98447

English for Law Students

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Цель настоящего пособия – обучение юристов профессиональному иноязычному общению. Аутентичный материал пособия, предлагаемая система упражнений способствуют формированию языковой, речевой, социокультурной, учебно-познавательной компетенций, причем в качестве интегративной выступает коммуникативная компетенция.

Русский

2015-11-03

348.66 KB

14 чел.

БЕЛОРУССКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Кафедра английского языка гуманитарных факультетов

ENGLISH

for

Law Students

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ  ЯЗЫК

Учебное пособие по

специальности «Правоведение»

Minsk

BSU

2010


УДК

ББК

Авторы-составители:

Васючкова О. И., Долгорукова А. И., Крюковская И. В.,
Хорень Р. В., Шуплецова С. А.

Утверждено на заседании
кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов
протокол № 11 от  31 мая   2010 г.

Рецензенты:

Доктор филологических наук, профессор кафедры иностранных языков Института государственного строительства при Президенте Республики Беларусь Л. М. Лещева

Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент Г. П. Савченко

Под общей редакцией кандидата филологических наук О. И. Васючковой

Под научной редакцией доктора педагогических наук Л.В. Хведчени

English for Law Students = Английский язык. Учебное пособие по специальности «Правоведение» / Авт.-сост.: Васючкова О. И., Долгорукова А. И., Крюковская И. В., Хорень Р. В., Шуплецова С. А. – Мн.: БГУ, 2010. – 331 с.

Настоящее пособие представляет собой тематически организованный учебно-методический комплекс по проблемам, представляющим интерес для студентов-правоведов: профессия юриста, история государства и права, конституционное право, уголовное право, деятельность правоохранительных органов, судов, уголовный и гражданский процесс, пенитенциарная система. Каждый тематический раздел состоит из аутентичных (ам. и брит.) монологических и диалогических текстов с заданиями для разных видов чтения и аудирования, грамматического блока. Цель пособия – обучить студентов чтению, реферированию, пониманию на слух текстов по специальности и ведению дискуссии на профессионально значимые темы.

УДК

ББК

© БГУ, 2010


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Цель настоящего пособия – обучение юристов профессиональному иноязычному общению. Аутентичный материал пособия, предлагаемая система упражнений способствуют формированию языковой, речевой, социокультурной, учебно-познавательной компетенций, причем в качестве интегративной выступает коммуникативная компетенция. Основным методическим принципом, положенным в основу создания пособия, является взаимосвязанное обучение всем видам речевой деятельности (чтению, аудированию, говорению, письму).

По своему предметно-тематическому содержанию пособие соответствует требованиям Новой типовой программы по иностранному языку для высших учебных заведений (Минск, 2008) в части Модуля профессионального общения. Учебный материал отражает предмет и содержание избранной специальности, профессиональную деятельность юриста и ее социокультурные особенности в странах изучаемого языка (Великобритании, США), типичные ситуации производственного общения (работа государственных органов, судов, полиции).

Пособие состоит из 9 идентично структурированных разделов (Units), организованных по тематическому принципу, причем каждый раздел представляет собой самостоятельный лингвометодический  комплекс, включающий: а) монологические сообщения – аутентичные тексты по единой тематике (А, В, С, Д, Е), предназначенные для обучения различным видам чтения (изучающему, с упражнениями по обучению лексике и говорению, построенными по принципу нарастания языковых трудностей, ознакомительному, просмотровому, поисковому чтению с заданиями, соответствующими заявленным стратегиям), а также диалогические сообщения в виде диалога – образца профессиональной иноязычной коммуникации и полилога как основы для развития навыков профессионального общения с учетом межкультурных особенностей обсуждаемых правовых проблем; в) текст на аудирование с предтекстовыми и послетекстовыми заданиями; г) грамматический блок, где явления английской грамматики изучаются на базе специального юридического контекста.

Особенностью настоящего пособия является то, что специальная лексика подается в контексте, а предлагаемая система упражнений обеспечивает ее накопление и ротацию, причем перед студентами ставится цель самостоятельного составления списков тематической лексики раздела с учетом системной организации словаря в пределах изучаемого тематического поля, терминосистемы.

В пособии нет отдельного блока по обучению письму, однако в каждом разделе присутствуют определенные письменные задания для аудиторной либо внеаудиторной работы, направленные на закрепление активной лексики, более прочное усвоение терминологии, изучаемых языковых явлений. Учитывая, что письменные работы являются времязатратными, авторы сочли целесообразным вынести разнообразные задания по формированию навыков творческого письма (резюме, аннотации, сочинения, аргументированные эссе и т. п.) в дополнительное пособие по самостоятельной работе студентов.

Пособие актуально по содержанию, значительно расширяет информационное пространство обучаемых по избранной специальности, чему способствуют как текстовой материал основных разделов, так и расположенные в приложении тексты для дополнительного чтения.

Некоторая кажущаяся избыточность материала пособия не представляется его недостатком, поскольку позволяет учитывать индивидуальную языковую подготовку студентов с различным стартовым уровнем обучения, предоставляет широкие возможности для автономной и групповой работы студентов как в аудитории, так и за ее пределами.

Пособие подготовлено на кафедре английского языка гуманитарных факультетов БГУ в рамках кафедральной научно-исследовательской темы, связанной с созданием учебно-методического комплекса по иностранным языкам для студентов неязыковых вузов.


UNIT  I

AGENTS  OF  THE  LAW

READING  AND  SPEAKING

Text A         Legal Profession

Task:  read and translate the following text.

England is almost unique in having two different kinds of lawyers, with separate jobs in the legal system. The legal profession is divided into two branches: barristers and solicitors, who are sometimes called the junior branch. Both barristers and solicitors are professions held in high regard. This division of the legal profession is of long standing and each branch has its own characteristic functions as well as a separate governing body. The training and career structures for the two types of lawyers are quite separate.

The traditional picture of the English lawyer is that the solicitor is the general practitioner, confined mainly to the office. If a person has a legal problem and needs the assistance of the law, either because he has a dispute, or because he is in trouble, or concerned with a question of inheritance or transfer of property, he will go to a solicitor and seek his advice in a personal interview. There is no end to variety of matters which can appear on a solicitor’s desk. They deal with all the day-to-day work of preparing legal documents for buying and selling houses, making wills, writing legal letters, they do the legal work involved in conveyancing, probate, divorce. Solicitors work on court cases for their clients outside the court: in a civil action solicitors have the right to speak in the lowest Courts when the case is one of divorce, recovering some debts, matrimonial matters, petty crimes. If a case, civil or criminal, is more serious or difficult, or has to be heard in a higher court, solicitors engage a barrister to whom they hand over the task of representing the client in the court. They prepare a case for barristers to present in the higher courts and the barrister receives it in the form of a brief from which he plans his advocacy in the particular case.

Law Society1 is a governing body of solicitors. Solicitors usually work together in partnerships, or “firms’. To qualify as a solicitor a young man joins a practising solicitor as a “clerk” and works for him whilst studying part time for the Law Society exams. When you have passed all the necessary exams, you may apply to the Law Society to be “admitted”, then you can start business on your own. It is not necessary for you to go to university.

In England, the decision is between becoming a barrister or a solicitor. Although solicitors and barristers work together on cases barristers specialise in representing clients in court. A barrister can only be consulted indirectly, through a solicitor. Thus they are not paid directly by clients, but are employed by solicitors. Most barristers are professional advocates but it is a mistake to regard a barrister entirely as an advocate. A barrister must be capable of prosecuting in a criminal case one day, and defending an accused person the next.

A would-be2 barrister must first register as a student member of one of the four Inns of Court3: Gray’s Inn, Lincoln’s Inn, Inner Temple or Middle Temple and keep twelve terms as a student at his Inn. A student must pass a group of examinations to obtain a Law degree and then proceed to a vocational course, highly practical in nature, the passing of which will result in his being called to the Bar4.

Barristers are experts in the interpretation of the Law. They advise on really difficult legal matters (this is known as “taking counsel’s opinion”). So barristers spend a lot of time at paper work apart from their actual appearances in court where they wear wigs and gowns in keeping with the extreme formalities of the proceedings.

Judges are usually chosen from the most senior barristers, and once appointed they cannot continue to practise as barristers.

The highest level of barristers have the title Q.C. (Queen’s Counsel). The status is bestowed on about 30 counsellors a year by the Queen on the advice of the Lord Chancellor. Before a junior counsel can hope to achieve the status (“to take silk” as this process is called) he must be able to point to at least 10 years successful practice as a barrister. The Q.C. is expected to appear only in the most important cases.

A lot of work in English solicitor’s offices is undertaken by managing clerks, now called “legal executives”5, who are a third type of lawyers. They have their own professional and examining body  “The Institute of Legal Executives”.

Taking the legal profession as a whole, there is one practicing lawyer per 1200 people. This compares with about one lawyer per 600 in the USA. There are about 5,000 barristers and 50,000 solicitors, the number which is rapidly increasing, and they make up by far the largest branch of the legal profession in England and Wales.

Many people believe the distinction between barristers and solicitors should be eliminated in England. The government is considering various proposals, but there are arguments for maintaining, as well as removing, the division.

Notes:

  1.  Law Society  Общество юристов (профессиональный союз солиситоров)
  2.  would-be – стремящийся стать
  3.  Inns of Court  “Судебные инны” (четыре корпорации барристеров в Лондоне; пользуются исключительным правом приема в адвокатуру; в школах при этих корпорациях готовят барристеров;  существуют с XIV в.)

Grays Inn  “Грейз Инн” (самый новый из “судебных иннов”, назван по имени первого владельца здания).

Lincolns Inn  “Инн Линкольна” (готовит преимущественно барристеров Канцлерского овысокого суда правосудия; назван по имени первого владельца здания).

Inner Temple   “Внутренний темпл” (самый старый из судебных типов.)

Middle Temple    “Средний темпл”

  1.  to be called to the Bar  быть принятым в коллегию адвокатов
  2.  legal executives”  законные исполнители (персонал, нанимаемый солиситорами, клерки)

Word  Study

Ex. 1. a) Read the international words and guess their meaning. Mind the stress.

legal

system

profession

characteristic

type

function

solicitor

specialization

form

problem

career

problematic

plan

action

extreme

clerk

practice

specific

office

advocate

practitioner

status

business

traditional

expert

structure

formalities

client

barrister

procedure

document

argument

 b) Pronounce correctly the following proper names:

Law  Society ['lL sq'saIqtI]

Lincoln’s  Inn   ['lInkqlnz  'In]

Queen’s Counsel ['k w i: n z  'kauns(q)l]

Inner  Temple   ['Inq  't e m p l ]

Inns  of  Court  ['Inz  qv  'kLt]

Middle  Temple   ['mIdl   't e m p l ]

Gray’s  Inn  ['greIz  'In ]

Ex. 2.  Complete the list of derivatives.  Use a dictionary if necessary.

 Verb    noun (agent)  noun (concept)

 to train

to practise

to advocate

to specialize

to convey

to apply

to accuse

to interpret

to prosecute   prosecutor   prosecution

Ex. 3.   Pair the words in column  A with the ones from column  B. 

 A.

  1.  senior

B.

  1.  barrister

  1.  vocational

  1.  degree

  1.  law

  1.  course

  1.  extreme

  1.  documents

  1.  accused

  1.  exam

  1.  professional

  1.  advocate

  1.  necessary

  1.  matters

  1.  civil

  1.  advice

  1.  day-to-day

  1.  structure

  1.  variety (of)

  1.  action

  1.  personal

  1.  person

  1.  general

  1.  interview

  1.  career

  1.  formalities

  1.  legal

  1.  practitioner

Ex. 4.   How are the following ideas expressed in one word?

  1.  a lawyer who has the right of speaking and arguing in the higher courts of law;
  2.  a kind of lawyer who gives advice, appears in lower courts;
  3.  to be allowed or made by law;
  4.  a room or building in which law cases can be heard and judged;
  5.  questions to be decided in a court of law;
  6.  a rule that is supported by the power of government and that governs the behaviour of  members of a society;
  7.  a person whose business is to advise people about laws and to represent them in court;
  8.  a person who speaks in defence of or in favour of another person;
  9.  a lawyer who prepares an official paper by which the right to ownership of one’s property is given by one person to another;
  10.  a person who pays a professional person for help and advice;
  11.  a public official who has the power to decide questions brought before a court of law.

Ex. 5. Match English and Russian equivalents.

  1.  matrimonial matters;
  1.  защищать обвиняемого;
  1.  petty crimes;
  1.  незначительные преступления;
  1.  recovery of debts;
  1.  составлять завещание;
  1.  to make a will;
  1.  искать юридического совета;
  1.  to deal with conveyancing;
  1.  толкование закона;
  1.  to seek legal advice;
  1.  иметь дело с составлением нотариальных актов о передаче имущества
  1.  to apply to the court;
  1.  возврат долгов;
  1.  a civil action;
  1.  брачные (супружеские) вопросы;
  1.  a general practitioner;
  1.  вести уголовное дело;
  1.  the interpretation of the law;
  1.  обращаться в суд;
  1.  to defend the accused person;
  1.  получить диплом юриста;
  1.  to obtain a law degree;
  1.  гражданское дело;
  1.  to prosecute in a criminal case;
  1.  юрист широкого профиля;
  1.  to eliminate the division;
  1.  профессиональный адвокат
  1.  to maintain the proposal;
  1.  устранить деление
  1.  to achieve the status
  1.  достичь статуса

Ex. 6. Choose the best alternative to complete the following sentences.

  1.  England is almost unique / ordinary in having two / three different kinds of lawyers, with separate/the same jobs in the legal system.
  2.  Solicitors/managing clerks prepare a case for a barrister / a judge.
  3.  In a civil/criminal action solicitors have the right to speak in the lowest / highest courts.
  4.  Law Society/the Bar is a governing body of solicitors.
  5.  It is a mistake to regard/to point a barrister entirely as an advocate/prosecutor.
  6.  Barristers are experts in the interpretation/examining of the Law.
  7.  Judges are usually chosen/appointed from the most senior/junior barristers.
  8.  The Queen’s Counsel / the Lord Chancellor is expected to appear only in the most important / trial cases.
  9.  A number of lawyers is rapidly increasing/cutting down in England and Wales.
  10.  A lot of work in solicitors’/barristers’ offices is undertaken by legal executives / students.
  11.  Each branch of legal profession has its own/common characteristic functions as well as a separate/one governing body.
  12.  If a person has a legal problem he will go to a barrister/solicitor and seek his advice in a personal interview/by post.
  13.  In court barristers wear plain clothes/wigs and gowns.
  14.  To qualify as a barrister you must register as a student member of one of the four Inns of Court /of one of British universities.

Ex. 7. Complete the following text with the words and phrases from the box. Answer the questions given below.

lay client, trial, professional association, legal advisor, paperwork,

a written document, Law Society, marriage contract, litigants, instruct

The Long History of the Solicitor

The solicitors’ profession has a long history, going back to the 12lh century, when the language of the court was Norman French. All_______ therefore needed a representative to act on their behalf and that person was known as an ‘attorney’ from the mediaeval French word ‘atourner’ (meaning ‘to direct to’). In the courts of equity a________ needed a 'solicitor' to act on his behalf.   This word derived from the Latin ‘sollicitare’ (to harass). Attorneys and solicitors were the forerunners of today’s solicitors.

Today solicitors generally ______ barristers as specialist pleaders of cases in Court, prepare the cases, attend to all the __________ and collect the evidence. The solicitor provides the instructions to the barrister in _______ called “a brief” – hence the expression “briefcase”.

The attorney or solicitor was the general______. He would deal with legal matters on behalf of his client such as the drawing up of wills, trust instruments, _____ _____, and conveyances of land. It was generally only when a matter proceeded to court that the client had need of both a solicitor and a barrister: the solicitor to enter an appearance in the Court and deal with the preliminary stages and the barrister to plead the case and appear at the eventual _____of it.

The profession of a solicitor was largely unregulated until the beginning of the 19th century when the Law Society was founded. It was granted a Royal Charter in 1845 which empowered it to enforce national standards of conduct and education. About the same time the term attorney was dropped in favour of the title “solicitor”. The duties of the ____ ____ have been extended by various Acts of Parliament since then. It serves the public by working to improve access to the law. It provides services and support for solicitors and sets the standards that underpin the profession’s reputation as the best independent professional advisers. The Law Society acts both as the professional body regulating solicitors and also as their____ ____.

Text  Study

Ex. 1. Choose the best way to complete the sentences.

1. England has two different kinds of lawyers: ..... 

a) solicitors and barristers

b) barristers and legal executives

c) solicitors and judges

2. Solicitors work on court cases of clients .....

a) in the court

b) outside the court

c) at home

3.  ..... is a governing body of solicitors.

a) the Bar

b) the Highest Court

c) Law Society

4.  The highest level of barristers have the title of .....

a) Queen’s Counsel

b) Queen’s Advocate

c) Senior Barrister

5.  The status to the barrister is bestowed by the Queen on the advice of .....

a) the Lord Chancellor

b) Prime Minister

c) the Attorney-General

6.  A would be barrister must first be registered .....

a) as  a member of Law Society

b) as  a student member of one of the four Inns of Court

c) as  a member of the Bar

7.  Many people believe the distinction between barristers and solicitors .....

a) should be adopted

b) should be eliminated

c) should be kept

8. Judges are chosen from ….

a) a junior counsel

b) the most senior barristers

c) managing clerks

9.  Solicitors have the right to speak in the lowest Courts when the case is one of …

a) murder

b) petty crimes

c) terrorism

10. Barristers are experts …

a) in representing clients in court

b) in interpretation of the law

c) in writing legal letters

Ex. 2. Mark the statements which are true.

  1.  The division of the legal profession is of long standing and each branch has its own characteristic functions.
  2.  The training and career structures for the two types of lawyers are quite the same.
  3.  Solicitors specialize in representing clients in courts.
  4.  A barrister can only be consulted indirectly through a solicitor.
  5.  Barristers are paid directly by the clients.
  6.  A barrister is regarded to be an advocate.
  7.  In court, barristers wear wigs and gowns in keeping with the extreme formalities of the proceedings.
  8.  Judges are chosen from the most senior barristers and they can continue to practise as barristers.
  9.  Before a junior counsel can achieve the status of Q.C. he must be able to point to at least 10 years successful practice as a barrister.
  10.  The government doesn’t consider it necessary to eliminate the distinction between barristers and solicitors.

Ex. 3. Complete the following sentences by adding the phrases given in part B.

Part A

  1.  Each branch of legal profession has .....
  2.  The solicitors deal with preparing .....
  3.  The solicitor has the right to speak in the Lowest Courts when  ....
  4.  The barrister plans his advocacy .....
  5.  A young man joins a practicing solicitor as a clerk .....
  6.  Barristers specialize .....
  7.  A barrister must be capable .....
  8.  Judges are chosen .....
  9.  When the student obtains a law degree and passes highly practical in nature vocational course .....
  10.  Clerks who undertake a lot of work in English solicitor’s offices .....
  11.  Solicitors make up …..
  12.  The government is considering various arguments for ….

Part B

  1.  the rapidly increasing branch of the legal profession in England and Wales.
  2.  its own characteristic functions and a separate governing body.
  3.  maintaining as well as removing the division between barristers and solicitors.
  4.  the case is one of divorce,  recovery some debts, petty crimes.
  5.  to qualify as a solicitor.
  6.  in the form of a brief prepared by a solicitor.
  7.  legal documents for the clients.
  8.  in representing clients in court.
  9.  from the most senior barristers.
  10.  he may be called to the Bar.
  11.  of prosecuting in a criminal case one day and defending an accused person the next.
  12.  are a third type of lawyers called  “legal executives”.

Ex. 4. Analyse the stages of legal education and career in Britain.

Solicitors’ Training Barristers’ Training

Law degree

Law degree

Legal practice course

(1 year)

Membership of an Inn of Court

Training contract

(2 years)

Vocational Course
(one year)

Solicitor

Ex. 5. Choose someone to act as a guide and answer the visitors’ questions.

What is (are)

What do you mean by

Explain to me

Can you tell me about

(who, what)

having two different kinds of lawyers

variety of matters on solicitors’ desks

work on court cases of clients outside the court

the right to speak in the  Lowest Courts

Law Society

when one can start legal business

who interprets the law

the status of Queen’s Counsel

the distinction between barristers and solicitors

training and career structures for the two types of  lawyers

Ex. 6. Speak on the legal profession in Great Britain.

1.  General characteristics:  two kinds of lawyers;  separate jobs;  governing body;  training structure;  number of practicing lawyers;  to compare with the USA;  to increase rapidly;  to make up.

2.  Solicitor:   to seek legal advice;  variety of matters;  to deal with legal documents;  to buy and sell houses;  to make a will;  to write legal letters;  conveyancing; probate; divorce;  to work on court cases;  to prepare a case for a barrister;  to speak in the lowest courts;  to recover some debts;  matrimonial matters;  petty crimes.

3.  Barrister:  an expert in the interpretation of the law; to specialize in representing clients in court; to be consulted indirectly through a solicitor; to be employed by a solicitor;  to be a professional advocate;  to advise on really difficult legal matters;  to spend a lot of time at paper work;  to wear wigs and gowns;  to have the title of Queen’s Counsel.

4.  “Legal executives”:  solicitor’s offices; to undertake; managing clerks;  to be a third type of lawyers;  to have a professional and examining body.

Ex. 7. Render the following text into English using the topical vocabulary of the present unit:

Судебные Инны

Барристер допускается к практике только в том случае, если он «был призван» (to be admitted) в профессию «Судебным Инном». Судебные Инны – это школы-гильдии (guilds). Их четыре: Греевская школа-гильдия, Линкольская школа-гильдия, Внутренний Темпл и Средний Темпл. Судебные школы-гильдии – очень старая английская традиция. Своими корнями (to date back to) она уходит в XIV век. По существу судебные школы-гильдии – профессиональные организации барристеров, в которые издавна объединялись английские адвокаты. С недавних пор в школы-гильдии принимаются для обучения и практики только обладатели университетских дипломов (the University degree owner).

Чтобы стать барристером, необходимо провести определенное время в школе-гильдии, это время измеряется необычной единицей – «обеденными сессиями» (dinners). Как правило, ежегодно проводится четыре сессии. В течение одной сессии необходимо отобедать (to dine) в столовой своей школы-гильдии по крайней мере три раза. Но чтобы быть принятым в барристеры, требуется посетить (to attend) не менее семи сессий. В давние времена совместные застолья были призваны облегчить установление контактов (to facilitate) между барристерами и теми, кто хочет быть посвященным в это «сословие».

Text  B    The American Legal Profession

Task: read the text and get ready to discuss its main points.

Technically there is no such thing as an “American lawyer”: every state admits its own, and a lawyer licensed to practice in Florida is strictly speaking a layperson as far as Alabama or Alaska is concerned. Nonetheless, in the aggregate, this is a vast army of lawtrained men and women.

The profession is, and always has been, quite diverse. There are many legal worlds. To begin with, there is the world of the big firm. These big firms recruit their lawyers from the “national” law schools – with big reputations and long traditions, like Harvard and Yale. We know in general what the work is: it includes securities law, antitrust law, bond issues, mergers, tax work, international trade. In both big and little firms, up to half the work could be described as “litigation”.

Another staple of law practice is real estate: buying and selling houses or office buildings, deals with shopping centers, suburban developments. Estate work is also common to big firms and little firms alike. Big firms handle these affairs for captains of industry and for great old families. Middle-sized do the same for the medium-rich –manufacturers of plastic novelties, owners of restaurants, car-wash companies, apartment buildings. Small-town lawyers and solo practitioners handle farm estates. And so on.

Some branches of practice do tend toward specialization. There are lawyers who work on port trade, on chartering ships, on show business (“entertainment law”), on trademarks and copyrights. However, few lawyers are totally specialized.

Big-firm lawyers cover many fields and many problems. But there are areas they definitely do not touch. One is divorce. It is the lawyers in smallish firms and in law clinics, and the solos, who handle “one-shot” clients – couples who want a divorce, victims of car crashes, people arrested for drunk driving. Some lawyers with one-shot clients struggle to make ends meet; others earn heaps of money.

Since the early nineteenth century, law has been a prominent way “to get ahead” in the society. For much of American history, a lawyer meant “white male.” Black lawyers were rare birds in American history. Not a single woman was admitted to the bar before the 1870s. Indeed, when women tried to break into this all-male club, they met resistance and reluctance, to say the least. Opinions changed, but slowly and grudgingly. Equality of opportunity is not an easy goal to achieve, especially with regard to barriers of class. The cost of legal education is one of these barriers. Lawyers tend to come from the families of businessmen, teachers, professionals; they are not sons of grocery clerks or coal miners’ daughters. Over 73 percent of the practicing lawyers in Chicago came from “solidly middle-class or upper-middle-class-homes”. Many came from lawyerly or professional backgrounds not from working-class backgrounds.

