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Step up. (Английский). Учебно-методическое пособие

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Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для обучения английскому языку студентов 1 курса естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений. Пособие ориентировано на студентов, не изучавших английский язык ранее. Основная цель пособия – формирование базовых грамматических и речевых навыков.

Английский

2015-11-03

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РОССИЙСКАЯ ФЕДЕРАЦИЯ

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

ТЮМЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ ЕСТЕСТВЕННЫХ ФАКУЛЬТЕТОВ

Е.Н. Абдразакова, Н.А. Гаркуша

Step up

Иностранный язык (английский)

Учебно-методическое пособие

для студентов естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений

Издательство

Тюменского государственного университета

2010


УДК 811.111 (075.8)

ББК Ш 143.21-923

А 139

Абдразакова Е.Н., Гаркуша Н.А. Step up Иностранный язык (английский). Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений. Тюмень: Издательство Тюменского государственного университета, 2010. –  82 с.

Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для обучения английскому языку студентов 1 курса естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений. Пособие ориентировано на студентов, не изучавших английский язык ранее. Основная цель пособия – формирование базовых грамматических и речевых навыков.

Рекомендовано к изданию кафедрой иностранных языков естественных факультетов. Утверждено проректором по учебной работе Тюменского государственного университета.

ОТВЕТСТВЕННЫЙ РЕДАКТОР: Е.Г. Брунова, доктор филол. наук, профессор кафедры иностранных языков естественных факультетов ТюмГУ

РЕЦЕНЗЕНТЫ:  Н.П. Скопич, ассистент кафедры иностранных языков естественных факультетов ТюмГУ

 Л.П. Пащенко канд. пед. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков МИФУБ ТюмГУ

© ГОУ ВПО Тюменский государственный университет, 2010.

© Е.Н. Абдразакова, Н.А. Гаркуша, 2010.


ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Настоящее учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений. Пособие ориентировано на студентов, не изучавших ранее английский язык. Данная разработка рекомендуется для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов.

Целью пособия является формирование у студентов базовых грамматических и речевых навыков.

Пособие состоит из четырех разделов, включающих в себя грамматический и лексический материал. В пособии рассмотрены следующие лексические темы: «О себе», «Мой день», «Путешествия», «Образование, наука и технологии». Грамматический материал представлен следующими темами: спряжение глаголов to be / to have, образование множественного числа существительных, числительное, местоимение, структура there be, а так же рассмотрена группа настоящих времен (Simple, Continuous, Perfect) и прошедшее время Past Simple. Каждый раздел включает в себя несколько текстов по теме и грамматический минимум, в который входят таблицы, представляющие материал и упражнения. Упражнения составлены с учетом текущей лексической темы, что позволяет лучше закрепить отрабатываемый материал. Темы представлены в зависимости от степени сложности в соответствии с требованиями учебно-методического комплекса, рабочей учебной программой для студентов естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений начинающих изучать английский язык.

При отборе материала соблюдались принципы, отвечающие современным требованиям методики обучения иностранным языкам: мотивация, коммуникативность и интегрированный подход.


CONTENTS

UNIT 1. PERSONAL BACKGROUND………………………………………..….5

1.1 Speaking and reading: ABOUT MYSELF; Grammar: to be / to……….….5

1.2 Speaking and reading: FAMILY; Grammar: Degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs; Nouns in plural……………………………………..….13

1.3 Speaking and reading: FLAT; Grammar: Numerals; there + to be….......25

UNIT 2. ROUTINE ACTIVITIES………………………………………………….33

2.1 Speaking and reading: MY DAY; Grammar: Pronouns; Present Simple..35

2.2 Speaking and reading: LEISURE ACTIVITIES; Grammar: Past Simple..42

UNIT 3. TRAVELLING…………………………………………………..……..…50

3.1 Speaking and reading: WAYS OF TRAVELLING; Grammar: Prepositions……………………………………………………………………......50

3.2 Speaking and reading: TRAVELLER’S STORY Grammar: Present Continuous………………………………………………….……………………...52

UNIT 4. EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY……………………...60

4.1 Speaking and reading: THE FIRST UNIVERSITY IN RUSSIA…………..60

4.2 Speaking and reading: STEVE JOBS……………………………………....65

4.3 Speaking and reading: LINUS TORVALDS; Grammar: Present Perfect............................................................................................................70

4.4 Speaking and reading: BILL AND STEVE – TWO MEN AND A DESTINY…………………………………………………………………………76

APPENDIX…………………………………………………………………………79

BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………...……………………………..……………81


UNIT 1. PERSONAL BACKGROUND

1.1. ABOUT MYSELF

1. Study the vocabulary, read the words aloud

Vocabulary

a surname ['sɜ:neɪm] – фамилия

double ['dʌbl] – двойной

a housewife ['hauswaɪf] – домохозяйка

kinds of sport ['kaɪndz əv 'spɔ:t] – виды спорта

favorite ['feɪv(ə)rɪt] – любимый

swimming ['swɪmɪŋ] – плавание

a pool [pu:l] – бассейн

to enjoy [ɪn'ʤɔɪ], [en-] – наслаждаться

also ['ɔ:lsəu] – тоже, также

I’m fond of [aɪ’m fɔnd əv] – я увлекаюсь, мне нравиться

cycling ['saɪklɪŋ] – езда на велосипеде

to rent a flat [rent ə flæt] – снимать квартиру

to be at home [bɪ ət həum] – быть дома

to be late [bɪ leɪt] - опаздывать

a lesson ['les(ə)n] - урок

friendly ['frendlɪ] - дружелюбный

generous ['ʤen(ə)rəs] – великодушный, благородный, добрый

to be ill [bɪ ɪl]

modern ['mɔd(ə)n] – современный, новый

properly ['prɔp(ə)lɪ] – должным образом, как следует, правильно

2. Read the words, translate them into Russian

Classical ['klæsɪk(ə)l], piano [pɪ'ænəu], Mathematics [‚mæθ(ə)'mætɪks], student ['stju:dənt], address [ə'dres], sport [spɔ:t], hobby ['hɔbɪ], Physics ['fɪzɪks].

3. Read the text about Helen Pavlova. Find the words from the vocabulary in the text. Look up the unknown words in the dictionary

My name is Helen. My surname is Pavlova. I’m seventeen. I study at the university. I am a first-year student of Tyumen State University. My address is 11 Profsoyusnaya Street. My phone number is three-seven-double five-nine-eight (37-55-98).

I live with my family, that is, my father, my mother and my eleven-year-old sister Masha.

My father is a programmer and my mother is a housewife. Masha is a schoolgirl. We have a dog and, like many people, a cat.

I like all kinds of sport. My favorite hobby is swimming; I go to the swimming pool three times a week.

I enjoy watching TV and I’m also fond of reading and cycling. I like listening to classical music very much. I can play the piano.

My favourite lessons are Mathematics, Physics and English.

4. Find the correct answer to the question

  1.  What is Helen’s surname?

Her surname is     a. Pavlova b. Petrova  c. Polyakova

  1.  How old is she?

Helen is      a.  fifteen   b. seventeen c. nineteen

  1.  Where does she live? What’s her address?

Helen lives in     a. Respublika Street   b. Lenina Street    c. Profsoyusnaya Street

  1.  What is Helen’s telephone number?

Helen’s telephone number is   a. 37-55-90    b. 34-55-90  c. 37-88-90

  1.  What does Helen’s mother do?

Her mother is a       a. teacher   b. accountant   c. housewife

  1.  What does Helen’s father do?

Helen’s father is a     a. engineer   b. programmer   c. designer

  1.  What is her sister’s name?

Her name is  a. Masha   b. Sveta   c. Oksana

8. What music does Helena like?

She likes        a. rock music  b. popular music  c. classical music

9. What is Helena’s favorite hobby?

Her hobby is      a. reading  b. swimming  c. dancing

5. This is the first day at the university and students try to know each other. Read the dialogue, act it out

  •  Hello! My name is Simon, and what is your name?
  •  Hello, Simon, my name is Masha Smirnova. What is your surname?
  •  My surname is Sokolov. How old are you, Masha? I am seventeen years old.
  •  I am seventeen years old too. Where do you live?
  •  I live in Permyakova Street, and where do you live, Masha?
  •  I live in the centre of the city in Lenin Street. Do you like to listen to the music, Simon?
  •  Yes, I do. I like to listen to classical music, but sometimes I listen to rock music.
  •  Oh, that is nice! Well, the lesson starts, let’s go to the classroom.
  •  Let’s go.

6. In pairs, compose the dialogue asking each other as many questions as possible. You have 5 minutes to get ready. Act your dialogue in front of the class

7. Study the table

TO BE

Личное местоимение

Present Simple

Past Simple

Future Simple

I (я)

am [æm]

was [wɔz]

will be

We (мы)

are [a:]

were [wɜ:]

You (ты, вы)

They (они)

He (он)

She (она)

It –неодуш. (он, она, оно)

is

was

Example: He is a student. – Он (есть) студент.

   They were students. – Они были студентами.

   We will be students. – Мы будем студентами.

8.  Say  the  same  sentences  about  persons  or  subjects  given

in brackets

Example: I am here (my friend, parents, Masha).

 My friend is here.

 Parents are here.

 Masha is here.

1. I am late (he, you, they). 2. He is good at languages (you, Mary, I). I am Russian (we, Kate, he). 3. I am fond of music (my friend, my parents, you). 4. I am a first-year student (he, you, my sister). 5. We are at home (my cat, I, my brothers). 6. My father is busy (teachers, I, a boy). 7. We are proud of our University (I, she, my parents). 8. I am happy (she, you, they). 9. I am tired (my mother, you, girls). 10. She is cold (you, I, my dog).

9. Say what was in the past using the words given in brackets

Example: I am in Tyumen (a year ago).

 I was in Tyumen a year ago.

1. My friend is fond of reading and cycling (some years ago). 2. They are pleased with their travelling (last summer). 3. Our teacher is always busy (yesterday). 4. I am good at mathematics (when I was at school). 5. The girl is afraid of darkness (when she was a child). 6. My friends are school-leavers (two years ago). 7. Her mother is a teacher (some years ago). 8. My father is a programmer (five years ago). 9. My sister is afraid of mice (when she was a little girl). 10. You are on duty today (yesterday).

10. Say what will be in future using the words given in brackets

Example: I am in Tyumen (in a week).

 I will be in Tyumen in a week.

1. I am free (in a day or two). 2. She is a student (next year). 3. We are busy (on Monday). 4. Our dean is at his office (in ten minutes). 5. We are at home (at three o’clock). 6. Our new building is very nice (in a year). 7. She is busy (tomorrow). 8. The English students are here (next week). 9. His work is well-done (tomorrow). 10. My brother is in London (in some days).

11. Say it in English

 1. Я – студент(-ка) первого курса. В прошлом году я был(а) школьницей (-ком). 2. Я – из маленького городка. В Тюмени я буду арендовать квартиру. 3. Мои родители – учителя. 4. Мой отец всегда очень занят. 5. Моей сестре – двенадцать лет. Она очень хорошая ученица. 6. Я увлекаюсь музыкой и спортом. Моя сестра увлекается поп-музыкой. Она не интересуется классической музыкой. 7. Мне хорошо дается математика, а моя сестра способна к языкам, но ей не дается математика. 8. Мои родители сейчас дома. Вчера их не было. 9. Я никогда не опаздываю на занятия и не буду этого делать. 10. Я собираюсь стать математиком (физиком, химиком, биологом, географом).

12. Study the table 

Вопросительная и отрицательная форма предложений с TO BE

+

?

Present Simple

S + am / is (isn’t) / are not (aren’t)

Am / is / are + S

Past Simple

S + was / were not (weren’t)

Was / were + S

Future Simple

S + will not be  (won’t)

Will + S + be

Example: She is not a doctor. – Она не доктор.

  Is she a reporter? – Она журналист?

  It won’t be difficult. – Это не будет сложным.

  Will it be interesting? – Это будет интересно?

13. Fill in the gaps using Present, Past and Future Indefinite of the verb to be in the negative or interrogative forms

1. My sister … … at home tomorrow because she will be at her friends’. 2. … you … at school next week? 3. … your father at work yesterday? 4. My brother … ill last week but now he … … ill. 5. Where … your mother now? – She is in the kitchen. 6. Where … you yesterday? – I was at the cinema. 7. Where … your books now? – They are in my bag. 8. … he … in Tyumen the day after tomorrow? 9. What … your surname? 10. How old … you, Masha? - I am seventeen years old.

