), and the Democratic Unionist Party, Social Democratic and Labor Party, Ulster Unionist Party.

Vocabulary on the text

abode, n  пребывание, проживание (Syn: stay); place of abode  местожительство, место жительства 

abolish, v  аннулировать, отменять, упразднять 

approval, n  одобрение; благоприятное мнение; public approvalобщественное одобрение (Syn: approbation); (Ant: disapprobation, disapproval)

assembly, n  (Assembly) Ассамблея (наименование законодательного органа в ряде штатов) legislative assembly — законодательное собрание; National assembly — национальное собрание

belong, v  1) (to) а) быть членом (клуба, организации, группы) б) быть частью (чего-л.) 2) (to/under/with) иметь отношение к (чему-л.), принадлежать к (какому-л. классу)

citizenship, n  гражданство (Syn: nationality)

codify, v  систематизировать, приводить в систему (Syn: systematize, classify)

constituency, n  избирательный округ (представлен в палате общин одним депутатом)

contest, v  состязаться, соревноваться; соперничать; оспаривать (приз, награду) (Syn: compete)

convention, n  обычай, традиция, правила поведения (Syn: tradition, custom, usage)

dependency, n  зависимая страна, зависимая территория; колония (Syn: colony) overseas, adj.  заморский, заокеанский; заграничный

devolve, v  1) передавать (права, полномочия) 2) переходить к другому лицу (о должности, обязанностях, имуществе)

elect, v  1) избирать (голосованием) (Syn: choose) 2) выбрать (из некоторого числа)

emulate, v  имитировать, копировать, подражать (Syn: imitate, copy)

executive  1. n 1) а) (the executive) исполнительная власть б) орган исполнительной власти (Syn: performer) 2) лицо, занимающее руководящий пост в структурах исполнительной власти; (Executive) глава исполнительной власти.

2. adj. исполнительный

exercise, v  использовать, осуществлять, проявлять, применять

framework, n  структура, строение (Syn: structure)

judge, n  судья

legacy, n  наследство; наследие

legal, adj.  правовой, юридический; судебный legal system — законодательство (Syn: lawful, juridical, juristic)

legislative, adj.  1) законодательный 2) введённый законом, назначенный законом

majority, n  1) большинство to get/receive/carry/gain/win the/a majority — получить большинство; to have/hold the/a majority — иметь большинство; to win by an overwhelming majority — победить подавляющим большинством голосов (Ant: minority) 2) партия или политическая группировка, составляющая большинство в парламенте

privy, adj.  (to) посвящённый (во что-л. секретное), осведомлённый (о чём-л. тайном); причастный (к чему-л.) Privy Council  Тайный совет

referendum, n  (pl. referenda); референдум, всенародный опрос to conduct/hold a referendum — проводить референдум

serve, v  служить, работать, состоять на службе.

sovereignity, n  суверенитет

statute, n  закон, законодательный акт парламента; статут (Syn: law, decree)

swear, v  (into) присягать, давать присягу

term, n  срок, определённый период; длительность, продолжительность term of office — срок полномочий (президента, сенатора и т. п.) (Syn: period, duration, length of time)

treaty, n  договор, соглашение, конвенция (Syn: contract, agreement, pact)

ultimate, adj.  первичный, первоначальный, исходный, основной (Syn: basic)

be appointed  назначаться

be drawn from  избираться из

be responsible for  1) быть ответственным за что-л. 2) быть инициатором, ав

become law  становиться законом

case law  прецедентное право

have the authority  иметь полномочия

obtain the confidence  приобретать доверие

personal union  личная уния

require the assent  требовать одобрения (санкции)

тором чего-л.

Phonetic exercises

2. Pronounce the following verbs. Mind the pronunciation of endings a) –(e)s; b) –ed.

a)  [z]      [s]     [iz]

to serve – serves   to emulate – emulates   to rise – rises

to own – owns   to consist – consists   to establish – establishes

to belong – belongs  to drop – drops    to manage – manages

to require – requires       to pass – passes

b)  [d]     [t]      [id]

to own – owned   to abolish – abolished   to appoint – appointed

to obtain – obtained  to force – forced    to divide – divided

to base - based   to finance – financed   to support – supported

3. Pronounce the following words paying attention to short and long vowels.

[ɔ:] source, authority, law

[ɔ] confidence, monarchy, common, foreign

[a:] parliament, part

[ʌ] country, current, government, ultimate, judge

[i:] Queen, leader, previous

[i] kingdom, simple, minimum, signature

[u:] statute, choose, approval

4. Pronounce the following words. Explain the use of the sounds [s] or [z].

Serves, dependencies, position, those, system, assemblies, states, rises, consists.

5. Pronounce the following words. Explain the use of the sounds [g] or [dʒ].

Legislate, government, legacy, to govern, judge, to manage.

Grammar exercises

6. Translate the following word combinations into Russian.

The UK’s Constitution; the UK’s head of government; Her Majesty’s Government; the Prime Minister’s choices; members of the Prime Minister’s party; Her Majesty’s Most Honorable Privy Council; the UK’s three major political parties; the King’s powers; Britain’s 1-st constitutional monarch; without Parliament’s approval; St. George’s Cross. 

7. Use the Possessive Case.

  •  the head of the state;
  •  the monarch of the United Kingdom;
  •  the authority of the Queen;
  •  the Parliament of the United Kingdom;
  •  the position of the Prime Minister;
  •  territories of the British Empire;
  •  the National Party of Scotland;
  •  a legacy of the British Empire.

8. Write the plural of the following nouns. Mind the spelling.

Country, source, election, hair, territory, judge, house, oversea, authority, difference, woman, half, boundary, lowland, foot, valley.

9. Fill in the blanks with the articles where necessary.

1). … British Parliament is … oldest in … world. It originated in … 12-th century. … British Parliament consists of … House of … Lords and … House of … Commons and … Queen as its … head. … main functions of … Parliament are: to pass laws; to provide, by voting taxation, … means of carrying on the work of government. … House of … Commons plays … role in law-making. Parliamentary elections are held every 5 years and it is … Prime Minister who decides on the exact day of … election. … leader of … party which wins … majority of seats usually becomes … Prime Minister. … Prime Minister’s Office is situated at … 11 … Downing Street.

2). … United Kingdom of … Great Britain and … Northern Ireland is situated on … British Isles. … British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain (GB) and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands.

… UK is made up of four countries: … England, … Scotland, … Wales and … Northern Ireland.

… British Isles are separated from … European continent by … North Sea and … English Channel. … western coast of … GB is washed by … Atlantic Ocean and … Irish Sea.

… surface of … British Isles varies very much. … north of … Scotland is mountainous and is called … Highlands, while … south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called … Lowlands.

There are … lot of rivers in … GB, but they are not very long. … Severn is … longest river, while … Thames is … deepest and … most important one.

10. Insert prepositions.

The Prime Minister is usually the leader … the party that has a majority … the House of Commons. All the affairs of the state are conducted … the name of the Queen (or King), but really the Prime Minister is responsible … every measure submitted … Parliament. He is the virtual ruler of the country, presiding … the meeting of the Cabinet, which are always secret. Unless there is a Coalition Government, the members of the Cabinet belong … one party only.

When once a party has won a majority of votes, it forms the Government, and may hold office … five years, unless it is defeated … the Opposition on some important Bill, or unless it decides to "appeal … the country" and to have another general election. The British Government consists … the Prime Minister and other Ministers. The Cabinet meets … №10 Downing Street, the official residence of the Prime Minister. The Members of the Cabinet introduce legislation, control finance, arrange the time-table of the Houses of Parliament, conduct foreign affairs, dispose military forces and exercise control … every department of administration.

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

11. Give Russian equivalents.

Constitutional monarchy, the Commonwealth, to have the authority, legal framework, treaty, to pass the law, codified Constitution, the House of Commons, the Cabinet, to be responsible for, Privy Council, legislative authority, to require an assent, to become law, simple plurality, to call a new election, constituency, to exercise power.

12. Give English equivalents.

Гражданство, править, договор, отменять, назначаться, отвечать за что-либо, исполнительная власть, юридическая власть, законодательная власть, становиться законом, одобрение, выбирать, большинство, срок, конституционная монархия, управлять внешними связями и проблемами обороны, основанный на традициях.

13. Match the word with its description.

1. the Union Jack

a. a parliamentary monarchy.

2. the Commonwealth

b. the leader of the party that has a majority in the House of Commons.

3. The Prime Minister

c. a non-elected hereditary chamber with an overwhelming permanent Tory majority.

4. Shadow Cabinet

d. a council of discussion of the party in Opposition

5. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

e. the flag of the United Kingdom

6. The House of Lords

f. an association of former members of the British Empire and Britain founded in 1949.

14. Answer the questions. Use the following expressions to begin your answer.

The text tells the reader that…

I think…

I suppose…

If I got it right…

It seems to me that …

In my opinion …

  1.  What type of political system is the UK?
  2.  How many states does the Commonwealth include besides the UK?
  3.  How many overseas territories does the UK have?
  4.  Which countries don’t have a codified constitution?
  5.  What is the ultimate legislative authority?
  6.  Where does the Parliament meet?
  7.  How many houses are there in the British Parliament?
  8.  How are the members to the House of Commons elected?
  9.  When are general election called?
  10.  Who is the Prime Minister?
  11.  How is the Cabinet formed?
  12.  Who is the present Prime Minister in the country?
  13.  How many major political parties are there in the UK?
  14.  What are the legislative and executive branches represented by the UK?

15. Complete the sentences using the information of the text.

1. The UK is a … .

2. The Queen is also … .

3. The UK parliamentary government is based on … .

4. The UK does not have … .

5. The Prime Minister … .

6. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet are appointed … .

7. The parliament meets … .

8. The parliament consists of … .

9. Any Bill requires … .

10. General Election is held … .

11. Parliament term is … .

12. The political parties … .

16. Agree or disagree with the following statements using the expressions.

I (quite) agree (with you).   I don’t think so.

I think so too.     I don’t agree.

Certainly!      I think you are mistaken.

  1.  The UK is a democratic state.
  2.  The head of the state and the Commonwealth is Queen Elizabeth II.
  3.  The Crown Dependencies are the lands owned by the monarch and which are the part of the UK.
  4.  The UK constitution consists of many written documents, such as statutes, treaties and others.
  5.  The Prime Minister is the leader of the party which obtained the majority in the House of Commons.
  6.  The Parliament of the UK meets at 10 Downing Street.
  7.  The Parliament consists of the members of the House of Commons who are elected every two year.
  8.  John Major is the present Prime Minister in the country.
  9.  The UK is divided into 646 constituencies for elections.
  10.  There are two main political parties in the UK: the Labor party and the Liberal party.

  1.  Arrange the sentences according to the text.
  2.  The Cabinet and the Prime Minister represent the executive power in the country.
  3.  Besides them there are many other parties but they don’t have enough representatives in the House of Commons.
  4.  The House of Commons is an elected body for which the UK is divided into 646 constituencies.
  5.  The UK is a constitutional monarchy.
  6.  There are 3 main political parties in the country: Labour, Conservative and Liberal Democrats.
  7.  Queen Elizabeth II is the head of the state.
  8.  The UK does not have a codified Constitution.
  9.  There are three territories known as Crown Dependencies besides 15 Commonwealth countries.
  10.  The Prime Minister is the head of the party which has the majority in the House of Commons.
  11.  There are two houses in the Parliament of the UK, the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
  12.  The Members of Parliament are elected for 5 years.
  13.  The government bases on the Westminster System.

  1.  Fill in the chart.

Branch

The Legislative Power

The Executive Power

The Judicial Power

Representative

Functions

19. a) Make written translation of the text. Make use of the words given after it.

On the blessing of monarchy

The British monarchy. The sedate and dignified guards in red uniform, wearing black turban-like fur hats standing stock-still by Buckingham Palace, the Queen's main residence. The Queen stately visit to the inauguration ceremony of a Parliamentary session, with the traditional cuirassier mounted soldiers in glinting armor following the gilded coach upon prancing horses. The dismal Tower, the famous fortress-cum-prison, where some claimants to the throne used to languish, where Count Earl of Essex, and Anne Boleyn, the first wife of King Henry VIII, and some other notables were once beheaded. One cannot very well imagine the United Kingdom without the Royal palace and its trappings, and without the Gothic-style Westminster Abbey, the Parliament building on the Thames River. But all that is not just picturesque scenery, simply a tourist attraction, and those landmarks are not only relics of history. The monarchy is deeply rooted in country's life and politics, and in the mentality and psychology of its citizens.

According to the British Constitution, never recorded in a single volume, in its entirety,(it is in effect a code of fundamental acts of Parliament beginning with the Great Charter, or the Magna Carta, of 1215) the Queen of England is officially not only the Head of State but is also the protector of the Church of England. Furthermore, she is the supreme Commander-in-Chief of the country's Armed Forces.

Formally, a king, or a queen, has the right to dissolve Parliament and appoint a Prime Minister. (Incidentally, they have never once exercised that prerogative.) It goes without saying that real power is exercised by the Parliament and the government.

But it would be a mistake to dismiss the real-life impact exerted by the Crown on society's political and moral climate.

Possessing untold wealth, and maintaining extensive links and connections in the country's highest circles, and disposing of endless information (Buckingham Palace regularly receives top-secret government documents),the Queen and the members of the Royal family exert a tangible (if imperceptible) influence on the shaping and formulation of both foreign and domestic policies.

(MN, №1, 1994)

Anne Boleyn — Анна Болейн (вторая жена английского короля Генриха Восьмого, мать королевы Елизаветы Первой; казнена по обвинению в супружеской неверности)

stock-still  1. (совершенно) неподвижный, недвижимый, без движения (Syn: quite motionless, stone-still) 2. (совершенно) неподвижно; как столб to stand stock-still — стоять не шелохнувшись

languish – томиться; to languish in jail — томиться в тюрьме

disposeрасполагать

imperceptible – незаметный

b) Answer the questions.

1. What is the Queen's main residence?

2. What symbols of monarchy are mentioned in the text?

3. What are the duties of the Queen (or the King)?

4. Whom does the real power belong to?

5. What is the role of the monarch in the country?

20. Translate into English.

1. Полное официальное название страны — Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии. Ее территория — 242,5 тыс.кв.км. Население — 58,4 млн. чел. Столица — Лондон. Государственный язык — английский.

2. Население страны составляют англичане — 78%, шотландцы — 9%, ирландцы — 5%, валлийцы — 1,5%.

3. Государственный строй - парламентская монархия. Глава государства - королева Елизавета II (с 6 февраля 1952 года, династия Виндзоров). Законодательным органом является Парламент. Он состоит из Палаты лордов и Палаты общин. Правительство формируется лидером партии, получившей на выборах большинство мест и/или пользующейся поддержкой большинства депутатов в Палате общин; состоит из членов кабинета, министров, не входящих в состав кабинета, и младших министров (всего около 100 чел.). Монарх, не имеющий законодательной власти, выполняет представительские функции.

4. Королева Виктория правила страной дольше всех монархов. Ее правление длилось 64 года.

5. Букингемский дворец является официальной резиденцией королевы.

Do you know that:

  •  The British Constitution isn't set out in a single document. Instead it is made up of a combination of laws and conventions. A thousand years ago the Anglo-Saxon kings consulted the Great Council before taking important decisions. Between 1066 and 1215 the king ruled alone, but in 1215 the nobles forced King John to accept Magna Carta, which took away some of the king's powers. In later centuries this was seen as the 1st occasion on which the king was forced to take advice. In 1264 the 1st parliament of nobles met together. Since then the British constitution has grown up slowly as the result of countless Acts of parliament. Then, parliament invited William and Mary to become Britain's 1st constitutional monarchs. A constitutional monarch is one who can rule only with the support of parliamentary. The Bill of Rights was the 1st legal step towards constitutional monarchy. This Bill prevented the monarch from making laws or having an army without Parliament's approval. Since 1689 the power of parliament has grown, while the power of the monarch has become weaker.