There are law schools in every major city and in almost every state; Alaska is one of the few that lacks this modern amenity. These law schools are both different from each other and much the same. They are remarkably similar in curriculum and method. They also tend to impose the same general requirements: a college degree, and the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). But law schools are quite different in prestige, money and power – and in quality of faculty and students. The stronger older schools are able to “skim off the cream”. Harvard, Yale, Berkley, and Chicago can afford huge research libraries; small schools cannot.

Lawyers, like Americans in general, are joiners. They are united into a strong, permanent organization – the American Bar Association, the ABA, in short. There are also state, county, and city bar associations. But the ABA is still not an association of all American lawyers. No one has to join it though it has a huge membership.

Law and lawyers are expensive. Many people who want or need a lawyer have trouble paying the price. But the state provides a lawyer, free of charge “public defenders”, to anyone accused of a serious crime who cannot afford to pay on his own. For civil cases, the situation is more complicated. A few lawyers have always made it a practice to do some work free for poor clients. There are now a number of law firms organized for the “public interest”.

Points for discussion:

  1.  Peculiarities of the American legal profession.
  2.  The main branches of law practice.
  3.  Equality of opportunities in legal world.
  4.  American law schools.

Text  C     Judges

Task: read the text and focus on  its main points.

The judge is the presiding officer of the court. The statutory basis for the appointment of judges dates from the Act of Settlement 17001. Under the original arrangements the districts were grouped into 60 county court circuits, each with its own judge appointed by the Lord Chancellor from barristers of at least seven years’ standing. On the re-organisation of the criminal courts under the Courts Act 1971 the existing county court judges became Circuit judges. Every Circuit judge is by virtue of his or her office capable of sitting as a judge for any county court district and at least one is assigned to each district by the Lord Chancellor. A full-time District judge is barred from legal practice. District judges were formerly called registrars; the change of title reflected the fact that their functions are now judicial. They are responsible for procedural steps in court proceedings. Their administrative functions have now been transferred to substantial staffs of clerks and bailiffs.

Judges themselves are not a separate profession: they are barristers who have demonstrated competence in litigation and have been elevated to the bench2, itself a name derived from the part of the Court where they sit. A barrister always enters the judiciary at the lower trial level. He is thereafter promoted, if he proves successful in the initial judicial post.

The traditional function of judges is to apply existing rules of law to the case before them. The judge decides the interpretation of the law.  After all the evidence has been given the judge summarizes the case, both law and facts, for the jury. This is called his summing up.

Judges are capable of “making law” both through the interpretation of statutes and the doctrine of precedent. When an Act of Parliament makes no provision for the case in question and there is no existing precedent, the judge must, if necessity, create a new law.

Judges are not under the control of Parliament, or the Civil Service. The independence of the judiciary is a fundamental principle of constitutional law. Closely related to judicial independence is the doctrine of judicial immunity.

The professional judges, “High Court Judges”, deal with the most serious crimes. They are paid salaries by the state. Alongside with the professional judges there are unpaid judges. They are called “Magistrates” or “Justices of the Peace” (JPs)3. They are ordinary citizens who are selected not because they have any legal training but because they have “sound common sense”4 and understanding of their fellow human beings.

Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district.  Nobody, even the Magistrates themselves, knows who is on the special committee in their area. The committee tries to draw Magistrates from different professions and social classes.

The work of the Magistrates’ Courts5 throughout the country depends on the unpaid services of  JPs.

Notes:

1 Act of Settlement      акт о престолонаследии

2 be elevated to the bench      возвысить до положения судьи

3 Magistrate, Justice of the Peace (JP)    судья, мировой судья

4 sound common sense”      (зд.) чувство здравого смысла

5 MagistratesCourt      суд магистратов, мировой суд (рассматривает дела о мелких преступлениях)

Ex. 1. Say if these statements are true or false.

  1.  The judge is the presiding officer of the court.
  2.  Every Circuit judge is capable of sitting as a judge for one county court area.
  3.  A part-time district judge is barred from legal practice.
  4.  Here was the change of judges titles but their functions remained the same.
  5.  Judges themselves are a separate profession.
  6.  A barrister always enters the judiciary at the highest level.
  7.  The judge decides the interpretation of the law.
  8.  Judges are capable of “making law” through the doctrine of precedent.
  9.  Judges are under the control of Parliament.
  10.  Judicial independence is a fundamental principle of constitutional law.
  11.  Professional judges are paid salaries by the state.
  12.  Magistrates are also professional judges but they deal with less serious crimes.
  13.  Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district.

Ex. 2. Here are the answers to some questions on the text. What are the questions?

  1.  The Act of Settlement 1700.
  2.  The existing country court judges became Circuit judges.
  3.  A full-time district judge is barred from legal practice.
  4.  Registrars are responsible for procedural steps in court proceedings.
  5.  They are barristers who have demonstrated competence in litigation.
  6.  If he proves successful in the initial judicial post.
  7.  The judge summarizes the case for the jury.
  8.  The judge must, if necessity, create a new law.
  9.  The doctrine of judicial immunity.
  10.  The professional judges.
  11.  Justices of the Peace.
  12.  The committee tries to draw Magistrates from different professions and social classes.
  13.  The unpaid services of JPs.

Ex. 3. Complete the following sentences:

  1.  The judge is ...
  2.  On the reorganization of the criminal courts …
  3.  The Lord Chancellor assigned …
  4.  Registrars are responsible for …
  5.  The statutory basis for the appointment of judges dates from  ...
  6.  Judges are barristers who ...
  7.  The traditional function of judges is ...
  8.  Judge’s summing up is ...
  9.  Judges “make law” through ...
  10.  The fundamental principle of constitutional law is ...
  11.  Judicial immunity means ...
  12.  The professional judges deal with ...
  13.  Magistrates or Justices of the Peace  are ...
  14.  JPs are selected by ...

Ex. 4. Explain and expand on the following:

  1.  The judge is a presiding officer of the court.
  2.  There was the re-organization of criminal courts under the Courts Act of 1971.
  3.  Judges themselves are not a separate profession.
  4.  A barrister enters the judiciary at the lower trial level.
  5.  The judge decides the interpretation of the law.
  6.  Judges are capable of making laws.
  7.  Judges are not under the control of Parliament.
  8.  Alongside with the professional judges there are unpaid judges.
  9.  Magistrates are selected by special Committees.

Ex. 5. Points for discussion:

  1.  Long period of standing.
  2.  Entering the judiciary.
  3.  Functions of judges.
  4.  Judicial independence and immunity.
  5.  The appointment of Magistrates and their work.
  6.  Professional judges.

Text D    Judges in the US

Task: read the text, get ready to compare judges in Great Britain and in the US.

In the United States judges are, of course, at the core of any court system. They are the decisions makers, the key officials around whom all else is arranged.

Because American judges sit on courts of widely varying types and come from a variety of backgrounds and experiences, it is difficult to generalize about them. Two generalizations, however, are possible. First, judges in the United States initially come to the bench from other lines of legal work and after a substantial number of years of professional experience. Second, once on the bench they do not, in the main, follow a promotional pattern through the ranks of the judiciary: a person can enter the judicial system at any level, he or she can initially become a judge on the highest court, the lowest court, or any court in between.

All American judges have studied law and have been licensed to practise law. Many judges have been litigators, some have been office lawyers or counsels to organizations.  Numerous judges have been lawyers in government service as prosecuting attorneys or counsel government agencies. Some judges are former law professors.

Lawyers become judges in the United States through four methods: (1) by nomination of the chief executive with confirmation by a legislative body, (2) by appointment of the chief executive from a short list of persons certified by an independent commission to be qualified for the position, (3) by popular election, and (4) by election in the legislature.

Terms of office range from four or six years to the term “for life”. All federal judges hold office during good behaviour and can be removed only through impeachment by Congress.

A federal magistrate judge is a full-time judicial offise, although in some courts it is filled on a part-time basis. Unlike federal judges, they are appointed by the court, and they hold office for eight years, with the possibility of reappointment.

Federal magistrate judges perform two kinds of functions. First, they hold hearings on a variety of motions, such as motions seeking to control lawyers’ conduct of discovery in civil cases. Second, they are authorized to conduct trials in civil cases and in criminal misdemeanor cases if the parties consent.  In other words, the parties can choose to go to trial before a magistrate judge instead of a district judge. If so, the magistrate judge is empowered to decide the case and enter final judgement in the name of the district court.

The concept of judicial independence means that in deciding cases judges are free from control by the executive and legislative branches of government as well as from control by the popular will of the moment.

Ex. 1. Comparing the information of Texts  B  and  C:

Name the common features of British and American judges.

Text E    US  Attorneys

Task: fill in suitable adjectives from the box.

federal      judicial  powerful

faithful      political  considerable

The Justice Department is responsible for _________ execution of the laws under the president’s authority. The main administrators of ________ law enforcement are the ninety four US attorneys, appointed by the president on the advice and consent of the Senate. Unlike federal judges, they are _________ appointees who serve at the pleasure of the president and are expected to relinquish their positions with the government changes.

There is a US attorney in each federal __________ district. US attorneys have __________ discretion, which makes them ___________ political figures in the community. Their decision to prosecute or not affects the wealth, freedom, right, and reputation of individuals and organizations in the district.

Dialogue  1.  Lawyers who want to start their own practice

Task:  read the dialogue and reproduce it   a) abridged   b) in the form of a monologue.

This is the conversation between an experienced lawyer Dr. Howard and a graduate of law school Richard Warner.

Richard Warner: Dr. Harward, I’ve just graduated from law school and I’m at a loss, I don’t know whether to start my own practice or to work for a firm. What do you think the pros and cons of private practice are?

Dr. Howard: You see, there are many reasons why I prefer to be self-employed. First of all freedom is very important. The opportunity to turn down cases and clients when you disagree morally with the legal principles expoused by the clients.

Richard Warner: Is legal practice secure enough?

Dr. Howard: No, there is no such thing as job security in legal practice. But still you feel much more secure when you are your own boss and don’t depend on the success or failure of the firm you work for.

Richard Warner: Dr. Howard, did you face any difficulties when you started your private practice?

Dr. Howard: Sure! One of them was getting an office. You know, some lawyers work at home. But I don’t think it’s a good idea. You should have business relations with your clients. And home atmosphere might spoil them. Anyway, if you can’t get an office you can use the attorney conference room in the local courtroom or meet the client at his or her place of business.

Richard Warner: What is your attitude to a sole practice and partnership?

Dr. Howard: Well, you see, they both have some economic and psychological advantages and disadvantages. When I started my own practice I had a shared office arrangement. That means that I could remain a sole practitioner, get the second opinion any time I needed and paid much less for the rent.

Richard Warner: It must be not easy for a starting lawyer to get clients. Dr. Howard, did you have to advertise your services?

Dr. Howard: What is important for any business is the location of the office. It should be in the area where there is a need for it. My first clients were my friends and relatives. If fact it happens with every lawyer starting his own practice. Later they advertised my services to their friends and so it worked for some time though it was not enough. And I had to advertise my work in local newspapers.

Richard Warner: Dr. Howard, thank you very much for your recommendations and advice. I think I’ll be self-employed. And the difficulties I’m going to face will be justified by the rewards.

Dr. Howard: I think you’ll manage. Good luck!

Notes: 

pros and cons – за и против

Ex. 1. How is the following expressed in the dialogue?

  1.  protected against danger or risk;
  2.  a state of being a partner, esp. in business;
  3.  a person who pays a professional person, esp. a lawyer, for help and advice;
  4.  personal, not shared with others;
  5.  earning money from one’s own business and not as pay from an employer;
  6.  to meet an unpleasant state of affairs;
  7.  to make services known to the public;
  8.  a favourable moment or occasion;
  9.  a sum of money fixed to be paid for a room or a building;
  10.  belonging or allowed to no other, unshared.

Ex. 2. Study the dialogue and make a list of expressions the speakers use to:

  1.  ask for suggestions;
  2.  make suggestions;
  3.  express preferences.

Ex. 3. Translate and activate the following sentences in your speech:

  1.  Каковы «за» и «против» частной практики?
  2.  Я предпочитаю работать на себя.
  3.  Возможность отказаться от каких-либо дел и клиентов привлекает меня.
  4.  Ты чувствуешь себя более защищенным, если сам являешься своим боссом.
  5.  Риск существует в любой деятельности особенно, если нет опыта.
  6.  Снять хороший и недорогой офис – большая проблема.
  7.  Преимущества и недостатки есть как в партнерской деятельности, так и в работе самостоятельно практикующего юриста.
  8.  Вам следует снять помещение совместно с другой юридической фирмой.

Dialogue  2.  Legal Education

Task: study the dialogue  between  Law students  from the USA and from the Belarusian State University, Law Faculty.

Andrew: What does it mean to study law in the USA?

Андрей: Что значит изучать право в США?

Brian: Well, it means that more than 125,000 law students study in one of over 170 law schools that have been approved by the American Bar Association (ABA). And most of law schools are part of a university. The university may be private, without state support, or it may be supported by one of the fifty states.

And where can one get legal education in Belarus?

Брайан: Ну…, это значит, что более 125.000 студентов юристов учатся в одной из 170 юридических школ, которые были утверждены Американской Ассоциацией Адвокатов. Большая часть школ входит в состав университета. Университет может быть частным, без поддержки штата, или же может финансироваться одним из пятидесяти штатов. А где можно получить юридическое образование в Беларуси?

Andrew: You see, its available at state universities as well as at a number of non-state universities.

Андрей: Видишь ли, оно доступно как в государственных, так и в ряде негосударственных университетах.

Brian: And what’s the difference between them? I suppose it’s the way they are financed. 

Брайан: И в чем же различие между ними? Я полагаю, в способе финансирования.

Andrew: You are right. State universities are financed by the state. But it’s wrong to think that education is only free there. They provide both free and paid education. And this type of universities is very popular with the applicants. While at non-state universities all students have to pay for their studies.

How long does one have to study to get legal education in the USA?

Андрей: Ты прав. Государственные университеты поддерживаются государством. Но неверно думать, что образование в них только бесплатное. Они предоставляют как бесплатное, так и платное обучение. И этот тип университетов очень популярен среди абитуриентов. В то время как в негосударственных университетах все студенты должны платить за обучение. Как долго нужно учиться, чтобы получить юридическое образование в США?

Brian: Education in every law school lasts three years. For example, at Harvard the academic year consists of three trimesters: fall – 3,5 months, winter – 3,4 weeks (brief but very intensive) and spring – 4 months. What about Belarus?

Брайан: Обучение во всех юридических школах длится три года. Например, в Гарвардском университете академический (учебный) год состоит из трех триместров: осень – 3,5 месяца, зима – 3,4 недели (краткий, но очень интенсивный) и весна – 4 месяца. А как в Беларуси?

Andrew: Law students at the Belarusian State University study five years to get a University degree. There is a one-year post-graduate course for those who do a higher degree (Master’s degree). After that they can apply to do a second degree working towards a PhD. This course lasts three years.

Андрей: Студенты-правоведы в Белорусском государственном университете учатся в течение пяти лет, чтобы получить диплом о высшем образовании. Существует годичный магистерский курс для тех, кто хочет получить степень магистра и далее они могут поступать в аспирантуру для получения ученой степени кандидата наук. Этот курс длится три года.

Brian: Are students at your faculty free to select the subjects they want to study?

Брайан: Могут ли студенты на вашем факультете выбирать предметы, которые они хотят изучать?

Andrew: Yes, there are some optional courses but first of all they are to take traditional law courses. Is it the students’ choice what to study at your university?

Андрей: Да, есть несколько факультативов, но прежде всего они должны изучать традиционные курсы права. А в твоем университете это выбор студентов, что изучать?

Brian: It depends on the year of studies. The first year curriculum is entirely prescribed. We study Common Law courses: contracts, property and tort. Instruction is given in civil procedure and criminal law. Some schools offer a general constitutional course. In the second and third years of studies students choose what they want to study.

Брайан: Это зависит от курса. Учебная программа первого курса полностью фиксирована. Мы изучаем курсы общего права: контракты, имущественные отношения и гражданские правонарушения. Даются рекомендации по гражданскому процессу и уголовному праву. Некоторые курсы предлагают общий курс конституционного права. На втором и третьем курсе студенты выбирают то, что они хотят изучать.

Andrew: I think to make a good lawyer one needs some apprenticeship. It is included into the curriculum. And students can have it in administrative agencies, in the district procurator’s offices and in the courts. They are taught how to conduct preliminary investigations, draw up documents, prepare for the case hearing, etc.

Андрей: Я думаю, чтобы стать хорошим юристом, нужна некоторая практика. Она включена в учебную программу. Студенты могут проходить ее в государственных учреждениях, в районных прокуратурах и судах. У них есть возможность присутствовать на судебных процессах, допросах. Их учат вести предварительные расследования, составлять документы, готовить дела к слушанию и т. д.

Brian: No doubt, thats very interesting and useful! At our university a student in his second and third years should choose at least one course. In it a lot of attention is paid to practical work (the work of legal offices, legal aid to poor people, etc.).

Брайан: Несомненно, это очень интересно и полезно. В нашем университете во время второго и третьего года обучения студент должен выбирать, по крайней мере, один курс. В нем большое внимание уделяется практической работе (работа юридических контор, юридическая помощь бедным и т. д.).

Andrew: Thanks, Brian. I’ve learnt a lot.

Андрей: Спасибо, Брайан, я многое узнал.

Ex. 1. Speak about legal education in the USA using the following words and word-combinations.

to be approved, to be available, private, state support, to last, academic year, trimester, curriculum, entirely, to be prescribed, Common Law course, civil procedure, Criminal Law, general constitutional course, practical work.

Ex. 2. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate derivatives from the box:

  special  specialize  specialized;     quality  qualified  qualification;

  investigate  investigation  investigator;     notary  notarized  notarial.

1. Did you have to do any ________ action of your own during your practice? 2. _______ industrial courts deal with disputes over contracts on employment matters. 3. The advocate ________ the judge’s opinion as erroneous. 4. Your will is not valid unless it is _______. 5. He was disclaimed his ______ because he violated some moral rules. 6. What branch of law do you _______ in? 7. Your case will be tried by a ______ judge. 8. The Law Society ______ complaints against lawyers by their clients. 9. Only __________ lawyers can work in the Procurator’s office. 10. A _______ has the authority to witness signing of legal documents. 11. The _________ carefully examined the scene. 12. In the US there are a limited number of ______ offices established by law.

Ex. 3. Sum up the information you have learnt from the dialogue. Compare the process of getting legal education in Belarus and the USA. Focus your attention on:

  1.  types of universities;
  2.  terms of studies;
  3.  curriculum of studies.

Revision Translation

Task: translate into English.

Стирание граней между барристерами и солиситорами

В английском обществе обоснованность значительных различий между барристерами и солиситорами в последнее время все больше подвергается серьезной критике и сомнениям. В юридических кругах широко обсуждаются аргументы “за” и “против”объединения сообществ' барристеров и солиситоров в единую адвокатуру по примеру стран континентальной Европы и многих других стран мира.

Против объединения барристеров и солиситоров приводится в основном два аргумента.

1. Объединение не в интересах общества. В частности, высказывается мнение, что если объединить барристеров и солиситоров, то многие, особенно самые опытные и способные барристеры, перейдут работать в крупные юридические фирмы; и клиенты мелких фирм будут поставлены в неравное положение, так как крупные специалисты окажутся для них недоступными. Это приведет к тому, что мелкие юридические фирмы перестанут существовать. Тем самым сократится количество юридических услуг, предлагаемых населению.

2. Объединение не в интересах суда. В условиях состязательного правосудия судебная система во многом зависит от устного судопроизводства. Судьи нуждаются в ясных и четких аргументах, с помощью которых они могут прийти к верному и обоснованному решению. Такие услуги могут быть оказаны не всеми адвокатами, а только наиболее профессиональными и талантливыми адвокатами-барристерами.

В качестве аргументов за объединение барристеров и солиситоров называют следующие:

1. Дублирование функций барристеров и солиситоров. В настоящее время многие солиситоры в магистратских судах и судах графств фактически исполняют функции барристеров.

2. Неэффективность действующей системы. Разделение адвокатов на барристеров и солиситоров приводит к дополнительным затратам. К тому же практика, когда барристер получает резюме дела от солиситора за день-два до процесса, вызывает серьезные сомнения у клиентов.

groundings

unity

experienced

unavailable

adversary justice

clear and distinct

well-grounded

duplicating

inefficiency

extra money

LISTENING   COMPREHENSION

Dialogue       Radio Phone-In

Before you listen

1. Read the letters from a weekly magazine below. Try to understand them in details.

The legal problem page

The Law and You

A    The other weekend I bought a jacket for my son in a sale. When I got home he said it was too small and refused to wear it so I went back the next day and asked them to exchange it for a larger size. Unfortunately they didn’t have a larger size and when I asked for my money back they refused, saying that no refunds were given on sales goods. Are they within their rights to do this?

refuse  [rIfju:z] –  отказывать, отказываться

refund [rJfAnd] –  зд. возвращение (денег), возмещение расходов.

B   Myself and two friends have been renting a house near the college we go to for the last two years. The landlord has now decided he wants us to leave and has more or less said that we have to be out within the next two weeks. We have nowhere else to go and with exams coming up shortly we would rather stay where we are. Friends of ours are saying he can’t get us out unless we have signed a contract agreeing to go.  Is this right?

to rent a house  –  снимать квартиру, дом

landlord –  владелец дома или квартиры, сдаваемых внаем.

shortly  –  зд.  вскоре

C   I have been living in what used to be a very quiet area for about a year now but in the last few months it has changed completely – if I had known this would happen I would never have bought my house. Opposite me there is now a fish and chips shop which fries day and night except for Sunday – the smell is disgusting and so are all the empty paper bags all over the street. It doesn’t close until after midnight so every night there are people shouting, radios blaring, car doors slamming – I never seem to get a night’s sleep these days and it’s beginning to affect my work. Is there anything I can do?

a fish and chips shopзд. магазин, торгующий рыбой с жареным картофелем

empty paper bags – пустые бумажные пакеты

radios blaring – зд.  рев радиоприемников

car doors slamming –  хлопанье дверьми автомобилей

to affect smb’s work  зд.  отрицательно влиять на чью-либо работу

2.  Look at the letters above once more. What do you think the answers will be? Discuss your answers in groups.

A.   a) They must give you your money back, or a credit note.                 

b) They are not obliged to do anything.                                                     

B.    a) He can get you out if he needs the house back for his family.              

b) Your friends are right.                                                                              

C.   a) There is nothing you can do except move.                                      

b) If  the disturbance happens regularly  you can ask  a solicitor

    to write them.           

3.  Make sure that you know the following:

radio phone-in – радиопередача “Ответы специалистов на вопросы радиослушателей по телефону”

a resident solicitorзд. местный адвокат, юрисконсультант

to give smb the benefit of ones adviceзд. поделиться с кем-либо своими профессиональными знаниями, опытом; посоветовать

callerзд. тот, кто звонит по телефону

tenant – (временный) владелец, арендатор, квартирант

to pay rent – платить за квартиру

provideзд. обеспечивать

linenзд. белье

to keep phoning upпродолжать звонить

to keep on at a person – разговаривать беспрестанно; бранить кого-либо

to get smb downзд. (разговором) выводить из себя

Well, a couple of things thereИ еще пара вопросов есть

to keep pestering – продолжать надоедать, докучать

a court order for possession – судебный приказ о владении имуществом

to sue smb for harassment – возбудить против кого-либо дело за постоянное беспокойство, тревогу

to regainзд.  получить обратно

to assumeзд.  предполагать

the whole issue  зд. предмет обсуждения

to be protected by Legal Aid –  быть защищенным специальным законом о правах студентов

to be obliged –  быть обязанным

sales items –  зд. товары, находящиеся в продаже

a receipt чек

a purchase –  покупка

bad customer relations – плохие отношения с покупателем, клиентом

Listening  activities

I.  Listen to a legal expert, Charles Andrews, talking and match the caller with his or her letter.  Put a circle round the appropriate letter below.

 First caller:  A   B   C

Second caller: A   B   C

II. Complete the following summaries, using the words listed below each summary.

a) Shops are not legally 1_______ to give you your money back or 2________ goods if the items are bought in a 3_________ although most big stores would probably give you a 4________ _______ if you had a 5________.

 receipt     sale      credit note    obliged       exchange

b) Stephen has not  1______________ an agreement but he pays 2____________  monthly.  The  3____________ does not live in the house and 4______________  no services.  He has to write formally asking them to leave - at least a  5_______________  in advance.  Unless he wants the house for himself or  6_______________  _____________ , Stephen is probably a protected 7______________ .

month   rent    provides   landlord    tenant    his family   signed

GRAMMAR   SECTION

Grammar to be revised:   English Tenses (Active Voice)

Ex. 1. Complete the questions put by Mr Brown to his son using the Indefinite Tenses. Give possible answeres. Work in pairs.