14. Translate from Russian into English using the verb to be in Present, Past and Future Indefinite in the negative or interrogative forms

1. Ты будешь дома завтра? 2. Она была вчера в Университете? 3. Моя мама вчера не была на работе. 4. Мне не нравится езда на велосипеде. 5. Сколько тебе лет, Вася? 6. Как твоя фамилия, мальчик? 7. Ваш преподаватель иностранного языка дружелюбный и великодушный? 8. Я уже не студент первого курса. 9. Меня не будет завтра на занятиях. 10. Нашего декана завтра не будет в офисе.

15. Study the table

TO HAVE

Местоимение

Present Simple

Past Simple

Future Simple

I (я)

We (мы)

You (ты, вы) They (они)

have (not) /

(haven’t)

had (not) /

(hadn’t)

will (not) have

(won’t have)

He (он)

She (она)

It (он, она, оно)

has (not) / (hasn’t)

Example: I have a brother. – У меня есть брат.

 I havent a cat. – У меня нет кошки.

 She has blue eyes. – У нее голубые глаза.

 He has not a book. – У него нет книги.

16. Use to have (have got) in the Present Indefinite in the negative or affirmative forms

1. They like animals. They … … three dogs and two cats. 2. They … … a very nice flat in Tyumen because they live in Surgut. 3. His mother is a housewife and she … a lot of work to do about the house. 4. Sarah … … a car. She goes everywhere by bicycle. 5. I can’t open the door. I … … a key. 6. Quick! Hurry! We … … much time. 7. I’m not going to work today. I … … a bad cold. 8. «What’s wrong?» «I … … something in my eye». 9. Julia wants to go on holiday but she … … any money. 10. Ben doesn’t read much. He … … many books at home.

17. Use to have (have got) in the Past Indefinite in the negative or affirmative forms

1. Yesterday we … … an English lesson because our teacher was ill. 2. They … … a test on Physics last week. 3. Alice went to the dentist because she … … a toothache. 4. I … a dog and a cat in my childhood. 5. It was a nice house but it … … a garden. 6. I … a lot of money last month. 7. I … a lot of free time last summer. 8. Charles wasn’t happy. He … a lot of problems. 9. We … modern computers in our classroom at Tyumen State University. 10. Julia wanted to go to the concert but she … … a ticket. 11. I ... many swimming trainings last year.

18. Use to have (have got) in the Future Indefinite in the negative or affirmative forms

1. His father … a farm in the North of England because he is a rich man. 2. I … a lot of problems with my exams if I study properly. 3. Next year I … many friends at the university. 4. Tomorrow my family … a lot of work to do about the house. 5. My modern flat … a kitchen, a sitting room, two bedrooms, a bathroom and a balcony. 6. I … my free time on Sunday because I’m going to visit my relatives. 7. My mother … breakfast at six o’clock tomorrow. 8. My brother … a shower after me in 15 minutes. 9. I … a new TV-set only next year. 10. My friends and I … a cup of tea in the evening. 11. The students of TSU ... practical classes because the professor is on the scientific conference. 12. I ... a lot of home work in English tomorrow.

19. Study the table 

Вопросительные предложения с глаголом TO HAVE / HAVE GOT

Present Simple

Have S (I, we, they, you) got?

Has S (he, she,it) got …?

Do S have…?

Does S (he,she,it) have ?

Past Simple

Had S got … ?

Did S have… ?

Future Simple

______

Will S have…?

Example: Have you got any questions? / Do you have any questions? – У вас есть какие-либо вопросы?

  Had she got the keys? / Did she have the keys? – У нее были ключи?

  Will you have time tomorrow? – У вас будет завтра время?

20. Use to have (have got) in the interrogative form

Example:  Have you got any brothers or sisters?

   Do you have any brothers or sisters?

1. … she … a family of her own? 2. How many children … your parents …? 3. … students of our groups … many English classes a week? 4. … our teacher … much paper on the desk? 5. … your friend … many good books at home? 6. … Tyumen … any historical places? 7. … your boy-friend … an English-Russian dictionary? 8. … he … many relatives in this town? 9. … we … a math lesson in the time-table? 10. … our University … any computer classrooms for students?

1.2. FAMILY

1. Study the vocabulary, read the words aloud

Vocabulary

to be generous ['ʤenərəs] – быть великодушным

to be warm-hearted [,wɔ:m 'ha:tɪd] – быть добродушным

to be lively ['laɪvlɪ] – быть веселым

to be handsome ['hænsəm] – быть красивым, статным (о мужчинах)

to have a good sense of humor ['hju:mə] – иметь хорошее чувство юмора

to graduate from ['grædjueɪt] – окончить университет

a postgraduate student ['pəust,grædjuət] – аспирант

separately ['seprətlɪ] – отдельно, индивидуально

to be retired [rɪ'taɪəd] – быть на пенсии

to take care of ['teɪk keə əv] – заботиться о ком-либо

a gift ['gɪft] – подарок

to get together ['get tə'geðə] – собираться вместе

a celebration [selə'breɪʃ(ə)n] – празднование

sport gear [sp ɔ: t 'gɪə] – спортивная одежда

to take seriously ['teɪk 'sɪərɪəslɪ] – воспринимать всерьез

to fall over – ['fɔ:l əuvə] – падать

2. Fill in the words to complete the sentences

• brother • family • father • mother • sister

  1.  This is John's
  2.  Bill is John's  
  3.  Anna is John's
  4.  Paul is John's  
  5.  Jane is John's  

3. Read the text. Find the words from the vocabulary in the text. Look up the unknown words in the dictionary

My family

My name is Roma. I’m seventeen years old, and I live with my family. My family is large. There are six of us: my mother, father, grandmother, sister, brother and me.

My dad’s name is Kirill. He is forty-five years old. He is very kind. He is generous, warm-hearted and very lively. He is the tallest in our family and has short dark hair and blue eyes. He is very handsome. He is a businessman. Dad is really getting into the Russian way of life. He just loves figure skating. Here he is wearing sport gear. He usually plays for fun, but takes it quite seriously sometimes. He is actually a really good skater.

It isn’t just Dad that loves the Russian way – here is my mother Natasha in her skating. She is skating every Saturday morning. She can go really fast and never falls over. She is forty-two. She has got long fair hair and dark eyes. She is very friendly and has a good sense of humor. She is very beautiful. My mother is a designer. She loves her job.

My sister Ann is ten years old. She is the youngest. She is at school. She is kind and friendly. She has got short hair and green eyes. Her hobby is swimming. Next week she is swimming in a local competition.

My elder brother is twenty-two. He is very handsome. He has big blue eyes and dark brown hair. He is fit and healthy. He graduated from the university. He is a postgraduate student. He is very serious. He lives separately in his own flat. He often calls us and we go to visit him.

My granny is retired. She is the eldest in the family. Her face is wrinkled and her hair is grey. She is very calm and optimistic. She helps mum to take care of us. My granny cooks very well. All of us try to help her. Dad often goes to the market. I wash the dishes. She likes to surprise us with little gifts.

I have an uncle, an aunt and three cousins. They live in a village. In spring and autumn we go to the country and help them.

We all get together for holidays and other celebrations.

We love each other very much. We are a happy and friendly family.

4. Answer the questions

  1.  Is Roma’s family large or small?
  2.  How many people are there in his family?
  3.  How old is Roma’s father?
  4.  What is his father’s name?
  5.  What does his father do?
  6.  What is Roma’s father like?
  7.  What does Roma’s mother do?
  8.  Does he have any brothers or sisters?
  9.  How old is his brother / sister?
  10.  Does he often meet his cousins?

11. How many aunts and uncles does Roma have?

5. Choose the correct response

Example: There are six people in my family.

A. Wow! We’re only 4.  B. They are great. C. Not much.

1. What does your dad do?

A. He is playing golf. B. He is a chemist. C. He’s cool.

2. What sports does your brother play?

A. in a band  B. T-shirts and trainers C. basketball and tennis

3. What are you and your family doing next weekend?

A. We’re going to a wedding.    B. We live in Tyumen.

C. We stay at our friends’.

4. Does your mum like cooking?

A. It’s awful.   B. Not really.  C. That’s true.

6. Bring family photographs and present your family and yourself to the class. Talk about

  •  your family (names, appearance, what they like doing)
  •  yourself
  •  sports you like playing
  •  your free-time activities
  •  clothes you like wearing
  •  your plans for next weekend

Hello! I’m ……….. . There are ………. people in my family. ………..

7. Read the text, answer the questions after it

You’re gorgeous!

For many in the 2010s superstar Angelina Jolie is the perfect dream girl: slim, tanned (загорелая) and natural-looking (естественно-выглядящая), with long, shiny hair. She could be described (может быть описана) as “The Face of the Decade”.

But people have not always had the same (одинаковые) ideas about beauty. Until 1920s, suntans (загар) were for poor people, “ladies” stayed out of (избегали) the sun to keep their faces as pale as possible. In the times of the Queen Elizabeth I of England, fashionable ladies even painted their faces with poisonous lead!

And people in the eighteenth century would not have thought (не могли бы и подумать) of Angelina Jolie’s hair! Ladies those days never went out without their wigs, which were so enormous (and dirty) that it was quite common (довольно обычным) to find mice living in them. As for the “perfect beauties” painted by Rubens in the seventeenth century, if they wanted to be supermodels today, they would need to spend months on a diet!

Ideas of beauty can be very different according to (согласно) where you live in the world, too. For the Paduang tribe in the South East Asia, traditionally, the most important sign of female beauty was a long neck. So at the age of five or six, girls received (получали) their first neck ring, and each year they added (добавляли) new rings. By the time (к тому времени когда) they were old enough to (достаточно взрослые для того чтобы) marry; their necks were about twenty-five centimeters long!

And what about (а что насчет) the ideal man? If you name an attractive man today, it will be someone like Brad Pitt or Dmitry Dyuzhev: someone tall and athletic, brave and “manly”.

In the eighteenth century however (однако), “manliness” was very different from what it is today. As well as wearing wigs, perfume and lots of make up, a true gentleman showed that he had feelings by crying frequently in public. According to one story, when the British Prime Minister, Lord Spenser Percival, came to give King George IV some bad news, both men sat down and cried!

And even now, James Bond might not find it so easy (могут найти не простым) to attract women if he visited the Dinka tribe of Sudan. They have always believed (они всегда верили) in the saying that “big is beautiful”. Traditionally, each year, men compete to win the title of “the fattest man”. The winner is sure to find (обязательно найдет) a wife quickly: for a Dinka woman, if the man is fat, it is also a sign that he is rich and powerful!

8. Which of the statements are true? Explain your answers

  1.  Pale skin was more popular than tanned skin until the twentieth century.
  2.  Elizabethan make-up was not very safe.
  3.  In the eighteen century most fashionable ladies liked mice.
  4.  Ladies in Rubens’ times probably never went on diets.
  5.  If Paduang women didn’t have a long neck, they couldn’t get married.
  6.  People in the eighteenth century thought that it was OK for men to cry.
  7.  Dinka women from Sudan think that thin men are very ugly.

9. Complete the diagram below with words from the text, add your own

10. Study the table

DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF AdjectiveS and Adverbs

Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий

Односложные, двусложные

Положительная степень

Positive

Сравнительная степень

Comparative

Превосходная степень

Superlative

-er [ə]

-est [ist]

kind – добрый

kinder

(the) kindest (of)

thin – тонкий

thinner

(the) thinnest (of)

nice – милый

heavyтяжелый

nicer

heavier

(the) nicest (of)

(the) heaviest (of)

fast – быстро

faster

(the) fastest

few – мало

fewer

(the) fewest

Example: He is faster today. – Он сегодня быстрее.

This suitcase is the heaviestЭто самый тяжелый чемодан.

Многосложные

Положительная степень

Positive

Сравнительная степень

Comparative

Превосходная степень

Superlative

more ….

(the) most….

talented – талантливый

more talented

(the) most talented

interesting  интересный

more interesting

(the) most interesting

Example: She is more talented than her brother. – Она более талантлива, чем ее брат.

This is the most interesting book of all. – Это самая интересная книга из всех.

Особые случаи

good – хороший

well  хорошо

better  лучше

(the) best – самый лучший

bad  плохой

badly  плохо

worse – хуже

(the) worst – самый худший

many (books) – много

much (money) – много

more  больше

(the) most – больше всех

little – мало

less  меньше

(the) least – меньше всего

old – старый

older  старше

elder  старше

(the) oldest –самый старый

(the) eldest – самый старший

Example: My elder sister is 24. – Моей старшей сестре 24 года.

 This is the oldest building in the city. – Это самое старое здание в городе.

