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Учебное пособие по устной разговорной практике английского языка

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Учебно-методическое пособие написано в соответствии с требованиями программы обучения иностранному языку в неязыковом вузе. В пособии представлены разговорные темы, которые предлагаются студентам в пределах программного материала. Тексты, изучаемые в рамках данных тем, соответствуют интересам и потребностям студентов.

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2015-11-03

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Учебное пособие по устной разговорной практике английского языка

СИБИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

ФИЗИЧЕСКОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ И СПОРТА

Кафедра иностранных языков

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

ПО УСТНОЙ РАЗГОВОРНОЙ ПРАКТИКЕ

АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

Омск 2010

Рецензенты:

зав. кафедрой иностранных языков СибГУФК,

доцент, канд. филол. наук К. Ю. Симонова;

доцент кафедры иностранных языков ОмГТУ,

канд. филол. наук Е. Н. Трифонова

Учебное пособие по устной разговорной практике английского языка / сост. И. В. Захарчева, Ю. В. Крамаренко, Н. В. Мартынович. – Омск : Изд-во СибГУФК, 2010. – 140 с.

Учебно-методическое пособие написано в соответствии с требованиями программы обучения иностранному языку в неязыковом вузе. В пособии представлены разговорные темы, которые предлагаются студентам в пределах программного материала. Тексты, изучаемые в рамках данных тем, соответствуют интересам и потребностям студентов. Предложенные в рамках каждой темы упражнения направлены на усвоение и закрепление необходимого лексического материала, что способствует расширению словарного запаса, развитию навыков устной и письменной речи студентов.

Пособие предназначено для студентов очного обучения 1 и 2 курсов физкультурных вузов.

Печатается по решению

редакционно-издательского совета университета

© ФГОУ ВПО СибГУФК, 2010

Contents

Topic 1. MY VISIT CARD ..……………………………...………………4

Topic 2. MY WORKING DAY ..…………………………………………9

Topic 3. MY FAVOURITE SPORTSMAN ..……………………………13

Topic 4. SIBERIAN STATE UNIVERSITY

OF PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORT ……………………18

Topic 5. THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. SPORT IN RUSSIA ……...25

Topic 6. OMSK IS THE CITY WHERE I STUDY …………………..41

Topic 7. GREAT BRITAIN. SPORT IN GREAT BRITAIN …….…...44

Topic 8. THE OLYMPIC GAMES ………………………………….…..99

Topic 9. SPORT AND SOCIETY ……………………………………...114

Topic 1.  MY VISIT CARD


I. Write down and translate the following vocabulary notes and sentences. Learn the vocabulary notes by heart.

name, second name, surname, full name

Ex.: His name is Aleksandr. His second name is Aleksandrovich. His surname is Aleksandrov. So, his full name is Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Aleksandrov.

to be 18 (19, 20) years old; to be 18, 19, 20

Ex.: My sister is 19 years old. I am 18. My mother is 45 years old.

to be born in

Ex.: Sam is an Englishman but he was born in Russia. I was born in London. They were born in France. Where were you born?

good-looking

Ex.: Mark’s girlfriend is a very good-looking young person. Good-looking persons are usually successful.

slim

Ex.: My sister always keeps to diets and goes to sport clubs, that is why she is very slim.

to train

Ex.: Sportsmen must train regularly. You should train hard to have good physical fitness.

to keep one’s health

Ex.: Proper meals and sport keep our health.

experienced

Ex.: My aunt has worked at school during 25 years, so she is very experienced in pedagogy.

to be two/four years older/younger than

Ex.: Ann is four years older than my brother. Sam is two years younger than Mark.

to be the first/second/third/fourth/fifth year student

Ex.: This young man is the second year student of the Siberian State University of Physical Culture and Sport. She is the third year student of the Medical Academy.

to have much in common

Ex.: My sister and me have much in common.

to decide

Ex.: She decided not to come to his birthday. When will you decide what to do?

to enter

Ex.: Frank entered the Classical University last year. I am going to enter the Siberian State University of Physical Culture and Sport this year.

to graduate from

Ex.: She graduated from the Technical University last year. Next year my best friend will graduate from the Medical Academy.

merited

Ex.: John’s brother is a merited artist of Russia. I would like to become a merited master of sports.

to go in for sport/to do sport(s)/to take up sport

Ex.: Many people nowadays go in for sport. It is popular to do sport. What kind of sport do you take up? I take up gymnastics.

application

Ex.: People usually write an application when they want to leave their work.

entrance examinations

Ex.: My entrance examinations were difficult enough.

to admit

Ex.: He says he admits my work. I don’t admit call.

coach (trainer)

Ex.: A coach plays a very important role in a sportsman’s career.

competition

Ex.: Shooting competition will take place in the middle of July.

to take part in

Ex.: Mike often takes part in different conferences.

higher education

Ex.: You need a higher education for finding good and well-paid work today.