  1.  Well, my boy, 1) _______ you (to know) anything about the legal system of Great Britain?
  2.  What 2) ______ (to be) almost unique about the English legal system?
  3.  Where 3) ____ a person (to go) when he 4) ___ (to have) a legal problem?
  4.  I wonder how many solicitors and barristers there 5) ___ (to be) in Britain.
  5.  What kind of problems 6) _______ a solicitor 7) _____ (to deal with)?
  6.  Who 8) _____ (to advise) you on legal matters of all kinds?
  7.  How 9) _______ you (to qualify) as a solicitor?
  8.  When 10) _______ a person (to start) a business of his own if he 11) _____ (to want) to work as a solicitor?
  9.  What 12) _____ (to be) barristers experts in?
  10.  What examinations 13) ______ a person (to take) to qualify as a barrister?
  11.  14) _______ barristers (to have) public offices in any streets? Where 15) ____ they (to work)?
  12.  Who 16) _______ you usually (to ask) to appear for you and argue your case if the defence 17) _____ (to be) to be heard in a Magistrate Court and in a Higher Court?
  13.  Who 18) _____ (to have) the title of Queen’s Counsel and who 19) _____ (to bestow) it?
  14.  When 20) _______ the British government (to eliminate) the distinction between barristers and solicitors? Prove your idea.

If you 21) _____ (to give) the correct answers to all these questions, I 22) _____ (to be satisfied) with your studies at the College of Law. I want to be sure that the money our family 23) _____ (to spend) on your brain will not be spent in vain.

Ex. 2.  Translate the sentences containing used to + infinitive, would + infinitive into Russian.  Take into account their meaning:

1. Mr Bush used to investigate the most serious crimes when he was working as an investigator. 2. Those reading the law used to live in the chosen Inn of Court. 3. Attorneys or advocates used to spend their days milling about the courts. 4. For 600 years ordinary people rather than professional judiciary used to keep the judicial process for keeping the peace. 5. In the middle ages a King and later his Chancellor used to accept petitions for equitable relief. 6. Until the mid-18-th century teaching of law used to be academic rather than professional. 7. People would apply the term “solicitor” to an attorney appearing in Chancery Court. 8. The three Royal Courts would sit at Westminster even in the absence of the king. 9. Although the King’s courts did not replace directly old local courts, if overlapping jurisdiction existed, litigants would often prefer common law courts. 10. At one time solicitors were general practitioners who would refer to experts in particular fields of law.

Ex. 3. Combine two simple sentences into a complex one with the subordinate clause of time or condition:

Model:  First he’ll gain some experience as a house counsel.  Then he’ll start his own practice (when).

He’ll start his own practice when he gains some experience.

  1.  You must prove the guilt of the suspect. You will win the case. (if)
  2.  First you must spend two years as an articled clerk. Then you’ll become a solicitor. (after)
  3.  The attorney will prepare the necessary documents.  He’ll send the copy to the client.   (as soon as)
  4.  “Sir, you do not know it to be good or bad.  Only the judge can determine it. (till)
  5.  Please, don’t touch anything. The police will be here in no time. (before)
  6.  The counsel will not preserve the client’s confidence.  He discloses his secrets. (if)
  7.  He will succeed, I think. He devotes much time to the development of his own practice. (in case)
  8.  He studies well. His legal education will probably last about five years. (providing).

Ex. 4. Use either the Present Continuous or the Present Simple:

  1.  – I am very busy now. I  ______ (to prepare) the documents on a very difficult case.

– ______  (you /to do) it alone?

– No, two managing clerks  _____  (to help) me.

  1.  A solicitor ______ (to deal) with matters outside the court.
  2.  The Law Society _____ (to regulate) the conduct of solicitors in England.
  3.  What kind of law (you/to practise)?
  4.  – What (the attorney/ to do) at present? – He _______ (to study) the particulars of the case.
  5.  I (not to believe) your evidence!  You ______ (to lie)!
  6.  Legal service costs _______ (to increase) permanently due to inflation.
  7.  Attorney rarely _______ (to discuss) with their clients the possibility of losing the case.
  8.  (You/to know) what conveyancing (to mean)? – Conveyancing _______ (to mean) making all the legal arrangements for the buying and selling of land, houses and other buildings.
  9.  Probate (to be) a type of work a lawyer _______ (to do) that (to deal) with making a will for a client who, when he/she _______ (to die), _______ (to wish) to leave his/her property to certain persons or charities and making sure that his/her wishes are carried out.
  10.  The lawyer _____ (to serve) effectively as an advocate only if he ____ (to know) all that his client ____ (to know), concerning the facts of the case.
  11.  (You/ to know) if the number of lawyers _______ (to increase) or _______ (to decrease) in the country nowadays?

Ex. 5. These are Jane’s notes for Monday. Say, what her plans are using the Present Continuous:

Model:   9 a.m., Monday.  The lecture on criminal law. (attend)

                                           She is attending the lecture on criminal law.

11 a.m.

The pool. (swim)

1 p.m.

Lunch. (to have)

3 p. m.

Preliminary investigation. (to watch)

5 p.m.

Tea with the friends. (to have)

6 p. m.

The seminar on administrative law. (to take part)

8 p. m.

The English language laboratory. (to work)

10 p. m.

Some detective novel. (to read)

Ex. 6. Insert the proper forms to express the future actions:

1. The Government has been in the past and _____ in the future a major consumer of legal talent (to be). 2. This argument _____ the judge (not/to convince). 3. I don’t trust this juror. I _____ him (to challenge). 4. He’s a practitioner with long experience. I am sure he ______ the case (to win). 5. Jack is in trouble and needs a legal backing. – I know.  I ______ his matter tomorrow (to discuss). 6. I’ve decided to retire from the Federal Agency. – Have you?  What _____ you (to do)? 7. Did you send him a summons? – Oh, I’m sorry.  I completely forgot. I ____ it now (to do). 8. Can I get your opinion on the case today? – No, you _______ it tomorrow (to get). 9. What you ______ (to do) at 11 tomorrow? – We ______ (to have) a seminar on civil law at this time. 10. In the afternoon I ______ (to take part) in some preliminary investigation.

Ex. 7. Make up  sentences  in  the  Present Perfect using the given verbs. Mind the words of time indication:

  1.  Hello, Ann. I (not to see) you for ages. Where you (to be)  all this time? – I just (to come back) from England.
  2.  Much (to happen) in the science of law during the past decades.
  3.  Both common law and civil law schools (to find) a better balance between theory and practice lately.
  4.  Civil law faculties (to recognize) the importance of practical work.
  5.  Legal education (to become) less general and more professional in recent years.
  6.  In the latest publications there (to be) considerable pressure for change in the legal profession in Britain.
  7.  A number of law faculties (to institute) various reforms and experimental changes.
  8.  The shape of legal profession (to change) greatly and more and more solicitors specialize in only one or two fields of law.
  9.  A barrister is a lawyer who (to reach) a professional standard accepted by the Council of Legal Education.
  10.  Once a person (to pass) the law examinations of the Council he becomes a member of one of the four Inns of Court and is called to the Bar.
  11.  For centuries the Inns of Court (to be) the training institutions and professional societies for barristers.

Ex. 8. Make up questions with “How long?” and “When?” using the Present Perfect, the Past Indefinite or the Present Perfect Continuous.

Model: He is a judge.

How long has  he been working as a judge?

When  did  he  start working as a judge?

1. The University of Law trains lawyers for the country. 2. Common Law system applies the doctrine of precedent. 3. Common Law is the basis of the procedure. 4. I am investigating a computer theft. 5. The barrister is arguing his client’s case before the court. 6. Dr Smith gives lectures at the Law Department. 7. He is busy now. He is taking part in questioning.

Ex. 9. Answer the questions using the time indication words suggested in  brackets; change the tense forms accordingly:

Model:   When did you last speak to your advocate?   (for ages)

    — I  haven’t  spoken to him for ages.

  1.  When did he last investigate a murder?  (for years)
  2.  When did the Bar last admit new members?  (since June)
  3.  When did you last give evidence to the court?  (for many years)
  4.  When did Steve Williams last violate the Rules of Professional Conduct? (for ages)
  5.  When did this attorney last lose a case?  (in a long while)
  6.  When was this patrolman last on duty? (for the last few days)
  7.  When did you last deal with a common law action? (since last year).

Ex. 10. Mr Bruce, a retired policeman, came to see his former colleagues at the police station and found that many things were different. Complete the sentences using the verbs in brackets in the Past Perfect Tense.

Model: Some of his colleagues were no longer there. They (to retire).

They had retired.

1. John Smith was no longer single. He (to marry) the secretary. 2. Their boss captain Johnson didn’t work there. He (to get) a promotion. 3. Bob Brown was dead. A criminal (to shoot) him. 4. Sam Jenkins got a promotion. He (to pass) a special exam and (to become) a detective. 5. His friend Bruce was no longer a failure. He (to disclose) several serious crimes. 6. Miss Green gave up working. She (to get married) and (to leave) the country.

Ex. 11. Use to be, there + be or to have in the correct form:

1. In most countries ____ only one legal profession. 2. This means that all lawyers ____ roughly the same professional education leading to the same legal qualification.  3. In England the system ______ different. 4. Solicitors and barristers ______ both qualified lawyers, but they ______ a different legal training, and once they ______ qualified they usually do different types of legal work. 5. This ______ why it is said that ______ two “branches” of the legal profession. 6. English lawyers ______ either solicitors or barristers. 7. They cannot ______ both at the same time, but it ______ possible for a solicitor to become a barrister and for a barrister to become a solicitor. 8. Legal executives ______ no rights of audience, but can appear in front of a judge on uncontested matters. 9. The legal profession as such ______ never been popular. 10. Indeed, the first thing revolutionaries usually do on seizing power ______ to overthrow the legal system, blaming it for all ills. 11. ______ rules of behaviour, codes of professional conduct, which provide that when lawyers ______ in court they must always ______ courteous to one another. 12. Many people who ______ legal problems ______ worried about going to a solicitor for advice because of legal fees they ______ to pay.

Ex. 12. Use the correct form of the verbs in the Active Voice.

  1.  Anyone who (to seek) the advice and help of a solicitor or a barrister is known as a client.
  2.  The lawyers never (to tell) one another the professional secrets of their side of the case and they must always try as hard as they can whether their professional opponents (to be) people they (to like) or (to dislike).
  3.  Not everybody (to have) anything to do with the law, and a lawyer who (to represent) defendants in criminal cases is often asked, “Why you (to defend) somebody if you (to know) he (to be) guilty”?
  4.  The answer (to be): anyone who is charged with the crime and who (to deny) being involved in it must have a fair trial.
  5.  If a person (to ask) to defend him, the lawyer (to use) all his knowledge and skill to present his client’s case in the best possible light.
  6.  The profession of a solicitor (to develop) over the past years. They (to act) as legal advisers and recorders of a case as it (to progress).
  7.  After hundreds of years, times (to change) now and specially qualified solicitor advocates (to appear) in the High Court and in the Crown Court.
  8.  In simple cases the solicitor usually (to leave) the barrister to get on with the case in court on his own; in more difficult cases, the solicitor (to sit) behind the barrister in court and (to assist) in the presentation of the case.
  9.  For centuries the Inns of Court (to be) the training institutions and professional societies for barristers.
  10.  Changes in the legal profession (to alter) their role substantially. In 1997 the Lord Chancellor (to make) the first appointment of some distinguished solicitors to become Queen’s Counsels.
  11.  In the next few years it is expected that the government (to press) the Bar Council to allow barristers to deal with the public directly.
  12.  – How long you (to prepare) for the case hearing?

– I (to begin) this work some days ago, and I hope that I (to do) everything by tomorrow.

Ex. 13. Translate into Russian paying attention to the emphatic constructions:

  1.  It was not until I sued on the breach of contract that my neighbour agreed to repay damage.
    1.  We have discussed the variant when parties don't sign any contract. Let's now consider what happens when they do sign a contract.
    2.  It is usually family members who are concerned with registering the death, paying the dead person's debts and tax liabilities and acquiring the property.
    3.  It is the writing with your signature on it which will be binding, not the oral promise made before the signing.
    4.  It is not unlikely that the reason for company winding up is its bankruptcy.

Ex. 14. Respond to the following by using emphatic constructions according to the models.

Model 1: Use “do, does, did”

I think this contract creates no legal obligations.

 Any contract ...

 Any contract does create legal obligations.

1. You have the right to enjoy good reputation if you deserve it.

 But I ...

2. I was not going to accept this offer.

 But you ...

3. He was not obligated to support Mrs. Brown's children.

 But he ...

4. He claims that Allison has no right under the contract.

 Actually Allison ...

5. It was very doubtful that the court would declare the contract void.

 The court ...

6. I think he may enter the contract of insurance.

 He really ...

7. As far as I know the owner of the goods didn't promise to pay Smith a commission.

 Actually he ...

Model 2: Use “It is … that”

English law has directly influenced the law of former British colonies.

It is English law that has directly influenced the law of former British colonies.

  1.  Usually the creator of the work owns a copyright.
  2.  In deciding what is reasonable an English court will refer to similar previous cases.
  3.  The welfare of children is the biggest concern of family law.
  4.  Mr. Jackson was ordered by the court to make financial provisions for his ex-wife and for their children.
  5.  Such mistakes could cost a buyer of land a lot of money.
  6.  The principles of tort and contract are particularly relevant to consumer matters.
  7.  Consumer laws imply certain terms into consumer agreements.
  8.  The children’s trustees will be the legal owners of their money and will have the right to invest it.

Model 3: Use “It was not until … that”

When did married women get equal property rights with men? – In 1935.

It was not until 1935 that married women got equal property rights with men.

  1.  When could the police take some actions? – When a trespasser committed a crime.
  2.  When was he allowed to make some copies? – When he paid.
  3.  When did the court issue a decree dissolving the marriage? – When the husband proved that his wife's mental illness was incurable.
  4.  When was the law on election passed? – It was only in the nineteenth century.

Ex. 15. Translate the sentences into English. 

1. Много изменений произошло в профессии юриста за последнее десятилетие. 2. В настоящее время в Великобритании разделение обязанностей солиситора и барристера стало не таким строгим. 3. Солиситоры часто выступают не только в судах низшей инстанции, но и в высших судах. 4. Английские солиситоры добились значительного успеха в расширении своих прав, и поэтому существует надежда, что в будущем англичане отменят старую систему. 5. Сейчас нет необходимости для барристеров работать только в конторах адвокатов. 6. С 1990 года барристеры имеют право делать объявления о своих услугах в газетах. 7. Профессия юриста чрезвычайно популярна в современном обществе. 8. Если человек решил стать юристом, ему нужно быть терпеливым и трудолюбивым. 9. Вам нужно сдать множество профессиональных экзаменов и обрести опыт. 10. Важно решить, в какой области права вы хотите специализироваться. 11. Адвокатская практика дает возможность представлять интересы клиентов в суде. 12. Барристеры могут заниматься практикой самостоятельно, работая не в офисе, а дома.


UNIT II

ESSENCE  OF  LAW

READING  AND  SPEAKING

Text A    What is Law?

Task: read and translate the following text.

The English word “law” refers to limits upon various forms of behaviour.  There is a vague distinction between man-made law and moral precepts. Law can be defined as a set of rules which form the pattern of behaviour of a given society. Law is one of the most basic social institutions – and one of the most necessary. No society could exist if all people did just as they pleased, without regard for the right of others. Nor could a society also have certain obligations toward one another. The Law also sets penalties for people who violate these rules and it states how government shall enforce the rules and penalties.

Law essentially serves two functions in modern society. First, it serves to order and regulate the affairs of all “persons” be they individuals, corporations or governments. Secondly, law acts as standard of conduct and morality.  Through both of these functions law seeks to promote and achieve a broad range of social objectives. Law can appear as the highest achievement of civilization.  In man’s capacity to legislate against his own defects we can discern his chief claim to stand clearly above the animal level.

Law seems to exist apart from man and is not even noticed by him until somebody violates its orders or until it is called upon to defend interests that have been the object of encroachments.

The student of law is concerned with the questions of relationships between individual citizens and the state, as well as the relationships between states.  The study of a legal process is the study of how decisions are made, who makes them, what the decisions are, how they influence subsequent events.

We commonly speak of both law and laws – the English law, or the laws of England; and these terms point to two different aspects under which legal science may be approached. The laws of a country are separate, distinct, individual rules; the law of a country however much we may analyse it into separate rules, it is something more than the mere sum of such rules. It is rather a whole, a system which orders our conduct, in which the separate rules have their place and their relation to each other and to the whole. Thus each rule which we call a law is a part of the whole which we call the law. Lawyers generally speak of law; laymen more often of laws. This distinction between law as a system and law as enactments is brought out more clearly in those languages which use different words for each.

In a developed state the sphere in which the law operates proves to be quite extensive. It embraces all the spheres of production, distribution and exchange. Law fixes the forms of administration and the constitutional system, and determines the legal status of citizens and activity of the state mechanism (state law, administrative law). It fixes the existing property relations and operates as a regulator of the measure and forms of distribution of labour and its products among the members of society (civil law, labour law). Finally, the law lays down the measures for combating encroachment on the state system, the existing order of social relations, together with the forms in which this is done (criminal law, procedural law, corrective labour law).

However, the laws enforced by government can be changed. In fact, laws frequently are changed to reflect changes in a society’s needs and attitudes.

Word  Study

Ex. 1. Read the international words and guess their meaning. Mind the stress.

limit

form

object

aspect

person

sphere

status

operate

analyze

social

standard

function

mechanism

morality

activity

production

individual

corporation

civilization

distribution

regulator

 constitutional

 administration

Ex. 2. Complete the list of derivatives. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Verb   noun (agent)  noun (concept)

to promote

to legislate   legislator    legislation

to operate

to distribute

to regulate

to violate

to separate

to administrate

Ex. 3. Pair the words in column with A the ones from column B.

A

B

  1.  forms
  2.  set
  3.  standard
  4.  sphere
  5.  system
  6.  distribution
  7.  object
  8.  part
  9.  violation
  10.  range
  11.  man-made
  12.  status
  1.  of exchange
  2.  of labour
  3.  of law
  4.  of encroachment
  5.  of objectives
  6.  of citizens
  7.  laws
  8.  of behaviour
  9.  of interests
  10.  of morality
  11.  of relationships
  12.  of rules

Ex. 4. How can you express the following ideas in one word?

  1.  to bear (oneself) in a socially-acceptable or  polite way;
  2.  rightness or pureness of behaviour or of an action;
  3.  the control or direction of affairs, as of country or business;
  4.  an object to be won;
  5.  a guiding rule on which behaviour is based;
  6.  to make laws;
  7.  a statement of something at last;
  8.  the body of laws and principles according to which a country is governed;
  9.  a condition that determines one’s formal position;
  10.  the way or order of directing business in an official meeting, a law case;
  11.  to fight or struggle against;
  12.  the act or result of encroaching;

Ex. 5. Match  English  and  Russian equivalents.

  1.  to regulate the relations
  1.  установленная норма нравственного поведения
  1.  to define a set of rules
  1.  главное требование
  1.  the pattern of behaviour
  1.  устанавливать правовой статус
  1.  a standard of morality
  1.  простая сумма правил
  1.  man-made law
  1.  образец поведения
  1.  moral precepts
  1.  социальные цели
  1.  social objectives
  1.  определять формы управления
  1.  a chief claim
  1.  издавать закон против чьих-либо пороков
  1.  to influence subsequent events
  1.  объект посягательства
  1.  to fix the forms of administration
  1.  нечеткое различие
  1.  to determine the legal status
  1.  нравственные заповеди
  1.  to lay down the measures
  1.  определять набор правил
  1.  the mere sum of rules
  1.  закон, созданный человеком
  1.  a vague distinction
  1.  регулировать отношения
  1.  to legislate against one’s defects
  1.  влиять на последующие события
  1.  the object of encroachment
  1.  устанавливать меры
  1.  spheres of production
  1.  сферы производства

Ex. 6. Choose the best alternative to complete the following sentences.

  1.  The English word “law” refers to limits upon various / some forms of behaviour.
  2.  Laws prescribe how people can / ought  to behave.
  3.  Law essentially serves  two / four  functions in modern society.
  4.  There is a vague/clear distinction between man-made law and moral precepts.
  5.  In a developed / feudal state the sphere in which the law operates / develops proves to be extensive.
  6.  Law fixes the forms of constitutional / educational  system.
  7.  Law operates as a regulator/obstacle of distribution of labour and its products.
  8.  The law of a country may be analyzed as a selection / set  of rules.
  9.  The study of legal process is the study how decisions/customs are made, who makes/fixes them.
  10.  Law seems/regards to exist apart from/inside man and is not even noticed/decided by him until somebody/criminal violates its orders.
  11.  Law is called/invited upon to defend interests/habits that have been the object/crime of encroachments.
  12.  Law embraces/separates all the spheres of production, distribution and exchange.

Ex. 7. Complete the following text with the words and phrases from the box.

jail

in prison

acquitted

similar

violently

punishment diet

treatment

statute

justice

harsh

brought

warrant

The Foundation of British Law: Habeas Corpus Act

Let the Body Be Brought...

In Britain, the United States and many other English-speaking countries, the law of Habeas Corpus guarantees that nobody can be held _______ without trial. Habeas Corpus became a law because of a wild party held in 1621 at the London home of a notoriously rowdy lady, Alice Robinson. When a constable appeared and asked her and her guests to quiet down, Mrs. Robinson allegedly swore at him so _______ that he arrested her, and a local ______ of the peace committed her to _______ .

When she was finally _______ to trial, Mrs. Robinson’s story of her treatment in prison caused an outcry. She had been put on a _____ _____ of bread and water, forced to sleep on the bare earth, stripped, and given 50 lashes. Such ________ was barbaric even by the ______ standards of the time; what made it worse was that Mrs. Robinson was pregnant.

Public anger was so great that she was _______ the constable who had arrested her without а _______ was himself sent to prison. And the case, along with other ________ cases, led to the passing of the Habeas Corpus Act in Britain in 1679. The law is still on the British _______ books.

Text  Study

Ex. 1. Choose the best way to complete the sentences.

1.  The English word “law” refers to ...

a) development of institution of behaviour;

b)  limits upon various forms of behaviour;

c)  discernment in main claims for forms of behaviour.

2.  Law can be defined as ...

a)  a set of rules which form the pattern of behaviour of a given society;

b)  a body of abstract rules of a particular society;

c)  concept of common sense.

3.  Law acts as ...

 a)  product of social and historical forces;

b)  hallmark of civilized society;

c)  standard of  conduct and morality.

4.  The study of a legal process is ...

a)  the study of how decisions are made;

b)  the operation of court system;

c)  the influence of a society upon individual citizens.

5.  Each rule which we call a law is a part of ...

a)  the whole which we call the law;

b)  a completely new subject;

c)  the obvious question:  what is law?

Ex. 2. Mark the statements which are true.

  1.  In all societies relations between people are regulated by government.
  2.  Functions of law seek to promote and achieve a broad range of social objectives.
  3.  There is a definite distinction between man-made law and moral precepts.
  4.  In man’s capacity to legislate against his own defects one can discern his claim to stand above the animal level.
  5.  The spheres of law embrace all forms of production, distribution and exchange.
  6.  Law enacts the legal status of citizens and the activity of the state mechanism.
  7.  Law embraces the measures for combating encroachment on the state system.
  8.  The laws of the country are common rules enforced by the government.
  9.  Law is based upon long observation of different people in different situations.
  10.  The general nature of the law is that it is enforced equally against all members of the nation.

Ex. 3. Complete the following sentences by adding the phrases given in part B.

Part  A

Part  B

  1.  In all societies relations between people ...
  2.  Law can be defined as a set of rules which ...
  3.  Law serves to order and regulate ...
  4.  The functions of law seek to promote and achieve ...
  5.  The student of law is concerned with ...
  6.  The study of a legal process is ...
  7.  Law fixes the forms of ...
  8.  Law lays down the measures for ...
  9.  Each rule which we call a law is  a part of ...
  10.  Lawyers generally speak of law and laymen ...
  11.  Law covers …
  12.  The laws of a country are …
  1.  all the spheres of production, distribution and exchange.
  2.  separate, distinct, individual laws.
  3.  are regulated by laws.
  4.  form the pattern of behaviour.
  5.  the affairs of all “persons”.
  6.  a broad range of social objectives.
  7.  the questions of relationships between citizens and the state  and between states.
  8.  the study of how the decisions are made.
  9.  administration and constitutional system.
  10.  combating encroachment on the state system.
  11.  the whole which we call the law.
  12.  more often of laws.

Ex4.  Choose someone to act as an expect of law and answer the studentsquestions. 

What do you mean by saying

What are (is)

Could you explain to me

Can you tell me

Could you prove that

Would you give the examples of

the English word “law” refers to limits upon various forms of behaviour;

laws prescribe how people ought to behave;

law can be defined as  a set of rules;

law serves two functions in modern society;

vague distinction between man-made law and moral precepts;

the chief claim to stand clearly above the animal level;

law is the highest achievement of civilization;

the law operates in extensive spheres;

two different aspects under which legal science may be approached;

the distinction between law as a system and law as enactments.

Ex. 5. Speak on the essence of Law. Include the following points.