Сравнительные структуры

Positive form

  1.   as…. as….
  2.  not so…. as….
  3.  the…. the….
  4.  either…. or….
  5.  neither….nor….
  6.  both…. and….
  1.  такой (же), как ….
  2.  не такой (же)…., как ….
  3.  чем…. тем…..
  4.  либо / или…. либо / или….
  5.  ни…. ни….
  6.  и….и….

Comparative form

  1.  to be….. than…..
  1.  быть, чем….

Example: Masha is as clever as Vova. – Маша такая же умная как Вова.

 The sooner the better.Чем быстрее, тем лучше.

 He is either good or bad.Он либо плохой, либо хороший.

 We are both optimistic and successful.Мы и оптимистичны и успешны.

11. Put the words in the correct order

1. My mother’s / my father / than / older. 2. I’m/from/very / my sister/different. 3. Her hair’s / mine / very / similar / to. 4. She’s / I know / nicest / the / person. 5. His nose is / mine / as / same / the.

12. Translate the sentences into Russian

  1.  This book is not so interesting as that one.
  2.  The more you read, the more you know.
  3.  My brother is not as tall as you are.
  4.  The earlier you get up, the more you do.
  5.  Your room is as big as mine.
  6.  John knows Russian as well as English.
  7.  Mary is not so lazy as her brother.
  8.  The longer the night is, the shorter the day.
  9.  The less people think, the more they talk.

13. Open the brackets using the comparative degree and comparative structures

Example:  I am older than my brother.

 My sister is as kind as me.

  1.  My father is (old) than my mother. 2. My sister is as (beautiful) as my mother. 3. I am not so (clever) as my father. 4. My granny cooks (well) than my sister. 5. My brother is (young) than me. 6. I am (friendly) than my brother. 7. My uncle is (handsome) than my father. 8.My mother is both (lively) and (warm-hearted).

14. Translate into English

1. У меня большая семья. 2. Дедушка – самый старший в семье. 3. Моя сестра выше меня. 4. Я такой же умный, как мой старший брат. 5. Мои родители добрые и щедрые. 6. Этот фильм интереснее. 7. Мой папа самый сильный в нашей семье. 8. Волосы моей сестры темнее, чем у меня. 9. Мой брат младше меня. 10. Моя сестра ниже, чем я.

15. Translate the phrases in bold. Complete the sentences about you and your family

Ex: Harriet is the youngest person in my family.

  1.  People often say I look like _____ . 2. I look very different from _____ .3. My hair is _____ my mother’s / sister’s. 4. My eyes are _____my brother’s / my grandmother’s. 5.I’m _____than my brother / sister / cousin. 6.My mother is _____ than my father. 7.My father is the _____ person in my family. 8.In my family, _____ is more organized than _____.

16. Make eight sentences about the people in your class using comparatives and superlatives. Use some of the ideas below.

Ex: Patrick has shorter hair than Stefan.

long / short hair   tall / short   young / old   dark / fair hair   big / small hands

heavy / light bag   number of rings   warm / cool clothes   bright / dark top

number of books    number of brothers and sisters

17. Study the table

Nouns in Plural (множественное число существительных)

a card

a lot of

cards

a box

boxes

a factory

factories

a shelf

a lot of

shelves

a wife

wives

a roof

roofs

a belief

beliefs

a child

a lot of

children

a man

men

a woman

women

a foot

feet

a tooth

teeth

a goose

geese

a mouse

mice

a phenomenon

phenomena

a datum

data

a penny

pence

an ox

oxen

a sheep

a lot of

sheep

a swine

swine

a deer

deer

a person

people

a fish

fish

NB: These things are plural in English

scissors  glasses  trousers  jeans  shorts

tights   pyjamas

Example: a pair of jeans or some jeans (not a new jeans)

18. Write the plural

church  sheep  restaurant   country

gentleman  leaf   wolf    man

goose  box   deer    swine

student  potato  cartoon   dress

child   woman  chicken   ox

19. Some of the sentences are right but most are wrong. Correct the sentences that are wrong

Example:  I’m going to buy some flowers. – OK.

I need a new jeans. – WRONG. – I need a new pair of jeans.  

Or   I need some new jeans.

1. It’s a lovely park with a lot of beautiful tree. 2. There was a woman in the car with two mens. 3. Sheep eat grass. 4. David is married and has three childs. 5. Most of my friend are student. 6. He put on his pajamas and went to bed. 7. We went fishing but we didn’t catch many fish. 8. Do you know many persons in this town? 9. I like your trouser.  Where did you get it? 10. The town centre is usually full of tourist. 11. I don’t like mice. I’m afraid of them. 12. These scissor isn’t very sharp.

20. Which is right? Complete the sentences

Example: It’s a nice place. Many people go there for a holiday. (go or goes?)

1. Some people ________ always late.  (is or are?)

2. The president is not popular. The people ________ like him. (don’t or doesn’t?)

3. A lot of people ________ television every day.  (watch or watches?)

4. Three people ________ injured in the accident.  (was or were?)

5. These gentlemen ________ my brother.  (know or knows?)

6. ________ the police carry guns in your country?   (Do or Does?)

7. ________ this goose big or small?   (Is or Are?)

8. I need my glasses but I can’t find ________ .  (it or them?)

9. I’m going to buy _________ new jeans today.  (a or some?)

10. The police _________ looking for the stolen car.  (is or are?)

1.3. Flat

1. Study the vocabulary, read the words aloud

Vocabulary

a flat [flæt] – квартира

a district ['dɪ strɪɪ kt] – район

a block of flats [blɔk ɔv flæts]  -многоквартирный дом

a floor  [flɔ:] – этаж

a living room ['lɪvɪŋrum] – гостиная, зал

a bedroom ['bedru:m] – спальня

a study ['stʌdɪ] – кабинет (в доме)

a nursery ['nɜ:s(ə)rɪ] – детская

a kitchen ['kɪʧɪn] – кухня

a bathroom ['bɑ:θru:m] – ванная комната

a hall [hɔ:l] – прихожая, холл

cosy ['kəuzɪ] – уютный

to overlook [əuvə'luk] – выходить на (об окнах)

a lot of [lɔt ɔv] – огромное количество (чего-л.,кого-л.)

a sofa ['səufə] – диван

an armchair [ɑ:m'ʧɛə] – кресло

a wall unit [wɔ:l 'ju:nɪt] – стенка (мебельная)

a carpet ['kɑ:pɪt] – ковер

a bed [bed] – кровать

a mirror ['mırə] – зеркало

a wardrobe ['wɔ:drəub] – платяной шкаф

furniture ['fɜ:nıʧə] – мебель

a desk [desk] – письменный стол

a bookcase ['bukkeıs] – книжный шкаф

a chair [ʧeə] – стул

a bookshelf ['bukʃelf] – книжная полка

a cupboard ['kʌbəd] шкаф, буфет

a cooker ['kukə] – плита

a fridge / a refrigerator [frıʤ] / [rı'frıʤ(ə)reıtə] – холодильник

comfortable ['kʌmf(ə)təbl] – удобный

modern ['mɔd(ə)n] – современный

convenience [kən'vı:nıəns] – удобство

2. Read the text, find the words from the vocabulary and make your own sentences with some of these words

Our flat

My name is Vova. I live in a new district of Tyumen with my father and mother. We live in a new block of flats. There are twelve floors in it. We live on the fourth floor. We have a very nice flat. There are four rooms in it: a living room, a bedroom, a study, a nursery, also there is a kitchen, a bathroom, a toilet and a hall.

The living room is not very large, but it is very cosy. It has got two windows. The windows overlook the street. There is a sofa, two armchairs, a wall unit and a TV set in the room. There is a beautiful carpet on the floor. There are two pictures on the wall.

In the bedroom there are two beds, two small tables and two lamps above the beds. There is also a mirror and a wardrobe in the room.

The furniture in my room is very simple: a wardrobe, a bookcase, a table and two chairs. The room is big.

The study is small. There is not much furniture there. There is a desk, a sofa, an armchair, a bookcase and many bookshelves. We have a lot of books. They are on the shelves and in the bookcase. There is a computer and a telephone there.

The kitchen is large. There is a cupboard, a cooker and a fridge there.

The bathroom is not very large. There is a shower, a bath and a toilet in it.

Our flat is very cosy and comfortable.

 

3. Fill in the gaps with the words from the text

  1.  I live in a new ______district of Tyumen with my father and mother.
  2.  There are four rooms in it: a living ______, a ______, a ______, a _______, also there is a _______, a bathroom, a toilet and a hall.
  3.  The windows ________ the street.
  4.  There is a sofa, two armchairs, a wall _______ and a TV _______ in the room.
  5.  There is also a ________ and a wardrobe in the room.
  6.  The furniture in my room is very ________ : a wardrobe, a ________, a table and two chairs.
  7.  The kitchen is large. There is a _________, a cooker and a _______ there.
  8.  The bathroom is not very large. There is a _________, a ________ and a toilet in it.

4. Say if the sentences are true or false

  1.  Vova lives in Tyumen with his grandmother and grandfather.
  2.  They live on the fourth floor.
  3.  There are four rooms in their flat.
  4.  In the bedroom there are three beds.
  5.  The furniture in Vova’s room is very simple: a wardrobe, a bookcase, a table and a sofa.
  6.  There is a lot of furniture in the study.
  7.  The kitchen is large. It has a cupboard, a cooker and a lamp.
  8.  The bathroom is not very large, there is a shower and a toilet there.

5. What appliances and furniture do you have in your flat? Fill in the table with the words from the text and add your own

Living room

Hall

Bathroom

Bedroom

Study

Kitchen

  1.  TV set
  2.  Sofa
  3.  Armchair
  4.  ______
  1.  ____
  2.  ____
  3.  ____

6. Compare your answers with your partner’s. Tell about your flat. Use the structure “There is / there are

Example: There is a TV set a sofa and two armchairs in the living room.

7. Match these words with the letters on the picture

kitchen  bathroom  toilet  living room   hall

balcony  bedroom

Example: kitchen - c

8. Find these things in the picture. What other things are there in the house? Example: a table – 4

 a table  a chair a fridge  a shower a sofa a picture

a bed  a bath a cooker

9. In pairs look at the picture for one minute and try to remember all the items presented there, then: Student A: close your book. Student B: ask your partner what is in each room.

Example: Student B: What's in the bedroom?

Student A: There's a bed, two chairs ...

10. Study the table

THE NUMERALS (Числительные)

Количественные числительные

Порядковые числительные

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

one – один

two – два

three – три

four

five

six

seven

eight

nine

ten

eleven

twelve

thirteen

fourteen

fifteen

sixteen

seventeen

eighteen

nineteen

twenty

the first – первый

the second – второй

the third  третий

the fourth

the fifth

the sixth

the seventh

the eighth

the ninth

the tenth

the eleventh

the twelfth

the thirteenth

the fourteenth

the fifteenth

the sixteenth

the seventeenth

the eighteenth

the nineteenth

the twentieth

11. Look at the table. Say which floor the people are on

Example: Student A: Which floor is Ann on?

Student B: She is on the third floor.

8

Tony

7

John and Bob

6

Mary and Helen

5

Billy

4

Linda

3

Ann

2

Steve

1

Peter and Lucy

Ground floor

12. Translate into English

1. Мы живем на четвертом этаже. 2. В комнате десять стульев. 3. Эта книга третья на полке. 4. Два стула, диван и столик стоят в гостиной. 5. Магазинна первом этаже нашего дома. 6. Деканат института математики и компьютерных наук находится на втором этаже.

13. Draw a plan of your house or flat. Draw the items from Exercise 2 on your plan, and any other things you have (a CD player, a computer, a TV, a video). Tell your partner about your house or flat

Example: In my flat there are three bedrooms. There's a TV in the kitchen. We don't have a garden. We have two bathrooms.

14. Study the table

Форма всех типов предложений с оборотом THERE + TO BE

+

?

Present Ind.

There is/are

There is/are not

(isn’t / aren’t)

Is/Are there …

Past Ind.

There was/were

There was/were not

(wasn’t / weren’t)

Was/were there …

Future Ind.

There will be

There will not be

(won’t be)

Will there be …

Example: There is a car in the garage. – В гараже стоит машина.

There were not many chairs in the sitting-room. – В гостиной было немного стульев.

Will there be much snow in the winter? – Зимой будет много снега?