II. Fill in the gaps choosing the words from the following list:

1) entered, 2) have much in common, 3) boast, 4) admitted, 5) couch, 6) name, 7) boast, 8) higher education, 9) graduated from, 10) decided, 11) good-looking, 12) entrance exams, 13) experienced, 14) was born, 15) trains, 16) application, 17) competition, 18) slim.

1. He says that his … is Mark. 2. Everybody likes her, she is a very kind and … person. 3. Sam … the University with honour. 4. Although they are brothers, they don’t … 5. Kate … the Service Institute last year. 6. I need an … person for such a kind of work. 7. … means to be healthy and strong. 8. Some small children like to … 9. My elder brother is a sportsman, so he … every day. 10. They say that there are almost no … people in America nowadays. 11. I wrote an … before entering the University. 12. Most of the sportsmen can’t train without a … 13. At present time … is very prestigious. 14. Swimming … will take place in the middle of July. 15. Jane says that her … were rather difficult. 16. I … not to discuss this question again. 17. George … in New York. 18. The jury … the last effort of the athlete.

III. Read and translate the text.

My visit card

My name is Ivan. My second name is Ivanovich. My surname is Ivanov. So, my full name is Ivan Ivanovich Ivanov. I am 17 years old. I was born in 1991, in the Russian city of Omsk. My family is rather small. I have a mother, a father and a sister. My mother is a teacher of biology. She works at a college. She likes her profession very much. She is a good-looking, slim woman with brown hair and green eyes. When my mother has free time she goes to sport club to train herself. She says that sport keeps our health.

My father is a computer programmer. He is very talented and experienced in this field. He is a broad-shouldered tall man with dark hair and blue eyes. His hobby is playing guitar. My sister is two years older than me. She is a third-year student of the Medical Academy. She dreams to become a children’s doctor. She is very interested in learning foreign languages. At present time she is learning French and Italian. She says they have much in common.

I started school at the age of 6 and I finished it at the age of 17. After finishing school I decided to enter the Siberian State University of Physical Culture and Sport. My choice is not sudden: I have always wanted to study here. My uncle is a merited master of sports. He graduated from this university with honour. His specialization is swimming.

I began to go in for sport early. During all my childhood I attended swimming pool where I trained hard. Besides, my uncle taught me to train properly. Now, I don’t mean to boast, I am a very good swimmer. I am a candidate to the master of sports. Before entering the Siberian State University of Physical Culture and Sport I wrote an application. Then I had to pass my entrance examinations and then I was admitted! Now I am a first year student and my specialization is swimming. After graduating from the university I would like to become a very good coach. I am planning to do sport all my future life and I wish my children to take it up. I have already taken part in a lot of swimming competitions where I took the first, second and third places. Now my aim is to get higher education and to become a good specialist in my field.

IV. Answer the following questions.

  1.  What is the name of the speaker?
  2.  How old is he?
  3.  When and where was he born?
  4.  Is his family small?
  5.  Who lives with Ivan?
  6.  What is his mother’s profession? Does she like it?
  7.  Can you describe the appearance of Ivan’s mother?
  8.  What does his mother do when she has free time?
  9.  What does she think about sport?
  10.  What is Ivan’s father profession?
  11.  Can you describe the appearance of Ivan’s father?
  12.  What is his hobby?
  13.  Is Ivan’s sister younger than he?
  14.  Is she a student? Where does she study?
  15.  Who would she like to be?
  16.  What is she interested in?
  17.  What languages does she study?
  18.  What did Ivan decide to do after school?
  19.  What is Ivan’s uncle?
  20.  What did Ivan do during his childhood?
  21.  Is Ivan’s uncle a good coach for him?
  22.  What did Ivan do before entering the University?
  23.  What is his specialization?
  24.  Who would he like to be?
  25.  What is Ivan’s aim?

V. Now answer these questions to be ready to speak about your visit card.

  1.  What is your name?
  2.  How old are you?
  3.  When and where were you born?
  4.  Where do you live?
  5.  Do you have a family? (Enumerate the members of your family).
  6.  What do you do?
  7.  Do you have a hobby?
  8.  Do you have a lot of friends?
  9.  What do you like to do when you have free time?
  10.  Do you have a dream? What is it?