1.  Law is the highest achievement of civilization: to refer to; to appear; various forms of behaviour; to be regulated by laws; to define as a set of rules;  the pattern of conduct; to legislate against one’s own defects; to discern one’s chief claim;  to stand above the animal level.

2.  Functions of law: to serve; to regulate the affairs; to act; individuals; governments; a standard of conduct; morality; to seek; to promote; to achieve; a broad range; social objectives; a vague distinction; man-made law.

3.  Spheres of law: to operate;  to prove;  to be quite extensive;  to embrace all the spheres; of production;  distribution and exchange;  to fix the forms; the constitutional system;  to determine the legal status; the existing property relations;  to lay down the measures of combating encroachment.

4.  Law and laws: to point; different aspects; to approach legal science; separate; distinct; individual rules; to analyse as separate rules; to order one’s conduct; the mere sum of rules; to call a law; law as a system; law as enactments.

Ex. 6. Argue the following points.

  1.  Laws are made to be broken.
  2.  The law is an ass.
  3.  Laws are like nets: little fish slip through them, big fish break through them and only medium-sized fish get caught.
  4.  There’s one law for the rich and another for the poor.
  5.  The law of the jungle and the people.

Ex. 7. Render the following text into English using the vocabulary of the present unit:

Драконт

Драконт (Draco [dreikou]) – афинский законодатель, чьи крайне суровые (severe) законы предусматривали только одно наказание – смерть (death penalty) – за незначительные нарушения и тяжкие преступления, совершенные в Афинах (Athens). Его имя теперь связывают со всем жестоким (ruthless)и безжалостным – “драконовские (draconian) меры”, “драконовы законы”, “драконовский кодекс”.

Кодекс Драконта, который принято датировать 621 г. до н.э., не был первым записанным сводом (written code) афинских законов, но он, возможно, был первым всеобъемлющим (all-embracing) кодексом или переработкой предыдущих законов.

Позднее Солон отменил драконтовы законы и издал новые, оставив лишь прежнее наказание за убийство (homicide).

Text  B    Sources  of  Law

Task:    read the text and get ready to discuss its main points.

Students of the law discover early that law is complex and flows from a great number of sources. Law can and does take many forms. British Law comes from two main sources: Common Law, sometimes known as customary or case law, and parliamentary or statutory law. But it is the latter which in the end always prevails; there is nothing more supreme than parliamentary law.

English common law dates from the “time immemorial”. Various customs, usages and conventions have been developed throughout the history of British legal tradition.  Case law arises out of disputes and may be found in the decisions of courts.  This is a system in which legal decisions are based upon decisions in previous cases and on custom, rather than on detailed written law.  If there is no previous similar case the court will decide by applying existing laws to a new set of facts and its decision will become a new precedent for courts to follow in the future. The essential feature then, of Common Law is, that although partly based on local and national customs it is fundamentally judge-made law developed over many centuries.

Laws made by Parliament constitute parliamentary or statutory law. Now it is parliamentary law which is gradually seeing common law off the legal field. Statute law can be used to abolish common law rules which have outlived their usefulness, or to amend the common law to cope with the changing circumstances and values of society. Once enacted, statutes, even if obsolete, do not cease to have the force of law. A statute stands as law until it is specifically repealed by Parliament. All Acts of Parliament can be repealed by subsequent Parliaments.

Statutes alone would not provide a system of law but merely a set of disjointed rules. The basis of the law remains the Common Law and if all the statutes were repealed we should still have a legal system.

Among other sources of British law lawyers name equity, natural justice, European law.

Equity dates from the fifteenth century, if not earlier, in the form of the Court of Chancery. Those who were not satisfied with the way in which the common law courts had handled their grievances might petition the King. Often it was a case of the common law being defective in its own rules or not being able to deliver the remedy appropriate to the individual’s particular needs. To overcome the situation, plaintiffs started to petition the Sovereign directly, and such petitions were referred by the King to his deputy who was the principal judge in the Chancellor’s Court of Chancery. Where there was a conflict between equity and common law practices in any subsequent case, equity would prevail.

Ex. 1. Comment on the following sources of law and branches of law.

Common law, Parliamentary law, Equity, Natural justice, European law.

Ex. 2. Fill in the following chart.

Activities

Outcome of these activities

1.  Students of Law discover that

......

2.  .....

becomes  a new precedent for courts to follow

3.  Parliament makes laws which constitute

.....

4.  Statute law can be used

.....

5.  .....

gradually sees common law off the legal field

6.  Legislation of subsequent Parliaments can

.....

Ex. 3.   Suggest how we call …

  1.  a rule that is supported by the power or government and that governs the behaviour of members of a society;
  2.  that part of the law which is based on former judgements;
  3.  the body of written laws established by Parliament;
  4.  the use of former customs or decisions as  a guide to present actions;
  5.  a room or building in which law cases can be heard and judged;

Text C   Advantages  and  Disadvantages of Case Law

Task:  read the text, focus on  its main points.

The system of Case Law is peculiar to England and the countries which have derived their law from England.  Its essential principle is the rule that decided cases are building authorities for the future.  In other countries the judge is not bound by previous decisions of the same or any other court. The great advantages of a system of Common Law in the English sense are four:

  1.   Certainty. The fact that decided cases are binding for the future makes it certain or highly probable that every future case which is essentially similar will be decided in the same way. People may therefore regulate their conduct with confidence upon the law once laid down by the judges.
  2.   The possibility of growth. Where there is no system of Case Law the work of the judge is to develop new rules of law.
  3.   A great wealth of detailed rules. Case Law is much richer in detail than any code of law can possibly be.
  4.   The practical character. Case Law rules are the product of difficulties which actually arise in everyday life, they are practical in nature, not solely academic speculations.

The great disadvantages of Case Law are:

  1.  Rigidity. When a rule has once been decided, even though wrongly, it is difficult and sometimes impossible to depart from it.  Flexibility is not a characteristic of Case Law.
  2.  Bulk and complexity. The fact that the rules of law are scattered over more than  2,000 volumes of law reports, makes the law extraordinary difficult to learn and apply.

Ex. 1.   Put the following sentences in the logical order to speak about British case law.

  1.  The system of Case Law is peculiar to England.
  2.  People may regulate their conduct with confidence upon the law once laid down by the judges.
  3.  The rules of case law are practical in nature and arise in everyday life.
  4.  There are some disadvantages of Case Law.
  5.  The work of the judge is to develop new rules of law if there is no system of Case law (in the possibility of growth).
  6.  The law is extraordinary difficult to learn and apply because it is bulky and complex.
  7.  It is difficult and sometimes impossible to depart from the rule once has been decided.

Ex. 2.   Complete the following table of notes.

      Case  Law

       Advantages

To the judge

To the people

1. to decide the future case in the same way

1. to regulate the conduct

2.

2.

3.

3.

          Disadvantages 

                                                                                                       

To the judge

To the people

1.  to depart  from wrong  judgement

1.  to be sentenced wrongly

2.

2.

3.

3.

Text D    Retrospective of British  Legislation

Task:  read the text and give your understanding of the underlined parts of the sentences.

In early times there were few statutes and the bulk of law was case law, though legislation in one form or another dates from A.D. 600.

The earliest Norman legislation was by means of Royal Charter, but the first great outburst of legislation came in the reign of Henry II (1154 – 1189). This legislation was called by various names: here were Assizes, Constitutions, and Provisions, as well as charters. Legislation at this time was generally made by the king, but sometimes by a kind of Parliament which consisted in the main of a meeting of nobles and clergy summoned from the shires.

In the 14th century parliamentary legislation became more general.  The Tudor period saw the development of modern procedure, in particular the practice of giving three readings to a bill.

From the Tudor period onwards Parliament became more and more independent and the practice of law making by statutes increased.

Text  E      Early Systems of Law

Task:   read the text and insert a suitable law term from the box

law

verdict

case

codify

legal

code

jury

court

One of the earliest systems of law of which we have knowledge is the collection of laws, known as the Code of Hammurabi, the Babilonian king, who lived in about 1800 B.C.  Another early  _______  is the code of Hebrew Law, contained in the Book of Exodus in the Bible.

In Greece each city state had its own ______ . Some laws were common to many states. In the seventh century B.C. the Greeks began to put their laws into writing. About  594 B.C. Solon, the famous Athenian law-giver, provided a new code of law. The Athenians did not consider it necessary to have _______ experts for non-criminal cases. In a civil ______ the _____ was given by a jury. The members of the _______ listened to speeches made by persons who had brought the case before them.

Roman Law is one of the greatest systems that has ever existed. It was based upon custom. Roman Law has had a strong influence on the law of most European countries and on Anglo-Saxon law, which is the other great law system of the world. In the eleventh century many European countries began to use Roman Law in their _______. In France, however, until Napoleon _______ the law in 1804, each province had its own laws. The Napoleonic Code was a splendid achievement, and it has influenced the laws of many countries in Europe and South America.

Dialogue 1.  Never Leave till Tomorrow …

Task:  Read the dialogue, reproduce it   a) abridged,  b) in the form of a monologue.

Mary: Are you doing anything tonight, Heather? Why don’t we go to the concert? Your favourite jazz is playing.

Heather: Thanks.  That would be great. But the trouble is I have to prepare a report for the conference. It’s due1 tomorrow.

Mary: You surprise me! Why did you put it off for so long. As far as I remember you got this assignment several weeks ago.

Heather: Yes, I know. It’s always like that with me. You see, the theme of the report seemed easy at first and I thought it wouldn’t take me long.

Mary: What is it about?

Heather: About the legal heritage of Greece.

Mary: Was it your choice?

Heather: Well, I am interested in history, you know. The historical development of legal system seems appealing. And I decided to start with Greece. The ancient Greeks were among the first to develop a concept of law that separated everyday law from religious beliefs. Besides they thought that laws were made by the people for the people.

Mary: By the way, have you heard the name Draco?

Heather: No, but why? What has it to do with the legal heritage of Greece?

Mary: Draco was a Greek and lived in the 7th century B.C. And it was Draco who drew up Greece’s first written code of laws. And according to this code death was the punishment for the most offences.

Heather: Oh, I see why the term “draconian” is usually applied to extremely harsh measures. There is another name, Solon. He was Athen’s lawgiver who devised a new code of laws.

Mary: What exactly are you going to say about Solon’s law in your report?

Heather: Well, I don’t really know. A lot is worth speaking about. But I have to stop on the most important facts. For example, citizens of Athens were eligible to serve in the assembly. Courts were established in which they could appeal government decisions, etc.

Mary: Will you mention the concept of “natural law” in your report?

Heather: I don’t know much about it. Only that it was based on the belief that certain basic principles are above the laws of a nation.

Mary: And you should say that they arise from the nature of people. That’s why the term “natural law” appeared.

Heather: Thanks for advice. I like to talk to people who know the subject.

Mary: You’ve thought it over, so what is left?

Heather: I need to put all my thoughts on paper and make them clear, logical and interesting.

Mary: You’ll manage, you’ve got a night ahead. I won’t keep you any more. Good luck.

Heather: Thanks.

Notes:  

1.  Its due ..... – Это должно быть...

Ex. 1. How is the following expressed in the dialogue?

  1.  suitable to be chosen
  2.  to come into being, to appear
  3.  something which is passed down over many years within a family or nation
  4.  crime
  5.  to invent
  6.  task
  7.  cruel
  8.  to make a strong request for help, support

Ex. 2. Study the dialogue and make a list of expressions the speakers use to:

  1.  give their opinion
  2.  say they understand you
  3.  say they agree with you
  4.  clarify something

Ex. 3. Give Russian equivalents to the following:

  1.  to develop a concept of law
  2.  religious beliefs
  3.  laws were made by the people for the people
  4.  to draw up
  5.  punishment for most offences
  6.  extremely harsh measures
  7.  lawgiver
  8.  to be eligible
  9.  to appeal government decisions
  10.  basic principles

Ex. 4. Present the information from the dialogue making use of the following verbs:

to ask, to get interested in, to mention, to stress, to add, to make smth. clear, to agree, to disagree, to state, to underline, to remind, to wonder, to admit, to advise, etc.

Dialogue 2.  At Oxford Law School

Task:  study the dialogue between a British and an overseas law student.

Alexander: Frankly speaking, I can’t get used to this University. No, it’s not what I mean. I can’t get used to the fact that I have to compare all the time the peculiarities of at least two different legal systems.

АлександрОткровенно говоря, я не могу привыкнуть к этому университету.  Нет, это не то, что я имею в виду. Я не могу привыкнуть к тому, что вынужден все время сравнивать особенности, по крайней мере, двух различных правовых систем.

Robert: What exactly do you find unusual?

РобертЧто именно ты находишь необычным?

Alexander: Well, for example, a judge here is capable of “making law”. I just can’t comprehend it though I do understand that our systems are based on different legal principles.

Александр: Ну, например, судья может создавать закон. Я просто не могу это понять, хотя я действительно осознаю, что наши правовые системы основаны на совершенно различных правовых принципах.

Robert: Yes, a judge must create a new law when an Act of Parliament makes no provision and there is no existing precedent for the case under consideration.

Роберт: Да, судья должен создать новый закон, когда нет постановления Парламента и нет прецедента по рассматриваемому делу.

Alexander: I think a judge must experience a feeling of great responsibility doing it.

АлександрСудья, должно быть, испытывает огромное чувство ответственности, делая это.

Robert: No doubt, as his decision will become a new precedent for other courts to follow in future. And mind that the doctrine of precedent is the essential feature of British Law.

РобертНесомненно, т.к. его решение станет новым прецедентом, которому другие суды должны будут следовать в будущем. Ты должен помнить, что доктрина прецедента является существенной чертой Британского права.

Alexander: Don’t you want to say that the role of Common Law is greater than that of Statutory Law?

АлександрНе хочешь ли ты сказать, что роль общего права более значима, чем роль cтатутного права?

Robert: No, I wouldn’t say that. But Common Law still remains the basis of Law. But as to continental codes they get out of date too often. You should admit it.

Роберт: Нет, я бы так не сказал. Но Общее право все еще остается основой права. Что касается континентальных кодексов, то они слишком часто устаревают. Ты должен признать это.

Alexander: Yes, life changes, it dictates new rules and that’s why the laws must also change not to become outdated. But what is worth discussing is the way they are changed. I’m sorry, I must be going …

Александр: Да, жизнь меняется, она диктует новые правила. Вот почему законы должны тоже меняться, чтобы не устаревать. Но, что стоит обсудить, так это то, как они изменяются. Прости, я спешу …

Ex. 1. Find English equivalents to the following:

cоздавать, существенная черта, рассматриваемое дело, быть способным что-то делать, привыкнуть, необычный, понимать, стоить чего-то, постановление, по крайней мере, быть основанным, следовать чему-то, ответственность, устареть, особенность.

Ex. 2. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate derivatives form the box:

to interpret   interpretation

to apply    application

to interrupt    interruption

to operate    operation

to exaggerate   exaggeration

to regulate    regulation

  1.  If a particular law doesn’t operate in society there of course must be good reason for that. Its _____ depends on various circumstances including those of social system itself, political situation and social trends.
  2.  Judge applies law. _____ of Law is backed by police and court system.
  3.  The law will be interrupted to interpret it for the particular case. _____ and _____ of law is made by judge in the Common Law system.
  4.  I am afraid he has exaggerated the importance of the event. His _____ makes it difficult to understand its actual impact.
  5.  It is the legal system that regulates relations between institutions of this kind and private individuals. These _____ make it possible to interact peacefully.

Ex. 3. Sum up the information you have learned from the dialogue making use of   the following:

to get used to smth., peculiarity, to comprehend, to create, provision, precedent, responsibility, essential feature, to admit, to get out of date, to be worth doing smth.

Revision Translation

Task: translate into English.

Закон

Закон – нормативный акт, принятый высшим представительным органом государственной власти либо непосредственно волеизъявлением населения (референдумом). Закон регулирует наиболее важные общественные отношения. Закон как самостоятельный источник права сложился еще в древности и пришел на смену правовому обычаю.

Он обладает наибольшей юридической силой по отношению к нормативным актам всех иных органов государства.  В то же время Закон может отменить любой иной нормативный акт. Любой правовой акт, противоречащий Закону, должен признаваться недействительным.  Закон имеет особый порядок принятия  специальная процедура: законодательная инициатива, обсуждение законопроекта, принятие и его опубликование.

Законы подразделяются на конституционные и обыкновенные.  Обыкновенные законы считаются принятыми, если за них подано более 1/2 голосов депутатов. Эти законы, в свою очередь, делятся на кодификационные и текущие.

К числу кодификационных относятся основы законодательства государств, кодексы. Текущие законы регламентируют различные конкретные вопросы политической, хозяйственной и социально-культурной жизни общества.  

normative

directly

referendum

replaced

annul

inconsistent (with)

void

legislative

ordinary

codified, current

fundamentals

regulate

LISTENING   COMPREHENSION

Dialogue       Radio Phone-in

Pre-listening activities

I.  Before you listen to the tape learn the following:

radio phone-in

радиопередача  “Ответы специалистов на вопросы радиослушателей по телефону”

a resident solicitor

 зд.  юрисконсультант

to give smb the benefit of one’s advice

поделиться с кем-либо профессиональным опытом

caller

 тот, кто звонит

to keep phoning up

 продолжать звонить

the whole issue

 предмет обсуждения

to seek legal redress

 добиваться юридического возмещения

to distinct

 различать

II.  Discuss the given below statements. While discussing them use the following expressions:

a) making your point:

in my opinion / view ........

I think / feel / believe  that ........

If you ask me ..../ as far as I’m concerned ...

b) introducing your  ideas /when you disagree

I see your point but .....

I understand what you’re saying but .....

You have a good point there, but .....

I respect your opinion but .....

  1.  Japanese Law has been influenced by both Common and Continental Law.
  2.  There’s no great distinction between the system of Common and Continental Law.
  3.  In China Law courts historically are regarded as political instruments to deal with its political opponents.
  4.  The most important thing concerning the spread and influence of Common and Continental Law throughout the world is not to exaggerate the differences between these two legal systems of Law.
  5.  Latin America and many countries in Asia and Africa were historically influenced by the USA.

Listening activities

I.  Listen to the recording and then fill in the table for each subject

countries

Common Law

Continental Law

USA

Great Britain

Japan

China

France

Canada

II. Complete the microdialogue using what you remember from the recording.

Announcer: Good morning. This is Alan King on Radio Sussex with our usual Wednesday morning phone-in. This morning the topic is _________. In the studio is ___________. He is on the line to answer your questions and here’s the first caller.  Can you hear me?

Mr Jack: Yes, yes, I can. Could you possibly assist me with __________. In what way do these two main traditions of Law differ from each other?

Mr Andrews:  Well, the question concerns ___________.

Mr Jack:  Ah, yes, excuse for butting in, but what’s the particular distinction between the two legal systems?

Mr Andrews: It’s interesting to know that Common Law differs from Continental Law in ___________. But I have to say the whole issue is so complex that we haven’t got enough time in this phone call to cover everything, I’m afraid.

Mr Jack:  Oh, well, thanks very much for your information.

After listening

Writing task

Compare legal systems in the USA and Great Britain: what they have in common, and in what way they differ

GRAMMAR   SECTION

Grammar to be revised: The Passive Voice

Ex. 1. Translate the sentences used in the Passive Voice. Ask and answer different types of questions working in pairs.

  1.  The Law is defined as a set of rules which form the pattern of behaviour of a given society.
  2.  The Law is based upon the recorded experiences of society and the community in their efforts to define and regulate the relationships between their members.
  3.  In ancient times laws were derived from old customs and in some cases were codified by the order of a strong ruler, and then they became known under the ruler’s name, like Hammurabi’s Code of Laws or Justinian’s Digest.
  4.  Though in many cases the names of ancient lawgivers are unknown, their teachings have been known to millions of people.
  5.  It seems that the Ten Commandments from the Bible are known to all people, both religious and non-religious.
  6.  Besides strictly religious commandments, there are those that are willingly accepted by most people: to show honour and devotion to our parents, not to murder, not to be unfaithful to our spouses, not to steal, not to bear false witness not to desire greedily anything that belongs to our neighbours.
  7.  The Koran is considered the most revered book among Muslims. The Koran is the basis of Islamic law, the Sharia.
  8.  Another ancient law the initiator of which is unknown is the law of the talion: an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.
  9.  In Anglo-Saxon Law the death penalty has been considered a customary response to certain kinds of offence.
  10.  Nowadays legislators are members of legislature who are empowered to make, change or repeal the laws of the country or state and levy taxes.
  11.  Civil law system is based on Roman law and the French Napoleonic Code, the German and Swiss Codes.
  12.  In civil law countries legislation is seen as the primary source of law.

Ex. 2. Express the same idea using the Passive Voice and translate the sentences  into Russian.

Model:  The society has established the criminal law to maintain peace and order. (The criminal law …)

The criminal law has been established to maintain peace and order.

  1.  A governing power establishes laws to maintain peace, secure justice for its members, define the legal rights of the individual and community, and to punish offenders for legal wrongs.
  2.  The civil law is the portion of the law which defines and determines the rights of the individual in protecting his person and his property.
  3.  The criminal law protects society and the community from the injurious and harmful acts of individuals.
  4.  People use the word ’law’ to mean many things.
  5.  Generally we use the word ’law’ to indicate all law and we also use it to mean a single enactment of a lawmaking body, a statute.
  6.  The criminal law assures a person charged with a crime of a fair and speedy trial.
  7.  Parliament makes laws, and they constitute parliamentary or statutory law.
  8.  In all societies prescriptive laws regulate relations between people.
  9.  Members of every community have made laws for themselves in self-protection.
  10.  The Law embraces all the spheres of production, distribution and exchange.
  11.  The Law lays down the measures for combating encroachment on the state system and the existing order of social relations.
  12.  We often refer to the law.

Ex. 3.  Give answers to the following questions using the Passive Voice.

  1.  What were laws derived from in ancient times?
  2.  Are there any commandments in the Bible that are willingly accepted by most people? Why is it so?
  3.  Are all legislators’ names remembered in history? In what cases are they remembered?
  4.  What principle is the law of the talion based on?
  5.  How are most legal systems classified?
  6.  What has the Common Law of England been developed from?
  7.  Why is the English system called the Common Law system? Is it applied throughout the country?
  8.  What law is used by the countries which were colonized at some time by Britain?
  9.  What is Civil Law system based on?
  10.  What are the judgments of courts in civil law countries based on?
  11.  Who are common law judges selected from?
  12.  What is the Muslim legal system based on? Do you know in what countries it is used?

Ex. 4. Choose the right verb from the box below and put it in the gap in the correct tense and voice form.

to draw up

to rediscover

to pass

to govern

to carve

to exhibit

to devise

to adopt

to set up

to lay down

to revise

to settle

to read

to cover

to make

to say

to lose

to observe

to conquer

to write

  1.  One of the most detailed ancient legal codes _____ in about 1758 B.C. by Hammurabi, a king of Babylonia.
  2.  The entire code, consisting of 282 paragraphs, _____ into a great stone pillar which _____ in the temple of the Babylonian god Marduk so that it could _____ by every citizen.
  3.  The pillar _____ for centuries after the fall of Babylon in the 16th century B.C., and only in 1901 it _____ by a French archaeologist amid the ruins of the Persian city of Susa.
  4.  The pillar _____ now in the Louvre museum in Paris.
  5.  The laws which _____ by Hammurabi were more extensive than any that had gone before.
  6.  Hammurabi’s laws _____ crime, divorce and marriage, inheritance and property contracts, regulations about taxes and price of goods, the rights of slave owners and slaves, etc.
  7.  The cruel principle of revenge: an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth _____ in the code.
  8.  In the 7th century B.C. Greece’s first written code of law _____ by Draco.
  9.  Draco’s laws were shockingly severe, so severe that people _____ they _____ not in ink but in blood.
  10.  Several decades _____ before Solon, a poet, a military hero and Athens’ lawgiver ____ a new code of law.
  11.  Solon _____ every statute of Draco’s code except that of homicide and ____ Athenian law altogether more humane.
  12.  Before England ____ by the Normans, different areas ____ by different systems of law, which _____ often from those of the various invaders who _____ there.

Ex. 5. Use the verbs given in brackets in the Passive Voice. Translate the sentences.

  1.  The laws which (to make) in Parliament (to interpret) and (to apply) by courts, but changes in the law itself (to make) in Parliament.
  2.  Appeals (to hear) by higher courts. Appeals from magistrates’ courts (to hear) in the Crown Court.
  3.  The English legal system (to condition) by two basic concerns.
  4.  The law should (to administer) by the state so that it could (to apply) evenly over the whole country in order to satisfy its two main functions of control and service.
  5.  The principle of judicial independence (not to achieve) until 1701, when the Act of Settlement made judges irremovable from office, except by an appeal to the monarch from both Houses of Parliament.
  6.  Common law originally (to base) on medieval customs and conventions that (to establish) by the Norman kings.
  7.  Almost all criminal law now (to set out) in Acts of Parliament while the greater part of civil law still depends on common law and guidance of previous decisions.
  8.  Statutes which (to create) by Acts of Parliament are the ultimate source of law.
  9.  Parts of common law (to abolish) by Parliament and (to replace) by statute law.
  10.  Certain changes to the United Kingdom law (to make) to bring it in line with rulings of the Council of European Court of Human Rights.
  11.  The Napoleon’s Code (to establish) in 1804 by the Emperor of France Napoleon Bonaparte.
  12.  The law systems of many countries (to base) on the Napoleon’s Code.