15. Fill in the gaps with suitable noun-phrases

 a dean’s office; a computer; a lot of students; English-Russian dictionaries; a lot of snow; a few exams; many historical places; a meeting; old houses; a library; not much furniture; modern conveniences; journals; English classes

1. There is ___ on the second floor. 2. There are ___ in the corridor. 3. There is ___ in the classroom. 4. There are ___ in the bookcase. 5. There are ___ in our town. 6. There are ___ in the library. 7. There was ___ on the ground last winter. 8. There were ___ last week. 9. There was ___ at our University. 10. There will be ___ this spring. 11. There were ___ in this street. 12. There is ___ in the room. 13. There are all ___ in our house. 14. There is ___ on the first floor of this building.

16. Ask questions to get information. Use the words in brackets

Example: There are (were) many churches in this town (your town).

Are –

 there many churches in your town?

Were –

A: 1. There are (were) a lot of bridges over the Thames (the Tura). 2. There are (were) a lot of monuments in Tobolsk (in your town). 3. There is (was) a computer class on the ground floor (a dean’s office). 4. There are (were) fifteen departments at our University (at our Institute). 5. There are (were) a lot of English-Russian dictionaries in our library (in the reading-hall).

Example: There will be a lecture on Mathematical analysis.

 Will there be a lecture on Mathematical analysis?

B: 1. There will be five exams this spring (next term). 2. There will be many dictionaries in our library (our reading-hall). 3. There will be many students at the lecture (at the seminar). 4. There will be a seminar next week (in a week). 5. There will be a meeting in this room (in the hall).

17. Disagree with the following statements

Example: There will be a lecture on Theoretical Mechanics.

 There will not be a lecture on Theoretical Mechanics or

There will be no lecture on Theoretical Mechanics.

 1. There is a text on this page. 2. There is a secretary at the dean’s office. 3. There were English classes yesterday. 4. There were some students at the conference. 5. There will be some mistakes in my test. 6. There will be a church in this street. 7. There will be many exams next summer.

18. Translate into English

1. В нашем городе много красивых и новых зданий. 2. В центре города находится новая библиотека. 3. В нашем университете пятнадцать факультетов. 4. В нашем институте учится около 1300 студентов. 5. В нашем доме было много старой мебели, но в следующем году будет два новых дивана и четыре кресла. 6. Рядом с нашим домом скоро будет новый микрорайон. 7. В нашей новой кухне будет холодильник, кухонная стенка и стол. 8. Вчера на лекции было много студентов. 9. Весной у нас будет пять зачетов и три экзамена. 10. В нашем университете больше пятидесяти специальностей. 11. На втором этаже висит расписание занятий. 12. В библиотеке много книг, журналов и словарей. 13. В моем тесте по английскому языку было допущено десять ошибок.


UNIT 2. ROUTINE ACTIVITIES

TIMETABLE

1. Study the scheme, read the sentences, translate them into Russian

Example: It is ten to twelve. – Без десяти двенадцать.

 Its seven fifteen. – Семь часов, пятнадцать минут.

 Its eleven sharp. – Ровно одиннадцать.

1. It’s a quarter to twelve. 2. It’s twenty minutes to twelve. 3. It’s half past eleven. 4. It’s a quarter past twelve. 5. It’s ten sharp. 6. It’s three o’clock. 7. It’s half past eight. 8. It’s three fifteen. 9. It’s two thirty. 10. It’s ten past eleven.

2. Tell in English

  1.   8.05; 8.10; 8.15; 9.20; 9.25; 9.30; 10.00; 10.35; 10.40; 10.45.
  2.  1. Без двадцати двенадцать. 2. Без четверти три. 3. Половина пятого. 4. Четверть седьмого. 5. Десять минут второго. 6. Ровно двенадцать часов. 7. Без четверти девять. 8. Семь часов тридцать пять минут. 9. Одиннадцать часов сорок восемь минут. 10. Половина четвертого.

a.m. (ante meridiem) – до полудня; e.g.: 10 a.m. – Десять часов утра.

p.m. (post meridiem) – после полудня; e.g.: 6 p.m. – Шесть часов вечера.

midday - двенадцать часов дня, полдень.

midnight - двенадцать часов ночи, полночь.

3. Study the time-table. Make a time-table for your working day

I wake up at 7 o’clock every morning.

My lessons begin at 8 o’clock in the morning.

I am at the lesson at 9 a.m.

I have lunch at the university canteen.

I go to the library at 2 p.m.

My lessons are over. I am free. I go home at 3 o’clock. 

I do my homework at 4 p.m.

I have dinner with my family.

I meet my friends.

I go to bed.

4. Ask your partner about his/her working day

Example:  - What time do you usually wake up?

       - Usually I wake up at 6 a.m.

       - When do you usually have breakfast?

       - ……

5. Match English and Russian words

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Пятница

Суббота

Понедельник

Четверг

Воскресенье

Среда

Вторник

6. Answer the questions as in the example

  1.  When is your birthday this year?
  2.  What is your lucky day of the week?
  3.  What is the hardest day for you?
  4.  What day of the week do you like?

Example: This year my birthday is on Wednesday. My lucky day of the week is Thursday. The hardest day of the week for me is Monday. I like Friday.

2.1. My Day

7. Study the vocabulary. Read the words aloud

Vocabulary

usually ['ju:ʒ(ə)lɪ] – обычно

sometimes ['sʌmtaɪmz] – иногда

enough [ɪ'nʌf] – достаточно

shower ['ʃəuə] – душ

always ['ɔ:lweɪz] – всегда

only ['əunlɪ] – только

never ['nevə] – никогда

cloakroom ['kləukrum] – гардероб

as a rule [æz ə ru:l] – как правило

canteen [kæn'ti:n] – столовая

twice [twaɪs] – дважды

team [ti:m] – команда

gymnasium [ʤɪm'neɪzɪəm] / gym [ʤɪm]спортзал

to go round – бродить, гулять

8. Read the text. Look up the unknown words in the dictionary

My name is Olesya. My week starts on Monday. Usually I get up at 7 o’clock. I do my bed and open the window. Sometimes I do my morning exercises, but not always. Then I go to the bathroom. There I wash myself and clean my teeth. Sometimes I take a shower. After that I go to my bedroom, dress myself and brush my hair. In five minutes I am ready for breakfast. I usually have a cup of coffee and a sandwich. After breakfast I take my bag, put on my coat and go to the University.

I live not far from my University and it takes me only ten minutes to walk there. I’m never late for the first lesson because I come to the university a few minutes before the bell. I leave my coat in the cloakroom and go to the classroom. The lessons begin at eight o’clock and at half past one they are over. Sometimes after the lessons I go to the library to take some books. I usually do my home task at home. As a rule, I have no free time on my week-days.

Sometimes I have lunch at the university canteen. Twice a week I go to the swimming pool. I play volleyball in the university team and we have our training at our big gymnasium.

In the evening all the members of our family get together. We have dinner together, watch TV or read books. Reading is my hobby. I like to read detective stories or books of modern writers. I also like reading books in English.

Sometimes in the evenings I visit some museums or exhibitions with my friend. Or we just go round the centre of Tyumen. Generally I like to go round on my own. You can stop and look at the things you want to see.

At about eleven o’clock I go to bed. It’s high time to sleep.

9. Answer the questions

  1.  When does Olesya usually get up?
  2.  What does she do in the morning when she gets up?
  3.  What does Olesya have for breakfast?
  4.  How much does it take her to get to the university?
  5.  Does Olesya have dinner at home or at the university canteen?
  6.  When does her family have dinner?
  7.  When does Olesya usually go to bed?

10. Study the diagram; add your own daily activities

11. Write about your working day

12. Study the table

Pronouns (местоимения)

Склонение личных местоимений

Формы притяжательных местоимений

Именит. падеж

(подлежащее)

(кто? что?)

Объект.

падеж

(дополнение)

(кого? что? кому? кем? чем?)

Основная форма (перед сущ.)

(чей?)

Абсолютная форма

(без сущ.)

(чей?)

I (я)

Me (меня, мне)

My (мой)

Mine (мой)

You (ты)

You (вас, вам, тебя, тебе)

Your (твой)

Yours (твой)

He(он)

She (она)

It (оно, она, он) неодуш.

Him (его, ему)

Her (ее, ей)

It (его, ее, ему, ей) неодуш.

His (его)

Her (ее)

Its (его)

His (его)

Hers (ее)

-

We (мы)

Us (нас, нам)

Our (наш)

Ours (наш)

You (вы)

You (вас, вам)

Your (ваш)

Yours (ваш)

They (они)

Them (их, им)

Their (их)

Theirs (их)

13. Complete the sentences. Use me / he / him / she / her / they / them / us / it

Example: Who is that woman? Why are you looking at her?

  1.  “Do you know that boy?” “Yes, I study with ___ “.
  2.  Where are the tickets? I can’t find ___ .
  3.  I can’t find my keys. Where are ____ ?
  4.  We’re going to the canteen. You can come with ___ .
  5.  I have got a new computer. Do you want to see ___ ?
  6.  Maria likes music. ___ plays the piano.
  7.  I’m talking to you. Please listen to ___ .
  8.  Where is Anna? I want to talk to ___ .
  9.  You can take these CDs. I don’t want ___ .
  10.  We have two dogs. We like ___ .

14. Replace underlined words with the personal pronoun

1. Peter helped the schoolboys to translate the text. 2. Mother asked Mary to wash the plates. 3. My friend writes a letter to his sister. 4. Jane took three books from the library. 5. His cousins live in Moscow. 6. Our grandfather and grandmother will come tomorrow. 7. Anna does her home task every day. 8. Paul likes reading. 9. The students have a training at the gymnasium. 10. In the evening all the members of our family get together.

15. Finish the sentences in the same way

Example: We invited her to stay with us at our house.

  1.  He invited us to stay with _______________ house.
  2.  They invited me to stay with _______________ house.
  3.  I invited them _______________________________ .
  4.  She invited us ______________________________ .
  5.  Did he invite him ____________________________ ?

16. Complete the sentences in the same way

Example: I gave him my address and he gave me his.

  1.  I gave her ____ address and she gave me _____ .
  2.  He gave me ____ address and I gave him _____ .
  3.  We gave them ____ address and they gave us _____ .
  4.  She gave him ____ address and he gave her ____ .
  5.  You gave us ____ address and we gave you ____ .
  6.  They gave you ____ address and you gave them ____ .


17.
Look at the picture. The Smiths, Mary and David, are going on holiday with their children, Sue and Peter. They have four new suitcases, a red one, a blue one and two brown ones for the children. They must take them from the bus. Fill in the gaps with the possessive pronouns

David: Now, this is my suitcase, isn’t?

  1.  Mary: No, it is not _____ , it’s _____ . I have the red one. ____ is blue.
  2.  David: Yours? Well, where is _____ ?
  3.  Peter: Here’s _____ , Daddy, this blue one here. 
  4.  Sue: No, that’s not ____ . It’s this one.
  5.  David: Ah, good. Yes, this one is ____ . Now, where are _____ , children?
  6.  Mary: _____ are brown, David. I think they are over there.
  7.  David: I see… These ones?
  8.  Sue: No, Daddy. Those are not ____ . They’re too big. These ones here are ____ .
  9.  David: Good. Now we have all _____ .One, two, three…. Where is Mummy’s?
  10.  Sue: You are holding ____, Daddy.

David: Oh yes, how silly of me!

18. Study the table

PRESENT SIMPLE

+

-

?

I

We

You

They

work

do not work

(don’t)

I

We

Do

You

They

work?

He

She

It

works

does not work

(doesn’t)

he

Does  she

it

Present Simple (Indefinite) употребляется для выражения постоянных состояний; повторяющихся и повседневных действий, а также непреложных истин и законов природы.

Слова, указывающие на время Present Simple:

Every day / week / month / year (каждый день, каждую неделю, месяц, год);

Often (часто), seldom (редко), always (всегда), usually (обычно), never (никогда).

Example: I seldom watch TV. – Я редко смотрю телевизор.

She likes to read. – Ей нравится читать.

They don’t go to the cinema. – Они не ходят в кино.

Does he go to the university? – Он ходит в университет?

19. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the correct form

  1.  She (to learn) English. 2. I (to like) music. 3. I always (to get) up at 7 o’clock. 4. I usually (to have) a cup of coffee and a sandwich for breakfast. 5. He (to live) not far from the university. 6. It (to take) me ten minutes to get to the university. 7. The lessons usually (to begin) at eight o’clock. 8. We often (to have) dinner at the canteen. 9. She (to watch) TV every evening. 10. They (to like) reading.

20. Change the sentences in the negative and interrogative form

1. He goes to the university every day. 2. I do morning exercises every day. 3. I have a cup of coffee and a sandwich for breakfast. 4. His father works at the office. 5. She gets up at seven o’clock. 6. He wants to become a pilot. 6. I live not far from the university. 7. We usually have three lessons a day. 8. She goes to the university by bus. 9. They go to the cinema on Saturdays. 10. I go to the library after the lessons.