  •  Magna Carta. Великая хартия вольностей (грамота, подписанная в 1215 королём Иоанном Безземельным [John "Lackland"] под давлением восставших баронов; ограничивала королевскую власть и предоставляла более широкие права крупным феодалам; основной массе английского народа - крепостному крестьянству - не дала никаких прав; наряду с актами составляет статутарную основу английской конституционной практики; хранится в Гилдхолле [guildhall)]
    •  Bill of Rights. Билль о правах (1689; был направлен против восстановления абсолютизма; юридически оформил итоги "Славной революции" [Glorious Revolution]; значительно ограничив власть короны [Crown)] и гарантировав права парламента [Parliament], заложил основы английской конституционной монархии; наряду с актами составляет статутарную основу английской конституционной практики;
    •  Habeas Corpus Act. Закон о неприкосновенности личности (предписывает представление арестованного в суд в течение установленного срока для надлежащего судебного разбирательства и установления законности ареста); наряду с актами составляет статутарную основу английской конституционной практики. Принят в 1679;
    •  Petition of Right. Петиция о праве (была представлена палатой общин [House of Commons] королю Карлу I [Charles I] и утверждена им в 1628) требовала значительного ограничения королевской власти; закрепляла роль и права парламента и судов; программный документ буржуазии в канун Английской буржуазной революции [English Revolution 1640-53]; ограждала собственность буржуазии от посягательств абсолютизма. Наряду с актами составляет статутарную основу английской конституционной практики
    •  Statute of Westminster. Вестминстерский статут (1931; акт парламента [Parliament] о правовом положении британских доминионов [dominion] и их взаимоотношениях с Великобританией; подтвердил полный суверенитет доминионов, однако фактически сохранил контроль Великобритании над их внешней политикой; наряду с актами составляет статутарную основу английской конституционной практики;

  •  Parliamentary procedure is based on forms and rules and one of them is introducing a Bill. There are two main stages in the life of a Bill: the period of preparation before it is published or introduced into Parliament; and its subsequent progress through Parliament. Every Bill has three reading. After the third reading the Bill goes before the House of Lords and if the Lords agree to the Bill, it will be placed before the Queen for signature. Only then it becomes an Act of Parliament.

  •  Symbols
  •  The flag of the United Kingdom is the Union Flag. It was created by the superimposition of the flags of England (St George's Cross) and Scotland (Saint Andrew's Cross), with Saint Patrick's cross, to represent Ireland, being added to this in 1801. Wales is not represented in the Union Flag as Wales had been conquered and annexed to England prior to the formation of the United Kingdom. However, the possibility of redesigning the Union Flag to include representation of Wales has not been completely ruled out.
  •  The national anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the King", with "King" replaced with "Queen" in the lyrics whenever the monarch is female. The anthem's name, however, remains "God Save the King".
  •  Britannia is a national personification of the United Kingdom, originating from the Roman occupation of southern and central Great Britain. Britannia is symbolized as a young woman with brown or golden hair, wearing a Corinthian helmet and white robes. She holds Poseidon's three-pronged trident and a shield, bearing the Union Flag. Sometimes she is depicted as riding the back of a lion. At and since the height of the British Empire, Britannia has often associated with maritime dominance, as in the patriotic song "Rule, Britannia!".
  •  The lion symbol is depicted behind Britannia on the 50 pence piece and one is shown crowned on the back of the 10 pence piece. It is also used as a symbol on the non-ceremonial flag of the British Army.
  •  The bulldog is sometimes used as a symbol of the United Kingdom and has been associated with Winston Churchill's defiance of Nazi Germany.

21. Ask your friend,

  •  знает ли он;
  •  знает ли он, почему;
  •  знает ли он, из скольких частей;
  •  знает ли он, сколько;
  •  знает ли он;
  •  что он знает о.

22. Review the information you’ve got from Lesson 2. Summarize it using the suggested words and word combinations.

The head of the state, the British Commonwealth, the powers of the Queen, to pass laws, to obtain the confidence, to be appointed by the Monarch, to be exercised by, to be the leader, legislative authority, an elected House of Commons, an appointed House of Lords, major political parties, to be set out in a single document, to accept Magna Carta, the Union Flag.


LESSON 3 Economy

Grammar: Местоимения. Оборот there + to be.

Phonetics: Долгие и краткие гласные звуки.

  1.  Read the text “Economy of the UK” and translate it into Russian.

Economy of the UK

The UK economy is made up (in descending order of size) of the economies of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Based on market exchange rates, the United Kingdom is today the fifth largest economy in the world and the second largest in Europe after Germany.

The Industrial Revolution started in the United Kingdom with an initial concentration on heavy industries such as shipbuilding, coal mining, steel production, and textiles. The empire created an overseas market for British products, allowing the UK to dominate international trade in the 19th century. However, as other nations industrialized, coupled with economic decline after two world wars, the United Kingdom began to lose its competitive advantage and heavy industry declined, by degrees, throughout the 20th century. Manufacturing remains a significant part of the economy, but accounted for only one-sixth of national output in 2003. The British motor industry is a significant part of this sector, although it has diminished with the collapse of the MG Rover Group and most of the industry is foreign owned. Civil and defense aircraft production is led by the United Kingdom's largest aerospace firm, BAE Systems, and the continental European firm EADS, the owner of Airbus. Rolls-Royce holds a major share of the global aerospace engines market. The chemical and pharmaceutical industry is strong in the UK, with the world's second and sixth largest pharmaceutical firms (GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca, respectively) being based in the UK.

The UK service sector, however, has grown substantially, and now makes up about 73% of GDP. The service sector is dominated by financial services, especially in banking and insurance. London is the world's largest financial centre with the London Stock Exchange, the London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange, and the Lloyd's of London insurance market all based in the City of London. London is a major centre for international business and commerce and is the leader of the three "command centers" for the global economy (along with New York City and Tokyo). It has the largest concentration of foreign bank branches in the world. Many multinational companies that are not primarily UK-based have chosen to site their European or rest-of-world headquarters in London: an example is the US financial services firm Citigroup. The Scottish capital, Edinburgh, has one of the large financial centers of Europe and is the headquarters of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group, one of the world's largest banks.

Tourism is very important to the British economy. With over 27 million tourists arriving in 2004, the United Kingdom is ranked as the sixth major tourist destination in the world. London, by a considerable margin, is the most visited city in the world with 15.6 million visitors in 2006, after Bangkok (10.4 million visitors) and Paris (9.7 million).

The United Kingdom's agriculture sector accounts for only 0.9% of the country's GDP. The UK has a small coal reserve along with significant, yet continuously declining natural gas and oil reserves. An alternative to coal-fired electricity generation is underground coal gasification (UCG).

Government involvement throughout the economy is exercised by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who heads HM Treasury, but the Prime Minister is First Lord of the Treasury; the Chancellor of the Exchequer is the Second Lord of the Treasury. In recent years, the UK economy has been managed in accordance with principles of market liberalization and low taxation and regulation. Since 1997, the Bank of England's Monetary Policy Committee, headed by the Governor of the Bank of England, has been responsible for setting interest rates at the level necessary to achieve the overall inflation target for the economy that is set by the Chancellor each year.

As of 2007, United Kingdom's government debt rose to 43.3% of GDP. The UK economy did not grow at all in the second quarter of 2008 and is forecast by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) to be in recession by the end of the year.

The currency of the UK is the pound sterling, represented by the symbol £. The Bank of England is the central bank, responsible for issuing currency. The UK chose not to join the euro at the currency's launch, and the British Prime Minister, "The Rt Hon" Gordon Brown MP, has ruled out membership for the foreseeable future, saying that the decision not to join had been right for Britain and for Europe. The government of former Prime Minister Tony Blair had pledged to hold a public referendum for deciding membership should be met "five economic tests". In 2005, more than half (55%) of the UK was against adopting the currency, while 30% was in favor.

Notes on the text

EADS (European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company) – Европейский аэрокосмический и оборонный концерн

Vocabulary on the text

account, v  (for) составлять (определённую) часть от общего количества (чего-л.)

achieve, v  добиваться, достигать

amount, v  (to) насчитываться, измеряться, исчисляться

banking, n  банковское дело

borehole, n  буровая скважина; шпур

branch, n  1) отрасль, подразделение (Syn: section, subdivision) 2) = branch office = branch establishment  отделение, филиал 

competitive, adj.  соперничающий, конкурентный, конкурентоспособный

consumption, n  потребление (Syn: use).

couple, v  соединяться, связываться

debt, n  долг (Syn: backlog, liability)

decline, v  уменьшаться, идти на убыль; (Syn: decrease)

destination, n  1) место назначения, пункт назначения (Syn: place of destination, station of destination) 2) цель (путешествия, похода)

diminish, v  убывать, уменьшаться, уменьшать (Syn: decrease, lessen)

dominate, v  доминировать, господствовать, занимать господствующее положение

draw (drew, drawn), v  1) = draw out вытаскивать; выдергивать; вырывать (Syn: extract, pull out, take out, draw out, pick out) 2) добывать 

exercise, v  использовать, осуществлять, проявлять, применять (Syn: exert)

forecast, n  предсказание; прогноз, прогнозирование (Syn: prediction)

foreseeable, adj.  предсказуемый, предвидимый (Syn: predictable)

headquarter, n  штаб; штаб-квартира

industrialize, v  развивать промышленность

insurance, n  страхование

involvement, n  вовлечённость; участие

mining, n  горное дело; горная промышленность; горные работы; разработка месторождения

onshore, adj  прибрежный; береговой (Syn: coastal)

output, n  продукция; выпуск изделий (Syn: production, produce)

overall, adj  1) полный, общий, от начала до конца 2) всеобщий; всеобъемлющий (Syn: universal, general)

overseas, adj.  заморский, заокеанский; заграничный overseas market - внешний рынок

pledge, v  давать торжественное обещание; заверять, обещать, клясться

rank, v  котироваться, занимать какое-л. место to rank high - высоко котироваться (Syn: rate)

rise (rose, risen), v  увеличиваться в объёме, возрастать

rule out, v  исключать (возможность чего-л.)

set, v  1) а) = set down назначать, устанавливать, определять б) быть решённым, определённым, установленным 2) = set down назначать (время) 3) ставить (задачу, цель и т. п.)

site, v 1) помещать, размещать, располагать (Syn: locate, place). 2) помещаться, располагаться, быть расположенным, находиться (Syn: lie). 3) выбирать место (для строительства)

substantially, adv.  существенно, в значительной степени

be in recession  находиться в кризисе

be made of  состоять; включать в себя

be responsible for  быть ответственным за что-л.

by a margin  с преимуществом

by degree  постепенно, понемногу, мало-помалу

heavy industry  тяжёлая промышленность

in accordance  в соответствии с чем-л., согласно чему-л.

international trade  международная торговля

lose advantage  терять преимущество

market exchange rate  рыночный валютный курс

Phonetic exercises

2. Pronounce the following words paying attention to the short and long vowels.

[ɔ:] order, war, shore, accordance, quarter, launch 

[ɔ] economy, product, commerce

[a:] market, advantage, margin, forecast

[ʌ] industrial, production, couple, company, monetary, multinational

[i:] steel, degree

[i] industry, significant, business, mixture, decision, committee

[u:] lose, group

[u] output

Grammar exercises

3. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Make them negative and interrogative.

1. In the UK there were over 27 million tourists in 2004.

2. There are several economic regions in GB.

3. There are significant amounts of coal, small deposits of iron, limestone, black tin and gravel.

4. There is little heavy industry in London.

4. Insert the verb “to be”.

1. There … much unemployment in South Wales today.

2. There … a lot of cattle-farms and farms where milk, butter and cheese are produced.

3. There … no question of taking privatized enterprises back into public ownership.

4. There … plans to increase car production.

5. The Industrial Revolution … a period from the 18-th to the 19-th century where there … major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport and technology.

5. Insert “it is” or “there is”.

1. … a highly developed heavy industry in the UK. … shipbuilding, coal mining and steel production.

2. … certain powers and rights that the Queen has. … the Queen who signs every Bill.

3. London is the largest financial centre. … some Stock Exchanges there. Some are known all over the world. And first of all … the London Stock Exchange.

4. Tourism is very important to the British economy. … a lot of places of interest in the country. Royal residence is among them. … Buckingham Palace.

5. … four parts in the UK. England is the largest part. … the most developed part.

6. … two houses in the British Parliament. The House of Commons is presided over the Speaker. … an elected chamber.

7. In the UK everything is done in the name of the Queen. … her government, her armed forces and so on.

6. Insert personal and possessive pronouns.

1. The Queen has certain rights. But … power is limited by Parliament. But officially … is the head of the state.

2. The British Parliament is in the Westminster Palace. … has two chambers. … are the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

3. The Prince of Wales is a Crown Prince. … is the Queen’s eldest son.

4. The most essential element of currency system is banknotes of countries and … ability to serve as a medium of exchange.

5. Parliament has the power to determine the length of … own term.

6. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland possess … own legislatures and executives.

7. Public schools are free from state control. … are independent. Most of … are very prestigious.

7. Insert demonstrative pronouns.

1. Manufacturing is very significant for Britain’s economy. Motor industry is a part of … sector.

2. Trade relations between countries are very important. … relations are regulated by currency system.

3. The UK is a constitutional monarchy: succession to the British throne is hereditary, governed by the principle of male preference primogeniture, but excludes Roman Catholics or … who marry Roman Catholics.

4. When one party has an absolute majority in the House of Commons, the Sovereign appoints the leader of … party as Prime Minister.

5. People in countries outside the British Isles often call the inhabitants of the UK English. … is incorrect. The UK has at least four nationalities. … four nationalities are the English, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish.

8. Translate the sentences, paying attention to reflexive pronouns.

1. There are many Acts of Parliament which themselves have constitutional significance.

2. The government sought to strengthen the economу bу spending heavilу itself.

3. The Queen herself is a sуmbol of the UK.

4. In the 1990s individuals and eventuallу the government itself sued tobacco companies over the health risks of cigarette smoking.

9. Insert indefinite pronouns.

1. The organization is open to … country ready to accept the aims and principles of it.

2. There are … top universities in Great Britain.

3. Would you like … to eat.

4. There is … behind us.

5. I didn΄t realize that … was recording our conversation.

10. Insert the article where it is necessary.

1. The economy of … United Kingdom of … Great Britain and … Northern Ireland is made up of the economies of its parts: … England, … Scotland, … Wales and … Northern Ireland.

2. … UK is … fifth largest economy in … world.

3. The British motor industry is … significant part of … manufacturing.

4. … London is … world’s largest financial centre with … London Stock Exchange.

5. … City of London is … business centre.

6. … Prime Minister is … First Lord of … Treasury.

7. … Bank of England is … central bank of … country.

11. Insert prepositions.

The traditional economic strength … Britain, as a pioneer … the industrial revolution, has been manufacturing. Britain is one of the most highly industrialized countries … the world: for every person employed … agriculture, twelve are employed in industry. Most … the gross national product comes … manufacturing (iron and steel, engineering, textiles, chemicals, food products and consumer goods), mining and quarrying, construction and public utilities.

There have been considerable changes … the industrial structure since mid-19th century. … the mid-1970s the newer industries (electrical and electronics manufacturing, petroleum products and others) were producing a much larger share of the total industrial output. Mining and quarrying activities have declined … importance. Production in the mid-1980s is only half as much as it was … World War I; the main reason was a decline in coal output. Since coal-mining is by far the most important of Britain's mining activities, the rise … output in other kinds of mining was not great enough to offset the decline in major one.

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

12. Give Russian equivalents.

In descending order of size; based on market exchange rates; coupled with economic decline; is foreign owned; the world’s largest financial centre; rest-of-world headquarters; to account for; the Treasury; to be responsible for issuing currency; GDP.

  1.  Give English equivalents.

Состоять из, рыночный обмен, обменная ставка, тяжелая промышленность, зарубежные рынки, доминировать в международной торговле, конкурентное преимущество, объем производства, гражданское и военное самолетостроение, банковское дело, страхование, насчитывать, потребление, в соответствии с, отвечать за что-либо, находиться в упадке, достигать.

14. Match the notion with its definition.

1. Banking

a) science or practice of farming

2. Tourism

b) a centre or building from which operations are directed, as in the military, the police, etc

3. Insurance

c) the business of keeping a bank

4. Agriculture

d) tourist travel and the services connected with it, esp. when regarded as an industry

5. Referendum

e) the business of providing financial protection for property, life, health, etc., against specified contingencies, such as death, loss, or damage, and involving payment of regular premiums in return for a policy guaranteeing such protection

6. Headquaters

f) organized economic activity engaged in the large-scale complex manufacture of capital goods or extraction of raw materials)

7. Heavy industry

g) the referring of a political question of public importance to the direct vote of the electorate

15. Answer the questions on the text. Use the following expressions to begin your answer.

The text tells the reader that…

I think…

I suppose…

If I got it right…

It seems to me that …

In my opinion

1. What is the UK economy made up?

2. What were the basic industries with which the Industrial Revolution started?

3. Why did the UK begin to lose its competitive advantage?

4. What is a significant part of the British economy?

5. What are the most important industries of the economy of the country?

6. Where are the largest London financial bodies situated? What are they?

7. What are the three “command centers” for the global economy?

8. Why is tourism very important for the British economy?

9. Who is responsible for the success or failure of the British economy?

10. What is the national currency of the UK?

11. Did the UK join the euro at the currency’s launch?

16. Complete the following sentences according to the text.

1. The UK economy is made up (…) of …

2. The empire created an overseas market …

3. The UK began to lose …

4. The service sector is …

5. London is a major centre for …

6. The Scottish capital, …, has …

7. London, by …, is …

8. The UK economy has been managed …

9. The Bank of England’s Monetary Policy Committee is headed by …

10. Since 1997 the Bank of England’s Monetary Policy Committee has been responsible …

11. The Bank of England is …

17. Agree or disagree. Correct wrong statements.

I (quite) agree (with you).   I don’t think so.