Ex. 6. Use the verbs either in the Active or Passive Voice. 

  1.  With few exceptions, judges never (to like) to see themselves as creators of laws regarding that as the province of Parliament.
  2.  However, over the centuries judges (to be) responsible for making a great deal of law, and senior judges still (to do) so. If not, how could the common law (to develop)?
  3.  The present British legal system (to form) the basis of the Judiciary – the third branch of government – and (to comprise) three separate systems – that for England and Wales, that for Scotland and that for Northern Ireland.
  4.  The law as a whole (to consist) partly of statutes, or Acts of Parliament, and partly of common law.
  5.  Modern statutes usually (to bring) into effect by an order made by a minister of the Crown.
  6.  By-laws are a form of local legislation and (to design) to regulate the conduct of members of public.
  7.  The County Courts (to establish) for hearing both criminal and civil cases.
  8.  Common Law (to be) fundamentally judge-made law which (to develop) over many centuries.
  9.  By 1250 a common law (to promote) and (to rule) the whole country.
  10.  The Queen (to sign) the bill and it (to become) an Act of Parliament after it (to pass) in the House of Commons and (to adopt) in the House of Lords.
  11.  The spheres of criminal and civil law (to deal) with many concepts and ideas that not always easily (to understand) by ordinary people.
  12.  The unwritten Law of England (to make) by judges and (to base) on cases of precedent. It (to express) the sound instincts of the people, the common sense in human activity and social life.

Ex. 7. Translate into English.

  1.  При составлении законов должно соблюдаться равновесие между правами и обязанностями граждан, необходимостью порядка и соблюдением основных свобод.
  2.  В законах отражаются различные ценности общества.
  3.  Законы основываются на моральных, экономических, политических и социальных ценностях общества.
  4.  Бесплатное образование и медицинское обслуживание гарантированы законами многих стран.
  5.  С течением времени меняются социальные ценности, вслед за этим также изменяются законы.
  6.  Задолго до того, как европейцы поселились на Американском континенте, во многих племенах порядок поддерживался системой традиционных неписаных законов.
  7.  Взаимоотношения между отдельными людьми и группами людей регулируются гражданским правом.
  8.  Британскую Конституцию часто называют неписаной, так как она никогда не была записана в одном документе.
  9.  Термин “неписаный закон” употребляется для обозначения закона, который не принимался парламентом; “писаный закон” означает закон, который был принят парламентом.
  10.  Закон об уголовном праве 1967 г. считается одним из важнейших законов Великобритании. В этом законе дана новая классификация уголовных преступлений и отменено традиционное деление их на фелонии и мисдиминоры.
  11.   – Какой вопрос обсуждается сейчас в законодательном комитете?

– Новые законы, связанные с использованием атомной энергии, обсуждаются сейчас комитетом.


UNIT  III

BRITISH  CONSTITUTIONAL  LAW

READING  AND  SPEAKING

Text A. British Constitution

Task: read and translate the following text.

A constitution is the political and ideological structure within which a system of law operates. Most countries have a formal written constitution describing how laws are to be made and enforced. A constitution is more than a mechanical set of ground rules. It is a mirror reflecting the national soul. It reflects those values the country regards as important, and shows how these values will be protected.

The British constitution has evolved over many centuries. Unlike the constitutions of most other countries, it is not contained in any single document: there is no written constitution. Instead, it is made up of statute law, common law and conventions. The constitution can be altered by an Act of Parliament or by general agreement to alter a convention. It is thus adaptable to changing political conditions. One of the reasons for having special constitutional laws is to prevent governments from becoming too powerful.

Most modern constitutions have adopted the principle of separation of powers, developed in the eighteenth century by the French philosopher Montesquieu. In Britain Parliament is vested with legislative powers and is the supreme authority. Parliament makes laws. Executive branch is represented by the government, which executes laws, i. e. puts them into effect. Law courts constitute the judicial branch, they interpret and apply laws.

Parliament. The British Parliament, like parliaments in other countries, is often referred to as ‘the Legislature’ – the body which makes laws. Its essential function could probably be best described as ‘to discuss what the Government has done, is doing and intends to do, and on occasion to try to show up the Government’s errors and even try to persuade the Government to change or modify its policies’. Nevertheless, new laws can only come into force when they have passed through Parliament.

The three elements which make up British Parliament are the Queen, the House of Lords and the elected House of Commons. The agreement of all three is normally required for legislation.

To become an Act of Parliament a bill must be passed in the House of Commons, adopted in the House of Lords and finally signed by the Queen. Any member of the House of Commons may introduce a bill (a draft law). In the House a bill must pass three readings. There is no debate at the first reading. This is followed by a thorough debate on general principles at the second reading. A bill is then given detailed consideration, clause by clause, by a Commons committee and amended, if necessary, before a third and final reading. If a bill is passed by the Commons it goes to the Lords.

The House of Lords has similar procedures. Today the Lords cannot reject bills passed by the Commons but can only delay the passage of a bill. Until the early years of the 20th century, however, the House of Lords had the power to prevent legislation, as bills had to be passed by both Houses of Parliament (since 1949 four acts have been passed into law without the consent of the House of Lords: The War Crimes Act 1991; the European Parliamentary Elections Act 1999; the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 2000; the Hunting Act 2004).

If the Lords agree to a bill it will be placed before the Queen for signature. When the Queen signs it, it becomes an Act of Parliament.

Government. The party which has majority in the House of Commons forms the government and may hold office for five years. The leader of the majority party becomes the Prime Minister. Her Majesty’s Government is responsible for the administration of national affairs. Government consists of about seventy politicians. The composition of government may vary both in the number of ministers and in the titles. New ministerial offices may be created, others may be abolished and functions may be transferred from one minister to another. There are departmental (in charge of government departments) and non-departmental ministers, holders of various traditional offices, the latter performing any duties the Prime Minister may wish to give them. Departmental ministers are usually in the Cabinet. The Cabinet is composed of about twenty ministers chosen by the Prime Minister, although the number can vary. The functions of the Cabinet are initiating and deciding on policy, the supreme control of government and the coordination of government departments. The Cabinet can always have the last word. No change of policy of any importance would be considered without the Cabinet sanction. The Cabinet meets in private and its proceedings are confidential. The Cabinet is also the Court of Appeal.

The Judiciary. The judiciary is independent of the executive; its judgements are not subject to ministerial direction or control. The Prime Minister recommends the highest judicial appointments to the Crown. The Lord Chancellor is head of the judiciary except in Scotland (although Britain is a unitary state, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland all have their own legal systems). Lord Chancellor’s responsibilities include administration of all courts, judicial appointments and appointment of magistrates.

Word  Study

Ex. 1. a) Read the international words and guess their meaning. Mind the stress.

statute

detail

sanction

mechanical

convention

philosopher

debate

committee

procedure

ideological

constitution

politician

department

confidential

  1.  Pronounce correctly the following proper names:

Act of Parliament  [xkt  Ov  'pRlqmqnt]

Queen    [kwJn]

France  French  [frRns    frenC]

Sovereign ['sOvrIn]

Britain  British  ['brItn  'brItIS]

Prime Minister  [praIm  mInIstq]

Montesque M['monteskieu]

Majesty ['mxGIstI]

House of Lords  ['haus  qv  'lLdz]

The Court of Appeal [kLt qv  qpJl]

House of Commons  [haus  qv  'kOmqnz]

The Lord Chancellor [lLd 'CRnsqlq]

Ex. 2.   Complete the list of derivatives. Use a dictionary if necessary.

 verb   noun(agent)  noun(concept)

  1.  to operate      operator   operation
  2.  to pass
  3.  to introduce
  4.  to execute
  5.  to constitute
  6.  to debate
  7.  to enforce
  8.  to protect
  9.  to adopt
  10.  to elect
  11.  to function
  12.  to compose
  13.  to administer

Ex. 3.   Pair the words in column B with the ones from column A

 B     A

  1.  political
  2.  ministerial
  3.  single
  4.  general
  5.  changing
  6.  special
  7.  powerful
  8.  supreme
  9.  administrative
  10.  similar
  11.  departmental
  12.  government
  13.  detailed
  14.  judicial
  1.  ministers
  2.  departments
  3.  consideration
  4.  direction
  5.  appointments
  6.  government
  7.  affair
  8.  document
  9.  procedure
  10.  structure
  11.  condition
  12.  authority
  13.  law
  14.  agreement

Ex. 4.   In the sentences below, fill each blank space with a suitable word from the word family given in CAPITALS.

  1.  Most countries have a formal _______ Constitutions describing how laws are made and enforced. (WRITE)
  2.  The English constitution has no _______ apart from the ordinary law. (EXIST)
  3.  The Magna Carta, the Petition of Rights, the Habeas Corpus Act, the Bill of Rights and the Act of Settlement are the leading _______. (ENACT)
  4.  Constitutions, written or unwritten, must be _______ according to whether they are “rigid” or “flexible”. (DISTINGUISH)
  5.  Nearly all British citizens over the age of 18 are members of the ______ (ELECT).
  6.  In the British constitution the Queen in Parliament is the legislative _______ (SOVEREIGN)
  7.  Many British _____ are in favour of changing the _____ (VOTE; ELECT).
  8.  For the purpose of tax, a person is a ______ in the UK if s/he stays there for more than six months of the year. (RESIDE)
  9.  Parliament _____ the ____ of the special Commission. (APPROVE; RECOMMEND)
  10.  Direct ______ to the European Parliament are held every five years. (ELECT)

Ex. 5.  Match Russian and English equivalents.

  1.  вводить законопроект
  1.  to alter the convention
  1.  отклонить законопроект
  1.  to vest with power
  1.  выполнить обязанности
  1.  to apply laws
  1.  подписать законопроект
  1.  a draft law
  1.  исполнять законы
  1.  detailed consideration
  1.  судебная власть
  1.  to delay the law
  1.  изменять договор
  1.  private and confidential proceedings
  1.  проект закона
  1.  to reject a bill
  1.  приостановить прохождение закона
  1.  to sign a bill
  1.  частное и секретное судопроизводство
  1.  to perform the duties
  1.  облекать властью
  1.  to introduce a draft law
  1.  толковать закон
  1.  to execute laws
  1.  детальное обсуждение
  1.  judicial power
  1.  применять законы
  1.  to interpret laws

Ex. 6.  Complete the following text with the words and phrases from the box:

Parliament; failure in administration; ministerial responsibility; Departmental Ministers; Government’s policy; House of Commons; collective responsibility

The doctrine of _______ _______  means  that  the  Cabinet  acts unanimously even when Cabinet ministers do not all agree on a subject. The policy of______ _______must be consistent with the policy of the Government as a whole. Once the_________ _______on a matter has been decided, each minister is expected to support it or resign.

The doctrine of ________ ________ means that ministers are answerable to ________ for all their departments’ activities. They bear the consequences of any ______ ______ _______, any injustice to an individual or any aspect of policy which may be criticised in Parliament, whether personally responsible or not. Since most ministers are members of the ______ ________ _______, they must answer questions and defend themselves against criticism in person.

Text  Study

Ex. 1. Choose the correct alternative and complete each of the sentences below.

  1.  The Constitution is a mirror …… the national soul.
  2.  reflecting
  3.  having
  4.  vesting
  5.  debating
  6.  One of the reasons for having special constitutional laws is …… government from becoming too powerful.
  7.  to constitute
  8.  to prevent
  9.  to elect
  10.  to introduce
  11.  No change of policy of any importance would be considered without …... .
  12.  Queen’s sanction
  13.  Parliament sanction
  14.  the Lord Chancellor’s sanction
  15.  the Cabinet sanction
  16.  The …… met urgently at 10 Downing Street to decide government policy on the new economic crises.
  17.  civil service
  18.  Privy Council
  19.  Cabinet
  20.  ministries
  21.  The exact effect of legislation is influenced by judicial …… .
  22.  interpretation
  23.  custom
  24.  sovereignty
  25.  codification
  26.  Parliament is a …… body.
  27.  legislation
  28.  legislature
  29.  legislative
  30.  legislate
  31.  …… , codes and delegated legislation are all sources of written law.
  32.  Law reports
  33.  statutes
  34.  Rules of law
  35.  Court cases
  36.  The Minister presented the new Housing …… to the House of Commons for reading and debate.
  37.  Act
  38.  Code
  39.  Law
  40.  Bill
  41.  The government lost the confidence of the House of Commons, Parliament was dissolved and a/an …… was called.
  42.  general Election
  43.  electoral roll
  44.  by-election
  45.  election campaign
  46.  In general, a Bill becomes an Act of Parliament when it has received the …… of both Houses of Parliament and the sovereign.
  47.  consent
  48.  ratification
  49.  enactment
  50.  assent

Ex. 2.  Mark the statements which are true.

  1.  The Constitution describes the life of the people.
  2.  The Constitution is contained in a lot of documents.
  3.  In Britain Parliament is the supreme authority.
  4.  Law courts interpret and apply laws.
  5.  To become an Act of Parliament a bill must be signed by the Queen.
  6.  In the House a bill must pass only one reading.
  7.  The Lords can reject any bill.
  8.  Government consists of about seventy politicians.
  9.  The Cabinet proceedings are private and confidential.
  10.  The Court judgements are not subject to ministerial direction or control.

Ex. 3.  Complete the following sentences by adding the phrases given  in part B.

Part A

Part B

  1.  A constitution is ...
  2.  British constitution is made up of ...
  3.  Most modern constitutions have adopted ...
  4.  The executive branch puts ...
  5.  Law courts constitute ...
  6.  The first reading of  a bill is followed by ...
  7.  If the Lords agree to a bill ...
  8.  The composition of government may vary both ...
  9.  The Cabinet can always have ...
  10.  The job of Lord Chancellor is ...

  1.  ... the judicial branch.
    1.  ... in the number of ministers and in titles.
    2.  ... administration of all courts, judicial appointments and appointment of magistrates.
    3.  ... more than a mechanical set of ground rules.
    4.  ... the laws into effect.
    5.  ... it will be passed before the Queen for signature.
    6.  ... the last word.
    7.  ... statute law, common law and conventions.
    8.  ... a debate in general principle.
    9.  ... the principle of separation of powers.

Ex. 4.  Comment on the following charts:

How Bills Go through Parliament

Public Bill

introduced by

the Government

Private Members’ Bills

introduced by MPs or peers not in

the Government

HOUSE OF LORDS

ROYAL ASSENT

First Reading

Publication is announced

Second Reading

General debate on principles

Committee Stage

Detailed discussion in committee

Report Stage

Committee report to the House

Third Reading

Formal review of contents of the Bill

If the Bill has been introduced in the Commons, it is then reviewed in the Lords. Some Bills start in the Lords and then go to the Commons.

The Lords have less formal methods of debating Bills. They can delay but not stop a Bill

The Bill is signed by the Queen and becomes law.

The Royal Assent is still read out in Parliament in Norman-French

“La reyne le veult”

HOUSE OF COMMONS

The System of Government

Sovereign

The Queen is head of government, she makes laws with Parliament and she is head of the courts

GOVERNMENT

PARLIAMENT

House of Lords

House of Commons

Cabinet

Chairman:

Prime Minister

Ministers

Chairman:

Lord Chancellor

Chairman:

Speaker

Lords

MP’s

(650 MP’s)

Law Lords

(20 Lords)

Temporal

Spiritual

(24 bishops)

Treasury

Foreign Office

Home Office

Etc.

Ex. 5.  Study the list. Choose one of the persons and prepare the report about his (her) activities. Use any information you will be able to find.

The Prime Minister of Great Britain

Anthony Eden (Conservative)

1955 – 1957

Harold Macmillan (Conservative)

1957 – 1963

Alec Douglas-Home (Conservative)

1963 – 1964

Harold Wilson (Labour)

1964 – 1970

Edward Heath (Conservative)

1970 – 1974

Harold Wilson (Labour)

1974 – 1976

James Callaghan (Labour)

1976 – 1979

Margaret Thatcher (Conservative)

1979 – 1990

John Major (Conservative)

1990 – 1997

Anthony Blaire (Labour)

1997 – 2006

Gordon Brown (Labour)

2006 – 2010

David Cameron (Conservative)

2010 – …

Ex. 6.  Write down 10 questions you could ask about “British Constitutional Law”. Begin each question differently:

Did ...?; Are ...?; Do ...?; Who ...?; When ...?; What kind of ...?; How many ...?; Why ...?

Ex. 7.  Speak on the British Constitution.

1.  The Constitution itself as the supreme law: the political and ideological structure, to make and enforce laws, to reflect the national soul, to protect the values, to contain, to make up, to alter a convention, to prevent, to vest with powers, to be the supreme authority, to put into effect, to constitute, to interpret laws, to apply laws.

2.   Parliament: to require for legislation, to pass laws, to adopt, to sign, to introduce a bill, the first reading, to debate, to give detailed consideration, to amend, to reject.

3.  Government: to hold office, to be responsible for, to create, to abolish, to transfer, to be composed of, to have the last word, the Cabinet sanction, the Court of Appeal.

4.  Judiciary: to be independent, judgements, control, to recommend, the Lord Chancellor, legal system, administration of courts, judicial appointments, the appointment of magistrates.

Ex. 8. Render the following text into English:

Британская Конституция

В Великобритании не существует единого документа, который был бы официально провозглашен Основным Законом (Fundamental Law). Однако существует неписаная конституция, состоящая их трех категорий: норм статутного права; норм прецедентного права; норм, представляющих собой конституционные обычаи. Статутом в Великобритании принято называть законодательный акт, принятый или одобренный в соответствии с установленной процедурой (procedure) обеими палатами парламента и подписанный главой государства. К статутам, имеющим конституционное значение, британские правоведы относят Великую хартию вольностей (the Magna Carta) 1215 г., Билль о правах 1689 г., Закон о престолонаследии (the Act of Settlement) 1701 г., Закон о парламенте 1911г. и другие.

Билль о правах (the Bill of Rights) закрепил режим конституционной монархии. Этот документ ограничивал (to restrict) исполнительную власть короля.

Хабеас Корпус (the Habeas Corpus Act) – закон о неприкосновенности личности, принятый в 1679 г. и ставший впоследствии важным элементом Британской конституции.

Новой вехой (landmark) в развитии Британской конституции стал принятый парламентом в 1701 г. Акт о престолонаследии. Королевская власть объявлялась ограниченной законами, которые вправе издавать только парламент. Описанные законодательные акты составляют так называемую Библию (the Bible) британской конституции.

Text B        Monarchy in Britain

Task:  read the text and get ready to discuss its main points.

Great Britain is a monarchy, but the British Queen is not absolute, her powers are limited by Parliament. The power is hereditary and not elective. The Queen is not only head of state, but also an important symbol of national unity. In law she is head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the supreme governor of the established Church of England. Today she is only a formal ruler and does not actually govern. Whatever she does must be done on the advice of the Prime Minister who is politically responsible for the Royal act.

The duties of the Queen are numerous. The Queen summons, prorogues and dissolves Parliament, as a rule she opens each session with a speech from the throne. She must give Royal assent before a bill which has passed all its stages in both  Houses of Parliament becomes legal. It is her duty to make appointments to all important state offices, including those of judges, officers in the armed forces, governors and diplomats, and to all leading positions in the church of England. The Queen has the power to conclude treaties, to cede or annex territory, to declare war and make peace. All these  matters are conducted in her name by Ministers and their officials.

In reality the Queen has almost no power at all. When she opens Parliament each year the speech she makes has been written for her. She makes no secret of this fact. She very obviously reads out the script that has been prepared for her, word for word. If she strongly disagrees with one of the policies of the government, she might ask the government minister to change the wording in the speech a little beforehand, but that is all. She cannot actually stop the government going ahead with any of its politics.

The Queen has her own Privy Council. The Cabinet developed from this Council which used to be a body of advisers of English monarchs and was the chief source of executive power in the state. As the system of Cabinet developed, the Privy Council declined in importance. It consists of members of the Royal family, the Arch-bishops, colonial governors and all senior Ministers, together with others to whom membership has been given as an honour. There are about 400 Privy Counsellors. There are a number of advisory Privy Council committees. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council established in 1833 is the final Court of Appeal. The Judicial Committee hears appeals from certain Commonwealth countries, from the Channel Islands, from the General Medical Council and other professional bodies. The Commonwealth appellate jurisdiction was formerly regarded as an important unifying influence: it has now dwindled significantly as an increasing number of Commonwealth countries have abandoned the appeal. For example, Canada and India abolished appeals in 1949, Sri Lanka in 1971, Malaysia in 1985, Australia (effectively) in 1986 and Singapore in 1994. The New Zealand government proposes their abolition, and appeals from Hong Kong ended with the territory’s reversion to China in 1997. The Committee’s decision takes the form of advice to the Queen. It is binding on the relevant Commonwealth courts. Cases heard by the Privy Council raise questions of constitutional interpretation. Apart from the appellate jurisdiction, the Judicial Committee may entertain an application for a declaration that a person purporting to be a member of the House of Commons is disqualified by the House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975. Finally, Her Majesty may refer any matter to the Judicial Committee for hearing or consideration.

Ex. 1.  Here are the answers to some questions. What are the questions?

1. Queen’s powers are limited by Parliament.(What ...?)

2. The Prime Minister is politically responsible for the Royal act. (Who ... ?)

3. Yes, she summons, prorogues and dissolves Parliament. (Disjunctive)

4. The duties of the Queen are numerous. (Alternative)

5. Yes, today she is only a formal ruler and does not actually govern. (General)

Ex. 2.  Complete the following sentences.

1. The Queen is not only head of state but ... .

2. Today the Queen is only a formal ruler and ... .

3. The duties of the Queen are ... .

4. All the matters are conducted in her name in the state by ... .

5. The Privy Council used to be ...

6. As the system of Cabinet developed, the Privy Council ... .

7. The Privy Council consists of ... .

Ex. 3. Points for discussion.

  1.  Today the Queen is only a formal ruler.
  2.  The Privy Council and its Judicial Committee.

Ex. 4. Write about the British monarchy as you see it. Use additional information from p.p. 283-285. Reflect the following facts:

 the historical background and origin;

 the inheritance to the throne;

 the general atmosphere within the family;

 rank-and-file people's and officials' attitude;

 the view on the monarchy as a social institution from inside and outside.

Text C    Political  Parties

Task:  read the text, get ready to compare the policy of the Conservative and Labour Parties.

The main political parties in Great Britain are the Conservatives, the Labour party and the Liberal Democrats. The most powerful parties are Conservative and Labour parties. These parties as a rule control Parliament. In this context there is a two-party system in Britain. Since 1945 these parties have held power.

The Conservatives (the official name the National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations) have always been the party of the Right. The name of the party reflects its aims to conserve and maintain established institutions and practices. It is the party supported traditionally by the rich and the privileged. The origins of the party go back to the 17th century when it was called the Tory party organized on the basis of political groups of the English landed aristocracy. The Conservative party has no official permanent programme. On the eve of general elections the party issues a pre-election manifesto which states the main aspects of the home and foreign policies of the future Conservative government if the party wins the elections. Tories favour radical policies, they welcome privatization of sections of the national industries, the state's withdrawal from direction of the economy, they stress the pursuit of the national interest and priority for defence of law and order. To this very day it remains a major rightwing party receiving support from middle-and upper class or Establishment circles, traditionally in rural areas. Donations from individuals and companies make up the party’s largest source of income.

The Labour Party was founded in 1900 by the Trade Union Congress on the initiative of socialist organizations to win working-class representation in Parliament. This was initially reflected in the name of the party – Labour Representation Committee. In 1906 the Committee officially adopted the title of the Labour Party. The Party believes that private ownership and free enterprise should be allowed to flourish, but not at the expense of their traditional support of public services. Labour’s origins are important in explaining the way it makes policy. In general, the party has no long term political programmes which would determine the ways and means to attain common goals. Instead, the party endorses current political issues containing measures which the future Labour government intends to implement if the party takes office as a result of a majority in the general elections. Labour remains committed to maintaining the state’s role in such areas as health, education and provision for those in need. Using the state mechanism the party attempts to do away with inequalities in opportunity and develop greater social equality in general. Though today many claim that the Labour Party shows no radical change in policy from the Tories, nevertheless most people recognize Labour as being on the left of the political scene, and the party continues to receive electoral support from amongst the less well-off in society. Despite the fact that Labour was established to support the working class, it is now clearly a middle-class party. Membership of the Labour Party is provided by trade-union members, cooperative organizations, working class and petty bourgeoisie. Nearly two thirds of its members are professional (the ‘salariat’), and less than a quarter work in manual occupations.