21. Translate into English

У меня есть сестра. Ее имя Анна. Анне девять лет. Она учится в школе в третьем классе. Анна хорошая ученица. Она получает только хорошие оценки. Анна просыпается в семь утра. Она встает, умывается, чистит зубы и делает утреннюю зарядку. В семь тридцать она завтракает. Анна уходит в школу в восемь часов. Она не едет автобусом, она идет пешком. Из школы моя сестра возвращается в три часа. Анна сначала обедает, потом идет на прогулку. Сестра начинает делать уроки в пять часов.

2.2. Leisure activities

1. Study the vocabulary. Read the words aloud (mind your pronunciation)

Vocabulary

a day off [deɪ ɔf] – выходной

a weekend wi:k'end] – выходные дни

till [tɪl] – до

as soon as [æz su:n æz] – как только

to air [ɛə] – проветривать

morning exercises ['mɔ:nɪŋ 'eksəsaɪzɪz] – утренняя зарядка

cinema ['sɪnəmə] – кино

to do shopping [du: 'ʃɔpɪŋ] – делать покупки

to buy [baɪ] – покупать

a grocery store ['grəus(ə)rɪ stɔ:] – продуктовый магазин

a mall [mɔ:l] – большой торговый центр

to admire fountains – восхищаться фонтанами

a wood – лес 

to pick mushrooms – собирать грибы

2. Before reading the text, answer the questions

  1.  When do you have a day off?
  2.  What time do you usually wake up on weekend?
  3.  What do you do on Sundays?
  4.  Do you go to the university on weekend?
  5.  Do you do your homework on your day off?
  6.  What do you usually do on weekends?
  7.  Do you do anything special on your day off?
  8.  Where do you go shopping on weekends?
  9.  Where do you like to go in summer on Sundays?
  10.  What time do you go to bed on weekends?

3. Read   the   text   about   Nadya’s   weekend,   find   more   answers

to the questions

My day off

The last two days of the week are Saturday and Sunday. They are called the weekend. People don’t go to work on weekends. But students, schoolgirls and schoolboys have only one day off – it is Sunday.

Weekend is my favorite time of the week because I don’t go to the university. I think Sunday is the best day of the week. On this day I wake up later than usual. And sometimes I don’t get up till nine or ten o’clock. As soon as I get up I air the room, do my bed and do morning exercises. Then I have breakfast and help my mother to clear away the dishes and wash them.

After breakfast I get ready with my homework and when I’m free. I meet my friends and we discuss our plans together. Last Sunday we went to the cinema. We liked the film as it was interesting. There were a lot of people at the cinema.

On Sundays I usually do shopping. My mother tells me what to buy and I go shopping. As a rule I go to the grocery store near my house, but sometimes my mother and I go to malls to buy something for our home.

Sometimes I visit museums, art galleries, theatres. I like the parks and places around Tyumen very much. We spend hours walking in these beautiful parks and admiring the fountains.

In summer on Sundays we like to go to dacha. It’s not far from Tyumen.

There’s a wood near our house. We often go for a walk there. We walk through the fields and along the river. We have a wonderful time. We go swimming in the river. Sometimes we go to pick mushrooms.

In the evening our family gets together. We have guests or visit our relatives. And at about eleven my day off is over, I go to bed.

4. Read the text again. Say if these sentences are true of false

  1.  Weekend is favourite Nadya’s time of the week.
  2.  Nadya usually wakes up at 7 a.m. at the weekend.
  3.  After breakfast she gets with her homework and then she is free.
  4.  Nadya usually does shopping on Saturdays.
  5.  Nadya goes to the grocery store near her house.
  6.  Nadya’s dacha is far from Tyumen.
  7.  Nadya likes to walk in the parks admiring beautiful fountains.
  8.  She goes to bed about eleven.

5. Answer the questions to the text

  1.  How do we call the days of the week when we don’t have to go to the university?
  2.  What does Nadya do after she wakes up in the morning?
  3.  Does she spend her weekend with parents or with friends?
  4.  Does she go out at the weekend?
  5.  Does Nadya like to walk in Tyumen?

6. Look at top 10 Leisure Activities and tell your group-mates about your favorite actions on weekends

  1.  Watching television
  2.  Visiting / Entertaining friends
  3.  Playing computer games
  4.  Listening to music
  5.  Reading books
  6.  Going to a cafe
  7.  Going to the gym
  8.  Surfing the Internet
  9.  Going for a drive
  10.  Going for a walk

7. Which statements do you think are true about Russian people

  •  Russian people spend most of their free time at home.
  •  Russian people go in for sport on weekends. That’s why they are fit and healthy.
  •  Russian people like to go to concerts or theatres on their day off.

8. Read the texts and complete the table below. Compare the answers with a partner

My idea of fun!

People around the world relax in very different ways. We look at favorite leisure activities in three continents…

1. Surfing capital of the world

Any sunny day on the coast of Australia, you can see hundreds young people going to the beach. They all share Australia’s national passion – surfing. “My friends and I usually go down to the beach before breakfast in the summer,” says 19-year-old Jim Wolfe, “and come home again for dinner!” At weekends it is quite normal to drive hundreds of kilometres to find that “perfect wave”. But in Sydney. the biggest city in Australia. you don’t have that problem – there are thirty-four close to the city centre!

2. The music of the people

The most popular dance of Brasil, samba, is often called “the music of the people”. In the 1960s and 1970s people turned to US-style pop music, but these days samba is back again. There are different versions of samba: some that people dance in their villages, others that they practise especially to dance at Carnival. In Rio thousands of people go to samba schools, typically on a Saturday night – to dance, to learn … or just to watch. Thirty-year-old Ana Rita goes every week with her husband “… just because it’s fun! Everybody loves to dance, and it’s a great way to meet people!”

3. A day in the “banya”

If you’re happy to take a bath in public, then a Russian banya or bath

house, is the place for you. Russian of all types meet there … at any time of day. They go there to relax, to talk to their friends or even to discuss business. “It doesn’t matter if you’re old or young, fat or thin. Nobody cares, nobody looks at you … it’s a wonderful place!” says 24-year-old Masha, a student from St. Petersburg. There are cold baths, as well as a hot room where the temperature can reach forty-three degrees.

When do people do this?

What kind of people

do it?

Why do they do it?

surfing

samba

the banya

9. Which of these ways of relaxing would you like to try? Why? If you want to relax, what do you usually do?

10. Study the table, ask the teacher if you have any questions

 Мы употребляем Past Indefinite для выражения действия, которое произошло в прошлом в указанное время. А также для выражения действия, которое началось и закончилось в прошлом.

Past Indefinite

+

?

-

S + V(2) / V (ed)

Did + S + V?

S + did not (didn’t) + V

Слова, указывающие на время Past Indefinite:

Last week / month / year (на прошлой неделе, в прошлом месяце, в прошлом году); yesterday (вчера), ago (назад), before (раньше).

Example: Matt liked fishing when he was younger. – Мэтту нравилась рыбалка, когда он был моложе.

Olga lived in Moscow last year. – В прошлом году Ольга жила в Москве.

Did you spend a lot of time learning at school? – Ты много времени проводил за учебой, когда был школьником?

He presented her with a book last birthday. – На прошлый день рождения он подарил ей книгу.

They did not go to the shop yesterday. – Они вчера не ходили в магазин.

11. Complete the sentences. Use one of these verbs in the Past Indefinite

clean  die  enjoy  finish  happen open   rain  start  stay  want

Example: I cleaned my teeth three times yesterday.

  1.  It was hot in the room, so I _____ the window.
  2.  The concert _____ at 7.30 and _____ at 10 o’clock.
  3.  When I was a child, I _____ to be a doctor.
  4.  The accident _____ last Sunday afternoon.
  5.  It’s a nice day today but yesterday it _____ all day.
  6.  We _____ our holiday last year. We _____ at a very nice place.
  7.  Ann’s grandfather _____ when he was 90 years old.

12. Write the past indefinite form of these verbs

  1.  get    got
  2.  see  _____
  3.  play _____
  4.  meet_____
  5.  visit _____
  6.  buy  _____
  1.  go    _____
  2.  think _____
  3.  wash    _____
  4.  be      _____
  5.  wake  _____
  6.  speak _____

13. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Past Indefinite Tense

  1.  They (to be) in London last month.
  2.  I (not to be) at home yesterday, I (to go) for a walk.
  3.  When you (to leave) the meeting yesterday?
  4.  I (to watch) television yesterday.
  5.  They (not to rest) yesterday.
  6.  Yesterday he (to have) a holiday. He (not to go) to the office.
  7.  He (to have) a cup of coffee and a sandwich for breakfast yesterday.
  8.  I (to be) free all the day yesterday.
  9.  They (not to go) to the cinema last month.
  10.  She (to visit) relatives last summer.

14. Compose a dialogue using the following phrases speaking about your last weekend

to wake up;

to get up;

to air the room

to do morning exercises;

to have breakfast;

to wash the dishes;

to get ready;

to be free;

to meet friends;

to go to the cinema;

to do shopping;

to go to the grocery store;

to go to malls;

to get together;

to have guests;

to visit relatives;

to go to bed.

15. Try to remember the happiest weekend in your life. Describe it


UNIT 3. TRAVELLING

3.1. ways of Travelling

1. Study the vocabulary

Vocabulary

either … or – или…. или

a business travel – деловая поездка, командировка

advantages – преимущества

a train – поезд

fast – быстрый

slow – медленный

a way – путь, способ

a sleeping car – спальный вагон

a dining car – вагон-ресторан

a journey – путешествие, поездка

mostly – главным образом

a voyage – путешествие (морское)

a trip – путешествие

to prefer – предпочитать

a plane (airplane) – самолет

a kind – вид, сорт, род

2. Read the text, find the answers to the questions below

Travelling became a part of our life. Thousands of people travel every day either on business or for pleasure. They travel by road, by train, by air or by sea.

Of course, travelling by air is the fastest and the most convenient way, but it is the most expensive too. Travelling by train is slower than travelling by plane, but it is less expensive. You can see many interesting places of the country through the window. Modern trains have comfortable seats: there are sleeping cars and dining cars that make even the longest journey more pleasant. Speed, comfort and safety are the main advantages of trains and planes. That is why many people prefer them to all kinds of travelling.

Travelling by the sea is popular mostly for pleasure trips. Tourists can make voyages on large ships to foreign countries.

As for me I prefer travelling by car. I think it’s more convenient because you don’t have to buy tickets, you can stop any place and spend as much time as you like.

3. Questions

  1.  What are the ways of travelling?
  2.  What is the fastest way of travelling?
  3.  What is the slowest way of travelling?
  4.  What way of travelling is used for pleasure by tourists?

4. Look through the text again and find the opposites of the words below

Example: fast – slow

Unpleasant, inconvenient, unpopular, few, discomfort, cheap, small, old, danger, business.

PREPOSITIONS (предлоги)

among – среди, между (более чем 2х предметов)

along – вдоль (дороги)

through – сквозь, через

across – сквозь, через, поперек

5. Choose the correct preposition

  1.  Be careful! Don’t fall ____ the stairs. They’re still wet.
  2.  to  b. down  c. past  d. opposite
  3.  Graham sits ____ Janet and Rita in music lessons.
    1.  at   b. among   c. between  d. in
  4.  Walk ____ the road as far as the park.
  5.  at   b. along  c. through  d. around
  6.  We live ____ Glasgow, not far from the city centre.
  7.  at  b. among  c. in   d. between
  8.  You’ll find the book ____ the table, under the newspaper.
  9.  at  b. in   c. on   d. back to
  10.  The office where I work is ____ the town centre.
  11.  on   b. near  c. along  d. across
  12.  Put your bag ____ the chair. It’ll be safe there.
  13.  at   b. up   c. under  d. past
  14.  Our flat is ____ the shop so we don’t have far to go.
  15.  on   b. above  c. back to  d. off
  16.  Take your feet ____ the table! Who do you think you are?
  17.  In front of b. down  c. not far from d. off
  18.  The station is ____ the town centre so leave early!
  19.  down  b. on   c. off   d. long way from

3.2. TRAVELLER’S STORY

1. Look through the phrasal vocabulary; find the transcription in the dictionary if it is necessary. Match the columns

  1.  a check-in
  2.  a flight attendant
  3.  to be late
  4.  to take a taxi
  5.  to sit in a traffic jam
  6.  to miss the plane
  7.  to arrive in time
  8.  to stand in a queue
  9.  to go through passport control
  10.  to board the plane
  1.  пропустить рейс
  2.  стойка регистрации
  3.  опаздывать
  4.  прибыть вовремя
  5.  борт проводник
  6.  проходить паспортный контроль
  7.  поймать такси
  8.  сесть в самолет
  9.  стоять в пробке
  10.  стоять в очереди

2. Read and translate the text, look for more words and phrases for your vocabulary

My name is Irina and I hate flying. It's the worst way to travel. First of all, your plane leaves at 10 o'clock in the morning. Fine. But you have to be there at 8. You live 50 miles from the airport. So, you leave home at 6. That means getting up at 5. Crazy!