I think so too.     I don’t agree.

Certainly!      I think you are mistaken.

Just so.      You are wrong.

1. The UK economy is made up (in descending order of importance) of the economies of Wales, England, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

2. Shipbuilding, coal mining, steel production, textiles were the main industries of the Industrial Revolution.

3. The empire overseas market allowed the British products to dominate in the 19-th century.

4. Nowadays the British motor industry is domestic owned.

5. London is the second largest financial centre.

6. London is the leader of the three “command centers” for the global economy.

7. London as a centre of tourism is one of the most visited city in the UK.

8. The UK’s agricultural sector accounts for less than 1.0% of the country’s GDP.

9. The UK has large deposits of the most important resources, e.g. coal, natural gas and oil.

10. Government involvement throughout the economy is exercised only by the Chancellor of Exchequer.

11. The national currency of the UK is the euro.

18. Arrange the sentences according to the text.

1. Government involvement throughout the economy is exercised only by the Chancellor of Exchequer, who heads HM Treasury.

2. The Bank of England is responsible for issuing currency.

3. The UK service sector has grown substantially and mow makes up about 73% of GDP.

4. Today the UK is the fifth largest economy in the world and the second largest in Europe after Germany.

5. London has the largest concentration of foreign bank branches in the world.

6. Manufacturing remains a significant part of the economy.

7. In recent years the UK economy has been managed in accordance with principles of market liberalization, low taxation and regulation.

8. The Industrial Revolution started in the UK with an initial concentration on heavy industries.

9. Manufacturing accounted for only one-sixth of national output in 2003.

10. An alternative to coal-fired electricity generation is underground coal gasification.

11. Rolls-Royce holds a major share of the global aerospace engines market.

19. Read the information and fill in the chart.

Economic region

Its centre (capital)

Industries

The economic regions of Great Britain are diverse and vary in the rate of their economic development, regional specialization and natural resources distribution. The major economic regions of Great Britain are the following: the South of England (sometimes subdivided into the South-East and the South-West); the Midlands (the West Midlands and the East Midlands); Lancashire; Yorkshire; the North of England (the North-West and the North-East); Scotland; Wales; Northern Ireland.

The South-East is the largest and more highly developed region with London and the Greater-London area as the centers. London is the main centre in Britain of the clothing and food and drink industries, or film production and of manufacture of furniture, materials for the arts, precision instruments and many other specialized goods. Atomic energy research and production centers are Aldermaston and Harrowell.

Portsmouth is a naval port. Southampton is Britain's largest port for ocean-going liners. East Anglia is a major agricultural area. Kent is another agricultural area, the orchard of England.

The South-West includes Cornwall and Devon, which have a considerable tourist industry. Bath is a popular health resort. Bristol is a leading port and commercial centre with aircraft, aero-engines, tobacco, food-processing, paper and other industries.

The Midlands represent the largest concentration of manufacturing industry. The characteristic industries of the West Midlands are metallurgy, machine-tool building, electrical engineering, the car, carpets and pottery industries. Birmingham is the regional capital. Coventry is the centre of the car and aircraft industries. In the East Midlands Nottingham is noted for lace and bicycles, tobacco; Corby - a new town - for steel industry.

Lancashire with the largest cities of Manchester and Liverpool is the centre of the cotton and related textile industries, chemicals of all kinds and textile machinery.

Yorkshire is the eastern neighbor of Lancashire. Leeds is the commercial centre of woolen textile area. Sheffield is a heavy-engineering centre.

The North of England consists of two areas; the North-West and the North-East. The first British atomic power station Colder Hall was built in the North-West. The industrial North-East is more dependent than other parts of England on traditional heavy industries.

Scotland. The traditional Scottish industries: coalmining, steel manufacture, shipbuilding, textiles remain important, but they have been in decline for a number of decades. New industries have grown within the Scottish economy following a high level of investment by overseas companies, especially from the United States - electronic engineering, chemicals, especially petro-chemicals, the food and drink industries and light engineering. Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland.

Wales. Coalmining is the traditional basic industry. New firms have appeared in Wales, including most recently Japanese and American concerns. Cardiff is the capital of Wales. Newport and Swansea are ports. Agriculture occupies about 72 per cent of the land area, the main activities being sheep and cattle rearing in the hill regions and dairy-farming in the lowlands. Tourism in Wales is widely popular.

Northern Ireland. The economy of Northern Ireland has its roots in three basic industries - agriculture, textiles, ship-building. Belfast, the capital city, has Britain's largest shipyard. Other industrial activities include the manufacture of aircraft, textile machinery and a wide range of engineering products, tobacco and clothing

20. Ask your friend,

  •  знает ли он;
  •  знает ли он, почему;
  •  знает ли он, из скольких частей;
  •  знает ли он, сколько островов;
  •  знает ли он самые большие;
  •  что он знает о.

21. Review the information you’ve got from Lesson 3. Summarize it using the suggested words and word combinations.

In descending order of size, based on, the fifth largest economy, an initial concentration on, to dominate, international trade, a major centre for, to be the leader of, the largest concentration of, to account for, the bank of England, to be diverse, to vary in, the major economic regions.


LESSON 4. Education

Grammar: Имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения прилагательных. Сравнительные конструкции.

Phonetics: Словесное ударение.

Before you read the text see if you know answers to the following questions.

Is the system of education uniform throughout Great Britain?

What age do children start schooling at?

What are the three stages of education?

How long does compulsory education last?

What are the types of secondary schools?

What general education subjects are obligatory?

Where can the British get further education?

What are the oldest and world-known British universities?

Read the text “Education in the UK” and translate it into Russian.

Education in the UK

The System of Education in Great Britain is class divided. There are state and private schools in England. State schools are divided into infant schools, junior schools and secondary schools. British boys and girls begin to go to school at the age of 5. At the age of 7 they go to junior school. They study History, English, Geography, Mаths, Sport, Art, Music, Computing, and Cooking. They study there for four years. Then they take the exams and enter the secondary schools.

There are 3 main types of secondary schools: grammar schools, modern schools and comprehensive schools. English schoolchildren go to a secondary school from 11 till 16 years. They don’t go to school on Saturdays and Sundays. If you want to go to the University, you have to go to grammar school. Modern schools are not popular today. Most children (about 90 %) go to comprehensive schools.

There are also private schools in England. They are fee paying and expensive. They are for elite people. 10% of the population attends the best-known private schools such as Eton, Harrow, Winchester, and some others. It is possible to enter the best English Universities after leaving such schools.

England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales have separate systems of education.

Universal state education in England and Wales was introduced for primary level in 1870 and secondary level in 1900. Education is mandatory from ages five to sixteen (15 if born in late July or August). The majority of children are educated in state-sector schools, only a small proportion of which select on the grounds of academic ability. Despite a fall in actual numbers, the proportion of children in England attending private schools has risen to over 7%. Just over half of students at the leading universities of Cambridge and Oxford had attended state schools. State schools which are allowed to select pupils according to intelligence and academic ability can achieve comparable results to the most selective private schools: out of the top ten performing schools in terms of GCSE results in 2006 two were state-run grammar schools. England has some of the top universities in the world; Cambridge, Oxford, and London are ranked among the top 20 in the 2007 World University Rankings. There are fears, however, that a decline in the number of English students studying a foreign language will have a negative effect on business, which has led to calls for languages to be given greater priority.

Scotland first legislated for compulsory education in 1496. The proportion of children in Scotland attending private schools is just over 4%, although it has been rising slowly in recent years. Scottish students who attend Scottish universities pay neither tuition fees nor endowments as the fees were abolished in 2001 and the endowment was abolished in 2008.

Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Minister for Education, although responsibility at a local level is administered by five Education and Library Boards, covering different geographical areas. The 'Council for the Curriculum, Examinations & Assessment (CCEA) is the body responsible for advising the government on what should be taught in Northern Ireland's schools, monitoring standards and awarding qualifications.

The National Assembly for Wales has responsibility for education in Wales. A significant number of Welsh students are taught either wholly or largely in the Welsh language; lessons in Welsh are compulsory for all until the age of 16. There are plans to increase the provision of Welsh Medium schools as part of the policy of having a fully bi-lingual Wales.

The Program for International Student Assessment ranked the UK 14th in science, which was higher than the OECD average.

Vocabulary on the text

academic, adj. 1) академический; педагогический; учебный (связанный с преподаванием, преимущественно в высшей школе) academic books - учебная литература academic subject - учебная дисциплина, преподаваемый предмет academic year - учебный год 2) хорошо успевающий в учёбе

attend, v  посещать; присутствовать to attend а lecture - посетить лекцию to attend school - ходить в школу

bilingual, adj.  1) двуязычный 2) говорящий на двух языках

call for, v  требовать 

comparable, adj. 1) заслуживающий сравнения 2) сопоставимый, соизмеримый

despite, conj.  несмотря на, вопреки чему-л. (Syn: in spite of)

endowment, n  вклад, дар, пожертвование

enter, v  поступать (обычно в какое-л. учебное заведение); вступать (в какую-л. организацию)

fee paying, adj.  платный

intelligence, n  интеллект, рассудок, разум; умственные способности (Syn: mind, intellect)

introduce, v  1) (into) внедрять, привносить; учреждать (Syn: institute) 2) вносить (законопроект на рассмотрение)

largely, adv.  в значительной степени; почти совершенно.

leave (left, left), v  покидать (Syn: abandon, go, retire,) (Ant: come, remain)

legislate, v  издавать законы, законодательствовать

mandatory, adj.  обязательный, принудительный (Syn: compulsory)

separate, v  а) отдельный; обособленный; разрозненный, разъединённый (Syn: detached) б) обособившийся, отделившийся в) раздельный г) сепаратный

universal, adj.  1) универсальный (Syn: general) (Ant: exclusive, special, specific). 2) всеобщий (Syn: widespread) (Ant: individual, personal)

wholly, adv.  полностью, целиком (Syn: completely, entirely)

class divided  разделенный по классовому признаку

comprehensive school  "единая средняя школа"; государственная средняя школа, куда поступающие принимаются без отборочных экзаменов

grammar school = secondary modern school  1. государственная классическая школа для детей от 11 до 16 или 18 лет; имеет академическую направленность; программа предусматривает изучение классических языков; 2. классическая школа

have responsibility for  отвечать за что-л; нести ответственность

infant school  государственная школа для малышей от 5 до 7 лет; существует самостоятельно или в составе общей начальной школы

junior school  государственная начальная школа для детей от 7 до 11 лет; существует самостоятельно или в составе общей начальной школы

modern school = secondary modern school  государственная средняя современная школа для детей от 11 до 16 лет; имеет практическую направленность; программа не предусматривает изучения классических языков

on the grounds (of)  на основании

public school  паблик-скул, привилегированная частная средняя школа

secondary school  средняя школа. Oбщее название любой школы, дающей среднее образование детям от 11 до 16 или до 18 лет

state school  государственная школа

statesector school  государственная школа

take exams  сдавать экзамены

tuition fee  плата за обучение

Phonetic exercises

2. Mark stresses in the following words.

1). System, expensive, education, private, majority, population, infant, intelligence, proportion, junior, ability, examination, secondary, compulsory, qualification, mandatory, prestigious, tuition.

2). Rest-of-world, headquarter, best-known, shipbuilding, state-sector, limestone, state-run, coastline, twenty-four, citizenship, south-east, membership, north-east, schoolchildren.

3). To educate – education, to increase – increase, geography – geographical, to decrease – decrease, exam – examination, to finance – finance, responsible – responsibility, to report – report, industry – industrial, to import – import, agriculture – agricultural,

Grammar exercises

3. Write the following adjectives in the comparative and superlative degree.

1) high, cool, long, warm

2) big, wet, hot, thin

3) large, close

4) heavy, busy, dry, easy

5) popular, expensive, considerable, pleasant

6) good, bad, much, many, little, old

4. Use the correct form of the adjectives given in brackets.

1. Great Britain is the ninth (large) island in the world, and the (large) European island.

2. Great Britain is the fourth (populous) country in Europe.

3. The efficiency of education in Britain is much (high) than in many other countries.

4. The (big) the plan of an enterprise the (big) the profit it gets.

5. Economic historians are in agreement that onset of the Industrial Revolution is (important) event in the history of humanity.

6. The economу of GB is one of (large) national economу in the world.

7. Americans have (high) income per hour worked.

8. Oxford is as (famous) as Cambridge. But Oxford is (old) than Cambridge. It is one of the (old) and (prestigious) universities in the world.

9. The Tower is one of (ancient) buildings of London. It is visited as (often) as St. Paul’s Cathedral.

5. Form Participle I of the following verbs.

To divide, to begin, to go, to study, to take, to want, to pay, to enter, to leave, to fall, to rise, to perform.

6. Make the following sentences negative and interrogative. Ask special questions about the words in italics.

1. The students are translating the text.

2. The students were translating the text when the tutor came into the classroom.

3. At 10 o’clock the students will be translating the text.

7. Complete the following sentences using Continuous Tenses.

1. Great Britain (to give) economic assistance to developing countries.

2. We (to stay) in London for about a week.

3. All members of his party are sure he (to appointed) as a Prime Minister.

8. Open the brackets using the Active or the Passive Voice.

1. Britain’s schools (to divide) into state and private.

2. British children (to begin) to go to school at the age of 5.

3. Private schools in England (to pay) charges for.

4. The Government (to introduce) universal state education in 1870.

5. The majority of children (to teach) in state-sector schools.

6. Cambridge and Oxford (to attend) by graduates of grammar schools.

7. Compulsory education in Scotland first (to legislate) in 1496.

8. The fees for Scottish students (to abolish) in 2001.

9. Knowing foreign languages (to give) greater priority.

9. Insert articles where necessary.

  1.  Schools in … England are supported from … public funds paid to … local education authorities.
  2.  … highest academic degree is … Doctor of Philosophy.
  3.  … primary school may be divided into two parts: … infants and … juniors.
  4.  … essential part of the curriculum of all British schools is English and mathematics.
  5.  In … USA … last two years of elementary and … first year of secondary school are combined into … junior high school.

10. Insert prepositions.

A. 1. The general pattern … education … the USA is an eight-year elementary school, followed … a four-year high school.

2. The school year is nine months … length, beginning … September and continuing … the first of June, … a vacation … a week or two … Christmas time.

3. … Great Britain most children start school … 5 … a primary school.

… Britain comprehensive schools differ … town … town and even … the town.

I’m not sure that only people … this area can join … our local library.

B.  Let's outline the basic features … public education … Britain. Firstly, there are wide variations … one part of the country and another. … most educational purposes England and Wales are treated as one unit, though the system … Wales is a little different … that of England. Scotland and Northern Ireland have their own education systems.

Secondly, education … Britain is class divided and selective. The first division is … those who pay and those who do not pay. The majority of schools in Britain are supported … public funds and the education is free. They are maintained school. But there is also a considerable number … public schools. Parents have to pay fees to send their children … these schools.

11. Ask all possible questions.

  1.  A year ago there were more than thirty colleges in the Cambridge University.
  2.  It usually takes four years to meet the requirements for a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree.
  3.  My son has just decided to leave school at 16.

12. Use the proper degree of comparison.

  1.  Cambridge is the second (old) university city in Britain.
  2.  In the old times the students life was (strict) than today.
  3.  The state colleges and universities charge a fee for tuition or registration. This fee is (high) for those who come from outside the state.
  4.  The (high) academic degree is the Doctor of Philosophy.
  5.  The elementary schools tend to be small. The high schools are generally (large) and accommodate pupils from four or five elementary schools.

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

13. Give English equivalents.

Разделенный по классовому признаку, ходить в школу, изучать, сдавать экзамены, платная школа, закончит школу, вводить всестороннее государственное образование, обязательное образование, по способностям, несмотря на, отбирать учеников, разделенный по классовому признаку, платить за обучение, отменять, контролировать (администрировать).