The Social and Liberal Democrats (SLD) or simply the Liberal Democrats are the result of alliance in 1988 of the two parties  the Liberal party (the Whigs), which could frame its origins to the XVII century, and was one of the main political parties in the XIX century, and the Social Democratic party created in 1981 as a result of the split in the Labour Party. Liberal Democrats are strongly associated with their policies for better education, environmental protection and constitutional reform to guarantee individual freedom. The Party established itself as a new third force in British politics. The Liberal Democrats are quite often referred to as a “centre” party – a party which in ideological terms plays upon the differencies between the two major parties.

There are some other political parties in Great Britain represented in Parliament. They are regionally based in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The nationalist parties the Scottish National Party and Plaid Cymru of Wales have become a significant force since the 1970s. The political parties of Northern Ireland are: the Ulster Unionist party (UUP) and its other unionist allies; the Social Democratic and Labour party (SDLP); Sinn Fein (SF).

Ex. 1.  Explain and expand on the following:

  1.  There is a two-party system in Britain.
  2.  The Conservatives have always been the party of the Right.
  3.  On the eve of general elections the Conservative Party issues a pre-election manifesto.
  4.  The Labour Party was formed to win working-class representation in Parliament.
  5.  Today the Labour Party shows no radical change in policy from the Tories.

Text D    Elections in Great Britain

Task:  read the text and give your understanding of the underlined parts of the sentences.

For parliamentary elections Great Britain is divided into 650 electoral districts, called constituencies, of approximately equal population. Each constituency is a geographical area: the voters living within the area select one person to serve as a member of the House of Commons. The average number of electors in each constituency in England is about 70.000; in other parts of Britain the average numbers are slightly lower.

The simple majority system of voting is used in parliamentary elections in Britain. This means that the candidate with the largest number of votes in each constituency is elected, although he or she may not necessarily have received more than half of the votes cast.

Any British subject aged 21 or over can be nominated as a candidate for any seat on payment of a deposit: the sum of 500 pounds must be deposited on behalf of each candidate, candidates who receive less than 5 per cent of the votes cast in the election lose this deposit. Peers, clergymen, lunatics and felons in prison are disqualified from sitting in the House of Commons. Practically no person can stand any chance of being elected except under the name of a party, and a little chance except as a candidate backed by either the Labour or the Conservative Party. In every constituency each of these two parties has a local organization, whose first task is to choose the candidate, and which then helps him to conduct his local campaign. However smaller political parties and groups also put forward candidates, and individuals without party support also stand.

All British citizens of the age of 18 or over are entitled to vote at local elections in the area in which they are registered as electors.

The franchise (right to vote) became universal for men by stages in the nineteenth century. Women suffrage came in two stages (1918 and 1928). Voting is not compulsory, but in the autumn  of each year every householder is obliged by law to enter on the register of electors the name of every resident who is entitled to vote. On average about 75 per cent of the electorate vote.

For the purposes of voting, each constituency is divided into a number of polling districts. In each there is a polling station: many types of buildings, including schools, are used. The official expenses of parliamentary elections are paid by Government.

Ex. 1.  Discussion points.

  1.  Compare the UK electoral system with some other electoral system that you know well. What are the main similarities and differences? What are the strongest and weakest points of each system in your opinion?
  2.  Imagine what an ideal democratic electoral system would be like? In what way does it differ from the UK system and the system in your country?
  3.  What are the main disadvantages of the UK electoral system and the electoral system in your country? What advantages does each system have? Suggest possible changes in each system.
  4.  Do members of parliament /deputies in your country (like MPs in Britain) always "follow the party line" in Parliament, or are they free to vote independently of their political party? What advantages and disadvantages do you see in each case?

Text E            Prime  Minister

Task:  read the text and insert a suitable verb from the box

to win

to belong

to nominate

to meet

to preside

to inform

to include

to reconstruct

Unlike heads of Government in some countries, the Prime Minister is not directly elected by voters, although he or she is an elected Member of Parliament – an MP. Prime Minister is the leader of that party which ______ the General Election or which has the support of a majority of the members of the House of Commons. He _______ members of the Government, forms the Cabinet. In Britain he (or she) is a virtual ruler of the country. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet govern Britain collectively. The decisive role in the Cabinet _______ to the Prime Minister. His position in the Cabinet is described as “primus inter pares”1. The Prime Minister _______ the Queen of the general business of the Government, _______ over the meetings of the Cabinet and is responsible for the allocation of functions among ministers. The Prime Minister's other responsibilities ______ recommending to the Queen a number of important appointments.

The official residence of the British Prime Minister is 10 Downing Street. This is the place where the Cabinet of Ministers ________ to discuss all government issues. “Number 10” has been the official residence of the Prime Minister since the 1720s. It was _______ between 1960 and 1963.

Notes:

1. “primus inter pares” (Lat.)   первый среди равных 

Dialogue 1.  At the Exam

Task: read the dialogue and reproduce it a) abridged, b) in the form of a monologue.

Professor: You know, the most important of the Queen’s Ministers is the Prime Minister. In his relation to the other Ministers he has been described by one well-known authority as being like the sun among the planets. Can you explain why?

Student: Well, as far as I remember, the Prime Minister is the Queen’s chief adviser. His opinions shape the policy of the Government. Besides he is the leader of the largest party.

Professor: Do you know the official title of the Prime Minister?

Student: No, I’m sorry, I don’t.

Professor: It is “Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury”. The Treasury is the department of the Government. It handles the nation’s money. This fact, as you can see, proves that modern Premiers hold great power. And do you know who performs the real work of the treasury?

Student: If I’m not mistaken, it’s the Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Professor: You are right. It is known that after a General Election the Queen asks the leader of the largest political party to form a Government and a Cabinet. Is there any rule deciding which departments should be represented in the Cabinet?

Student: I am sure, there isn’t any rule. But usually the Prime Minister includes in his cabinet the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. It’s important to mention that all ministerial appointments are made by the Prime Minister. He might appoint, dismiss and transfer to another Department. This shows how powerful he is.

Professor: Do you want to say that he doesn’t need anybody’s approval?

Student: No, I don’t mean that. Before making his appointments the Prime Minister takes a list to the Queen and seeks her approval. The Queen may make suggestions.

Professor: Tell me, who can dissolve Parliament?

Student: As I see it, the Prime Minister can only advise the Queen to do it and she can accept advise only from him.

Professor: And the last question: what is the most important feature of the British form of government?

Student: Let me think… Well, I believe it’s responsibility. All Ministers are responsible to Parliament, to the elected representatives of the ordinary people.

Professor: Very good. You know the subject. I am quite satisfied with your answer.

Ex. 1. How is the following expressed in the dialogue?

  1.  power or right to control and command
  2.  that which a person thinks about something
  3.  to influence and determine the course
  4.  to deal with, control
  5.  a principle or order which guides behaviour
  6.  choosing of someone for a position, job
  7.  to sent away (from employment)
  8.  to move officially from one place, job to another
  9.  official permission
  10.  to end or break up

Ex. 2. Study the dialogue and continue the list of expressions giving an opinion.

I feel…

In my opinion, …

From my point of view, …

Ex. 3. Present the information from the dialogue using the following words and word combinations.

Chief adviser, to shape the policy, leader of the party, official title, to handle the nation’s money, to hold power, ministerial appointment, to dismiss, to transfer, to seek smb’s approval, to make a suggestion, to dissolve, to accept smb’s advice, responsibility, elected representatives.

Dialogue 2. The Significance of the Bill of Rights

Task: study the dialogue between a British and an overseas law student.

Robert: How are you getting on with your studies? Have you chosen the theme for your term paper?

Роберт: Ну как у тебя дела с учебой? Ты уже выбрал тему курсовой?

Andrew: I think, yes. Now we are studying the foundation of British Law. And I believe it would be up to the point to write about the significance of the Bill of Rights.

Андрей: Думаю, да. Мы сейчас изучаем основы Британского права. И я считаю, что было бы уместно писать о значимости Билля о правах.

Robert: Good idea. It is one of the basic instruments of the British Constitution, you know.

Роберт: Хорошая идея. Знаешь, он является одним из основных инструментов Британской конституции.

Andrew: Yes, I’ve read about it. It was the result of the struggle between the Stuart kings and the English people and Parliament. I know that the Bill of Rights provided the foundation on which the government rested after the Revolution of 1688. But I don’t know exactly what the Revolution settlement reflects.

Андрей: Да, я читал об этом. Он был результатом борьбы между королями Стюартами и английским народом и Парламентом. Я знаю, что Билль о правах обеспечил основу, на которую опиралось правительство после революции 1688 года. Но я не знаю точно, что отражает Революционное соглашение.

Robert: As far as I remember, it made monarchy clearly conditional on the will of Parliament and provided a freedom from arbitrary government. But I must say that most Englishmen were proud of it during the 18th century.

Роберт: Насколько я помню, Билль сделал монархию явно зависимой от Парламента и обеспечил свободу от деспотичного правительства. Должен сказать, что большинство англичан гордились им в 18 веке.

Andrew: It is known that the main purpose of the act was to declare illegal various practices of James II. I wonder what practices were proscribed.

Андрей: Известно, что основной целью акта было объявить незаконными различные привычные действия Джеймса II. Интересно, какие же действия были объявлены вне закона?

Robert: Quite a few. For example, the royal prerogative of dispensing with the law, complete suspension of laws without the consent of Parliament, levying of taxes and some others.

Роберт: Довольно много. Например, королевская привилегия обходиться без законов, полное приостановление действия закона без согласия Парламента, взимание налогов и др.

Andrew: I wonder, if this document helped to eliminate royal interference in parliamentary matters.

Андрей: Интересно, помог ли этот документ исключить королевское вмешательство в дела Парламента?

Robert: Sure. Besides, it proscribed certain forms of interference in the course of justice.

Роберт: Конечно. Кроме того он даже объявил вне закона некоторые формы вмешательства в ход правосудия.

Andrew: And does the act touch upon the question of elections?

Андрей: А затрагивает ли этот акт вопрос выборов?

Robert: Yes, it states that elections must be free and members of Parliament must have complete freedom of speech.

Роберт: Да, в нем говорится, что выборы должны быть свободными и члены Парламента должны иметь полную свободу слова.

Andrew: It is absolutely evident the act prevented the sovereign from abusing his authority.

Андрей: Совершенно очевидно, что акт предотвратил монарха от злоупотребления своей властью.

Robert: You are absolutely right. Without any doubt, the Act is the constitutional paper of great importance.

Роберт: Ты совершенно прав. Несомненно, акт – конституционный документ огромной важности.

Andrew: I see. I need to analyze it more thoroughly.

Андрей: Понятно. Мне нужно изучить его более тщательно.

Ex. 1. Sum up the information you have learnt from the dialogue. Make use of the following.

basic instruments, the result of the struggle, provide the foundation, to be conditional on the will, arbitrary government, to be proud of, to declare illegal, royal prerogative, to dispense with the law, suspension of laws, consent of Parliament, to levy taxes, to eliminate interference, to proscribe, course of justice, to abuse one’s authority.

Ex. 2. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the box.

MPs; debate; seat, Opposition, chamber; Bar; speech; back; sides

Seating arrangements in the House of Commons have existed for hundreds of years and reflect the nature of the party system. At the end is the _____ of the Speaker, and at the end a formal barrier, known as the “____”. Benches for the members run the length of the chamber, on both ____ . Benches to the right of the Speaker are used by the Government and its supporters; those to the left are occupied by the ____ and members of the other parties. The most important ____ sit on the front bench (and are therefore called “front benchers”). Younger and less experienced MPs sit on the ____ (and are known as “back-benchers”). When the Prime Minister or any other leading politician makes a ____, they stand at the table in the center, below the Speaker’s Chair. There are red lines running along each side of the _____ . By tradition, they must not be crossed, to prevent either side attacking the other during a _____ .

Revision  Translation  

Об этике в Палате Общин

Вестминстер по праву считается “матерью парламентов”. Богатая традициями работа палаты лордов и палаты общин до сих пор остается предметом особого внимания законодательных органов других стран. Наверное, во многом это оправданно.

Палата общин  формально низшая, но на деле главная палата парламента. Ее состав, в отличие от палаты лордов, регулярно обновляется по итогам всеобщих выборов, ее доминирующее влияние на британскую политическую жизнь объясняется тем, что здесь утверждают все законы. Именно депутаты палаты общин составляют основу правительства страны, а само правительство формируется партией, обладающей в  палате общин большинством. Премьер-министром Великобритании может стать только член палаты общин.

Главная роль в организации работы парламента и соблюдении этики дебатов принадлежит спикеру. Он предоставляет право выступить тому или иному законодателю, обладает правом внесения дисциплинарных наказаний, в частности правом изгнания нарушителя дисциплины из палаты общин.  Однако самое суровое наказание для британского законодателя состоит в том, что спикер называет провинившегося по имени, а не почтенный. Второе обращение по имени влечет лишение парламентария права присутствия в парламенте в течение 20 дней, третье  на неопределенный срок.

Одна из функций спикера  устанавливать продолжительность дебатов по тому или иному вопросу. Спикер избирается из числа наиболее опытных парламентариев, которые ни разу не позволили усомниться в их моральном облике.

justified

in fact

is renewed

to take the floor

in particular

honourable

leads to

to doubt, morals

LISTENING  COMPREHENSION

Text       Monarchy 

Pre-listening activities

I. Before listening make sure that you know the following:

 ostentatious way =  extravagant way

to be dignified = to be noble (imposing)

to swop smth for smth = to exchange

II. Before listening answer the following questions:

 What countries have monarchies?

Which of these adjectives do you associate with the British monarch: ostentatious, greedy, modest, vulgar, wealthy, lazy, dignified, popular, hard-working?

Listening activities 

I. As you listen to the tape, make brief notes to help you answer the following questions:

  1.  Does the speaker approve of:

the British monarchy?

the monarchies in general?

  1.  How does he compare monarchs and presidents?
    1.  Which monarchies does he praise? Why?
    2.  Does he feel sorry for the British Royal Family?
    3.  How does he compare monarchs and soap operas' (popular television dramas)?
    4.  Which of the adjectives (given above in the pre-listening activities) does he associate with the British monarchy? Is your own list different?

II. Listen again to the tape and fill in the gaps:

  1.  I used to ... royal families in general.
  2.  I think now I ... the idea of a royal family.
  3.  I ... them personally, if you like.
  4.  I think I would ... a monarchy of the sort you find in other countries in Northern Europe.
  5.  The problem we have with our monarchy is that … .
  6.  I would love to swop my job … .
  7.  Monarchy should set … .

After listening activities

Work in pairs and discus the following:

  1.  What do you see as the advantages and disadvantages of having a monarchy?
  2.  The speaker would swop his job for their job any day.  Would you exchange lives with a member of the British Royal Family? Why? (Why not?)
  3.  If so, which member would you swop with?

GRAMMAR   SECTION

Grammar to be revised:  the Sequence of Tenses. Reported Speech.

Ex. 1.  Analyse the tenses in the following sentences. Pay attention to the Sequence of Tenses rule.

  1.  The examiner asked him if he knew the difference between a bill and an Act of Parliament.
  2.  It appeared that Oliver Cromwell was going to appoint himself as Lord-Protector of the Commonwealth.
  3.  In 1783 a lot of people in France expected the consequence of the political revolution would be a radical change of the legal system.
  4.  He admitted that he had no idea of  the Prime Minister’s responsibilities .
  5.  By the end of the Tudor period it became clear that Parliament had achieved status as the law-making body.
  6.  While in Southern Europe in moulding the legal system was Roman Law, in England the Saxon tribes had already developed their own legal process.
  7.  Nobody expected that the Privy Council would decline in importance with the development of the Cabinet.
  8.  The speaker emphasized that no change of policy would be considered without the Cabinet sanction.

Ex. 2. Use the proper forms of the verbs. Mind the Sequence of Tenses rule.

  1.  The students were explained that the basic legal framework laid down in 1688 still (to remain), but its political content, and the political balance between its main elements, the Crown, the House of Lords and the House of Commons (to change) radically.
  2.  The teacher stressed that Oliver Cromwell (to create) a written constitution – “The Instrument of Government” – which (to be) effective only for a few years.
  3.  I read that constitutionalism (to be) part of the British political tradition at least since medieval times.
  4.  It is believed that the Magna Carta (1215) (to regard) as Britain’s closest equivalent to a written constitution as it (to be) a source of inspiration for subsequent constitutional development both in the UK and overseas.
  5.  The teacher said that the ancient theory of separation of powers (to try) to combat tyranny by dividing the functions of government between groups with different interests so that no power centre (to act) without cooperation with others.
  6.  It was interesting to know that Australia, New Zealand and Canada each (to recognize) the Crown as their Head of State.
  7.  We were explained that since 1688 the functions and personal powers of the monarchy gradually (to reduce).
  8.  The report was devoted to the English Civil War (1642–1648) which (to be) the country’s greatest internal conflict between supporters of Parliament and supporters of Charles I.
  9.  The reporter stated that three Parliaments (to summon) and (to dissolve) in the first four years of Charles I reign, then 11 years he (to rule) without one.
  10.  He informed us that since 1688 the unwritten constitution (to attempt) to adjust the economic and social changes within the broad principles which (to lay) down in 1688.
  11.  He stressed that the 1688 Glorious Revolution (to be) a compromise which (to design) to satisfy all the influential political and economic interests.
  12.  He tried to prove that the “unwritten constitution” (to have) the “virtue of flexibility” and (to permit) both evolutionary and constitutional changes.

Ex. 3. Report the following in the indirect speech using the words suggested. Mind that the sequence of tenses rule is not always applied when direct speech becomes indirect.

Statements

Model: “We study Constitutional Law this year.” (He said…)

He said that they studied Constitutional Law that year.

  1.  “The Constitution of Great Britain is not the source of law, but the law gives birth to the Constitution”. (The teacher explained…)
  2.  “The English Constitution has not been codified in any particular document”. (The teacher added…)
  3.  “To understand the English Constitution you will study numerous documents, including constitutional treaties like the Bill of Rights, various statutes and judicial decisions.” (The teacher stressed …)
  4.  “In spite of numerous duties the Queen’s powers are limited by Parliament. The British Queen reigns, but doesn’t rule”. (The teacher said…)
  5.  “In theory certain persons (e. g. Lord Mayor) are vested with judicial powers at trials in the Central Criminal Court, but in practice they don’t take part in judicial work there.” (He admitted …)
  6.  “The Prime Minister usually takes policy decisions with the agreement of the Cabinet.” (We were explained…)
  7.  “Each new Prime Minister may take changes in the size of the Cabinet and may create new ministries or make other changes”. (It was reported…)
  8.  “The Prime Minister holds Cabinet meetings at his/her house at Number 10 Downing Street not far from the Houses of Parliament.” (We knew that…)
  9.  “I am the Chancellor and the keeper of the King’s conscience.” (The bishop declared…).

Questions

Model 1: The teacher asked, “Did the Magna Carta establish the principle of limited government?”

The teacher asked if the Magna Carta had established the principle of limited government.

  1.  Has the Queen ever dissolved Parliament during her reign?
  2.  Does the Prime Minister change the Cabinet?
  3.  Was the British Constitution codified?
  4.  Does Britain have written or unwritten Constitution?
  5.  Is the Prime Minister appointed by the Queen?
  6.  Is judiciary an independent branch of power in Britain?
  7.  Is the Cabinet the central institution of the UK constitution?
  8.  Do England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland have their own legal systems?

Model 2: The teacher asked, “What did the Bill of Rights prevent the sovereign from?

The teacher asked what the Bill of Rights had prevented the sovereign from.

  1.  What kind of state is Great Britain?
  2.  What does the constitution reflect?
  3.  How long has the British Constitution evolved?
  4.  What principle has been adopted by most modern constitutions?
  5.  What is one of the reasons for having special constitutional laws?
  6.  Who was the principle of separation of powers developed by?
  7.  How many readings does a bill pass to become an Act of Parliament?
  8.  Where does the Prime Minister hold Cabinet meetings?
  9.  What are the relationships between the legislative and the executive branches of government?
  10.  What does the doctrine of separation of powers mean?
  11.  Who is Head of the judiciary in the country?
  12.  Where are laws interpreted and applied?

Commands, requests, advice

Model 3: My father said, “Don’t waste your time.”

My father advised me not to waste my time.

  1.  “Get ready to speak about the British Constitution.” (The teacher told me …)
  2.  “Could you name the duties of the Queen?” (The teacher asked …)
  3.  “Don’t mix two notions The Law as a system and a law as an individual, separate rule.” (The teacher warned …)
  4.  “Don’t forget about the difference between Statute Law and Common Law.” (I was warned …)
  5.  “Don’t look for the British Constitution in any single document.” (I was advised…)
  6.  “Will you characterize the judicial branch of Great Britain?” (The students were asked …)
  7.  “Shall I deliver my report today or tomorrow?” (The student asked…)

Ex. 4.   Express the same idea in the reported speech.

  1.  The teacher says, “The modern UK Constitution is usually regarded as dating from the Glorious Revolution of 1688.”
  2.  He added, “The main constitutional principles and institutions have been traced to medieval times or even earlier.”
  3.  The author stressed, “One of the main purposes of the constitution is to maintain political stability and order in the country.”
  4.  The lecturer declared, “The institutions of the unwritten UK Constitution have evolved over centuries.”
  5.  The students were explained, “The Constitution that emerged during the 17th –18th centuries has been described as ‘a balanced constitution’ combining the elements of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy.”
  6.  The lecturer said, “The notion that the powers of government of whatever form should be limited by law runs through the constitutional history.”
  7.  He added, “However, no one has yet succeeded in defining the ‘proper’ limits of government power.”
  8.  The teacher said, “The British monarch has not refused the royal assent to legislation since 1709.”
  9.  He added, “The concept of monarchy is ancient, originally implying that one person was given supreme authority over everyone else by God.”
  10.  We were explained, “All major government decisions are taken by the Cabinet, a committee of senior government ministers.”
  11.   The lecturer says, “By the end of the 13th century judges had developed the law and practicing bar had dominated legal education.”
  12.  The introduction reads, “Before the Norman Conquest legal institutions made few lasting contributions.”

Ex. 5.   Say what somebody offered, suggested or advised.

Model 1: He said, “Shall I explain the distinction between a bill and an Act of Parliament?” She said, “Do please” (“No, don’t trouble”).

 He offered to explain the distinction between a bill and an Act of Parliament and she accepted the offer (declined the offer).

Model 2He said to them, “You’d better not exaggerate the difference between these two traditions of law”.

 He advised them not to exaggerate the difference between these two traditions of law.

  1.  He said to them, “You’d better sue your neighbour for harassment”. They said, “No, we won’t”.
  2.  He said, “Shall I deliver a report on the nature of law?” The teacher said, “Do, please.”
  3.  He said, “You’d first consider the terms of the contract.” They said, “It’s absolutely necessary.”
  4.  He said, “Why not institute proceedings to obtain possession of the building?” We said, “Nothing will come out of it.”
  5.  He said to me, “Shall I provide you with necessary legal aid in advance?” I said, “I’ll be very much obliged to you.”
  6.  He said, “You’d better not support your decision by a case from another country.” They said, “Of course we won’t!”
  7.  He said to me, “We should first obtain sufficient legal knowledge and then start reading a statute.” I said, “You are right.”
  8.  Some scholars said, “Would it not make sense to combine the two sources of law?”
  9.  The lawyer said to me, “You should file an appeal to the House of Lords.” I said, “Nothing more is left to do.”

Ex. 6.   Ask and answer the questions in the reported speech using the statements and the questions suggested. Work in pairs.

Model: –The Constitution guarantees every citizen the right to protect his property in any lawful way.

What did he say to you?

 He told me that the Constitution guaranteed every citizen the right to protect his property in any lawful way.

  1.  – The idea that government is not all powerful first appeared in the Magna Carta, or the Great Charta, that was signed by King John in 1215 under the threat of civil war.

– What did he say to you?

  1.  – The Magna Carta established the principle of limited government in which the power of monarch or government was limited, not absolute.

– What did he explain to you?

  1.  – The Magna Carta stipulated that no citizen could be punished or kept in prison without a fair trial.

– Did you believe his explanation?

  1.  – In time this document came to be regarded as a cornerstone of British liberties and was one of the oldest written constitutional papers.

– What were you explained?

  1.  – Habeas Corpus Act was passed in Britain in 1679 and was the law in the name of the people, or in Britain the sovereign, to produce an imprisoned person in court at once.

– Did you know that?

  1.  – The law of Habeas Corpus guaranteed that nobody could be held in prison without trial.

– What did he explain to you?

  1.  – The Bill of Rights was adopted in 1689. A number of its clauses eliminated royal interference in parliamentary matters and stressed that elections must be free.

– What did he state?

  1.  – Was the Bill of Rights one of the basic instruments of the British Constitution, the result of the long 17th century struggle?

– Did he ask you ..?

  1.  – The Act also dealt with the proximate succession to the throne, provided the heirs were Protestants.

– What did you want to say?

  1.  – Napoleon’s Code has been adopted in most of the areas of Europe and spread across the Atlantic.

– Did you know that..?