You don't want to be late, so you take a taxi. The trains are terrible, but the traffic is awful! You sit in a traffic jam for 45 minutes. Are you going to miss your plane?

No. You arrive just in time. But now you stand in a queue at the check-in for another half an hour. In front of you is a noisy family of eight and an elderly couple who can't find their passports. Then you stand in another queue at passport control for 15 minutes. You are not happy!

Finally, you go through passport control. You have exactly 8 minutes to buy something from the duty-free shop before it's time to board the plane. Then you have a long journey in front of you. The seats are very small. The person sitting next to you is very fat. He wants to tell you his life story....

That's what normally happens. But yesterday it was different. Yesterday the person sitting next to me on the plane was a tall thin man with long black hair and dark glasses. He didn't say a word to me for over an hour. When the flight attendant brought drinks, he refused. When she brought lunch, he refused again.

Suddenly, the man stood up. He took something out of his travel bag. It was a gun. People started to scream. The flight attendant came over to us.

"Can I help you, sir?" she asked.

"Take me to Havana - or I'll blow the plane up!"

The flight attendant smiled.

"Please sit down, sir. Havana's where we're going. Now, what would you like to drink?"

3. Answer the questions

  1.  What is Irina’s opinion about travelling? Does Kate like to travel?
  2.  What problems Irina is speaking about?
  3.  How much time does Irina spend on every action?
  4.  What was different in this trip for Irina?

4. Now look at these phrases from the text. Write the missing words

 1. Noun + Noun

Traffic jam;  _____ control;  _____ attendant;  _____ bag

 2. Verb + Noun

_____ home; _____a taxi; _____ your plane; _____ the plane

 3. Verb + Preposition + Noun

You stand ___ a queue.

You go ___ passport control.

You buy something ___ the duty-free shop.

 4. Time Expressions

Your plane leaves ___ 10 o'clock ___ the morning.

You sit in a traffic jam ___ 45 minutes.

 5. Common Adjectives

A tall thin ___ with long black .___ and dark ____ .

 6. Phrasal Verbs

You leave home at 6. That means getting ____ at 5!

Suddenly, the man stood ___ .

"Take me to Havana or I'll blow the plane ___ !"

7. Useful Expressions

" ____ I help you?"

"Please sit ___".

"What would you ___ to drink?"

5. Can  you  find some  more  useful  words  and  expressions?   Write

them down

6. Study the text for more useful lexis

First you go to the check-in desk where they weigh your luggage. Usually you are permitted 20 kilos, but if your bags weigh more, you may have to pay excess baggage (=you pay extra). The airline representative checks your ticket and gives you a boarding card for the plane with your seat number on it. Then you go through the passport control where an official checks [NOT controls] your passport, and into the departure lounge. Here, you can also buy things in the duty-free, e.g. perfume, alcohol and cigarettes. About half an hour or forty minutes before take-off, you are told to go to a gate number, e.g. 14, where you get on the plane. When you board (=to get on) the plane, you find your seat. If you have hand luggage, you can put it under your seat or in the overhead locker above your seat.

The plane then taxis (=moves slowly) towards the runway, and when it has permission to take off, it accelerates along the runway and takes off.

During the flight you may want or need to understand certain announcements; these come from the captain (=the pilot) or from the flight attendants:

Please fasten your seat belt and put your seat in the upright position. We are now cruising (=flying comfortably) at an altitude (=height) of 10,000 metres.

May we remind passengers (=ask passenger to remember) that there is no smoking until you are inside the terminal building (=where passenger arrive and depart).

The cabin crew (=air stewards) are now coming round with landing cards (you sometimes have to fill it in when you enter certain countries).

Arrival. When the plane lands (=arrives on the ground), you have to wait for it to stop. When the doors are open, you get off the plane and walk through the terminal building and go to the baggage reclaim where you collect your luggage. You then pass through customs (green = nothing to declare; red = goods to declare; blue = European Union citizens). If you are lucky, you can then get a bus, taxi or train to the centre of town without waiting too long. You can also hire a car (=rent a car) at most airports.

7. Complete the words or phrases below using the words from the box

off    control    free    card     baggage    in     lounge     reclaim    locker

  1.  boarding  _________
  2.  baggage _________
  3.  excess _________
  4.  passport _________
  5.  hand _________
  1.  duty ________
  2.  overhead ________
  3.  take-_________
  4.  departure ________
  5.  check-________

8. What do you call

  1.  The place where you go when you arrive at the airport with your luggage?
  2.  The card they give you with the seat number on it?
  3.  The money you have to pay if your luggage is very heavy?
  4.  The place where you sit and have a drink when you are waiting for your light to be called?
  5.  The bags you carry onto the plane with you?
  6.  The place above your head where you can put your hand luggage?
  7.  The part of the airport where the plane accelerates and takes off?
  8.  The people who look after you on the plane?
  9.  The part of the airport you walk through when you arrive or depart?

10. The place you collect your luggage after you land?

9. Think about flying (from check-in to the time you leave the airport at your destination) and answer the questions. If possible, discuss your answers with someone else

  1.  What is the most interesting part, and what is the most boring?
  2.  Where do you often have delays and why?
  3.  Is there any part that frightens or worries you?
  4.  What do you usually do during most flights?
  5.  Do you always eat the food they give you?
  6.  Is there one thing which would improve flying and make the experience more interesting?

10. Study the information about Present Continuous, ask your teacher if you have any questions

Present Continuous

Present Continuous употребляется для выражения действия, длящегося в настоящий момент или период. Указание на время типа now (сейчас), at the moment (в данный момент) может быть либо выражено, либо подразумеваться.

Так же Present Continuous употребляется для выражения личных планов в будущем времени.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

+

-

?

S+ am/is/are + Ving

S + am/is/are +not+ Ving

am/is/are + S + Ving

Слова, указывающие на время Present Continuous:

at the momentв данный момент; now сейчас; during / while - в то время как, for – за (какое-то время).

С глаголами, которые обозначают не действие, а состояние, Present Continuous обычно не употребляется:

to feel (чувствовать);

to be (быть, находиться);

to live (жить);

to stay (оставаться);

to hear (слышать);

to see (видеть);

to know (знать);

to remember (помнить);

to think (думать);

to want (хотеть);

to like (любить, нравиться);

to love (любить).

Example: I am reading at the moment.Я сейчас читаю.

She is singing now.Она сейчас поет.

Are you staying here for long? – Вы здесь на долго?

He is not doing any research now. – Он не занимается ни какими исследованиями сейчас.

11. Choose the correct variant

  1.  The plane is landing / are landing now.
  2.  They am standing / are standing on the passport control.
  3.   The cabin crew is coming / are coming round with landing cards.
  4.  He usually feels / is feeling unwell during the flight.
  5.  She is liking / likes the food on board.
  6.  We cruise / are cruising at an altitude of 10,000.
  7.  Where is Tom? – He is hiring / hires a car at the moment.
  8.  What is he doing at the check-in desk? – He weighs / is weighing his luggage.

12. Translate into Russian paying attention into the usage of Present Continuous

  1.  She is going to the cinema tonight. 2. We are not moving in today. 3. I am taking my exam on Wednesday. 4. They are leaving by the eight o’clock train. 5. I am seeing my friends this Saturday. 6. He is going tomorrow. 7. My father is arriving next week.

13. Translate into Russian

  1.  She is going to Moscow tonight. 2. We are not visiting relatives today. 3. I am taking my exam on Wednesday. 4. They are leaving by the eight o’clock train. 5. I am seeing my friends this Sunday. 6. He is meeting his friends tomorrow. 7. My father is arriving next week.


UNIT 4. EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

4.1. THE FIRST UNIVERSITY IN RUSSIA

1. Study the vocabulary carefully

Vocabulary

to enter the university – поступить в университет

to pass exams – сдать экзамены

to depend on (upon) – зависеть от

to work hard – усердно работать

to be considered worthy – быть признанным достойным

in order to – для того чтобы

to inspire – вдохновлять

to be set up – основывать

according to – согласно чему-либо

to lecture – проводить лекционное занятие

to be patronized by – находиться под покровительством

to be named after – быть названным в честь

to participate in – участвовать в

to work out – разрабатывать

to be proud of – гордиться

to undergo changes – подвергаться изменениям

to enable to – давать возможность, делать возможным

to gain skills – приобретать навыки

achievements – достижения

to glorify – восхвалять, возвеличивать, славить

2. Read the following words, mind the reading rules

Entry, acquire, invite, comprise, rapid, enroll, estate, edict, celebrate, establish, foundation, permission, abroad, confirm, previously, construct, recognize, offer.

3. Match Russian and English equivalents

  1.  a school-leaver
  2.  entrance exams
  3.  competitive exams
  4.  a school-leaving certificate
  5.  an applicant
  6.  an educational institution
  7.  the Age of Enlightenment
  8.  advanced science
  9.  patron saint
  10.  to do research in the field of….
  11.  to gain professional skills
  12.  to take practical courses
  13.  a graduate

  1.  век Просвещения
  2.  святой покровитель
  3.   выпускник школы
  4.  заниматься на семинарах
  5.  вступительные экзамены
  6.  выпускник вуза
  7.  получать профессиональные навыки
  8.  передовая наука
  9.  учебное заведение
  10.  абитуриент
  11.  проводить исследования в сфере…
  12.  экзамены на конкурсной основе
  13.  аттестат

4. Read the text about the Moscow State University; find out the most important facts from the text

Moscow State University

Any school-leaver can enter any university or college he likes if the entrance exams are passed successfully. Everything depends upon the ability of the applicant to work hard for entry. At school they acquire the necessary knowledge that will fit them for the competitive exams. Each University or Faculty within a University can choose what exams the applicants should take and what results should be considered worthy for an applicant to become a student. In order to apply for a University a person should have school-leaving certificate, confirming that school-leaving exams have been passed successfully.

There are a lot of institutions of higher education in our country. The Linguistic University, previously known as Maurice Thorez Institute of Foreign Languages, Pedagogic University, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia are well known not only in Russia but also abroad. There are numerous regional educational centres in our country. Almost every city of Russia has its universities and colleges.

Moscow State University is the largest educational institution in Russia. Mikhail Lomonosov (1711-1765) inspired the foundation of Moscow University. On the Day of St. Tatiana, Count I.I. Shuvalov officially asked the permission of Empress Elizabeth to establish the University. The University was set up by the edict of the Empress on January 12, 1755 (according to the Russian old style). Since that time St. Tatiana has become the patron saint of Moscow University, and January 25 is celebrated as University Day in Russia.

When Moscow University was founded there were three faculties - philosophy, law and medicine there. Today there are 24 faculties. From the outset the best Russian scholars lectured at Moscow University. Professors were invited from all European countries. The instruction was given in Russian and in Latin. Young people from all estates could be enrolled as students. Moscow University was always the centre of advanced Russian science. In the Age of Enlightenment the University was patronized by Catherine the Great. Following the October Revolution of 1917, the University got the state status and became known as Moscow State University. In May 1940 it was named after M.V. Lomonosov. In 1953 the modern University building on the Vorobyevy Hills was constructed.

Moscow State University teaches almost in all subject areas: Arts, Sciences, Law, Economics, Psychology, Biology, Chemistry, Engineering, etc. The Law Faculty is the centre of legal training in Russia. It is known for its high level of teaching. Professors of the Faculty do detailed research in the field of law. Moreover, they participate in the working out the Russia laws. The Lawyers, the Faculty graduates, use their knowledge in courts of law. The Faculty of Journalism is proud of its graduates who work in different fields of mass media: in editorial boards, television, radio stations and news agencies in Russia and abroad. Two-level system of economic and business education is offered at the Economics Faculty. At the Faculty students study Economics and business. They do research work and gain professional skills. The Faculty of Philosophy has always been the centre of progressive philosophical thought in Russia. The greatest Russian philosophers lectured at the Faculty. Today the best home and foreign scholars give lectures at the Faculty. Psychology was among the courses taught at first at the Faculty of Philosophy. The works of Russian psychologists are recognized in the whole world. The Biology Faculty, the largest scientific and research centre in the country, comprises the most important fields of modern Biology. Students take practical courses in Zoological Museum and Botanical Gardens. The Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics is one of the leading scientific centres in Russia. World leading professors deliver their lectures there. The Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics is popular among the applicants for entry too. Applied Mathematics and Computer Science undergo rapid changes.