  1.  Give Russian equivalents.

Infant schools; junior schools; secondary schools; grammar schools; modern schools; comprehensive schools; fee paying; academic ability; comparable results; compulsory education; tuition fees; graduate endowment charges.

  1.  Answer the questions on the text. Use the following expressions to begin your answer.

The text tells the reader that…

I think…

I suppose…

If I got it right…

It seems to me that …

In my opinion …

1. How is the System of Education in Great Britain divided?

2. What are the basic kinds of schools in England?

3. How are state schools divided into?

4. When do British children begin to go to school?

5. What subjects do children study at junior schools?

6. What are the types of secondary schools?

7. What school do you have to go if you want to enter the University?

8. Are private schools in England fee paying or free of charge?

9. What are the best-known private schools?

10. Do England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales have the same system of education?

11. Where are the majority of children educated?

12. How are pupils selected in state schools?

13. Which part of the UK first legislated for compulsory education?

14. Who is responsible for education in Northern Ireland?

15. What language are the most of Welsh students taught?

  1.  Agree or disagree. Correct wrong statements.

I (quite) agree (with you).   I don’t think so.

I think so too.     I don’t agree.

Certainly!      I think you are mistaken.

Just so.      You are wrong.

1. In England there are only private schools.

2. British children begin to go to school at the age of 7.

3. Grammar schools, modern schools and comprehensive schools are the three main types of junior schools.

4. Pupils go to school five days a week.

5. Private schools are free of charge.

6. Each part of the UK has its own system of education.

7. State schools in England select pupils according to intelligence and academic ability.

8. Wales first legislated for compulsory education.

9. Scottish students attending Scottish universities pay tuition fees and graduate endowment charges.

10. Most of Welsh students are taught in English.

17. Arrange the sentences according to the text.

1. England, Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland have separate systems of education.

2. Lessons in Welsh are compulsory for all until the age of 16.

3. State schools are divided into infant schools, junior schools and secondary schools.

4. State schools select pupils according to intelligence and academic ability.

5. The System of Education in Great Britain is class divided.

6. Scotland first legislated for compulsory education in 1496.

7. British boys and girls begin to go to school at the age of 5.

8. Private schools are fee paying and expensive.

9. Education is mandatory from ages 5 to 16.

10. The main types of secondary schools are grammar schools, modern schools and comprehensive schools.

18. Complete the following sentences according to the text.

1. State schools are divided into …

2. English schoolchildren go to a secondary school …

3. If you want to go to the University …

4. Private schools are for …

5. The majority of children are educated in …

6. England has some of the top universities …

7. Scottish students …

8. Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility …

9. A significant number of Welsh students …

19. a) Make written translation of the text; b) think of a title.

Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and most prestigious universities in Great Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge to denote an elitarian education. Both universities are independent. Mostly students are former public schools leavers.

Oxford is one of the oldest universities in Europe. It is the second largest in Britain, after London. The university's earliest charter is dated back to 1213. There are now twenty-four colleges for men, five for women and another five which have both men and women members. Among the oldest colleges are University College, All Souls and Christ Church.

The Cambridge University started during the 13-th century and grew until today. Now there are more than thirty colleges. The University was only for men until 1871, when the first women's college was opened. Almost all colleges are now mixed.

The tutorial is the basic mode of instruction at Oxford and Cambridge, with lectures as optional extras. The normal length of the degree course is three years, after which the students take the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (B.A.). Some courses, such as languages or medicine, may be one or two years longer.

Oxford and Cambridge universities consist of a number of colleges. Each college is different, but in many ways they are alike. Each college has its name, its coat of arms. Each college is governed by a Master. The larger ones have more than 400 members; the smallest colleges have less than 30. Each college offers teaching in a wide range of subjects.

Notes:

tutorial - консультации, практические занятия с наставником

full academic dress - парадная форма одежды

coat of arms - герб

Master - мастер (титул главы некоторых колледжей в Оксфорде и Кембридже)

University College - Юниверсити-Колледж (основан в 1249 г.)

All Souls - Олл-Соулз, Колледж Всех Душ (1438)

Christ Church - Крайст-Черч (один из самых крупных аристократических колледжей Оксфорда, 1525)

  1.  Translate into English

Образование с 16-ти лет

В 16 лет, после завершения обязательного цикла образования, студенты могут либо уйти из школы и начать работать, либо продолжить образование для того, чтобы поступить в университет. Желающим поступить в университет предлагается двухгодичный курс A-levels. После первого года обучения сдаются экзамены A-levels, а после второго - A2-levels. Первый год обучения предполагает обязательное изучение 4-5 предметов, второй 3-4. Обязательных предметов, необходимых к сдаче, нет - все предметы студент подбирает себе индивидуально из 15-20 предложенных школой, тем самым определяя свою специализацию, которой будут посвящены последующие 5-6 лет обучения в университете. Часто иностранные студенты, приезжая на учебу в Великобританию, начинают свое образование с A-levels.

Образование с 18-ти лет

После прохождения двухгодичного курса A-levels студенты могут получить либо профессиональное, либо высшее образование.

Профессиональное образование (Further education - FE) включает в себя курсы профессиональной подготовки и некоторые курсы для получения высшего образования (степени бакалавра). Термин «профессиональное образование» используется, чтобы обозначить курсы для тех, кто ушел из школы в возрасте 16 лет. В Великобритании насчитывается более 600 государственных и частных колледжей дальнейшего образования. Эти учебные заведения предлагают различные программы обучения, включая курсы английского языка, программы подготовки к получению общего свидетельства о среднем образовании и A-levels, профессиональные курсы.

Высшее образование (Higher education - HE) включает в себя программы по получению степени бакалавра, последипломные программы (магистратура, докторская степень) и MBA. Термин «высшее образование» обозначает обучение в университетах, колледжах и институтах, которые предлагают получение ученой или докторской степени.

21. Ask your friend,

  •  знает ли он;
  •  знает ли он,;
  •  знает ли он,;
  •  знает ли он,;
  •  знает ли он;
  •  что он знает о.

  1.  Review the information you’ve got from the Lesson 4. Summarize it using the suggested words and word combinations.

To be class divided, to be divided into, infant schools, junior schools, secondary schools, grammar schools, modern schools, comprehensive schools, from … till…, to be mandatory, according to intelligence and academic ability, to legislate for, to be responsibility of, to have responsibility for, to be compulsory for, the oldest and most prestigious universities, to denote an elitarian education.


TEST ON UNIT 1

Test yourselves. If you have problems with the test, revise the material of the unit and consult the dictionaries.

1. The capital of Britain is …

A. Glasgow      B. Washington D.C.

C. London      D. Ottawa

2. Britain is a …

A. monarchy     B. federal republic

C. republic      D. parliamentary monarchy

3. … is the residence of the Government in Britain.

A. George Street     B. Fleet Street

C. White Hall     D. №10 Downing Street

4. St. Paul’s Cathedral is the City’s greatest monument and Sir Christopher Wren’s masterpiece. It is situated in …

A. Manchester     B. London

C. Oxford      D. Cardiff

5. The old Curiosity Shop was built in London in 1567. It was described by … in his novel.

A. W. Shakespeare    B. B. Shaw

C. Ch. Dickens     D. H. Wells

6. Stratford-upon-Avon is the birthplace of the great English poet and playwright …

A. Ch. Dickens     B. B. Shaw

C. H. Wells      D. W. Shakespeare

7. Every Thursday the Queen meets …

A. the King      B. the Prime Minister

C. the Cabinet     D. the President

8. … is the biggest bell in Britain.

A. the Great Bell     B. the Clock

C. the Clock Bell     D. Big Ben

9. “Pygmalion” is written by …

A. Jerome K. Jerome    B. Ch. Dickens

C. B. Shaw      D. T. Hardy

10. My friend has just read “Tom Sawyer” by …

A. J. London     B. O. Henry

C. M. Twain     D. T. Dreiser

11. There are many important parts of London. The oldest part of London is …

A. the East End     B. the City

C. Westminster     D. the West End

12. Jerome K. Jerome wrote his famous book …

A. “The School for Scandal”   B. “Pygmalion”

C. “Three Men in a Boat”   D. “The Pickwick Club”

13. …was an English naval captain and explorer.

A. Columbus     B. James Cook

C. Mark Twain     D. O. Henry

14. The Tower of London was once a prison and now it is a …

A. concert hall     B. theatre

C. museum      D. cinema

15. … is the highest legislative body in Britain.

A. the Congress     B. the Government

C. the Parliament     D. the Capitol

16. The Royal Shakespeare Theatre was opened in … in 1932.

A. London      B. Coventry

C. Stratford-upon-Avon    D. Oxford

17. … is one of the central Streets of London with the editorial offices of many English newspapers and magazines.

A. Downing Street     B. Fleet Street

C. Whitehall     D. Wall Street

18. Edinburgh is the capital of …

A. Wales      B. Scotland

C. Ireland      D. England

19. Great Britain includes England, Scotland and …

A. Ireland      B. Wales

C. Northern Ireland    D. Iceland

20. Walter Scott, the famous English writer of historical novels, lived and worked in …

A. Wales      B. England

C. Scotland      D. Ireland

21. The major language spoken in Ireland is …

A. Welsh      B. Irish

C. English      D. Gaelic

22 The Union Jack is …

A. the flag of the UK    B. the flag of Scotland

C. the flag of Wales    D. the flag of England

23 The British Prime Minister lives at …

A. 12 Whitehall     B. 10 Downing Street

C. 7 Russell Street     D. Oxford Street

24. Whitehall is …

A. a street leading from Trafalgar Square to the Houses of Parliament

B. a big hall in the centre of London

C. a white palace near Trafalgar Square

D. the palace where the Queen lives in summer

25. The National Gallery is in …

A. Piccadilly Circus    B. Parliament Square

C. Trafalgar Square    D. Leicester Square

26. Westminster is a … centre of London.

A. cultural      B. political

C. business       D. industrial

27. Great Britain is separated from the continent by …

A. the Pacific Ocean    B. the Irish Sea

C. the Bristol Channel    D. the English Channel

28. Britain’s population is more than … million people.

A. 60       B. 6

C. 600      D. 7

29. There are many farmlands in Britain, especially in the … of the country.

A. north      B. south

C. west      D. east

30. The head of State in Britain is …

A. the Prime Minister    B. the President

C. the Queen     D. the Speaker

31. 650 Members of the House of Commons are elected every … years.

A. 2       B. 3

C. 4       D. 5

32. The British Parliament consists of …

A. the House of Lords and the House of Representatives

B. the Senate and the House of Representatives

C. the House of Lords and the House of Commons

D. the Senate and the House of Commons

33. The thistle is the national emblem of …

A. England      B. Scotland

C. Wales      D. Northern Ireland

34. St. George is the patron saint of …

A. England      B. Scotland

C. Wales      D. Northern Ireland

 


Unit II. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

 

LESSON 1 Geograpical Outline

Grammar Revision: Страдательный залог

Phonetics:Типы чтения гласных в ударном слоге

States

Alabama (AL) Алабама [,ælə΄bæmə]

Alaska (AK) Аляска ΄læskə]

Arizona (AZ) Аризона [,æri΄zəunə]

Arkansas (AR) Арканзас [΄a:kənsɔ:]

California (CA) Калифорния [,kælə΄fɔ:niə]

Colorado (CO) Колорадо [,kɔlə΄ra:dəu]

Columbia (D.C.) Колумбия [kə΄lʌmbiə]

Connecticut (CT) Коннектикут [kə΄netikət]

Delaware (DE) Делавэр [΄deləweə]

Florida (FL)  Флорида [΄flɔridə]

Georgia (GA) Джорджия ɔ:ə]

Hawaii (HI)  Гавайи [hə΄waii]

Idaho  (ID) Айдахо [΄aidəhəu]

Illinois (IL) Иллинойс [,ilə΄nɔi]

Indiana (IN)  Индиана [,indi΄ænə]

Iowa  (IA) Айова [΄aiəuə]

Kansas (KS) Канзас [΄kænzəs]

Kentucky (KY) Кентукки [kentʌki]

Louisiana (LA) Луизиана [lu,i:zi΄ænə]

Maine (ME)  Мэн [mein]

Maryland (MD) Мэриленд [΄meərilənd]

Massachusetts (MA) Массачусетс [,mæsə΄t∫u:sits]

Michigan (MI) Мичиган [΄mi∫igən]

Minnesota (MN) Миннесота [,mini΄səutə]

Mississippi  (MS) Миссисипи [,misi΄sipi]

Missouri (MO) Миссури [mi΄suəri]

Montana (MT) Монтана [mɔn΄tænə]

Nebraska (NE) Небраска [nə΄bræskə]

Nevada (NV) Невада [ni΄va:də]

New Hampshire (NH) Нью-Гемпшир [,nju:΄hæmp∫ə]

New Jersey  (NJ) Нью-Джерси [,nju:΄ə:zi]

New Mexico (NM) Нью-Мексико [,nju:΄meksikəu]

New York  (NY) Нью-Йорк [,nju:΄jɔ:k]

North Carolina (NC) Северная Каролина [,nɔ:θkærə΄lainə]

North Dakota (ND) Северная Дакота [,nɔ:θdə΄kəutə]

Ohio  (OH)  Огайо [əu΄haiəu]

Oklahoma  (OK) Оклахома [,əuklə΄həumə]

Oregon (OR) Орегон [΄ɔrigən]

Pennsylvania (PA)  Пенсильвания [,pensl΄veiniə]

Rhode Island (RI) Род-Айленд [΄rəud΄ailənd]

South Carolina (SC) Южная Каролина [,sauθkærə΄lainə]

South Dakota (SD) Южная Дакота  [,sauθdə΄kəutə]

Tennessee  (TN) Теннесси [,tenə΄si:]

Texas (TX) Техас [΄teksəs]

Utah  (UT) Юта [΄ju:ta:]

Vermont (VT) Вермонт [və΄mɔnt]

Virginia (VA) Виргиния [və΄dʒiniə]

Washington  (WA) Вашингтон [΄wɔ∫iŋtən]

West Virginia (WV) Западная Виргиния [,westvə΄dʒiniə]

Wisconsin (WI) Висконсин [wi΄skɔnsin]

Wyoming (WY) Вайоминг [wai΄əumiŋ]

The 13 original British-American colonies:

  1.  Virginia - the first English settlement
  2.  Connecticut - the first to adopt Constitution 7 Dec.1787
  3.  

  1.  New Hampshire
  2.  Massachusetts
  3.  Rhode Island
  4.  New York
  5.  New Jersey
  6.  Pennsylvania
  7.  Delaware
  8.  North Carolina
  9.  South Carolina
  10.  Georgia
  11.  Maryland

Before you read the text see if you know the answers to the following questions.

Where is the USA situated?

How large is its territory? What is its population?

What oceans is the USA washed by?

What countries does the USA border on?

Why is America called a land of physical contrasts?

What are the highest mountains of the USA?

What are the rivers of the USA? Which is the longest one?

What state is known as the land of lakes?

How many states were there in the country after the War of Independence?

How many states does the USA consist of today?

What is the capital of the USA?

What is the flag of the USA?

Read the text “Geograpical Outline OF THE USA” and translate it into Russian.

Geograpical Outline OF THE USA

The vast and varied expanse of the United States of America stretches from the heavily industrialized, metropolitan Atlantic seaboard, across the rich flat farms of the central plains, over the majestic Rocky Mountains to the fertile, densely populated west coast, then halfway across the Pacific to the semi-tropical island-state of Hawaii. Without Hawaii and Alaska the continental U.S. measures 4,505 kilometers from its Atlantic to Pacific coasts, 2,574 kilometers from Canada to Mexico; it covers 9,372,614 square kilometers. In area, it is the fourth largest nation in the world (after Russia, Canada and China).

The sparsely settled far-northern state of Alaska, is the largest of America's 50 states with a land mass of 1,477,887 square kilometers. Alaska is nearly 400 times the size of Rhode Island, which is the smallest state; but Alaska, with 521,000 people, has half the population of Rhode Island.

America is a land of physical contrasts, including the weather. The southern parts of Florida, Texas, California, and the entire state of Hawaii, have warm temperatures year round; most of the United States is in the temperate zone, with four distinct seasons and varying numbers of hot and cold days each season, while the northern tier of states and Alaska have extremely cold winters. The land varies from heavy forests, covering 2,104 million hectares, to barren deserts, from high-peaked mountains (McKinley in Alaska rises to 6193.5 meters) to deep canyons (Death Valley in California is 1,064 meters below sea level).