  1.   – Freedom of speech and freedom of press are both the cornerstones of democratic constitutions.

– Did you understand that..?

  1.  – Everyone must pay taxes of one kind or another of this country.

– Did they inform you that ..?

Ex. 7.   Translate into English:

  1.  Нам сказали, что его пригласили выступить в парламенте. 2. Преподаватель сказал, что на эту поправку к конституции часто ссылаются. 3. Нам объяснили, что законопроект не может быть отклонен Палатой Лордов. 4. Мы сожалели, что все эти факты стали известны, после того как резолюция была принята. 5. Было решено, что если парламентский закон будет противоречить прецеденту, более ранний закон будет модифицирован, но не будет нарушен. 6. Я прочитал, что принцип разделения властей был разработан в 18 веке французским политическим философом Монтескье. 7. Все знали, что когда голоса будут подсчитаны, спикер объявит результаты. 8. Спикер объявил, что на все запросы членов парламента будут даны ответы. 9. Нам объяснили, что после того, как законопроект пройдет третье чтение, он будет направлен в Палату Лордов. 10. Мы знали, что когда политика правительства по какому-либо вопросу определена, министр должен либо поддержать ее, либо уйти в отставку. 11. Мы поняли, что у нас слишком мало знаний по правовым вопросам. 12. Я прочитал, что Римское право долгое время оказывало влияние на многие страны Европы.


UNIT  IV

AMERICAN  CONSTITUTIONAL  LAW

READING   AND  SPEAKING

Text A   American Constitution

Task:  read and translate the following text.

No document in American history can be compared with the Declaration of Independence (adopted July 4, 1776) in the place that it holds in the minds and hearts of American citizens. It is far more than the announcement of the birth of a new nation. In it one can find the key ideas about how the Americans of that generation thought free people should live, what form their governments should take, and what the natural responsibilities between a government and its citizens should be in order that both order and liberty could be sustained.

The Declaration laid the foundations for the Articles of Confederation (1781)  the United States’ first constitution. Devised and amended in 1787, the Articles inspired a completely new document, the Constitution, adopted in 1789 in Philadelphia.

The American Constitution is the oldest still in force in the world. The basic idea is simple. The Constitution is the supreme law of the land. It is the highest authority. No person and no branch of government – not the president, not Congress, certainly not the police officer – has the right to set the Constitution aside and its rules are law. All governments and governmental groups, federal, state, and local must operate within its guidelines.

The Constitution is the highest law of the land, but it can be amended. Under Article V, Congress can propose amendments, which go into effect when “ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States”. The first ten amendments to the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights (1791), stated fundamental rights of any American: freedom of speech, of the press, of worship, assembly, the right of trial by jury, right to be protected against unreasonable searches, arrest, seizures of property. Other amendments have followed, for the most part they have expanded the democratic nature of American society (by abolishing slavery, widening the suffrage or making elections direct) to meet the changing needs of the nation. The American Constitution has been amended twenty-seven times, some of the amendments have been extraordinarily important.

Americans have the great pride in their Constitution. Under the American Constitution all power belongs to the people (We the people of the United States in Order to form a more powerful Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America).

The Constitution has served the people of the United States admirably for over 200 years, in part because the framers were wise enough to recognize that they could not foresee every problem. Those who followed them thus had the ability to take the document and adapt it to new conditions.

The United States Constitution is made into living law through a variety of means. There is, very notably, enforcement through the courts, by means of “judicial review.” This refers to the power of the courts to decide if laws and acts of the other branches of government, or of the state and local governments, are valid or not, constitutionally speaking, and to reduce these acts to zero if they fail the test. Judicial review is not, of course, solely a federal power. The state courts exercise it, too; each state, after all, has its own constitution. State legislatures must conform to the state constitution. The power of judicial review, state and federal, is now so deeply ingrained in American system that it is hard to imagine American legal world without it.

Word  Study

Ex. 1. a) Read the international words and guess their meaning. Mind the stress.

nation

idea

declaration

articles

announce

democratic

federal

arrest

confederation

natural

fundamental

dominate

problem

group

president

 b) Pronounce correctly the following proper names:

 The Articles of Confederation ['RtIklz  qv  kqn"fedq'reIS(q)n]

Philadelphia  ["fIlq'delfjq]

Declaration of Independence  ["deklq'reIS(q)n  qv  "IndI'pendqns]

Bill of Rights  [bIl  qv  'raIts]

Ex. 2.   Complete the list of derivatives.  Use a dictionary if necessary.

verb

noun (agent)

noun (concept)

to announce

to find

to divide

to form

to serve

to follow

follower

the following

to make

to invent

to expand

to ingrain

to provide

to promote

Ex. 3.   Pair the words in column A with ones from column B.

A

B

  1.  amendment
  1.  history
  1.  new
  1.  ideas
  1.  direct
  1.  liberty
  1.  guidelines
  1.  of speech
  1.  a variety
  1.  of property
  1.  the power
  1.  of checks and balances
  1.  freedom
  1.  of government
  1.  a system
  1.  document
  1.  citizen’s
  1.  to the Constitution
  1.  American
  1.  elections
  1.  the branch
  1.  of Supreme law
  1.  key
  1.  of means
  1.  seizure
  1.  of the Court

Ex. 4.   How can you express the following ideas in one word?

  1.  a paper that gives information, proof or support of something  else;
  2.  habitually taking decisions alone;
  3.  freedom from control, service, being shut up, etc;
  4.  a written statement containing a record of something;
  5.  a change, made in or suggested for a rule, law, statement, etc.;
  6.  of or formed into a political federation;
  7.  a person owned in law by another;
  8.  the right to vote in national elections;
  9.  the head of government in many modern states that do not have a king or queen;
  10.  the choosing of representatives to fill a position, a political office, by  vote.

Ex. 5.   Match English and Russian equivalents.

  1.  to propose amendments
  1.  закладывать основу
  1.  to go into effect
  1.  право рассмотрения дела с участием присяжных
  1.  to expand the democratic nature of the society
  1.  конфискация имущества
  1.  to widen the suffrage
  1.  разделение властей
  1.  to be valid
  1.  система сдержек и противовесов
  1.  to lay the foundation
  1.  демократическая сущность общества
  1.  freedom of worship
  1.  выбор вероисповедания
  1.  the right of trial by jury
  1.  законодательная, исполнительная, судебная власти
  1.  seizure of property
  1.  отменить рабство
  1.  legislative, executive, judicial branches
  1.  прямые выборы
  1.  separation of powers
  1.  предлагать поправки
  1.  system of checks and balances
  1.  вступать в силу
  1.  to abolish slavery
  1.  расширять избирательное право

14) direct elections

  1.  быть действительным

Ex. 6.   Choose the best alternative to complete the following sentences.

  1.  The Constitution was adopted in Philadelphia / Washington.
  2.  The first ten amendments stated / clarified fundamental rights of any American.
  3.  The most striking / unusual feature of the Constitution is the separation of powers.
  4.  A great deal of power is in the hands of the president / Congress.
  5.  The Constitution has been repeatedly amended / interpreted to meet the needs of the nation.
  6.  Under the American Constitution all power prevails/belongs to the people.
  7.  The Constitution has served / influenced people for over 200 years.
  8.  Other amendments/considerations have expanded/protected the democratic nature of American society.
  9.  Under Article V Congress/the House of Representatives can reject/pro-pose amendments.
  10.  Judicial review refers/regards to the power of the court/president to decide if laws are valid.

Ex. 7. Complete the following text with the words and phrases from the box.

balanced

system

branches

serves

powerful

compromise

change

Checks and Balances

The Constitution provides for three main __________ of government which are separate and distinct from one another. The powers given to each are carefully __________ by the powers of the other two. Each branch __________ as check on the others. This is to keep any branch from gaining too much power or from misusing its powers. The equal branches of government are connected and each branch is dependent on the other two.

The system of checks and balances makes __________ and consensus necessary. Compromise is also a vital aspect of other levels of government in the United States. This system protects against extremes. It means, for example that new presidents cannot radically __________ governmental policies just as they wish. In the US, therefore, when people think of “the government”, they usually mean the entire __________, that is, the Executive Branch and the President, Congress, and the courts. In fact and in practice, therefore, the President (i. e. “the Administration”) is not as __________ as many people outside the US seem to think he is. In comparison with other leaders in systems where the majority party forms “the government”, he is much less so.

Text  Study

Ex. 1.   Choose the best way to complete the sentences.

  1.  The Declaration of Independence is far more than  .....
  2.  the argument of governments.
  3.  the announcement of the birth of a nation.
  4.  the appointment of a new government.

2. The Articles of Confederation were ...

  1.  not working well.
  2.  radical indeed.
  3.  devised and amended.

3. The Bill of Rights .....

  1.  stated fundamental rights of any American.
  2.  revised the Articles.
  3.  stated too few powers for defense, trade.

4. The most striking feature of the Constitution is  ....

  1.  breaking with an age-old traditions.
  2.  the prevailing notion of separation of powers.
  3.  a new form of government.

5. A great deal of power is put in .....

  1.  hands of the Supreme Court.
  2.  hands of the Senate.
  3.  hands of the President.

6. The Constitution has been repeatedly .....

  1.  adopted by some status.
  2.  operated under federal government.
  3.  amended to meet the changing needs of the nation.
  4.  Other amendments have expanded .....
  5.  a vital aspect of the levels of government.
  6.  the democratic nature of American society.
  7.  local politics.

8. Those who followed the framers of the Constitution had ....

  1.  to strike down the unconstitutional ones.
  2.  to pass all laws.
  3.  to adapt the document to new conditions.

9. State legislatures must conform …

a) to the federal constitution

b) to the state constitution

c) to the constitution of another country

10. Some … of the Constitution have been extraordinarily important.

a) status

b) rules of law

c) amendments

11. Judicial review refers to the power of the … to decide if laws are valid.

a) Congress

b) courts

c) police

Ex. 2.   Mark the statements which are true.

  1.  The Bill of Rights stated fundamental rights of any American.
  2.  The Articles inspired a completely new document, the Constitution.
  3.  The most striking feature of the Constitution is prevailing notion of President’s powers.
  4.  The Constitution didn’t recognize the notion of separation of powers.
  5.  The system of checks and balances was of no use.
  6.  The Constitution still in force hasn’t been changed.
  7.  Under the American Constitution all power belongs to the government.
  8.  In part the framers were wise enough to recognize that they couldn’t foresee every problem.
  9.  The Articles of Confederation can propose amendments.
  10.  Amendments of the Constitution have expanded the social nature of the American society.
  11.  Any citizen has the right to set the Constitution aside.
  12.  Judicial review refers to the power of Congress to decide if laws are valid.

Ex.3. Complete the following sentences by adding the phrases given in part B.

Part A

  1.  No document in American history can  .....
  2.  In Declaration one can find  ....
  3.  Devised and amended in 1787, the Articles  .....
  4.  The Bill of rights stated the right to be protected  ....
  5.  The most striking feature of the Constitution is  ....
  6.  A system of checks and balances ensured  ....
  7.  All governments and governmental groups must operate  ....
  8.  The great framers were wise enough to recognize that they .....
  9.  Amendments have expanded…
  10.  Judicial review refers to…

Part B

  1.  the democratic nature of the society.
  2.  the power of the courts  to decide if laws are valid.
  3.  against unreasonable searches.
  4.  the key ideas of future American generation.
  5.  be compared with Declaration of Independence.
  6.  the division of the legislative, executive and judicial branches.
  7.  inspired a completely new document.
  8.  within the supreme law of the land guidelines.
  9.  that no branch of the government would dominate the others.
  10.  could not foresee every problem.

Ex. 4. Study the list. Chose one of the presidents and prepare the report about his activities. Use any source of information you like.

The Presidents of the United States

President

Years in office

  1.  

George Washington

1789 – 1797

  1.  

Thomas Jefferson

1801 – 1809

  1.  

Theodore Roosevelt

1901 – 1909

  1.  

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

1933 – 1945

  1.  

Harry S. Truman

1945 – 1953

  1.  

John Fitzgerald Kennedy

1961 – 1963

  1.  

Lindon Johnson

1963 – 1969

  1.  

Richard M. Nixon

1969 – 1974

  1.  

Gerald Rudolf Ford

1974 – 1977

  1.  

James Earl Carter

1977 – 1981

  1.  

Ronald Wilson Reagan

1981 – 1989

  1.  

George Bush

1989 – 1993

  1.  

William J. Clinton

1993 – 2001

  1.  

George Walker Bush

2001 –2009

  1.  

Barak Abama

2009 –

Ex. 5.  Choose someone to act as an American citizen and answer the tourists’ questions.

What do you mean by

What is (are)

Could you explain to me

Can you tell me

When was (were)

Where was (were)

Why is it

  1.  the Declaration of Independence adopted;
  2.  the place that it holds in the minds and hearts of Americans;
  3.  far more than the announcement of the birth of a new nation;
  4.  the key ideas of the document;
  5.  the first ten amendments to the Constitution;
  6.  the most striking feature of the Constitution;
  7.  the function of a system of checks and balances;
  8.  the oldest still in force;
  9.  the great pride of the nation;
  10.  the nature of other amendments.

Ex. 6.   Speak on the American Constitution. Include the following points.

1. The Declaration of Independence: to compare with, to hold in minds and hearts, key ideas, free people, to form the government, natural responsibilities, liberty, to sustain.

2. The Bill of Rights: to lay foundations, the Articles of Confederation, to devise, to amend, to inspire, to adopt, the Bill of Rights, to state fundamental rights, freedom of speech, the right of trial by jury, to protect against unreasonable searches, arrest, seizures of property.

3. The Constitution: striking feature, president, a system of checks and balances, the oldest in force, The Supreme law of the land”, to belong to the people, to foresee every problem, to adapt to new conditions, democratic nature, to abolish slavery, to widen suffrage, to make elections direct.

4. Judicial Review: to refer to; the power of the courts; to be valid; to conform; to be deeply ingrained; to be hard to imagine.

Ex. 7. Render the following text into English using the topical vocabulary of the present unit:

Конституция Соединенных Штатов Америки

Статья I

Раздел 8. Конгресс имеет право:

устанавливать и взимать налоги, пошлины (imposts) и акцизы (excises), для того чтобы выплачивать долги, обеспечивать совместную оборону и всеобщее благоденствие Соединенных Штатов; причем все сборы, пошлины и акцизы должны быть единообразны (uniform) повсеместно в Соединенных Штатах;

занимать (to borrow) деньги в кредит Соединенных Штатов;

регулировать торговлю с иностранными государствами, между отдельными штатами и с индейскими племенами;

устанавливать повсеместно в Соединенных Штатах единообразные правила натурализации (the rule of naturalization) и принимать единообразные законы по вопросу о банкротствах;

чеканить монету, регулировать ценность оной и ценность иностранной монеты, устанавливать единицы весов и мер (to fix the standard of weights and measures);

предусматривать меры наказания за подделку (punishment for counterfeiting) ценных бумаг и находящейся в обращении монеты Соединенных Штатов;

создавать (set up) почтовые службы и почтовые пути;

содействовать (to promote) развитию науки и полезных ремесел, закрепляя на определенный срок за авторами и изобретателями исключительные права на их сочинения и открытия;

учреждать суды, нижестоящие по отношению к Верховному суду;

определять и карать акты пиратства (copyright), тяжкие преступления (felonies) и преступления против права наций.

Text B          System of Government

Task:  read the text, get ready to compare federal and local systems of government.

The United States is a federal union of 50 states. Federalism, of course, is much more than a formal plan. There are various levels of American government: federal, state, county and local.  The whole system of American government is based on this principle.

Perhaps the most striking feature of the Constitution is the prevailing notion of separation of powers. Clear lines divide the legislative, executive and judicial branches. A great deal of power is put in the hands of the president.  At the same time, a system of checks and balances provides that no one branch of the government would dominate the others. Thus, the Constitution divides the powers of the government into three branches  the Executive, headed by the President, the Legislative, which includes both houses of Congress (the Senate and the House of Representatives); and the Judicial, which is headed by the Supreme Court.

Members of Congress, the President, state officials and those who govern counties and cities are elected by popular vote.

The state governments follow much the same pattern as the federal government.  Each has a governor as the chief executive, with power divided among the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches. State governments arrange such affairs as maintaining order, educating children and young adults, and building highways. The federal government deals with regional problems that involve more than one state. Laws affecting the daily lives of citizens are enforced by police in the cities and towns. Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation track down criminals who cross state borders or who break federal laws.

The President of the United States is head of the Executive branch. President is assisted by Vice-President and the Cabinet.  The President and Vice-President are elected for a term of four years and can be re-elected for another term, but not longer than that. US President is assisted in Administration by a Cabinet of 12 members. Cabinet secretaries correspond to European ministers. They are heads of different departments and directly and fully responsible to President who appoints them for an indefinite time. Cabinet officials usually serve during his term. When the President’s service ends, it is customary for the Cabinet to resign, so the new President can appoint new chiefs of executive departments. There are numerous executive departments. The Department of State, headed by the Secretary of State, advises the President on foreign relations, the Treasury Department manages government finance, collects taxes, mints coins and prints paper money, the Department of Justice, headed by the Attorney General, deals with legal matters, etc.

The main instrument of the Federal Judiciary is the Supreme Court, which watches over the other two branches. It determines whether or not their laws and acts are in accordance with the Constitution. Congress has the power to fix the number of judges sitting on the Court, but it cannot change the powers given to the Supreme Court by the Constitution itself. The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices. They are nominated by the President but must be approved by the Senate. Once approved, they hold office as Supreme Court Justices for life. A decision of the Supreme Court cannot be appealed to any other court. Neither the President nor Congress can change their decisions. In addition to the Supreme Court, Congress has established 11 federal courts of appeal and, below them, 91 federal district courts.

The Supreme Court has direct jurisdiction in only two kinds of cases: those involving foreign diplomats and those in which a state is a party. All other cases which reach the Court are appeals from lower courts. The Supreme Court chooses which of these it will hear. Most of the cases involve the interpretation of the Constitution. The Supreme Court also has the “power of judicial review”, that is, it has the right to declare laws and actions of the federal, state, and local governments unconstitutional. While not stated in the Constitution, this power was established over time.

Ex. 1. Comment on the following chart:

Ex. 2. Put the following sentences in a logical order to speak about the American system of government.

  1.  The Supreme Court also has the “power of judicial review”.
  2.  A decision of the Supreme Court cannot be appealed to any other court.
  3.  The main instrument of the Federal Judiciary is the Supreme Court.
  4.  The federal government deals with regional problems and international relations.
  5.  Those who govern counties and cities are elected by popular vote.
  6.  There are three levels of American government.
  7.  Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation track down criminals.
  8.  The state governments follow much the same pattern as the federal.
  9.  The Constitution divides the powers of the government into three branches.
  10.  The President of the United States is head of the Executive branch.
  11.  Laws affecting the daily lives of citizens are enforced by police in the cities and towns.
  12.  The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices.

Text C    The Legislature

Task:  read the text and get ready to discuss its main points.

The legislative branch is of great importance for and the legal system. There are vast numbers of lawmaking bodies, arranged in a kind of pyramid. At the base of the pyramid  are the lawmaking organs of local government. At the top there is a national legislature – Congress which is the legislative branch of the federal government. It is divided into an upper house (the Senate) and a lower house (the House of Representatives). There are 100 Senators, two from each state. One third of the Senators are elected every two years for six-year terms of office. The Constitution says that a Senator must be at least 30 years old, a citizen of the US for nine years and a resident of the state from which he is elected. The House is elected on a population basis, but every state is entitled to at least one representative, no matter how tiny its population is. There are 435 members, or roughly one for every 600,000 people. They are elected every two years for two-year terms. A Representative must be at least 25 years of age, a US citizen for seven years and live in the state from which he is elected. There are 16 “standing”, or permanent, committees in the Senate and 22 in the House. Congressmen on a committee are experts in certain fields.

Congress makes all laws, and each house of Congress has the power to introduce legislation.  If both houses agree legislation becomes law. The President has the right to veto laws passed by Congress. To overcome President’s veto the bill must get a two-thirds majority in each chamber.

The legislative system, like the rest of American legal structure, is influenced by federalism and, more significantly, by the American habit of decentralization. Voters take it for granted that the people they elect represent localities and local interest. The representatives in Congress must please the people in their districts, or they will find themselves out of a job. Congress is to provide for the common defense and general welfare of the country. Although the three branches are presumably coequal, the legislature takes the lead in formulating the structure and duties of the other two branches. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law.  This is one of the legislature’s most powerful weapons in overseeing the executive, the power of the purse. There are two main components of this power: taxing and spending. Congress possesses broad powers over the nation’s economic well-being and political security. It may coin money, incur debts, regulate commerce, establish post offices, issue patents and copyrights, provide for a militia, repel invasions and suppress rebellions. Congress’s enumerated powers are not boundless, there are light specific limitations on Congress’s powers noted in Article 1 Section 9 of the Constitution. They deal with criminal proceedings, slave trade, taxation, appropriations, titles of nobility.

The output of Congress or a state legislature, in any session, consists of dozens and dozens of statutes. Some are long, complicated, and important; some are short. It is hard to generalize about the form or content of statutes. A statute can be about any subject that law touches on, which means, in practice, anything. The form, too, is infinitely various. Usually we think of statutes as being general directives, unlike decisions, which apply to particular cases. Every statute, then, has a double message. In the first place, the statute delivers to the public (or some part of it) a statement of do’s or don’ts, or rights and privileges. In the second place, the statute also contains a message to some legal authority, giving instructions about carrying out the law. A legislature is an institution, a system; its members know each other, and they must learn to live and work with their colleagues. Congress is not “an anonymous group of men and women who occasionally meet to pass legislation”; on the contrary, it is a continuing body, with “an elaborate formal and informal structure, traditions, norms, and agreed-upon practices.” The same is true of state legislatures.

Ex. 1. State  the main idea of each passage of the text.

Ex. 2. Suggest how we call …

  1.  the highest law-making body of the US;
  2.  a person who wants or whom others want, to be chosen for a position in an election;
  3.  a person acting in place of one or more others;
  4.  one’s choice in favor of (a person or political party) at an elections;
  5.  protection against law-breaking, violence;
  6.  something owed to someone else;
  7.  the money paid in accordance with the law to the government.

Ex. 3.   Fill in the following chart.

1. Congress is the legislative branch which provides

 . . . . .

2.  . . . . .

becomes the legislature’s most powerful weapon.

  1.  Congress possesses broad powers which may

 . . . . .

4. Congress’s powers in Article 1 Section 9 deal with

   . . . . .

5. The House of Representatives is elected to represent

 . . . . .

6.  . . . . .

becomes laws.

Text D    Political Parties

Task: read the text and give your understanding of the underlined parts of the sentences.

The two leading parties in the U.S. are the Democrats and the Republicans. The Democratic Party was founded in 1828, representing Southern planters – slave owners and part of Northern bourgeoisie, as well as groups of petty bourgeoisie and farmers. The Republican Party was founded in 1854. It united industrial and trade bourgeoisie from North-East, farmers, workers, craftsmen who were interested in destroying the political power of the South.

Today the Democrats are thought of as associated with labor, and the Republicans with business. Democrats tend to favor an active role of the central government in social matters, Republicans tend to oppose the greater involvement of the federal government in public life which they consider to be the responsibility of the states and communities. To distinguish between the parties is often difficult, however. The traditional European terms of right and left, or conservative and liberal do not quite fit the American system. Representatives or Senators are not bound to a party program if they have been elected as Democrats and the Republicans. Both Representatives and Senators are elected to serve the interests of the people and areas they represent, that is, their constituencies.

The main task of the parties is to win elections. But once a President is chosen, the parties again become amorphous bodies. In the U.S., the parties cannot win seats which they are then free to fill with party members they have chosen. As a result, the political parties have much less actual power than they do in other nations.

There are other minor parties but they do not play role in national politics.

Text E   American President

Task:  read the text and insert a suitable verb from the box.

to reelect

to resign

to convince

to approve

to stand

to dispose

The President of the United States is chosen in a national election for a four-year term, and may be  ______  for a second term.  The President must be a native-born citizen at least 35 years old. He is elected directly by the voters.

President is head of the executive branch. The President’s policies and appointments of federal judges and government officials must be  _________  by Congressmen.  Therefore he must be able __________ the Representatives and Senators of his point of view. The rule is the President proposes, but Congress  _________.

Under the US Constitution President is made to   ___________  before the expiry of his term of office only by an impeachment process. He is _______ trial in the Senate, with the Chief Justice of the U.S. acting as the judge and the Senators as the jury.

Dialogue 1.  After the Seminar

Task:  read the dialogue, reproduce it  a) abridged,  b) in the form of a monologue.

Jack:  Heather, are you through with the USA Constitution?

Heather:  Oh yes, it wasn’t hard, you know. Just a bit of history... I mean I mentioned that reading and debating the Federalist Papers Americans became deeply conscious of the principles of democracy and its proper role in their life and ... and all that stuff1.

Jack:  How in the world do you find enough time? If things go on like this you’ll soon become a straight ‘A’ student2.