The top research institutions of Moscow State Lomonosov University enable to keep research and teaching up-to-date. Here students can learn skills, which fit them for a better career. Moscow State Lomonosov University reputation stays with its graduates - and their achievements in turn glorify it.

5. Fill in the correct word(s) from the box below to make up a phrase. Use the words only once

to enter   to pass   to depend   to work   to acquire   to be considered   advanced       to be named        research         to gain         to be popular       to take practical         to undergo

Example:    to enter    the university

  1.  __________ changes
  2.  __________ the knowledge
  3.  __________ upon applicant’s abilities
  4.  __________ courses
  5.  __________ an exam
  6.  __________ hard on the project
  7.  __________ worthy to become a student
  8.  __________ among students
  9.  __________ science
  10.  __________ after M. V. Lomonosov
  11.  __________ in the field of modern science
  12.  __________ professional skills

6. Compose your own sentences with the following words and phrases

Example: Moscow State University is the largest educational institution in Russia.

1. a school-leaver; 2. to invite; 3. a permission; 4. advanced science; 5. to enroll; 6. a subject; 7. to do research; 8. to be proud of; 9. to offer; 10. to be popular among; 11. the leading scientific centre; 12. to undergo rapid changes.

7. Say on what faculties a student can

  1.  use their knowledge in courts of law
  2.  work in different fields of mass media
  3.  study Economics and business
  4.  develop philosophical ideas
  5.  take practical courses in Zoological Museum and Botanical Gardens
  6.  study the work of Artificial Intelligence

8. Answer the questions

  1.  Who inspired the foundation of Moscow State University?
  2.  When was Moscow University founded?
  3.  Tatiana is a patron saint of MSU, isn’t she?
  4.  Were there three or five faculties at the beginning of MSU?
  5.  What were the languages of the lectures?
  6.  When was the university patronized by Catherine the Great?
  7.  Name the modern faculties of MSU. What are they famous for?
  8.  Was it difficult for you to choose your University and profession?
  9.  What helped you to make your choice?
  10.  Do you think that school-leavers should be helped to choose their future profession? What should be done to help teenagers to find their way in life?

4.2. Steve Jobs

1. Study the vocabulary carefully

Vocabulary

to launch – запускать, выпускать на рынок товар

to remain – оставаться

to be adopted – быть усыновленным

boldly – отважно, дерзко

to be underway – быть в процессе разработки

to force  вынуждать

to improve  улучшать

to be withdrawn – быть отозванным (о товаре)

to unveil – торжественно представлять, открывать

to estimate  оценивать

to lack – испытывать недостаток, не иметь

to purchase – покупать, приобретать

box office – театральная касса (здесь – сборы)

CEO – Chief Executive Officer – генеральный директор

visionary – прорицатель, провидец

2. Match the columns

  1.  substance
  2.  silicon
  3.  gadgetry
  4.  workshop
  5.  occasion
  6.  sales
  7.  whiz
  8.  internship
  9.  entirely
  10.  competitor
  1.  кремний
  2.  знаток, дока
  3.  вещество
  4.  продажи
  5.  мастерская
  6.  случай
  7.  совершенно, полностью
  8.  соперник
  9.  практика, стажировка
  10.  технические приспособления

3. Read the text about Steve Jobs and find out the most important facts from the text

Advances in electronics

Steve Jobs launched one of the largest industries of the past decades while still in his early twenties. He remains one of the most inventive and energetic minds in American technology.

Steven Jobs was born on February 24, 1955, in San Francisco, California, and was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs.

In 1961 the family moved to California. This area was becoming a center for electronics. Electronics form the basic elements of devices such as radios, televisions, stereos, and computers. At that time people started to refer to the area as "Silicon Valley." This is because a substance called silicon is used in the manufacturing of electronic parts.

As a child, Jobs preferred doing things by himself. He showed an early interest in electronics and gadgetry. He spent a lot of time working in the garage workshop of a neighbor who worked at Hewlett-Packard, an electronics manufacturer.

Jobs also enrolled in the Hewlett-Packard Explorer Club. There he saw

engineers demonstrate new products, and he saw his first computer at the age of twelve. He was very impressed, and knew right away that he wanted to work with computers.

While in high school, Jobs attended lectures at the Hewlett-Packard plant. On one occasion he boldly asked William Hewlett (1931–2001), the president, for some parts he needed to complete a class project. Hewlett was so impressed he gave Jobs the parts, and offered him a summer internship at Hewlett-Packard.

After graduating from high school in 1972, Jobs attended Reed College in Portland, Oregon, for two years. In 1975 Jobs joined a group known as the Homebrew Computer Club. One member, a technical whiz named Steve Wozniak (1950–), was trying to build a small computer. Jobs became fascinated with the marketing potential of such a computer. In 1976 he and Wozniak formed their own company. They called it Apple Computer Company, in memory of a happy summer Jobs had spent picking apples. They raised $1,300 in startup money by selling Jobs's microbus and Wozniak's calculator. At first they sold circuit boards (the boards that hold the internal components of a computer) while they worked on the computer prototype (sample).

Jobs had realized there was a huge gap in the computer market. At that time almost all computers were mainframes. They were so large that one could fill a room, and so costly that individuals could not afford to buy them. Advances in electronics, however, meant that computer components were getting smaller and the power of the computer was increasing.

Jobs and Wozniak redesigned their computer, with the idea of selling it to individual users. The Apple II went to market in 1977, with impressive first year sales of $2.7 million. The company's sales grew to $200 million within three years. This was one of the most phenomenal cases of corporate growth in U.S. history. Jobs and Wozniak had opened an entirely new market – personal computers. Personal computers began an entirely new way of processing information.

By 1980 the personal computer era was well underway. Apple was continually forced to improve its products to remain ahead, as more competitors entered the marketplace. Apple introduced the Apple III, but the new model suffered technical and marketing problems. It was withdrawn from the market, and was later reworked and reintroduced.

In 1984 Apple introduced a revolutionary new model, the Macintosh. The on-screen display had small pictures called icons. To use the computer, the user pointed at an icon and clicked a button using a new device called a mouse. This process made the Macintosh very easy to use. The Macintosh did not sell well to businesses, however. It lacked features other personal computers had, such as a corresponding high quality printer. The failure of the Macintosh signaled the beginning of Jobs's downfall at Apple. Jobs resigned in 1985 from the company he had helped found, though he retained his title as chairman of its board of directors.

Jobs soon hired some of his former employees to begin a new computer company called NeXT. Late in 1988 the NeXT computer was introduced at a large gala event in San Francisco, aimed at the educational market. Initial reactions were generally good. The product was very user-friendly, and had a fast processing speed, excellent graphics displays, and an outstanding sound system. Despite the warm reception, however, the NeXT machine never caught on. It was too costly, had a black-and-white screen, and could not be linked to other computers or run common software.

NeXT was not, however, the end of Steve Jobs. In 1986 Jobs purchased a small company called Pixar from filmmaker George Lucas (1944–). Pixar specialized in computer animation. Nine years later Pixar released Toy Story, a huge box office hit. Pixar later went on to make Toy Story 2 and A Bug's Life, which Disney distributed, and Monsters, Inc. All these films have been extremely successful. Monsters, Inc. had the largest opening weekend ticket sales of any animated film in history.

In December of 1996 Apple purchased NeXT Software for over $400 million. Jobs returned to Apple as a part-time consultant to the chief executive officer (CEO). The following year, in a surprising event, Apple entered into a partnership with its competitor Microsoft. The two companies, according to the New York Times, "agreed to cooperate on several sales and technology fronts." Over the next six years Apple introduced several new products and marketing strategies.

In November 1997 Jobs announced Apple would sell computers directly to users over the Internet and by telephone. The Apple Store became a runaway success. Within a week it was the third-largest e-commerce site on the Internet. In September of 1997 Jobs was named CEO of Apple.

He was instrumental in launching the age of the personal computer. Steve Jobs is truly a computer industry visionary.

4. Answer the questions

  1.  When and where was Steve Jobs born?
  2.  When and where did he see his first computer?
  3.  How much money did Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak have to start up their company?
  4.  When did the first personal computer go to the market?
  5.  Who became the main competitor of Apple in 1983?
  6.  Why did Steve Jobs leave Apple?
  7.  What was the reason of NeXT failure?
  8.  What happened to NeXT?
  9.  Who was the owner of Pixar before Steve Jobs?
  10.  What are the most famous products of Pixar?
  11.  When did Steve Jobs return to Apple?
  12.  What is the position of Steve Jobs now?

4.3. Linus Torvalds

1. Study the vocabulary carefully

Vocabulary

accomplished programmer – состоявшийся программист

accustomed – привыкший, приученный

from scratch – с нуля, с начала

embedded systems – внедренные системы

to get big boost – получить повышение, «оказаться на волне», стать успешным

blessing support – благословенная поддержка

a global consortium – глобальное объединение

2. Read the text about Linus Torvalds and find out the most important facts from the text

The right person at the right time

Linus Torvalds is the world's most famous computer programmer. He is the founder and coordinator of Linux, the Unix-like operating system that is beginning to revolutionize the computer industry.

Linus Benedict Torvalds was born on December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, the capital and largest city in Finland. He was named after Linus Pauling, the famous physical chemist and Nobel Prize winner.   

Torvalds had a fairly happy childhood despite the fact that his parents were divorced when he was very young. He lived with his mother and also with his grandparents. His emphasis was placed on reading from an early age.

It was his grandfather, Leo Toerngvist, a professor of statistics at the University of Helsinki, who had the greatest influence on the young Linus. In the mid-1970s, Toerngvist bought one of the first personal computers, a Commodore Vic 20. Torvalds soon became bored with the few programs that were available for it, and he thus began to create new ones, first using the BASIC programming language and then using the much more difficult but also more powerful language.

Programming and mathematics became Torvalds' passions.

In 1987 Torvalds used his savings to buy his first computer, a Sinclair QL. This was one of the world's first 32-bit computers for home use. With its Motorola 68008 processor (the part of the computer that performs logic operations and also referred to as a central processing unit or CPU) running at 7.5MHz (megahertz) and 128KB (kilobytes) of RAM (random access memory), this was a big step up from his grandfather's Commodore Vic 20. However, he soon became unhappy with it because of it could not be reprogrammed due to the operating system residing in ROM (read-only memory).

In 1988 Torvalds followed in the footsteps of his parents and enrolled in the University of Helsinki, the premier institution of higher education in Finland. By that time he was already an accomplished programmer, and, naturally, he majored in computer science. In 1990 he took his first class in the C programming language, the language that he would soon use to write the Linux kernel (i.e., the core of the operating system).

In early 1991 he purchased an IBM-compatible personal computer with a 33MHz Intel 386 processor and a huge 4MB of memory. This processor greatly appealed to him because it represented a tremendous improvement over earlier Intel chips. As intrigued as he was with the hardware, however, Torvalds was disappointed with the MS-DOS operating system that came with it. That operating system had not advanced sufficiently to even begin to take advantage of the vastly improved capabilities of the 386 chip, and he thus strongly preferred the much more powerful and stable UNIX operating system that he had become accustomed to using on the university's computers.

Consequently,  Torvalds  attempted  to  obtain  a version of UNIX for his

new computer. Fortunately (for the world), he could not find even a basic system for less than US$5,000. He also considered MINIX, a small clone of UNIX that was created by operating systems expert Andrew Tanenbaum in the Netherlands to teach UNIX to university students. However, although much more powerful than MS-DOS and designed to run on Intel x86 processors, MINIX still had some serious disadvantages. They included the facts that not all of the source code was made public, it lacked some of the features and performance of UNIX and there was a not-insignificant (although cheaper than for many other operating systems) licensing fee.

Torvalds thus decided to create a new operating system from scratch that was based on both MINIX and UNIX.

Torvalds originally gave his new operating system the working name Linux (from Linus' MINIX).

Linux got big boost when competitors of Microsoft began taking it seriously. Oracle, Intel, Netscape, Corel and others announced plans to support Linux as an inexpensive alternative to Microsoft Windows. Major corporations soon realized the potential of Linux, and they quickly adopted it for their Internet servers and networks.

Perhaps the biggest force for Linux's adoption in the corporate world has been IBM's official blessing and massive support. This included a 2001 announcement of a commitment of a billion dollars for Linux research, development and promotion.