The United States is also a land of bountiful rivers and lakes. The northern state of Minnesota, for example, is known as the land of 10,000 lakes. The broad Mississippi River system, of great historic and economic importance to the U.S., runs 5,969 kilometers from Canada into the Gulf of Mexico - the world's third longest river after the Nile and the Amazon. A canal south of Chicago joins one of the tributaries of the Mississippi to the five Great Lakes - making it the world's largest inland water transportation route and the biggest body of fresh water in the world. The St. Lawrence Seaway, which the U.S. shares with Canada, connects the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean, allowing seagoing vessels to travel 3,861 kilometers inland, as far as Duluth, Minnesota, during the spring, summer and fall shipping season.

America's early settlers were attracted by the fertile land along the Atlantic coast in the southeast and inland beyond the eastern Appalachian Mountains. As America expanded westward, so did its farmers and ranchers, cultivating the grasslands of the Great Plains, and finally the fertile valleys of the Pacific Coast. Today, with 1,214 million hectares under cultivation, American farmers plant spring wheat on the cold western plains; raise corn, wheat and fine beef cattle in the Midwest, and rice in the damp heat of Louisiana. Florida and California are famous for their vegetable and fruit production, and the cool, rainy northwestern states are known for apples, pears, berries and vegetables.

Underground, a wealth of minerals provides a solid base for American industry. History has glamorized the gold rushes to California and Alaska and the silver finds in Nevada. Yet America's yearly production of gold ($2,831,000,000) is far exceeded by the value of its petroleum, natural gas, clays, phosphates, lead and iron, even its output of sand, cement and stone for construction. Production value of crude oil alone is about 4.2 thousand million annually, pumped from petroleum reserves that range from the Gulf of Mexico to Alaska's North Slope.

Vocabulary on the text

attract, v  привлекать, притягивать (внимание, инвестиции)

barren, adj.  малоплодородный, неплодородный, бесплодный, дающий малый урожай (о земле) barren soil - неплодородная почва

bountiful, adj.  имеющийся в изобилии, богатый, обильный (Syn: sufficient, plentiful, abundant)

clay, n  глина 

connect, v  (= connect up) соединять; связывать; объединять (Syn: join, link, unite); (Ant: separate)

cover, v  лежать, покрывать; расстилаться; распространяться

cultivate, v  1) возделывать, обрабатывать (почву) 2) культивировать, выращивать (растения)

densely, adv.  густо, плотно a densely populated area - густонаселённая местность

desert, n  пустыня; пустынный район barren desert - бесплодная пустыня canyon, n  каньон, глубокое ущелье

distinct, adj.  определённый, явный (Syn: definite)

expand, v  1) развиваться, расширяться 2) развивать, расширять (Syn: develop)

expanse, n  простор, (широкое) пространство; ширь и простор

fertile, adj.  1) плодородный; изобилующий, богатый 2) способствующий плодородию, плодоношению, развитию fertile climate - благоприятный, благодатный климат fertile ground/field - благодатная почва to be/provide a fertile field for smth. - являться, служить благодатной почвой для чего-л.

glamorize, v  приукрашивать, идеализировать (Syn: romanticize)

grassland, n  сенокосное угодье; луг, пастбище

halfway  а) лежащий на полпути б) находящийся на равном расстоянии между двумя точками

inland  1) расположенный внутри страны; удалённый от моря или границы 2) внутренний (проводящийся или действующий в пределах одной страны) (Syn: domestic). (Ant: foreign)

join, v  1) соединять, объединять, связывать, скреплять (Syn: connect, link, unite) 2) присоединять (Syn: attach) 3) сливаться, соединяться, образовывать одно целое.

majestic, adj.  величественный, грандиозный, величавый (Syn: grand)

measure, v  иметь размер 

metropolitan, adj.  1) а) относящийся к столице или большому городу, столичный (Syn: capital) 2) относящийся к метрополии

rancher, n  хозяин ранчо

round, adv.  в течение, на всём протяжении round the year - в течение года, весь год (Syn: throughout).

seaboard, n  берег моря, побережье, приморье

sparsely, adv.  1) редко, негусто 2) малонаселённо

stretch, v  (fromto) 1) тянуться, растягиваться, вытягиваться, удлиняться 2) иметь протяжение, простираться, тянуться (в пространстве) (Syn: spread)

tributary, n  приток (реки) (Syn: affluent, feeder)

underground, adv.  под землей

vary, v  а) изменять, менять б) меняться, изменяться

vast, adj.  1) обширный, громадный; безбрежный, пространный. (Syn: spacious, extensive, massive) 2) большой, значительный (Syn: massive)

wealth, n  изобилие, избыток; (Syn: abundance, plenty)

be famous for  славиться чем-либо

crude oil  сырая, неочищенная нефть

gold rush  золотая лихорадка (всплеск золотоискательства в США, штат Ка лифорния, в середине 19 века)

under cultivation  посевных площадей

Phonetic exercises

Pronounce the following words.

I

II

III

IV

A

[ei]

nation

population

[æ]

expanse

cattle

[a:]

sparsely

charming

[εə]

share

E

[i:]

extremely

continental

[e]

majestic

[ə:]

fertile

[iə]

near

here

I,Y

[ai]

island

while

[i]

distinct

system

[ə:]

third

[aiə]

entire

inspire

O

[ou]

zone

[ɔ]

metropolitan

:]

importance

north

:]

seaboard

more

forest

U

[ju:]

music

[Λ]

production

construction

[ə:]

purchase

surf

[juə]

during

3. Distribute the words according the type of reading.

Kingdom, comprising, observatory, legislation, approximately, border, union, current, personal, finally, majority, parliament, temperature, historic.

4. Write the three forms of the verbs.

To cover, to be, to include, to run, to varу, to make, to attract, to fall.

Grammar exercises

5. Give the Degrees of Comparison.

Rich, fertile, large, small, warm, hot, cold, heavy, deep, bountiful, great, long, fresh, famous.

  1.  Give 3 forms of the following verbs.

Be, have, rise, know, run, make, do

7. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the verbs in the Passive Voice.

1. The northern state of Minnesota is known as the land of 10,000 lakes.

2. America’s early settlers were attracted by the fertile land along the Atlantic coast in the southeast and island beyond the eastern Appalachian Mountains.

8. Use the verbs in brackets in the Passive Voice.

1. The USA (to situate) in the North America.

2. The USA (to wash) by the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

3. The country (to call) a land of physical contrasts.

4. When the United States (to form) there were only thirteen states.

5. The thirty-seven other states (to admit) to the nation one by one as they gained enough population.

6. The Hawaiian Islands (to situate) in the central part of the Pacific Ocean.

7. Alaska (to purchase) by the USA from Russia.

8. Two hundred people (to emploу) bу Rolce Roуce companу next уear.

9. The companу has reduced its emploуеes number and all salaries (to cut).

10. Originallу the book was written in Spanish and a few уears ago (to translate) into English.

11. The document (to sign) tomorrow bу three oclock.

9. Change the following sentences from Active into the Passive Voice.

1. The Bering Strait separates Alaska from Russia.

2. The USA joined the Hawaiian Islands in 1900.

3. Fertile valleys, rich natural resources, vast grasslands attracted people all over the world.

4. The government of the USA will always support automobile industry.

10. Insert the article where it is necessary.

1. … USA is … fourth largest country in … world after … Russian Federation, … Canada and …China.

2. … largest state of … America is … Alaska.

3. … southern part of … Florida and … Hawaii Islands have warm temperatures year round.

4. …McKinley rises to 6193.5 meters.

5. … Mississippi runs from … Canada into … Gulf of Mexico.

6. … five Great Lakes are … Ontario, … Michigan, … Erie, … Huron, … Superior.

7. … Appalachian Mountains are in … east.

8. American fanners raise corn, wheat and fine beef cattle in … Midwest.

9. ... USA is washed by … Atlantic and … Pacific oceans.

10. … USA borders on … Canada in … North and … Mexico in … South.

11. Insert prepositions.

The USA is a country … great diversity. … the same time, it has surprising similarities when one considers its size. The dissimilarities are partly a result of its geography. No general statement can be made … the weather, the landscape, or even the way of living because the nation occupies nearly half a continent.

The United States has many kinds of climate. The weather ranges … the warm, wet conditions of the Appalachian Highland … the desert conditions of some of the western states. It varies from almost winterless climates … southern Arizona and southern Florida to long very cold winters in Dakota and Montana.

The country's rainfall also varies greatly from place to place. The northwestern coast and the Gulf Coast receive large amounts of rain and have a humid climate. Most of the area … the Sierra Nevada and the southern coast of California … the west, and the 100th meridian, on the east, receives less than 20 inches of rainfall annually.

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

12. Give English equivalents.

Простираться от … до …, равнины, густонаселенный, занимать, редко (не густо), составлять какую-то часть, страна контраста, весь год, варьироваться, многочисленный, приток, делить с кем-либо (чем-либо), осень, привлекать, золотая лихорадка, строительство, нефть-сырец.

 Give Russian equivalents.

The heavily industrialized metropolitan Atlantic seaboard; the majestic Rocky Mountains; rich flat farms; to be nearly 400 times the size of Rhode Island; heavy forests; barren deserts; bountiful rivers; tributary; fertile land.

Match the words which are close in their meaning.

bountiful

spacious

connect

feeder

distinct

plentiful

glamorize

joint

join

big

majestic

glamorize

metropolitan

abundance

round

grand

stretch

capital

tributary

throughout

vast

spread

wealth

definite

large

link

Match the words which have opposite meaning.

connect

small

densely

short

domestic

cold

large

sparcely

hot

foreign

long

separate

Answer the questions on the text. Use the following expressions to begin your answer.

The text tells the reader that…

I think…

I suppose…

If I got it right…

It seems to me that …

In my opinion …

1. What oceans is the USA washed by?

2. How large is the USA?

3. How many states does country consist of?

4. What is the largest state of the USA?

5. Why is America a land of physical contrasts?

6. What is the weather like in different parts of the USA?

7. What state is known as the land of lakes?

8. What are the longest rivers of the country?

9. What are the main agricultural plants?

10. What are Florida and California famous for?

11. What are the main minerals of the USA?

Agree or disagree. Correct wrong statements.

I (quite) agree (with you).   I don’t think so.

I think so too.     I don’t agree.

Certainly!      I think you are mistaken.

Just so.      You are wrong.

1. The Atlantic seaboard is heavily agricultural area of the USA.

2. The USA is washed by the Atlantic ocean and the Pacific ocean.

3. The USA borders on Canada in the North and Mexico in the South.

4. The USA is the second largest nation in the world.

5. The largest state is Rhode Island and the smallest one is Alaska.

6. America is a land of physical contrasts, but it has the same kind of weather across the USA.

7. The southern parts of Florida, Texas, California and entire state of Hawaii are the temperate zone.

8. The USA varies from heavy forests to barren deserts, from high-peaked mountains to deep canyons.

9. The Mississippi is the world’s third longest river after the Nile and the Amason.

10. The fertile land along the Atlantic coast in the southeast and inland beyond the eastern Appalachian Mountains attracted America’s early settlers.

11. Corn, wheat are planted in the Midwest.

12. The main natural resources of the USA are gold, silver, petroleum, gas, clays, phosphates, lead, iron.

14. Arrange the sentences according to the text.

1. Alaska is nearly 400 times the size of Rhode Island, which is the smallest state.

2. The USA is a land of beautiful rivers and lakes.

3. American farmers plant spring wheat on the cold western plains.

4. The broad Mississippi River system runs from Canada into the Gulf of Mexico.

5. The vast and varied expanse of the USA stretches from the Atlantic seaboard, over the Rocky Mountains to the west coast, then halfway across the Pacific to the island-state of Hawaii.

6. History has glamorized the gold rushes to California and Alaska and the silver finds in Nevada.

7. The USA is the fourth largest nation in the world after Russia, Canada and China.

8. America is a land of physical contrast including the weather.

9. Underground, a wealth of minerals provides a solid base for American industry.

10. Alaska is the largest of America’s 50 states.

11. Most of the USA is in the temperate zone, with four distinct seasons.

12. Florida and California are famous for their vegetable and fruit production.

13. The southern parts of Florida, Texas, California, and the entire state of Hawaii, have warm temperature year round.

14. The St. Lawrence Seaway connects the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean.

15. The northern state of Minnesota is known as the land of 10,000 lakes.

15. Complete the following sentences according to the text.

1. The USA is the fourth …

2. The USA is a land of …

3. The USA is a land of …

4. The USA is a land of …

5. The USA has … states.

6. The USA has … kinds of climate.

7. The USA is washed by …

8. The USA borders on …

9. The USA stretches from … to …

10. The USA is famous for …

11. The USA varies from … to …

16. Match the name of the state with its description.

  1.  Hawaii; 2. California; 3. Alaska; 4. South Dakota
  2.  It occupies the north-western projection of North America. It includes the islands adjacent to it and also the Aleutian Islands. Purchased by the USA from Russia in 1867, it obtained statehood in 1958.

  1.  This state is called the Aloha State and is the 50th state of the U.S. The capital city is Honolulu. It is one of the most charming places in the world. Every year it attracts millions of tourists. Its volcanoes are the main tourist attraction. Visitors can also see the Haleakala National Park and rest on one of the wonderful, sunny beaches like Waikiki Beach. It is a real paradise on Earth.

  1.  When people think about it, they imagine the sand, surf, and suntanned bodies. It is said that it is easy to become a millionaire there. Some people believe that the American dream comes true here. It is the home of Hollywood and therefore many of America's most glamorous actors and actresses live there. There is more than this, as it is also the centre of west coast music which has inspired many artists and bands. For those more interested in sightseeing there are many famous places to visit. One of them is San Francisco with its Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Prison, and Los Angeles, with Hollywood, Venice Beach and Beverly Hills. Sports lovers can watch baseball, American football and basketball with teams like the Lakers, the Dodgers and the Rams.

D. This state is called the “Land of Indefinite Variety” as it is host to the prairie plains, A part of the Great Plains, And the Black Hills. The main river of the state is the Missouri. The most famous point in the state is probably Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills. The faces of four American presidents Washington, Jefferson, T. Roosevelt, and Lincoln are cut into granite hillside.

17. Fill in the chart with the information about the USA.

Capital

Total area

Administrative division

Population

Climate

Natural resources

Mountains

Rivers

Lakes

Largest cities

  1.  Translate into English.

1. США имеют площадь 9.629.091 кв. км и простираются от Гавайских островов до Аляски на 5000 км и на 2900 км от Мексики до Канадской границы. Площадь суши - 9.158.960 кв. км, площадь воды - 470.131 кв.км. Береговая линия - 19.924 км.

2. Протяженность границы с Мексикой составляет 3326 км, с Канадой - 8893 км.

3. Климат в стране в различных регионах существенно отличается друг от друга. Так, когда на севере страны выпадает снег, в Майами продолжается пляжный сезон, Сан-Франциско называют городом вечной весны - температура воздуха здесь круглый год колеблется в пределах 13-20 градусах Цельсия.

4. Численность населения: 275.562.673 человека (по оценке на июль 2000 года).

5. Вся территория США разделена на 50 штатов. В каждом штате свои законы и порядки, но существуют и федеральные законы, которым подчиняются все штаты.

6. Так как столица не может находиться ни в одном из штатов - существует Федеральный округ Колумбия, в котором и располагается столица Соединенных Штатов - город Вашингтон.

19. Ask your friend,

  •  знает ли он;
  •  знает ли он, почему;
  •  знает ли он, из скольких частей;
  •  знает ли он, сколько
  •  знает ли он самые большие;
  •  что он знает о.

20. Review the information you’ve got from Lesson 1. Summarize it using the suggested words and word combinations.

To be separated from, to be washed by, to border on, to account for, to consists of, to be situated, to occupy, to vary from … to, to be the fourth largest nation in the world, a land of physical contrasts, a land of bountiful rivers, the longest rivers, the fertile land.


LESSON 2. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

Grammar Revision: Модальные глаголы

Phonetics: Ритмика

  1.  Read text ”Political System OF THE USA” and translate it into Russian.

Political System OF THE USA

The city of Washington, in the District of Columbia along the Potomac River (Washington, D.C.), is the capital of a federal union of 50 states. Under the Constitution, the states delegated many of their sovereign powers to this central government in Washington. But they kept many important powers for themselves. Each of the 50 states, for example, retains the right to run its own public school system, to decide on the qualifications of its voters, to license its doctors and other professionals, to provide police protection for its citizens and to maintain its roads.