Heather:  To tell the truth, I could hardly manage extra questions. You see, Constitution provides the rule of the majority, and it can be so cruel, so wrong, so oppressive to minorities that it perverts democracy itself. I mean society ought to be tolerant. And tolerance is something that we get through education, social traditions, through the instruction of family, our experiences in dealing with strangers. And ...

Jack:  You are far too deep in it yet. It’s for this purpose that constitutional law is made and it regulates relations of the kind by providing us with rights and freedoms ... Of speech or expression ... Why should we talk of the thing like this?

Heather:  What I was asked, Jack, is to which extent these have to be restricted. The problem has been debated ever since nations originated. And, of course, I can’t be expected to solve it.

Jack:  You need a bit of relaxing. What about an hour or two of music and dancing at our cafe? Some new CDs they’ve got there are terrific.

Heather:  A good idea. And then we’ll have a walk to the campus under the new moon3.

Notes:

1 and all that stuff   –   и все такое;

2 a straight  ‘A’ student   –   круглый отличник;

3 the new moon   –   молодой месяц.

Ex. 1. How is the following expressed in the dialogue?

  1.  an intention or plan; reason for an action
  2.  passing down of opinions, beliefs, customs from the past to the present
  3.  painful, causing suffering
  4.  able to understand
  5.  to supply
  6.  to argue about something with someone
  7.  a large group of people with a particular organization and shared customs, laws
  8.  the greater number or amount
  9.  to keep within limits
  10.  unjust
  11.  knowledge or skill which comes from practice
  12.  to turn away from what is right
  13.  the smaller number or part

Ex. 2. Study the dialogue and find the expressions which people need in conversations to create thinking time.

e. g. well … ; and erm…; a sort of … ; I mean … .

Ex. 3. Present the information you have learned from the dialogue making use of the following: 

to become deeply conscious, principles of democracy, to provide the rule of the majority, to be oppressive to minorities, to pervert democracy, tolerance, to regulate relations, to provide rights and freedoms, to be restricted, a bit of relaxing.

Dialogue 2. Similarities and Differences

Task: study the dialogue between an American and an overseas law student.

Alexander: Hi, Robert! Can I have a word with you?

Александр: Привет, Роберт! Можно с тобой поговорить?

Robert: Oh, hello! Sure. Any problems?

Роберт: О, привет! Конечно. Есть проблемы?

Alexander: No, everything is OK. I’d like only to clear up some points for my report.

Александр: Нет, все нормально. Мне бы хотелось выяснить некоторые моменты для моего доклада.

Robert: Well …, what does it deal with?

Роберт: Ну… и чему он посвящен?

Alexander: You see, now we are studying the U.S. system of government. And my task is to analyze the similarities and differences between the U.S. system of government and other forms of democratic government.

Александр: Видишь ли, сейчас мы изучаем систему управления США. И моя задача – проанализировать сходства и различия между системой управления США и другими демократическими формами управления.

Robert: You know… , as a constitutional federal republic, the USA is not unique. Many “democracies” are in fact constitutional republics. And they share with the USA long traditions of democratic representation, the rule of law, and constitutional protection.

Роберт: Знаешь ли, как конституционная федеральная республика США не уникальная страна. Многие «демократии» фактически являются конституционными республиками. И они разделяют с США долговременные традиции демократического представительства, верховенства закона и конституционной защиты.

Alexander: Well… As to similarities it is more or less clear. But what I need is to find out the differences, you know.

Александр: Так… Что касается сходств, это более или менее ясно. Знаешь, а вот мне нужно выявить различия.

Robert: OK. One significant difference is the selection and role of the head of government.

Роберт: Ладно. Одно существенное различие – это выборы и роль главы правительства.

Alexander: As far as I know, in parliament systems, the head of the government is a prime minister. He is selected from the parliament. Typically he is the leader of the majority political party or coalition. The prime minister appoints a cabinet of ministers. It often consists of other members of parliament. A separate head of the state may be a monarch or an elected President.

Александр: Насколько мне известно, в парламентских системах глава правительства – премьер-министр. Он выбирается из членов парламента. Обычно он – лидер политической партии большинства или коалиции. Премьер-министр назначает кабинет министров. Он часто состоит из других членов парламента. Отдельной главой государства может быть монарх или избранный Президент.

Robert: That’s right. But in the USA, the President is both head of government and head of state.

Роберт: Все верно. Но в США Президент является как главой правительства, так и главой государства.

Alexander: I wonder, how the President is elected.

Александр: Интересно, как избирают Президента.

Robert: The President is elected separately from the legislature. He may, or may not be of the legislature’s majority political party.

Роберт: Президент избирается отдельно от законодательной власти. Он может быть, а может и не быть представителем политической партии большинства в законодательном органе.

Alexander: Is it possible for a member of the President’s Cabinet be a member of Congress at the same time?

Александр: Возможно ли члену Кабинета Президента быть одновременно членом Конгресса?

Robert: Oh, no! It’s out of the question. It is Constitutionally prohibited. And have you compared the party systems?

Роберт: О, нет! Об этом не может быть и речи. Это конституционно запрещено. А ты сравнил партийные системы?

Alexander: I don’t think there is any difference in them.

Александр: Я не думаю, что там есть какие-либо различия.

Robert: You are wrong. You see, the USA is primarily a two-party system. While in many parliamentary systems there may be ten or more parties represented in the legislature. The result is clearly defined political lines in the USA. And I’m sure you know that in a parliamentary system there is often a need for coalition-building in order to create a ruling majority.

Роберт: Ты не прав. Видишь ли, в США в основном двухпартийная система. В то время как в парламентских системах десять и более партий могут быть представлены в законодательном органе. В результате в США – четко определенные направления. Я уверен, ты знаешь, что в парламентской системе часто возникает необходимость в создании коалиции, чтобы создать правящее большинство.

Alexander: Yes, I know it. What is important to mention is that in many parliamentary systems, elections may be called suddenly by the ruling party. It can happen if there is a vote of no confidence in the government. Sometimes parliament may be even dissolved by head of state and new elections ordered. Is it possible in the USA?

Александр: Да, я знаю. Что еще важно отметить, это то, что во многих парламентских системах выборы могут быть спонтанно организованы правящей партией. Это может произойти, если есть вотум недоверия правительству. Иногда парламент может быть даже распущен главой государства и новые выборы назначены. Такое возможно в США?

Robert: No. And this is another significant difference. Elected officials in the USA serve for a defined period of time before facing reelection.

Роберт: Нет, и это – другое существенное различие. Избранные представители власти служат в течение определенного периода времени прежде, чем предстать перед переизбранием.

Alexander: Robert, I’m impressed by your deep knowledge. Thanks a lot.

Александр: Роберт, ты меня поразил своими глубокими знаниями. Большое спасибо.

Robert: You are welcome.

Роберт: Всегда пожалуйста.

Ex. 1. Find English equivalents to the following:

существенное различие; верховенство закона; одновременно; избирать отдельно; система управления; назначать; сходство; конституционная защита; выявить; иметь дело с чем-либо; уникальный; запрещать; быть четко определенным; вотум недоверия; прояснить; разделять что-то с кем-то (чем-то); в основном; необходимость создания коалиции; быть представленным; для того, чтобы; сталкиваться с чем-либо; глава государства; распускать.

Ex. 2. Sum up the information you have learnt from the dialogue. Focus your attention on:

  1.  head of government
  2.  party system
  3.  reelection
  4.  judicial system

Ex. 3. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from the box:

interactions, state, direct, President, inspection, make, Congress, officials, people, formulate, elections, local

To a visiting observer, the U.S. government may seem straightforward: the _____ makes the laws and the _____ implements them. A closer _____ reveals a much more complex system of _____ and influences.

As a republic, the ultimate power within the American system rests with the _____ . This power is exercised through regular, scheduled _____ in which voters select the President, members of Congress and various _____ and ____ officials. These _____ and their staffs _____ policy, _____ laws, and _____ the day-today operations of government.

Revision Translation

Американская система управления

Система управления в Соединенных Штатах на федеральном уровне, в штатах, графствах и муниципалитетах легка для понимания, если вы воспитаны на этой системе и изучали ее в школе.

brought up

Есть, однако, несколько главных принципов, положенных в основу системы управления на всех уровнях. Первый один человек, один голос определяет, что законодатели избираются от географических округов путем прямого голосования избирателей.  В соответствии с этим все избирательные округа должны иметь приблизительно равное число жителей.

laid down

approximately the same number

Другой основополагающий принцип состоит в том, что при системе сдержек и противовесов компромисс в политике является вопросом необходимости, а не выбора.  Например, палата представителей конгресса контролирует бюджетные расходы, а это значит, что президент должен получать ее согласие на осуществление своих предложений и программ.  Он также не вправе объявлять войну, не получив на то согласие обеих палат конгресса. Любой внешнеполитический договор требует ратификации его сенатом нет утверждения, нет и договора. Правило таково: президент предлагает, а конгресс располагает.

fundamental

the matter of necessity

spendings

approval

foreign

proposes, disposes

LISTENING  COMPREHENSION

Dialogue     The American Administration

Pre-listening activities

I. Before listening answer the questions: 

  1.  What principles is the American system of government based on?
  2.  How do you understand the saying: “The President proposes, but Congress disposes?”
  3.  Name at least three functions of the President.

II. Make sure you know the following:

to be all ears = to listen to smth attentively

if I get you right = if I understand you

Listening activities

I. As you listen to the tape, make brief notes to help you answer the following questions:

  1.  What is the highest governmental office in the US?
  2.  I wonder whether any American can become President.
  3.  What do you know about “Inauguration Day”?
  4.  By whom are Cabinet officials appointed?
  5.  What is the term of office of the American President?

II. Listen to the tape recording once more and complete the sentences:

  1.  The highest governmental office of the US is ...
  2.  The President must be ...
  3.  The term of office of the President is ...
  4.  The US President is assisted ...
  5.  The Cabinet members are ...

After listening activities

Arrange a round-table discussion on the American Administration.

GRAMMAR   SECTION

Grammar to be revised:  Modal  Verbs

Ex. 1. Analyse and translate the sentences paying attention to the modal verbs and their equivalents.

  1.  The Constitution may be defined as a system or body of fundamental principles according to which a nation or state is constituted and governed.
  2.  The President, the head of the Executive Branch must carry out the government programs adopted by Congress.
  3.  In domestic as well as in foreign policy the President can seldom count upon the automatic support of Congress, even when his party has a majority in both the Senate and the House of Representatives.
  4.  To become a law a bill must be approved by both Houses of Congress, but any bill passed by Congress may be vetoed by the President.
  5.  Many reasons have been offered to explain why the U.S. has been able to go from a small struggling economy to the leading industrial and agricultural country.
  6.  The presidential elections in the USA are to be held in two stages: first the people elect the Electoral College, the total number of 538 persons, who then elect President.
  7.  The President is elected for four years of service and may be reelected for four additional years.
  8.  Being afraid of a powerful Federal Government the Americans had to add 10 amendments to the Constitution – the Bill of Rights – in 1791 which guaranteed liberties to the people and since then 17 more amendments have been added to the Constitution.
  9.  Some Americans say that the press is not and should not be part of the government.
  10.  The newspapers might support one candidate or the other but one year he/she might be a Republican and the next a Democrat.
  11.  “It is evident that the future of civilization and the chief possibility for mankind is to be found in America,” said Bernard Russell.
  12.  The Fourteenth Constitutional Amendment (1868) says “No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, not shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law …”

Ex. 2. Ask and answer the questions working in pairs:

  1.  How may the Constitution be defined?
  2.  Can the President veto laws passed by Congress?
  3.  Can Congress pass laws over the President’s veto?
  4.  Could the country prosper if the states continued to quarrel among themselves?
  5.  Could Americans win the trust of other nations if they refused to pay the debts just after the Revolution?
  6.  I wonder if each House of Congress may initiate legislation.
  7.  May the House of Representatives and the Senate reject each other’s bills?
  8.  Where must a bill be sent if it is introduced?
  9.  Must the Senate confirm the President’s judicial appointments?
  10.  What problems did the Democratic and the Republican parties have to deal with after the Civil War?
  11.  Why did Americans have to add ten first amendments to their Constitution soon after it had been adopted?
  12.  What should a candidate do to persuade electors to vote for him?

Ex. 3. Complete the sentences using “can” or “be able to”:

1. Only the House of Representatives … impeach officials, but only the Senate … try the officials and decide if the official … stay in office. 2. In 1776 Americans ... break with old traditions. 3. The President … (not) declare war without the approval of Congress. 4. A decision of the Supreme Court ... (not) be appealed to any other court. 5. Neither President nor Congress ... change the decision of the Supreme Court. 6. It was very difficult but we ... persuade our opponent. 7. He is a well-known politician, he ... be nominated as the Democratic presidential candidate. 8. In spite of hostility between Indians and colonists the chief of the Wampanoag tribe ... conclude a peace treaty with Pilgrim Fathers in 1621. 9. He is a Secretary, so he … (not) serve in Congress. 10. Thomas Jefferson who mostly wrote the Declaration of Independence explained that the purpose of the government was to protect the rights of the people, then the people … (not) be blamed for tying to change the government. 11. The President must … convince Congressmen of his point of view.

Ex. 4. Use the modal verbs denoting obligation in their correct form: “must”, “have to”, “be to”, “should”, “ought to”, “shall”:

1.  The American colonists were not free to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains, and they … to allow British soldiers to live in their homes. 2. The government ... do something about employment. 3. The committee may ... continue the discussion of the problem. 4. In many countries citizens ... take part in the elections whether they want it or not. 5. The commission will start its sitting tomorrow. The President ... answer a lot of questions. 6. You ... (not) make this information known to wide public. 7. I ... (not) to type the documents. My secretary is supposed to do it. 8. Being elected by the people the President … compromise to be supported by the voters. 9. Federal laws such as Clean Air Act and Water Pollution Control Act … have led to many specific improvements in the environment. 10. Even in small cases the government … provide the lawyer to a defendant if he or she cannot afford one. 11. It was decided that Congress … to consist of two parts, the Senate and the House of Representatives. 12. The Constitution said exactly what powers the Federal Government … have and what powers … be reserved for the states.

Ex. 5. Express suppositions using the prompts. Mind the form of the Infinitive.

Model 1:   a) What party does he belong to? (a Republican)

 He must be a Republican.

b) Is the name of a new President known already? (to announce)

 They must have announced the name of a new President.

  1.  Bella Abzug is a very extraordinary woman. (the most picturesque figure of American politics)
  2.  Do they know who they'll vote for? (to make their choice)
  3.  Are the debates over? (still, to go on)
  4.  She was elected sheriff of New County in Nevada. (to respect and trust)
  5.  Are the documents ready? (to type)
  6.  Was a new tax law adopted? (to veto)

Model 2:  Do you know where senator Perryson is?  He may/might (to make) a speech in Congress.

 He may/might be making a speech in Congress.

  1.  What are these people doing here?  I am not sure, but they might (to protest) against tax raising.
  2.  Do you think the republicans gained a majority of delegate votes? – Well, they may (to win), but I am not sure.
  3.  What party does he support? – I know very little of his political views. He might (to be) a neutralist.
  4.  Will everybody vote for their proposal? – I don't think so. It may (to vote down).
  5.  When shall we know the results? – They may (to declare) at midnight.
  6.  Why aren't political meetings well attended nowadays? – There might (to be) a kind of distrust of political speeches and promises.
  7.  What did the rival party ask for? – I am not sure, but they may (to ask) for a recount.

Ex. 6. Express different shades of meaning using Modal Verbs and the proper forms of the Infinitive:

Model 1: may, might, can, could (possibility):  

These public officials failed to perform their duties properly.

 They (to remove) from office.

 They can be removed from office.

  1.  Let’s demand a recount. It (to show) majority in Wilcot's favour.
  2.  He has a great number of supporters. He (to win) the election.
  3.  The orator spoke in a dull flat voice. We (not to follow) him.
  4.  Associated Justices (not to elect), they are nominated.
  5.  A veto (to override) by a two-thirds vote of the Congress.
  6.  Government policies (not to change) by new president as they wish.
  7.  Congress (to refuse) to provide funds requested by the President.

Model 2: (improbability or doubt):  

I don’t believe that he has won the elections.

 He can’t have won the elections.

  1.  Is he really making investigations all alone?
  2.  I don’t believe that he resorted to sordid methods in running the elections.
  3.  Is it true that Bert Glimmer supports the Democrats? He has quite opposite political views.
  4.  I doubt that the proposal has been put to vote. I think it’s still being discussed.
  5.  Is the commission still sitting? Unbelievable!

Model 3: (reproach):

Your supporters have helped you a great deal.(to thank them)

 You should have thanked them.

  1.  He is just a typical TV glamour boy (to vote for him).
  2.  Robert is upset about his failure (to support him).
  3.  People don’t respect you any more (to sling mud your opponents).
  4.  Our candidate has lost the election (to nominate a recognized politician).
  5.  They said they could see practically no difference between your party program and that of your rivals (to have more clear-cut program).

Ex. 7.   Express the same idea using modal verbs.

Model 1:  a) Are we permitted to vote? (Are there any regulations against voting?)

 Can we vote?

b) Do you advise us to vote for this candidate?

 Should we vote for this candidate?

c) Are we required to vote at the elections?

 Must we vote at the elections?

  1.  It is necessary to register for local elections.
  2.  It is advisable to contact journalists.
  3.  It is not obligatory to be a party member to run in elections.
  4.  The committee decided to meet on Monday.
  5.  Perhaps he will change his decision.
  6.  I am not rich enough. I have no possibility to benefit the electoral campaign.
  7.  She managed to get a majority of ten in her favour.

Model 2:   a) I am sure he is a party leader.

 He must be a party leader.

b) I doubt that he has won the elections.

 He might have won the elections.

c) It was a bad idea to join this lobby.

 You shouldn't have joined this lobby.

  1.  Everybody is sure that he appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court.
  2.  I don't believe that such a minor party has won the majority of seats.
  3.  Why didn't you participate in decisions that concerned you?
  4.  Beyond doubt, he didn't do it!
  5.  Perhaps President vetoed the Act of Congress, but I don't know.
  6.  It can't be that Congress refused to provide funds for such a project!

Ex. 8. Use the proper modal verbs or their equivalents in the correct form: can(not), may, must, shall, should, ought (to), be (to), have (to), be able (to):

  1.  To become President in the USA one _____ be born in the USA. One _____ also be 35 years old or more. One _____ be President for a term of 4 years. One _____ be re-elected again for one more term.
  2.  If the President dies, or resigns, or _____ (not) to work, the Vice President becomes President. So, the qualifications for Vice President _____ be the same as for the President.
  3.  The U.S. government _____ give protection (asylum) to refugees if they have reason to fear death or mistreatment in their native countries. Refugees no longer _____ to prove that their lives are in danger.
  4.  Although the national popular vote _____ be very close, one candidate ____ receive an overwhelming majority of Electoral College votes.
  5.  If citizens don’t vote, the system of democracy _____ (not) be truly representative.
  6.  The Constitution says that a Senator _____ be at least 30 years old, a citizen of the U.S. for 9 years, and a resident of the state from which he is elected.
  7.  Only a member of the House _____ introduce a bill to raise money, says the Constitution.
  8.  During a two-year term of Congress, as many as 20,000 bills ______ be introduced.
  9.  Some bills _____ be important, some not, but no Congressman _____ know well enough 20, 000 bills to vote intelligently on them.
  10.  The Senators _____ block a treaty that the President has negotiated, but they _____ (not) make a treaty or force the President to make one.
  11.  The President’s actions _____ involve the country in a state of war, leaving Congress no alternative but to recognize the fact.
  12.  Through the use of the veto power the President _____ to reject legislation unless Congress by a two-thirds vote of each House overrules him.

Ex. 9. Complete the sentences with the most suitable modal verb.

  1.  The President _____ remove any Cabinet member for refusing to carry out a duty.
  2.  The jurisdiction of the Federal courts _____ include cases which concern the interpretation of the Constitution, of treaties between the United States and foreign countries and of all Federal laws.
  3.  The Constitution provides that the electors _____ meet in the respective states to ballot for the President and Vice President.
  4.  The date for voting by electors, according to the Constitution, _____ be the same through the United States.
  5.  After the Civil War the Democratic and the Republican parties _____ to deal with difficult social, economic and human rights issues.
  6.  In the Declaration of Independence people _____ find the key ideas about how the Americans of that generation thought free people _____ live.
  7.  Modern society recognizes that the individuals who are called to serve on a jury _____ not be allowed to suffer financially as a result of such public service.
  8.  The American economy ____ to be built, as they say, from the ground up.
  9.  In the beginning there were simply no farms, no houses or factories and whatever was needed _____ to be made by the settlers themselves, or it _____ to be imported at great expense.
  10.  The rapid progress of American industry and agriculture _____ be traced to a characteristic which has often been called typically American.
  11.  It is surprising but America’s share of the world’s land that _____ be used for farming is less than 8 per cent.
  12.  America _____ feed not only her own people – one of the few countries that does so – but a great many other people in the world as well.

Ex. 10. Translate into Russian paying attention to the Emphatic Constructions:

  1.  Whatever this evidence may appear at first glance it is of great importance for the investigation.
  2.  The law of a country, however much we may analyse it into separate rules, is something more than the mere sum of such rules.
  3.  Whoever else may object to these arguments, I shall approve.
  4.  He is innocent whatever people may say.
  5.  Hardly had the article been published when the author was accused of blackmail.

Ex. 11. Respond to the following using Emphatic Constructions according to the models.

Model 1: Your landlord may say what he likes but he has no right to get you out.

Whatever your landlord may say he has no right to get you out.

1. My reputation will be torn to shreds irrespective of the court decision.

Whatever ..........................

2. Every time legal problems arise he consults his attorney.

Whenever .........................

3. Your company will be held liable for the loss of profit irrespective of its amount.

Whatever ..........................

4. He will be cross-examined no matter who he is.

Whoever ............................

5. My husband has been absent for eight years and our marriage can be dissolved, no matter where he is now.

Wherever ..........................

6. You'll have to look through all the documents though it might take you too much time.

However much ...................

Model 2:  We must do this work though it is hard.

Hard as (though) it is we must do this work.

  1.  These results may be erroneous but they are still valuable.

Erroneous .................

  1.  He said nothing to prove his alibi. It was strange.

Strange .....................

  1.  This offer must be turned down as unlawful though it is very profitable.

Profitable ..................

  1.  The disagreement could be resolved by the parties though it is very serious.

Serious ......................

  1.  The court was still sitting though it was late.

Late ...........................

Ex. 12. Translate into English:

1. Во многих городах и округах свои законы, определяющие, кто может и кто не может владеть оружием. 2. Штаты не могут принимать законы, идущие вразрез с конституционными правами личности. 3. Каж-дый отдельный политик должен уделять особое внимание нуждам своих избирателей. 4. Это политическое лобби, несомненно, ослабило позиции демократов. 5. “Мы способны поверить, что наше правительство глупое, слабое, неэффективное; но это, несомненно, самое лучшее правительство в мире”. 6. Журналистам следовало бы проявить больше уважения к лидерам правительства. 7. Чтобы участвовать в выборах, не нужно быть членом политической партии, можно просто объявить, что им являешься. 8. Думаю, вам придется проголосовать за наше предложение. 9. Только 53,3% из тех, кто мог проголосовать, сделали это. 10. Вам не следовало поддерживать эту политическую группировку, это было ошибкой. 11. Не может быть, что суд признал действия президента неконституционными! 12. Истец должен был доказать и доказал, что он выполнил условия контракта.


 

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72958. Управління грошовими потоками на підприємстві 140.77 KB
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72959. Парадигмы кадрового менеджмента и организационная культура 62.7 KB
  Развитие сложных технологий индивидуализация деятельности потребовали изменения принципиального взгляда на человеческий потенциал организации и на смену концепции человеческих отношений пришла концепция контрактации ответственности.
72960. Концепция личности как основа структуры теста и подхода к изучению индивидуально-психологических особенностей человека 26.36 KB
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72961. Фразеологическая стилистика 33.04 KB
  Важно подчеркнуть что компоненты фразеологизма или не употребляются самостоятельно просак тормашки или изменяют во фразеологизме свое обычное значение например кровь с молоком означает здоровый с хорошим цветом лица с румянцем. В то же время в некоторых фразеологизмах возможно изменение порядка слов...
72962. Пополнение лексики новыми словами 36.76 KB
  Пополнение лексики новыми словами Каждая эпоха обогащает язык новыми словами. Слова получающие широкое распространение вливаются в состав активной лексики. вошли в русский язык слова вуз ликбез зарплата космонавт луноход жвачка федералы и т.
72963. Устаревшие слова. Процесс архаизации лексики 44.5 KB
  К историзмам относятся слова представляющие собой названия исчезнувших предметов явлений понятий кольчуга гусар продналог нэп октябренок ребенок младшего школьного возраста готовящийся вступить в пионеры энкаведист работник НКВД Народного комиссариата внутренних дел...