Among the advantages of using Linux in embedded systems are portability (i.e., ability to run on almost any type of processor), flexibility (i.e., ease of configuring), low cost (i.e., no licensing fees) and the availability of efficient and low cost development tools.   

But Torvalds' success was also due to the fact that he was the right person at the right time.

Torvalds is now working on the Linux kernel full-time for  Open  Source

Development Lab (OSDL), which is based in Beaverton, Oregon. Founded in 2000 and supported by a global consortium of computer companies, including IBM, OSDL describes its mission as "becoming the recognized center of gravity for Linux and the central body dedicated to accelerating the use of Linux for enterprise computing."

3. Say if these sentences are true of false

1. Linus Torvalds is the most famous computer programmer.

2. He is the founder and coordinator of Linux.

3. Torvalds had a hardly happy childhood.

4. His emphasis was placed on sport from an early age.

5. His father had the greatest influence on the young Linus.

6. Torvalds began to create new programs, first using the BASIC programming language and then using the much more difficult but also more powerful language.

7. Torvalds used his savings to buy his first computer which was one of the world's first 32-bit computers for home use in 1987.

8. At the University of Helsinki he was already an accomplished programmer.

9. In 1991 Torvalds purchased an IBM-compatible personal computer which appealed to him because it represented a tremendous improvement over earlier Intel chips.

10. Torvalds attempted to obtain a version of UNIX for his new computer.

11. Torvalds created a new operating system from scratch that was based on both MINIX and UNIX and gave his new operating system the working name Linux.

12. Minor corporations realized the potential of Linux, and they adopted it for their Internet servers and networks.

4. Answer the questions

1. What are the advantages of using Linux in embedded systems?

2. Why was Linus Torvalds a successful person?

3. What is Linus Torvalds working on today?

5. Study the information about Present Perfect Simple, ask your teacher if you have any questions

Present Perfect Simple употребляется для выражения действий , которые произошли в прошлом в неопределенное время. Конкретное время действия не важно, важен результат. А также для выражения действий, которые начались в прошлом и всё ещё продолжаются в настоящем.

К маркерам Present Perfect относятся: 

for, since, already, just, recently, ever, how long, yet, lately, never, so far.

Present perfect

+

-

?

I / you / we / you / they have V(3) / V(ed). 

Have I / you / we / you / they V(3) / V(ed)?

I / you / we / you / they have not (haven’t) V(3) / V(ed).

.

She/he/it has V(3) / V(ed).

Has he/she/it V(3) / V(ed)?

He/she/it has not (hasn’t) V(3) / V(ed).

Example: I have finished school. – Я окончил школу.

She has already written the letter. – Она же написала письмо.

Have you visited your friends recently? – Ты недавно навещал друзей?

She has not forgotten about that. – Она об этом не забыла.

6. Write questions with How long …? And the Present Perfect

Example: you / work / here – How long have you worked here?

  1.  he / know / about this problem. 2. she / be / a director of the company. 3. you / want / change jobs. 4. they / have / their website. 5. he / be / interested / in working for us. 6. he / have / a company car. 7. she / be / responsible for that account. 8. we / study / engineering.

7. Rewrite the following sentences using the Present Perfect

Example: He works here – he started work in January.

 He has worked here since January.

 1. He lives in Tyumen – he was born there. 2. He is a computer programmer – he became a programmer when he left University. 3. They create new programs – they started creating new programs some years ago. 4. They lead the market – they became market leaders in 1998. 5. They purchase IBM-compatible personal computers – they bought them in early 1991. 6. She owns a business – she set it up five years ago. 7. He takes his first class in the C programming language – he started taking his first class in 1990. 8. He spends a lot of time working in the garage workshop – he started doing it when he was a child.

8. Put  the  verbs  in  brackets  into  the  Present  Perfect  Simple  or  the

Past Simple

A: Hello, Billy. I 1) haven’t seen (not / see) you for a long time.

B: Yes, I 2) ______ (be) very busy recently.

A: Really? Tell me what you 3) _____ (do) since we last 4) _____ (see) each other.

B: Well, I 5) _____ (get) my degree last month and then I 6) _____ (move) house.

A: When 7) _____ (you / move)?

B: Last week, but  I 8) _____ (not / unpack) everything yet.

A: I 9) _____ (phone) you on Tuesday but there 10) _____ (be) no answer.

B: I 11) _____ (be) busy at my new house then.

A: Never mind, I only 12) _____ (want) to invite you to a party next week at my house.

B: Great! Thank you.

9. Put  the  verbs  in  brackets  into  the  Present  Perfect  Simple  or  the

Past Simple

 1. Mr and Mrs Ivashko won (win) two free tickets to Paris in a TV show last week. 2. First, Robert ______ (brush) his teeth, then he _____ (go) to bed. 3. “_____ (you / ever / see) a lion?” – “Yes, I saw one when I _____ (go) to Kenya in 1996.” 4. I _____ (not / see) my family for two years. 5. “Where is Oleg?” – “He _____ (go) fishing for the day with his father.” 6. My sister _____ (not / play) the violin since she was twelve. 7. I _____ (already / see) this film. Let’s watch something else. 8. Last week, Fred _____ (fall) off a ladder and _____ (break) his arm. 9. I _____ (never / hear) such a moving song before. 10. Jennifer _____ (always / want) to get Harrison Ford’s autograph.

10. Correct the mistakes

 1. We have bought a new sofa last month. 2. Jim lives in England for three years. 3. My father has went fishing. 4. She is just moved house. 5. We have eaten lunch at one o’clock. 6. Sophie has do her homework. 7. Tanya and Tima have got married ten years ago. 8. I am at school since nine o’clock.

4.4 BILL GATES AND STEVE BALLMER

1. Study the vocabulary carefully

Vocabulary

to step down – уйти в отставку

appointment – назначение на должность 

to claim – заявлять, утверждать

apparently- очевидно, несомненно

chum- близкий друг, приятель

to drop out of Yale – бросать учёбу в Йельском университете

meanwhile – тем временем

to hire – нанимать на работу

to be in charge- быть ответственным за

to assume control – взять на себя управление

to be behind schedule – запаздывать

2. Read the text and translate it into Russian

TWO MEN AND A DESTINY

Who is the boss of the world's leading manufacturer of personal and business computing software? Ask most people and they will say the mega rich Bill Gates. But no, the planet's wealthiest man stepped down from the top job in January 2000 to take on a new appointment and what he claims is his real passion. Apparently this is not making money, but his art collection. Since then, the chief executive of Microsoft Corporation has been his old university chum, Steve Ballmer.

History tells us that Gates dropped out of Yale to set up Microsoft with Paul Allen in 1975. Meanwhile, his other friend Steve, who lived down the hall, graduated with a degree in social science. He then went on to work for two years at Proctor and Gamble, and attend the Manchester University Graduate School of Business.

Ballmer has worked for Microsoft since 1980, when Gates remembered his college mate and hired him as the company's first business manager. Over the last 20 years Ballmer has been in charge of several Microsoft divisions, including operations, marketing, and sales and support. In July 1998 he was promoted to managing director, a role that gave him day-to-day responsibility for running the company. However, since Gates became “Chief Software Architect”, Ballmer has assumed full management control of Microsoft. (Just in case, Bill has retained some power as Chairman.)

Legend has it that in spring 1986, soon after hiring Ballmer, Gates called him into his office. Microsoft's deadline to produce Office 97 was getting behind schedule, and Gates reportedly threatened to fire his friend if the software wasn't on the shelves by the end of the year. Needless to say, Windows was ready by the end of the year, and they have remained the best of friends. Proof of this is that Steve was godfather at Bill's wedding.

Ballmer has influenced Microsoft with his own brand of energy and discipline. He says, “I want everyone to share my passion for cats and dogs. I want people to understand the amazing, positive way our software can make leisure time more enjoyable, and businesses more successful.” Ballmer plays squash and loves basketball.

3. Underline three examples of the Present Perfect in the text which tell us when a present situation started.

4. Find words and phrases in the text which mean the same as the following

  1.  resign / leave a job ________________
  2.  found / establish __________________
  3.  finish a university course ___________
  4.  University qualification _____________
  5.  employ _________________________
  6.  responsible for ___________________
  7.  give someone a better job __________
  8.  dismiss or sack __________________
  9.  spare time ______________________

APPENDIX

  1.  Условные обозначения
  2.  части речи:

N – Noun – существительное

V – Verb – глагол

V2Participle II – причастие прошедшего времени неправильного глагола

Ved Participle II – причастие прошедшего времени правильного глагола

V3  Past Participle – третья форма неправильного глагола

Ving Participle I – причастие настоящего времени

Vaux – Auxiliary Verb – вспомогательный глагол

Pron – Pronoun – местоимение

AdjAdjective  прилагательное

AdvAdverb  наречие

  1.  члены предложения

S – Subject – подлежащее

P – Predicate – сказуемое

O – Object – дополнение

AM – Adverbial Modifier – обстоятельство

II. Порядок слов в предложении

  1.  прямой порядок слов (повествовательные предложения)

S  +  P    +    O

E.g.: I      like     coffee. – Я люблю кофе.

  1.  обратный порядок слов (вопросительные предложения)

V(aux) +   S   +  P   +    O?

E.g.: Do  you  like    coffee? – Вы любите кофе?

III. Типы вопросов

  1.  общий вопрос – general question (ответда / нет)

V(aux) + S    +      P     +  O       AM?

E.g.: Do        you     watch     TV   every day?Вы смотрите телевизор каждый день?

Is(Vaux)  he(S) reading(P)  a book(O) now(AM)? – Он сейчас читает книгу?

Has(Vaux)  she(S) finished(P)  the letter(O)? – Она уже закончила письмо?

2. специальный вопрос – special questions (wh – questions)

Question Word + V(aux) + S + P + O?

Question Word (QW)

Вопросительное слово

who

why

what

when

where

which

whose

how

how many (much) etc.

кто

почему

что

когда

где

который, какой

чей

как

сколько, как много и т.д.

 QW + V(aux) + S   +  P  +   O?

E.g.: Why   do  you     like   coffee? – Почему вам нравится кофе?

3. альтернативный вопрос – alternative question (“or“ questions)

V(aux) + S  +  P  +     O        or    O?

E.g.: Do    you   like    coffee     or   tea ?

4. разделительный вопрос – disjunctive question (“tag”-questions)

 S  + P  +   O,     V(aux)+not + S

E.g.: You   like  coffee, don’t           you?  - Вы любите кофе, не так ли?

 S  + V(aux)+not+ P +  O,       V(aux)   +  S?

You   dont          like   coffee, do         you? – Вы не любите кофе, не так ли?

They(S)  are(Vaux)  learning(P)  English(O), arent(Vaux)  they(S) ? – Они изучают английский, не правда ли?


Bibliography

1. Агабекян И.П. Английский язык. – Ростов н/Дону: Феникс, 2003. – 320с.

  1.  Баканова И.Ю. Английский язык: большой справочник для школьников и поступающих в вузы. – М.: Дрофа, 1998. – 624с.
  2.  Барановская Т.В. Грамматика английского языка. Сборник упражнений. – Киев: ООО ИП Логос-М, 2007. – 384с.
  3.  Голицинский Ю.Б. Грамматика. Сборник упражнений. – Спб.: Каро, 1999. – 475с.
  4.  Clarke S. In Company Pre-Intermediate. Macmillan, 2007 – 125c.
  5.  Linus Torvalds biography by The Linux Information Project  http://www.linfo.org/linus.html
  6.  Flower J. Start building your vocabulary. Elementary. – Обнинск: Титул, 2001. – 96с.
  7.  Murthy R. Essential grammar in use. Elementary. Cambridge University Press, 1997. – 300с.
  8.  Redman S. English vocabulary in use. Pre-intermediate and intermediate. Cambridge University Press, 1997. – 270с.
  9.  Steve Jobs Biograthy http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ho-Jo/Jobs-Steve.html


Екатерина Накиевна Абдразакова

Надежда Анатольевна Гаркуша

Step up

Иностранный язык (английский)

Учебно-методическое пособие

для студентов естественнонаучных специальностей и направлений

Подписано в печать    Тираж   зкз.

Объём   п.л.  Формат    Заказ №    

Издательство Тюменского государственного университета

625003, Тюмень, Семакова, 10.


Go home

Have lunch

Have lessons

Get to the university

Get ready for the university

Have breakfast

rush my teeth

Wash myself

Wake up

My day

Beside /next to

on

in

between

above

behind

In front of

under

below

appearance

height

build

hair

skin

general appearance

age


 

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