In actual practice, and in line with the American tradition of keeping government as close to the people as possible, the states delegate many of these powers to their political subdivisions - counties, cities, towns and villages. Thus, at the lowest political level, residents of small American communities elect village trustees to run their police and fire departments, and elect a board of education to run their schools. On the county level, voters elect executives who are responsible for roads, parks, libraries, sewage and other services, and elect or appoint judges for the courts. The citizens of each state also elect a governor and members of the state legislature.

Under the Constitution, the federal government is divided into three branches, each chosen in a different manner, each able to check and balance the others.

The Executive Branch is headed by the President, who, together with the Vice President, is chosen in nationwide elections every four years (in every year divisible by four). The elective process for a U.S. President is unique. Americans vote for slates of presidential electors equal to the number of Senators and Representatives each state has in Congress (a total of 535 persons). The candidate with the highest number of votes in each state wins all the electoral votes of that state. The presidential candidate needs 270 electoral votes to be elected; if no candidate has a majority, the House of Representatives makes the decision. (In all other state and local elections, voters cast their votes directly for the candidate or referendum on that particular ballot.) Any natural-born American who is 35 years old or older may be elected to this office. The President proposes bills to Congress, enforces federal laws, serves as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and, with the approval of the Senate makes treaties and appoints federal judges, ambassadors and other members of the Executive Departments (the Departments of State, Defense, Commerce, Justice, etc.). Each Cabinet head holds the title of Secretary and together they form a council called the Cabinet.

The Vice President, elected from the same political party as the President, acts as chairman of the Senate, and in the event of the death or disability of the President, assumes the Presidency for the balance of his term.

The Legislative Branch is made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The 435 seats in the House of Representatives are allocated on the basis of population, although every state has at least one representative. Each state elects two members of the 100-member Senate; a Senator's term of office is six years.

Both houses must approve a bill for it to become law, but the President may veto or refuse to sign it. If so, Congress reconsiders the bill. If two-thirds of the members of both houses then approve it, the bill becomes law even without the President's signature. In order to amend the Constitution, Congress must pass the proposed amendment by a two-thirds majority vote in each house, and three-fourths of the states must concur.

The Judicial Branch is made up of Federal District Courts (at least one in every state), 11 Federal Courts of Appeals and, at the top, the Supreme Court. Federal judges are appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate; to minimize political influences, their appointments are for life. Federal courts decide cases involving federal law, conflicts between states or between citizens of different states.

Vocabulary on the text

allocate, v  назначать; распределять (Syn: divide)

amend, v  1) исправлять, совершенствовать, улучшать (Syn: improve, make better) 2) вносить изменения, вносить поправки (в законопроект и т. п.) (Syn: revise)

amendment, n  поправка (к резолюции, законопроекту) amendment to the constitution - поправка к конституции

assume, v  принимать, брать на себя (ответственность, управление) (Syn: undertake)

balance, n  остаток

ballot, 1. n  1) баллотировочный шар; избирательный бюллетень 2) баллотирование; голосование (преим. тайное) open ballot - открытое голосование secret ballot - тайное голосование

community, n  1) местное сообщество 2) община, землячество

concur, v  сходиться в мнениях, приходить к общему выводу, соглашаться. (Syn: agree, assent).

county, n  округ (административно-территориальная единица в США)

court, n  суд; судья; судьи

delegate, v  делегировать; уполномочивать; передавать полномочия to delegate authority - передавать полномочия (Syn: entrust)

divisible, adj.  делящийся без остатка, кратный (by) (Syn: aliquot)

elect, v  а) избирать (голосованием) to elect unanimously - выбирать единогласно (Syn: choose) б) назначать (на должность), делать назначения

elective, adj.  избирательный

elector, n  1) избиратель (тот, кто участвует в выборах или имеет право на участие в них) 2) выборщик, член коллегии выборщиков (на президентских выборах в США)

enforce, v  а) проводить в жизнь; придавать законную силу (правовому акту) б) осуществлять, приводить в исполнение

head, n  (= head up) возглавлять, руководить, управлять (Syn: be head of, direct, supervise, manage)

legislature, n  1) законодательная власть; законодательные учреждения 2) законодательный орган штата

nationwide, adj.  общенациональный; всенародный, народный, общенародный (Syn: countrywide, national, public)

power, n  а) власть; политическая власть б) (powers) право, полномочия, власть delegation of powers - делегирование полномочий power of veto - право вето legislative/executive/judicial power - законодательная, исполнительная, судебная власть (Syn: jurisdiction, authority)

propose, v  предлагать; вносить предложение

qualification, n  1) а) (обычно qualifications) квалификация; подготовленность, пригодность; навык; степень квалифицированности; профессионализм 2) оценка, характеристика (деятельности, взглядов)

reconsider, v  пересматривать, обдумывать заново

resident, n  а) постоянно проживающее лицо б) житель local residents - местные жители

serve, v  (as/for) служить (чем-л.)

slate, n  список кандидатов (на выборах)

trustee, n  1. 1) доверительный собственник; лицо, распоряжающееся имуществом на началах доверительной собственности Public Trustee - государственный попечитель (по управлению имуществом частных лиц) 2) член правления, совета

unique, adj.  уникальный, единственный в своем роде, исключительный (Syn: unequalled, unrivalled)

veto  1. n 1) вето, запрещение, запрет 2) право вето 2. v 1) налагать вето (на что-л.) 2) запрещать (Syn: forbid, prohibit)

vote, v  а) голосовать б) постановлять большинством голосов, принимать решение большинством голосов (Syn: declare)

voter, n  1) избиратель; лицо, имеющее право голоса (Syn: elector) 2) участник голосования, голосующий

тень 

act as  выполнять какую-л функцию

appoint judge  назначать судью

board of education (Board of Education) совет по вопросам образования 

cast a vote (ballot) - голосовать (на выборах); опускать избирательный бюлле

decide case  вынести решение по делу

hold the title  называться

maintain roads  следить за дорогами, поддерживать дороги в порядке

make treaty  составлять (заключать) договор

provide protection  обеспечивать защиту

twothirds majority  большинство, составляющее две трети

Phonetic exercises

  1.  Distribute the words according to the type of reading.

District, union, important, system, decide, protection, community, department, judge, vote, enforce, amendment.

Grammar exercises

  1.  Give three forms of the following verbs.

Be, keep, run, choose, win, have, make, hold, become.

4. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1. Any natural-born American who is 35 years old or older may be elected to this office.

2. Both houses must approve a bill for it to become law, but the President may veto or refuse to sign it.

5. Insert modal verbs.

1. Senators … be chosen every five years.

2. Theoretically all citizens of both sexes over 18 years of age … be elected to the Senate.

3. Through its power over the purse the US Congress … control much that relates to foreign policy. 

4. The President … serve two terms but not longer than that.

5. The Vice-President … inherit the Presidency only in some special cases.

6. Each of the fifty states of the USA … pattern their constitution after the federal Constitution.

7. The Industrial Revolution … not have developed without machine tools, for they enabled manufacturing machines to be made.

8. A distinguish … be made between import and export and the relation between them is the balance of trade.

9. The USA … to utilize resources due to a unique set of institutions designed to encourage utilization and extraction.

10. Taxation in the USA is a complex system which … invalue payment to at least four different levels of government and many methods of taxation.

11. State schools … to select pupils according to intelligence.

5. Open the brackets using the Active or the Passive Voice.

1. The President (to elect) every four years.

2. Voters (to elect) the President together with the Vice President.

3. Last time the President (to elect) in 2000.

4. Next time the USA (to elect) the President in 2014.

5. The President (to head) the Executive Branch.

6. The Executive Branch (to head) by the President.

7. To be law a bill must (to sign) by the President.

8. The President must (to sign) a bill in order to become law.

9. Each state (to elect) two members of the 100-member Senate.

10. Two members of the 100-member Senate (to elect) by each state.

6. Insert prepositions.

The US Constitution, written … 1787, established the country’s political system and is the basis … its laws. … 200 years … its history, the United States has greatly grown and changed. Yet the Constitution works as well today as when it was written. One reason is that the Constitution can be amended (for example, the Fifteenth Amendment gave black Americans the right to vote and the right Nineteenth Amendment gave women the right to vote). Another reason is that the Constitution is flexible: its basic principles can be applied and interpreted differently … different times.

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

7. Give English equivalents.

Федеральный союз, согласно конституции, полномочие, управлять, выдавать лицензию, на низшем уровне, житель, отвечать за что-либо, назначать, по-разному, всеобщие выборы, принимать решение, предлагать законопроект, с одобрения, в случае смерти, на оставшийся срок, одобрить законопроект, без подписи президента, пожизненно, рассматривать дела, вносить поправки.

8. Give Russian equivalents.

under the Constitution; power; to run its own public school system; in line with; as close to the people as possible; to responsible for; natural-born American; majority; governor.

9. Match the words which are close in their meaning.

allocate

authority

amend

forbid

assume

elector

concur

divide

delegate

improve

elect

undertake

head

agree

power

entrust

veto

choose

voter

direct

10. Match the name with its description.

1. the US Congress a. the rich plantation owner from Virginia, the "father of the American Constitution"

2. the Democratic Party    b. judicial branch of the US government

3. the Republican Party   c. executive branch of the US government

4. the President and his

administration    d. political party symbolized by an "elephant").

5. James Madison     e. legislative branch of the US government

6. the US Supreme Court   f. political party symbolized by a "donkey"

11. Think of the correct place for each of the following words in the passage below.

concern   state  representative  authority   rights

limited   protect  concurrent   framework  voting

The United States is a _______ (1) democracy. All government power rests ultimately with the people, who direct policies by ______ (2) for government representatives. The nation's constitution defines the powers of national and ____ (3) governments, the functions and _____ (4) of each branch of government, and the _____ (5) of individual citizens. The Constitution was created to _______ (6) the democratic interest of the people and the government. The principle of _____ (7) government is basic to the Constitution. Under federalism, the principle of limited government was achieved by dividing ____ (8) between the central government and the individual states. The federal government has powers over areas of wide ____ (9). For example, it has the power to borrow money, provide for the national defense, and declare war. The states possess those powers which are not given to the federal government. There are certain powers, called _____ (10) powers, which both the federal and state government share. Examples include the power to tax, set up courts, and charter banks.

12. Answer the questions on the text. Use the following expressions to begin your answer.

The text tells the reader that…

I think…

I suppose…

If I got it right…

It seems to me that …

In my opinion …

1. What is the capital of the USA?

2. Where is Washington situated?

3. What are the rights of states?

4. What are the rights of the lowest political level?

5. What are the rights of voters on the country level?

6. How is the federal government divided into?

7. Who is the Executive branch headed by?

8. How often is the President chosen?

9. What are the chambers of the US Congress?

10. Who has the right to vote?

11. What are the powers and duties of the President?

12. What is the role of the US Congress?

13. How is the Judicial Branch made up of?

14. Who appoints federal judges?

13. Agree or disagree. Correct wrong statements.

I (quite) agree (with you).   I don’t think so.

I think so too.     I don’t agree.

Certainly!      I think you are mistaken.

Just so.      You are wrong.

1. New York, the largest city, is the capital of the USA.

2. Each of the 50 states keeps many important powers for themselves.

3. The citizens of each state elect a governor and members of the state legislature.

4. Under the Constitution the federal government is divided into two branches.

5. The Executive Branch is headed by Congress and the Legislative Branch is headed by the President.

6. The President of the USA is elected every five years.

7. The Vice President is chosen together with the President.

8. The US Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Commons.

9. The President and the Vice President must be the members of different political parties.

10. The bill becomes law if two-thirds of the members of both houses approve it.

14. Arrange the sentences according to the text.

1. The Executive Branch is headed by the President.

2. The Legislative Branch is made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives.

3. Any natural-born American who is 35 years old or older may be elected to the House of Representatives.

4. Washington, D.C. is the capital of the federal union of 50 states.

5. The Judicial Branch is made up of Federal District Courts, 11 Federal Courts of Appeals and the Supreme Court.

6. Each of the 50 states retains the right to run its own public school system.

7. Under the Constitution the federal government is divided into three branches.

8. In line with the American tradition of keeping government as close to people as possible, the states delegate many of powers to their political subdivisions.

9. The candidate with the highest number of votes in each state wins all the electoral votes of that state.

10. The Vice President assumes the Presidency for the balance of his term.

15. Complete the following sentences according to the text.

1. Under the Constitution, the states delegated …

2. Each state has the right …

3. On the country level, voters elect …

4. The federal government is divided into …

5. The presidential candidate needs …

6. The rights of the President are …

7. The House of Representatives are elected on the basis …

8. To become law a bill must be approved …

9. The President appoints …

10. … is the Commander in Chief.

11. The President’ term is … .

12. The Congress is … .

13. There are … Senators in the Senate.

14. The number of congressmen from each state depends on … .

16. a) Make written translation of the text.

The executive power belongs to the President of the United States, who holds office for four years and is elected together with the Vice-President chosen for the same term, by electors from each state. Presidential elections are held every leap year on first Tuesday after first Monday in November. The President may be re-elected and serve two terms (eight years altogether) but not longer than that. (Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected for a third and fourth terms, but since then the Twenty – Second Amendment to the Constitution was adopted (1951) limiting the President's term in office).

After the presidential elections in November, the "President-elect" (one who has been elected President, but has not taken office) is busy choosing candidates for his Administration.

"Administration" is a popular term to identify the executive branch, especially that of the federal government. The Administration includes the President, the Vice-President and his policy-making appointees, or even the whole body of executive officials.

In January the President-elect becomes the US President. The formal act of installing the President of the United States or the governor of the state in office is called "inauguration". Inauguration Day on January 20 is usually the occasion for extensive ceremonies, the central point of which is the taking of an oath by the chief executive officer.

b) Answer the questions.

1. Who is the head of the executive power in the USA?

2. How long does the President’s term of office last?

3. When is the President elected?

4. How many times may the President be re-elected?

5. Who of the Presidents was re-elected more than two times?

6. What does the Twenty – Second Amendment to the Constitution deal with?

7. What does the term "Administration" mean?

8. When does the President-elect become the US President?

9. How is the ceremony of installing the President of the United States called?

10. When does Inauguration Day take place?

17. Fill in the chart.

Power

legislative

Representative

The President

Duties

  1.  Translate into English.
    1.  Политическая система США определена в принятой в 1787 году Конституции, а также в поправках к Конституции США и в других законах США. Конституция США передает полномочия для осуществления государственной власти Федеральному правительству США. В Конституции США заложен принцип разделения властей, по которому Федеральное правительство состоит из законодательных, исполнительных и судебных органов, действующих независимо друг от друга.

b. Президент – глава государства, правительства, главнокомандующий Вооружёнными силами.

c. Высший орган законодательной власти – двухпалатный Конгресс. Нижняя палата – Палата представителей; верхняя – Сенат. Основные политические партии – Республиканская и Демократическая.

  1.  Translate into Russian. Make use of the words given below.

America, the beautiful

(music by Samuel Ward, words by Katherine Lee Bates)

O beautiful for spacious skies,

For amber waves of grain,

For purple mountain majesties

Above the fruited plain.

America! America! God shed this grace on thee,

And crown thy good with brotherhood

From sea to shining sea.

spacious – просторный, бескрайний, огромный

amber – янтарный

grain – зерно, пшеница

majesty – величие, величественность

fruited – плодородный

shed (shed, shed) – проливать, осыпать

theeyou; thyyour

crown – венчать, вознаграждать, завершать

graceмилость

Do you know that:

  •  When the United States declared its independence from Great Britain on July 4, 1776 (now celebrated as a national holiday), there were 13 original states – each one sovereign, each wanting to control its own affairs. The states tried to keep their sovereignty and independence within a loose confederation, but their attempt proved ineffectual. Therefore, in 1789, they adopted a new Constitution establishing a federal union under a strong central government. The original 13 states were grouped along the Atlantic Coast. As the frontier moved westward, large areas of what is now the continental United States were added by purchase, treaty and annexation. As each state was settled, governments were first organized as territories and later entered the Union as states when their territorial legislatures petitioned the Congress for admission. There are now 50 states. Alaska and Hawaii, the last states to enter the Union, did so in 1959.

  •  In more than 195 years, the Constitution has been amended 26 times. The first 10 Amendments – the Bill of Rights – guarantee individual liberties: freedom of speech, religion and assembly, the right to a fair trial, the security of one’s home. Later amendments chronicle America’s struggle for equality and justice for all of its people. These amendments abolish slavery, prohibit any denial of rights because of race, grant the vote to women and to citizens of the District of Columbia and allow citizens to vote at age 18.

sovereignty, n  1) независимость, суверенитет, суверенность 2) суверенное государство

confederation, n  конфедерация, федерация, союз, союз государств (Syn: league, confederacy)

freedom of assembly  свобода собраний

right to a fair trial  право на суд по закону, справедливо

  1.  Review the information you’ve got from Lesson 2. Summarize it using the suggested words and word combinations.

A federal union of 50 states, under the Constitution, sovereign powers, to delegate to, to be responsible for, to be divided into, to be headed by, nationwide elections, the elective process, to vote for, the Legislative Branch, the Senate, the House of Representatives, on the basis of, the Judicial Branch, the executive power.


LESSON 3. Economy

Grammar: Времена группыPerfect

Phonetics: Транскрипция

  1.  Read the text “Economy” and translate it into Russian.

Economy OF THE USA

The American economy is a free enterprise system. The nation’s income and productivity have risen enormously over the past 70 years. In this period, the money for personal consumption tripled in real purchasing power. The gross national product per capita quadrupled, reflecting growth in worker productivity.

Together, all sectors of the American economy produce almost $4,000 million dollars worth of goods and services annually, and each year they turn out almost $ 190,000 million more. The consumption of these goods and services is spread widely. Most Americans consider themselves members of the middle economic class, and relatively few are extremely wealthy or extremely poor. According to U.S. Census Bureau figures, 9.6 percent of all American families make more than $50,000 a year, and 7.7 percent of all American families have incomes less than $10,000; the median annual income for all American families is about $28,906.

Americans live in a variety of housing that includes single detached homes (62 percent) with a median cost of $112,500. They also live in apartments, town-houses and mobile homes. Three-fourths of all married couples own their own homes. About 3.6 percent of all Americans live in public (government-supplied or subsidized) housing.

The government plays an important role in the economy. as is the case in all countries. From the foundation of the Republic, the U.S. federal government has strongly supported the development of transportation. It financed the first major canal system and later subsidized the railroads and the airlines. It has developed river valleys and built dams and power stations. It has extended electricity and scientific advice to farmers, and assures them a minimum price for their basic crops. It checks the purity of food and drugs, insures bank deposits and guarantees loans.

Despite the fact that the United States government supports many segments of the nation’s economy, economists estimate that the public sector accounts for only one-fifth of American economic activity, with the remainder in private hands. In agriculture, for example, farmers benefit from public education, roads, rural electrifycation and support prices, but their land is private property to work pretty much as they desire. More than 86.7 percent of America’s 208.8 million farms is owned by the people who operate them; the rest are owned by business corporations. With increasingly improved farm machinery, seed and fertilizers, more food is produced each year, although the number of farmers decreases annually. America exports some 440.9 thousand million worth of farm products each year. The United States produces as much as half the world’s soybeans and corn for grain, and from 10 to 25 percent of its cotton wheat, tobacco and vegetable oil.

The bulk of America’s wealth is produced by private industries and businesses – ranging from giants like General Motors, which sells $96,371 million worth of cars and trucks each year – to thousands of small, independent entrepreneurs. In 1987, nearly 233,710 small businesses were started in the U.S. Yet some 75 percent of American products currently faces foreign competition within markets in the United States. America has traditionally supported free trade.

More than hundred million Americans are in the labor force. The labor force has grown especially rapidly since 1955 as a result of the increased number of working women. Women now constitute more than half of America’s total work force. The entry of the “baby boom” generation into the job market has also increased the work force. Part-time employment has increased as well – only about 55 percent of all workers has full-time, full-year jobs – the rest either work part-time, part-year or both.

American industries have become increasingly more service-oriented. Of 12.6 million new jobs created, almost 85 percent has been in service industries. Careers in technical, business and health-related fields have particularly experienced employee growth in recent years. Approximately 27 million Americans are employed in selling. Another 19.2 million work in manufacturing and 17.5 million work for federal, state and local governments.

Recently, unemployment in the United States was calculated at about seven percent. The government provides short-term unemployment compensation (from 20 to 39 weeks depending upon economic conditions) to replace wages lost between jobs. About 80 per cent of all wage and salary earners is covered by unemployment insurance. In addition, both the government and private industry provide job training to help unemployed and disadvantaged Americans.

Vocabulary on the text

account, v  (for) входить во (что-л.) в размере, количестве; составлять (определённую) часть от общего количества (чего-л.).

apartment, n  квартира 

approximately, adv.  приблизительно, близко, около, почти, приближённо (Syn: about, roughly, almost)

assure, v  гарантировать, обеспечивать. (Syn: ensure, guarantee)

bulk, n  основная масса, большая часть (чего-л.) (Syn: majority)

calculate, v  1) вычислять; подсчитывать; калькулировать (Syn: compute, count) 2) (on, upon, for) рассчитывать на что-л. (Syn: count, reckon, rely) 3) обычно предназначать (для чего-л.) 4), думать, полагать

currently, adv.  теперь, в настоящее время; ныне

dam, n  дамба, плотина, насыпь; запруда (Syn: levee, dike)

decrease, v  1) уменьшаться, убывать, сокращаться to decrease fromto … - уменьшаться с … до... to decrease by … - уменьшаться на ... to decrease in smth. - уменьшаться в (чём-л.) (Syn: decline, fall) (Ant: increase, enlarge, grow, strengthen) 2) уменьшать, сокращать

disadvantaged, adj.  малоимущий, неимущий. (Syn: deprived). Политически корректный эвфемизм, заменяющий слово "бедняк"

employ, v  предоставлять работу; нанимать to be employed by smb - работать, служить у кого-л. (Syn: hire)

enormously, adv.  весьма, очень, чрезвычайно (Syn: extraordinarily, extremely)

entrepreneur, n  бизнесмен, делец, предприниматель (Syn: employer)

experienced, adj.  знающий, опытный (Syn: mature)

extend, v  а) простираться, тянуться; длиться (Syn: reach, stretch) б) расширять (о помещении)

face, v  сталкиваться (с неприятностями)

foundation, n  основание

fulltime, adj.  занимающий всё рабочее время, занимающий полный рабочий день

giant, n  великан, гигант; титан

guarantee, v  обеспечивать гарантию, страховать

income, n  доход, приход, прибыль; заработок

insure, v  = ensure страховать, застраховывать

machinery, n  машинное оборудование; машины

median, adj.  занимающий срединное положение (Syn: middle, neutral).

operate, v  (smth ) заведовать, управлять (Syn: manage, conduct)

productivity, n  производительность, продуктивность

purity, n  чистота, беспримесность

quadruple  v 1) учетверять, увеличивать в четыре раза; умножать на четыре (Syn: quadruplicate) 2) учетверяться, увеличиваться в четыре раза

reflect, v  отражать (Syn: show).

remainder, n  остаток; остатки, оставшаяся часть (Syn: leftover, residue)

shortterm, adj.  краткосрочный (Syn: short-dated)

soyabean, n  1) соя 2) соевый боб

subsidize, v  субсидировать, финансировать, дотировать, ассигновать

triplev а) утраиваться б) утраивать

turn out, v  выпускать, производить

valley, n  долина (Syn: vale, dale)

baby boom демографический взрыв, всплеск рождаемости

be covered by  покрывать, обеспечивать (денежным) покрытием

free enterpriseсвободное предпринимательство

labour force  рабочая сила

mobile home  передвижной дом.

parttime employment = part-time job  работа, предполагающая неполную занятость; работа на полставки

public education  государственное образование

public housing  государственное жилищное строительство; бюджетное жилищное строительство

public sector  государственный сектор экономики

purchasing power  покупательная способность, платёжеспособность

rural electrification  электрификация сельских районов

single detached home  особняк

town house  1. городской дом, дом на одну семью в городе. 2. таунхауз, городской особняк, часто с примыкающим участком

unemployment compensation = unemployment insurance  пособие по безработице 

Phonetic exercises

  1.  In the dictionary find the transcription of the following words.

Enterprise, enormously, quadriple, annually, wealthy, variety, insure, guarantee, remainder, giant, entrepreneur, foreign, especially, generation, career, employee, approximately, earner.

  1.  Before you start working at the text practice the sounds in the following words. Explain the difference in the pronounciation of letter “a”.

[ei] make, play, case, face   [a:] class, apartment, farmer, markets

[æ] annual, detached, has, bank   [aiə] variety

[ɔ] all

  1.  Write the Past Participle of the following verbs. Read them aloud paying attention to the ending –ed.

Triple, reflect, produce, turn, consider, live, include, marry, play, support, finance, subsidize, extend, estimate, employ, help.

Grammar exercises

  1.  Read the sentences and translate them into Russian. Explain the usage of the Present Perfect Tense.
    1.  The nation’s income and productivity have risen enormously over the past 70 years.
      1.  From the foundation of the Republic, the U.S. federal government has strongly supported the development of transportation.
        1.  It has developed river valleys and built dams and power stations.
          1.  It has extended electricity and scientific advice to farmers, and assures them a minimum price for their basic crops.
            1.  The labor force has grown especially rapidly since 1955 as a result of the increased number of working women.
              1.  Part-time employment has increased as well.
              2.  American industries have become increasingly more service-oriented.
              3.  Of 12.6 million new jobs created, almost 85 percent have been in service industries.
              4.  Careers in technical, business and health-related fields have particularly experienced employee growth in recent years.

  1.  Read and translate the sentences with the Present Perfect Tense into Russian. Make them interrogative and negative.
  2.  The availability of water has been an important factor in America’s growth.
  3.  In recent years there has been a great increase in the number of engineers and scientists employed in American industries as companies emphasize research and the development of labour-saving machines.
  4.  The growing use of machines to perform routine tasks in agriculture, industry and other fields has brought about a shift of workers to new employment.
  5.  Though some have been displaced because of automation, most have been absorbed by new industries and by the growth of service and leisure industries.
  6.  Other changes have taken place in the business world.
  7.  Atomic energy has created a wide range of new activities.
  8.  Electronics has become a major industry, employing more than a million people.
  9.  The United States has long had a reputation as a pioneer in ingenious technology — from incandescent lights, sewing machines and cotton gins to telephones, television equipment, computers, airplanes and spaceships.

  1.  Use the verbs in brackets in the Present Perfect Tense.
  2.  Since the 1930-s American capitalism (to undergo) a radical change. 
  3.  The country's reliance on private initiative and enterprise (to produce) impressive growth.
  4.  Technological advancement (to accelerate) changes in American agriculture. 
  5.  It should be noted that in the past 30 years agricultural lands ( to be concentrated) in fewer and fewer hands as a result of the fact that large-scale specialized farms replaces small family farms. 
  6.  On the one hand farming (to become) too productive to be profitable to many American farmers.
  7.  Low crop prices, which (to result) from overproduction, often do not bring farmers enough income to live on. 
  8.  The U. S. president Bush recently (to impose) restrictions and the taxes on the import of steel from Russia.
  9.  The USA (to experience) massive trade deficit. 
  10.  This trade imbalance (to promote) growth in the rest of the world; other countries were able to sell more of their products to the United States, and these sales (to provide) them with export benefits. 
  11.  While the U. S. trade deficit (to benefit) foreign economies, it (to create) severe distress for the American economy. 

8. Insert prepositions.

The United States has large reserves … all the more widely used minerals except tin. These minerals include coal, petroleum, nuclear fuels, natural gas, iron, copper, bauxite, lead, zinc, stone, and many others. The country produces enough … some minerals to supply all its own needs and to ship … other countries as well. The country lacks a sufficient supply of some of the minerals required … modern industries. These must be shipped … the United States. They include tin, nickel, manganese, chrome, cobalt, industrial diamonds.

Most … the petroleum and natural gas deposits are located … the sedimentary basins … the flanks of the Cordillera, … California … the western side, on the High Plains; the principal coalfields are … the eastern United States, the main producing areas are in the Appalachian Plateau region.

Keys: of; of; to; for; into; of; in; on; in; on; in.

9. Choose the correct form of the Participle.

1. Americans live in different houses (including, included) single detached homes, apartments, town-houses and mobile homes.

2. The government plays an important role in the economy (supporting, supported) economic projects.

3. The government financed the first major canal system (subsidizing, subsidized) its construction.

4. (Subsidizing, subsidized) scientific researches were (supporting, supported) by the government.

5. (Improving, improved) fertilizers help increase farm production.

6. (Suffering, suffered) from the decline the car production faces an unpromising future.

7. The (increasing, increased) number of women (working, worked) full-year round is a result of economy improvement.

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

10. Give English equivalents.

Увеличиться в три раза, покупательная способность, увеличиться в четыре раза, производительность, ежегодно, средний класс, средний годовой доход, играть важную роль, поддерживать, частная собственность, государственный сектор, управлять чем-либо, предприниматель, сталкиваться с иностранной конкуренцией, свободная торговля, трудовые силы, составлять, рынок труда, частичная занятость, ориентированный на услуги, сферы, связанные со здравоохранением, безработица, пособие по безработице, зарплата, обучение профессии.

11. Give Russian equivalents.

Free enterprise system; per capita; to triple; to quadruple; extremely wealthy; annual income; single detached home; apartment; town-house; mobile home; private property; annually; part-time employment.

12. Answer the questions on the text. Use the following expressions to begin your answer.

The text tells the reader that…

I think…

I suppose…

If I got it right…

It seems to me that …

In my opinion …

1. What is the American economy?

2. What is the result of the nation’s income and productivity increase?

3. What is the economic status of Americans?

4. What role does the US government play in the economy?

5. What was (and what is) the role of the US federal government?

6. Which sector of the economy is larger private or public?

7. How large is the labor force of the country?

8. Why is labor force so large now?

9. How are American industries oriented?

13. Agree or disagree. Correct wrong statements.

I (quite) agree (with you).   I don’t think so.

I think so too.     I don’t agree.

Certainly!      I think you are mistaken.

Just so.      You are wrong.

1. The American economy is a free enterprise system.

2. Over the past 70 years the GNP per capita tripled.

3. Most American consider themselves as members of middle economic class.

4. Three-fourths of all married couples rent their homes.

5. The US government is not of great importance in the country.

6. The US government financed the first major canal system.

7. Economists consider that the public sector is more important than the private one.

8. The US is one of the greatest agricultural importer of soybeans and corn.

9. The bulk of America’s wealth is produced by public industries.

10. Women now is only a very small part of America’s total work force.

11. American industries are service-oriented.

14. Arrange the sentences according to the text.

1. More than 86.7 % of America’s 208.8 million farms is owned by the people who operate them.

2. The government plays an important role in the country.

3. American industries are service-oriented.

4. The US Government checks the purity of food and drugs, insures bank deposits and guarantees loans.

5. The American economy is free enterprise system.

6. About 27 million Americans are employed in selling.

7. America has traditionally supported free trade.

8. The nation’s income and productivity have risen enormously over the past 70 years.

9. Only about 55% of all workers has full-year jobs.

10. Economists estimate that the public sector accounts for only one-fifth of American economic activity.

11. More than hundred million Americans are in the labor force.

12. The US Government has strongly supported the development of transportation.

15. Complete the following sentences according to the text.

1. The US economy is …

2. Over the past 70 years the GNP …

3. All sectors of the US economy produce …

4. The median annual income …

5. As in the case in all countries, the US Government …

6. The US Government has extended …

7. In agriculture farmers benefit …

8. With increasingly improved farm machinery …

9. The labor force …

10. The entry of the “baby boom” generation …

11. Unemployment in the US was calculated …

16. Match the state or the city with its description.

1.Great Lakes, Atlantic Coast, Pennsylvania, New Jersy are

A. fruit raising area

2. Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska

B. the first biggest city of the States. Its population is more than eight million peo¬ple. It is a financial and advertising business centre. It is also a biggest seaport of the Hudson River. Industry of consumer goods is also developed here.

3. New York City

C. the second largest city in the USA with a population of more than three and a half million. It deals in wheat and other grains, cattle meat processing and manufacturing.

4. Chicago

D.biggest industrial regions of the country

5. Huston,

E. a cotton industry centre

6. New Orleans

F. a world's leading motor car producer

7. Detroit

G. an oil refining and NASA space research centre

8. California

H. the richest farming region of America. It is known as the Corn Belt. The land is fertile and well watered. They grow mostly corn and wheat there. Much livestock is also raised here.

  1.  Read the information and fill in the chart.

Economic region

Its centre (capital)

Industries

The distribution of industries

The Middle Atlantic Region stretches along the Atlantic coast from New York to Baltimore. As a "funnel" for many of the United States' imports and exports, this well-established area attracts a major share of the nation's processing, with a full range of industries from the heaviest to the lightest.

The Northern Appalachians. In the valleys round Scranton and Wilkes-Barre there is a small industrial area, located on the Pennsylvania anthracite field. Suffering today from problems of accessibility and from the decline in anthracite production, this old industrial area faces an unpromising future.

Southern New England. In the three states of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut, where manufacturing is wide-spread, lies the country's oldest industrial area. Textile and leather goods industries are developed there. Boston is the largest manufacturing centre and the commercial hub of this region.

The Mohawl Valley, a linear industrial belt stretching from Albany to Rochester, N.Y. A number of manufacturing towns has grown up there, each with its own specialties.

The Industrial Eastern Interior. Throughout a wide region that includes the Ohio Valleys, the eastern Corn Belt and south-western Ontario, industry has everywhere penetrated into what is still basically an agricultural section and has created such large industrial centers as Toronto and Cincinnati, while industry's original business in this area was the supply of farm requirements and the processing of farm products.

The Pittsburgh-Lake Erie Region, stretching along the coal and iron routes of the Great Lakes and Appalachian area from Toledo to Buffalo, and southward into Ohio and western Pennsylvania. This is the core area of American heavy industry.

The Chicago-Lake Michigan Region. This has many of the characteristics of the Lake Erie steel area. But it also fulfils the supply and processing functions typical of the Eastern Interior as a whole. In both roles Chicago dominates the Interior, with more than 5 per cent of United States industrial employment.

Michigan. The state's manufacturing is dominated by the automobile industry. Nearly 30 per cent of Michigan's industrial workers is associated directly with it, and in Detroit this figure rises to over 30 per cent. Branches of the industry are to be found scattered widely throughout the state.

The Cities of the Western Interior, among which the most important are Winnipeg, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Kansas City and St. Louis. These cities and scores of lesser centers, perform in nearly every case the same double function. They serve as regional supply points, and they participate in the Mid-West's basic industries - meat packing, flour milling, and the production of agricultural machinery.

The South-Eastern Region, a wide horseshoe round the southern end of the Appalachians. It has been the scene of much recent development, powered by hydro-electricity and Southern petroleum, and specializations in cotton textiles, tobacco, chemicals and plastics.

The Texas and Gulf Coast Region. This industrial area is of recent growth, and its resources and facilities have already attracted a wide variety of plants to the coast and to the island oilfield regions.

The Pacific Coast. As another new industrial area, the Coast has developed a wide range of products for both local and national markets. Three types of industries are developed there: food processing, lumber manufacturing, and transport equipment.

  1.  Render into English.
    1.  Уолл-стрит в Нью-Йорке является символом американской экономики.
    2.  Экономика США - крупнейшая и одна из наиболее диверсифицированных национальных экономик мира, она также является локомотивом мировой экономики.
    3.  ВВП страны за 2009г. составил $14,0 трлн. Основная роль в принятии экономических решений принадлежит публичным корпорациям и частным компаниям.
    4.  Большая часть американского ВВП (79,4 % - 2004 г.) создается в отраслях сферы услуг, куда относятся, прежде всего, образование, здравоохранение, наука, финансы, торговля, различные профессиональные и личные услуги, транспорт и связь, услуга государственных учреждений.
    5.  На долю материального производства (сельское хозяйство, лесное хозяйство и рыбная промышленность, добывающая и обрабатывающая промышленность, строительство), таким образом, остается 20,6 % ВВП. В сфере сельского хозяйства создаётся около 0,9 % ВВП, а промышленность даёт менее 20 % ВВП.
    6.  Среди развитых стран мира США практически не имеет конкурентов по своему индустриальному развитию. Общая закономерность происходящих отраслевых сдвигов заключается в заметном снижении в экономике удельного веса сырьевых отраслей и сельского хозяйства. Среди отраслей материальной сферы промышленность остается важнейшей, она по-прежнему обеспечивает высокий уровень технического развития других сфер хозяйства. Именно в ней сегодня в первую очередь аккумулируются новейшие достижения НТП. США располагают одним из самых высокоэффективных хозяйств в мире. Отличительной чертой их экономики является ориентация на НТП и передовую технику. Она лидирует в области внедрения результатов НТП в производство, в экспорте лицензий на свои открытия, изобретения и новейшие разработки. Все это зачастую приводит к зависимости других стран от США в области науки и техники.

  1.  Review the information you’ve got from Lesson 3. Summarize it using the suggested words and word combinations.

A free enterprise system, the nation’s income and productivity, in real purchasing power, the gross national product, per capita, to support, economic activity, to account for, in private hands, improved farm machinery, to be in the labor force, more service-oriented, to subsidize, a major share of the nation’s processing, the state’s manufacturing, to be dominated by/


LESSON 4. Education

Grammar: Порядок слов в предложении.

Phonetics: Фразовое ударение

Before you read the text see if you know answers to the following questions.

Do the Americans have universal access to quality education?

How are the schools controlled and directed throughout the country?

What does preschool education include?

How long do elementary and secondary education last?

What subjects do American pupils study in the elementary school?

What subjects does the curriculum of secondary schools include?

What types of schools are there in the USA?

Where do public schools get their support from?

How are private schools run?

Is higher education popular among the Americans?

What are the oldest and the most famous American universities?

Read the text “Education IN THE USA” and translate it into Russian.

Education IN THE USA

The typical American student spends six hours a day, five days a week, and 180 days a year in school. Children in the United States start preschool or nursery school at age four or under. Most children start kindergarten at five years of age.

Students attend elementary schools (grades one through six) and then middle school or junior high school (grades seven through nine). Secondary, or high schools, are usually 10th through 12th grades (ages 15 through 18).

Students may attend either public schools or private schools. About 83 percent of Americans graduate from secondary schools and 60 percent continue their studies and receive some form of post-high school education. Approximately 20.3 percent graduates from four-year colleges and universities.

School attendance is required in all 50 states. In 32 states, students must attend school until they are 16 years old. In nine other states, the minimum age for leaving school is 17. Eight states require schooling until the age of 18, while one state allows students to leave school at 14.

Each year the states spend some $33.31 million on schools and provide a free public education for 29.1 million primary-school pupils and 11.4 million youth in secondary schools. (In addition, 8.3 million youths attend private primary and secondary schools.) Approximately 60 percent of the students who graduate from secondary schools attend colleges and universities, 77.2 percent of which is supported by public funds. The U.S. leads the world in the percentage of the population that receives a higher education. Total enrollment in schools of higher learning is 13.4 million.

How are American schools changing? The quality of education in the United States has often been debated in the course of American history. During the 1960s and 1970s, many schools offered a wide variety of nonacademic courses, such as "driver's education" and "marriage and family living." Educators were worried that students were not taking enough "academic" courses, such as mathematics and English. Many other reports soon came out with recommendations calling for stricter high school requirements.

In the early 1980s, the United States National Commission on Excellence in Education issued a report called "A Nation at Risk," reporting that "a rising tide of mediocrity threatens our very future as a nation." Educators were worried that students were not learning as much as they should. Scores on high school seniors' Scholastic Aptitude Tests (college entrance examinations) had declined almost every year. "A Nation at Risk" also reported that 13 percent of 17-year-olds was functionally illiterate (unable to read and write).

Schools began to answer the challenge. Most states and school districts have passed new, more demanding standards that students must meet before they can graduate from high school. Most high schools now require four years of English, three years each of mathematics, science and social studies, one-and-one-half years of computer science and up to four years of a foreign language.

Business organizations, realizing that their future employees needed skills that could be learned in schools, pitched in to help. In Boston, for example, the business community offered jobs and scholarships to students who stayed in school to graduate. In other communities, companies "adopted" certain schools, usually in low-income areas, and provided tutoring, scholarships and other help. By 1988, there were 141,000 educational "partnerships." According to the U.S. Department of Education, more than 40 percent of the nation's schools and 9 million students are involved in some sort of partnership program. Corporations have also given grants to universities to improve teacher education.

Educators believe that these and other methods improving education are beginning to show results, and that U.S. schools are at least reversing the previous decline. Tests showed that student achievement in science and mathematics, which had declined during the 1970s, improved during the 1980s - although performance in reading and writing either declined or stayed the same. Average scores on the mathematics section of the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (college entrance exams) increased by a significant ten points between 1980 and 1990 - although they were still substantially below the average in 1970. But scores on the verbal section of the test hovered around the 1980 level - more than thirty points below the 1970 level. Critics point out that U.S. students consistently score lower on academic tests - especially in math and science - than their counterparts in Europe and Japan. They believe the longer school year and more rigorous requirements in those other countries produce superior achievement. And they cite a study by the National Institute of Mental Health which showed that high school seniors had spent more time in front of a television screen (15,000 hours) than they had spent in school (11,000 hours).

High school students can take vocational courses that prepare them to perform specific jobs, such as that of a carpenter or an automobile mechanic. Advanced courses prepare other students for university or college study. Special education (for the handicapped student) is offered in most schools. Schools enroll about three million handicapped students.

At least 85 percent of all public high schools has computers. Students are writing computer programs and creating charts, art and music on computers.

Many parents are involved in working for better quality education in the United States. Parents are joining parent-teacher organizations, tutoring their children, raising money for special programs and helping to keep schools in good repair.

Vocabulary on the text

аdopt, v  зд. создавать

carpenter, n  плотник, столяр

counterpart, n  1) аналог 2) коллега, человек, находящийся на аналогичной должности или выполняющий сходную работу (Syn: opposite number) 3) противная сторона (в процессе)

debate, v  1) обсуждать, дискутировать, полемизировать; спорить (Syn: argue) 2) обдумывать; рассматривать (что-л.); думать (о чем-л.), размышлять (над чем-л.) (Syn: discuss)

decline, v  1) а) идти к концу; приходить в упадок; ухудшаться (Syn: decay, wane, diminish, deteriorate) б) уменьшаться, идти на убыль; спадать (о температуре) (Syn: decrease) 2) падать морально

enroll, v  1) становиться членом (какой-л. организации), записываться, вступать в члены (какой-л. организации) 2) вносить в список (членов какой-л. организации и т. п.); регистрировать

enrollment, n  прием (регистрация) в университет (колледж) cтудентов и аспирантов

functionally, adv.  1) функционально, с функциональной точки зрения 2) при исполнении служебных обязанностей

handicapped, adj.  физически или умственно неполноценный (особенно о детях)

hover, v  1) колебаться, быть нестабильным, неопределённым (о данных, процентах, ценах) 2) находиться в состоянии нерешительности, неопределённости; мешкать

illiterate  1. n 1) неграмотный (человек) 2) неуч; невежда, недоучка (Syn: ignoramus) 2. adj. 1) неграмотный, не умеющий писать и читать 2) невежественный, необразованный; мало знающий (Syn: uneducated, ignorant) 3) безграмотный, изобилующий ошибками (о письме, речи)

improve, v  1) улучшаться; совершенствоваться; поправляться, налаживаться 2) улучшать; совершенствовать; поправлять, налаживать (Syn: amend, better, make better) (Ant: deteriorate, worsen)

increase, v  1) возрастать, увеличиваться; расти; усиливаться (Syn: grow, raise) 2) увеличивать; усиливать (Syn: enlarge, extend, intensify)

involve, v  1) а) привлекать, вовлекать, б) касаться, затрагивать 2) а) погружаться (в размышление, решение задачи), увлекаться (чем-л.) б) увлекаться (кем-л.) 3) включать в себя, содержать (Syn: include, contain)

issue, v  выпускать, издавать; пускать в обращение

kindergarten, n  детский сад.

lead, v  1) возглавлять, руководить, управлять, командовать (Syn: direct, conduct, manage, control, head, command) 2) опережать

partnership, n  1) сотрудничество working partnership - тесное сотрудничество, совместное действие 2) компания, товарищество

pitch, v  (in) 1) энергично браться за (что-л.), налегать на (что-л.) 2) вносить свою долю, вклад (Syn: muck in) 3) подключаться; ввязываться (в дело, в драку) scholarship, n  стипендия

recommendation, n  1) рекомендация 2) совет (авторитетная просьба) (Syn: proposal).

requirement, n  1) требование; необходимое условие 2) надобность, необходимость, нужда, потребность (Syn: need, want)

reverse, v  1) а) перевёртывать, переворачивать; опрокидывать; ставить с ног на голову б) давать задний или обратный ход; реверсировать 2) а) поворачиваться в противоположном направлении, разворачиваться б) поворачивать в противоположном направлении, разворачивать 3) изменять, менять; изменять на прямо противоположное 4) аннулировать, отменять (Syn: revoke, abrogate, undo)

rigorous, adj.  1) строгий; неумолимый; безжалостный (Syn: austere, stern, strict) 2) доскональный, скрупулёзный, тщательный; неукоснительный. (Syn: careful, thorough, scrupulous) 4) точный (Syn: exact, precise, accurate)

score, n  1. 1) счёт очков 2) основание, причина (Syn: reason, ground). 3) реальное положение дел, точная информация

substantially, adv.  1) по существу; в основном; большей частью; главным образом (Syn: in the main) 2) существенно, в значительной степени 3) крепко, сильно, прочно (Syn: strongly)

support, v  1) поддерживать; содержать (материально); 2) поддерживать (морально); помогать, содействовать, способствовать (Syn: encourage, stand by, back up) 3) оказывать поддержку

threaten smth (smb), v  1) грозить, угрожать (чем-л.) 2) представлять опасность, быть угрозой. 3) предвещать

tide, n  . 1) а) прилив и отлив (на море, океане) б) приток и отток (жидкости, воздуха и т. п.) в) время между приливом и отливом или между двумя приливами 2) а) поток, течение б) течение, развитие, общее направление (событий и т. п.) (Syn: flow) 3) волна, подъём on the tide of public enthusiasm - на волне всеобщего воодушевления (Syn: wave, breaker)

tutor, n  1) преподаватель, наставник (в школе) 2) руководитель группы (в университете) 3) репетитор 4) опекун, попечитель

worry, v  1) беспокоиться, волноваться 2) беспокоить, волновать

advanced course = advanced studies  продвинутый курс, занятия для продолжающих обучение

answer the challenge  решать проблему

be involved in  быть вовлеченным; быть причастным (к); заниматься

computer science  компьютерная грамота (информатика)

continue studies  продолжать учёбу

drivers education подготовка водителя

free public education  бесплатное образование

graduate from, v  - окончить университет

high public school = public school  муниципальная школа.

in good repair  в хорошем состоянии; в исправном состоянии;

junior school  начальная школа (для детей от 7 до 11 лет; государственная; существует самостоятельно или в составе общей начальной школы [primary school])

leave school  оканчивать школу

marriage and family living супружество и семейная жизнь

meet standards  удовлетворять нормам

middle school  "промежуточная школа" Один из этапов обучения по схеме "начальная школа [elementary school] - промежуточная школа - четырехлетняя средняя школа [4-year high school (high school)]".

pass standards  принимать нормы

private school 1. частная школа 2. частный (платный) колледж или университет 

public funds  государственные средства

receive education  получить образование

science study  естествознание

secondary high school = high school  1. средняя школа 9-12-й классы общеобразовательной школы с четырехлетним сроком обучения (возраст 14-17 или 15-18 лет), дающая также некоторые профессиональные навыки 2. старшая средняя школа 10-12-й классы в школе с трехлетним сроком обучения (возраст 15-17 или 16-18 лет).

take course, v  изучать курс, заниматься на курсах

verbal section  устный раздел

vocational course  профессиональный курс

Phonetic exercises

Read the sentences paying attention to the intonation.

School attendance is required in all 50 states.

Many parents are involved in working for better quality education in the United States.

High school students can take vocational courses that prepare them to perform specific jobs.

Tests showed that student achievement in science and mathematics, which had declined during the 1970s, improved during the 1980s.

Corporations have also given grants to universities to improve teacher education.

Most states and school districts have passed new, more demanding standards that students must meet before they can graduate from high school.

Practise reading the following words and word combinations.

Preschool, nursery, kindergarten, elementary schools, elementary schools, middle school, junior high school, secondary school, high school, public school, private school, require, parents, university, college, high school, the National Institute of Mental Health, the Scholastic Aptitude Tests, Europe, Japan, U.S. Department of Education, the United States National Commission on Excellence in Education, issue.

Grammar exercises

Read the sentences and translate them into Russian. In each sentence point out the Subject and the Predicate.

  1.  Students may attend either public schools or private schools.
  2.  Special education (for the handicapped student) is offered in most schools.
  3.  In nine other states, the minimum age for leaving school is 17.
  4.  How are American schools changing?
  5. &