VI. Add some more information to the answers to the questions above. Be ready to speak about your visit card.

Topic 2.  MY WORKING DAY

I. Look through the list of vocabulary notes and try to match them with the words and phrases given in Russian.

1) working day, 2) alarm-clock, 3) wake up, 4) early bird, 5) night owl, 6) get up, 7) stay in bed, 8) make one’s bed, 9) switch on, 10) do one’s morning exercises (do one’s daily dozen), 11) feel better, 12) take a shower, 13) clean one’s teeth, 14) comb one’s hair, 15) have breakfast, 16) get dressed, 17) leave, 18) live far from, 19) break, 20) lunch-time, 21) canteen, 22) get tired, 23) have a rest, 24) combine, 25) spend one’s free time, 26) well-bred, 27) support, 28) value, 29) go to bed, 30) fall asleep.

 1) просыпаться, 2) принимать душ, 3) выходить/покидать, 4) обеденный перерыв, 5) ложиться спать, 6) рабочий день, 7) сова, 8) одеваться, 9) вставать, 10) завтракать, 11) столовая, 12) совмещать, 13) засыпать, 14) проводить свободное время, 15) будильник, 16) лежать в кровати, 17) выполнять утреннюю зарядку, 18) жаворонок, 19) чистить зубы, 20) заправлять постель, 21) чувствовать себя лучше, 22) воспитанный, 23) включать, 24) ценить, 25) уставать, 26) поддерживать, 27) перемена, 28) отдыхать, 29) жить далеко от, 30) расчесываться.

II. Fill in the gaps with the necessary vocabulary notes:

1) support, 2) an early bird, 3) get up, 4) leave, 5) comb her hair, 6) gets tired, 7) value, 8) alarm-clock, 9) make her bed, 10) don’t have breakfast, 11) combine, 12) live far from, 13) canteen, 14) feel better, 15) lunch-time, 16) well-bred.

1. I am …, so I easily … in the mornings. 2. As I … my university I get there by bus or taxi. 3. Jason … after his trainings. 4. We … home at about 8 o’clock in the morning. 5. Mary is too small to … herself. 6. Some people … in the morning at all. 7. I can get up without my … 8. After taking a cold shower I … 9. It is very difficult for Lora to …: it is too long. 10. I … my friendship with my best friend. 11. This man is very tactful and … Everybody respects him. 12. The food in our … is not very expensive and quite good. 13. A true friend will always … you when you have some trouble. 14. It is rather difficult to … both work and study. 15. My … usually lasts for 30 minutes.

III. Read and translate the following text.

My working day

On Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday my alarm-clock wakes me up early in the morning (at 7 o’clock) and my working day begins. I am not an early bird, I would rather say that I am a night owl that is why it is very difficult for me to get up. So I stay in bed for 10 or 15 minutes more, get up, make my bed, switch on the radio and do my morning exercises. I feel much better after my daily dozen. Then I go to the bathroom, take a cold shower, clean my teeth, comb my hair and go to the kitchen to have my breakfast. Usually I make breakfast myself. I don’t eat much in the morning. For breakfast I usually have a cup of strong coffee and a sandwich. Then I get dressed and leave my house.

I study in the Siberian State University of Physical Culture and Sport. I am a first year student and my specialization is gymnastics. As I live far from my university I usually get there by bus or taxi (if I am very late). It takes me about 30 or 40 minutes. Our lessons begin at 9 o’clock. During our lessons we sometimes have a short 5-minutes break. Frankly speaking, it helps us to relax. At about 12 o’clock we have lunch-time. There is a big nice canteen in our university where most of our students and teachers have lunch. After lunch our lessons go on again. Sometimes we have 4 or 5 lessons a day. We usually have lectures, seminars and physical training lessons, of course.

After my study I usually get very tired. I come home at about 6 or 7 o’clock in the evening and have supper. Then I have a short rest and do my homework. As I go in for gymnastics professionally, I train 5 times a week: on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Saturday. Sometimes it is very difficult for me to combine my study with my trainings, but I have to: sport is my life.

I usually have free time on Saturday evening and Sunday. I have a lot of friends and I try to spend my free time with them. My friends are well-bred and friendly, ready to help and support in a difficult situation so I value them all.

I usually go to bed at 11 o’clock in the evening. I fall asleep very fast and so my working day is over.

IV. Answer the following questions.

  1.  What time do you usually wake up?
  2.  Do you wake up yourself or with the help of your alarm-clock?
  3.  Do you do your daily dozen in the morning?
  4.  Speak about other things you do in the morning (First I …, then I … and…).
  5.  Do you always have breakfast in the morning?
  6.  Do you prepare your breakfast yourself?
  7.  Do you live far from your university?
  8.  How do you usually get to your university?
  9.  How many lessons a day do you usually have?
  10.  Do you go in for some sport? How many times a week do you train? Do you have a coach or do you train yourself? Do you get tired after your trainings? Is it difficult for you to combine trainings and study?
  11.  What do you do when you have free time?
  12.  What time do you go to bed?

V. Are you an early bird or a night owl? Do the questionnaire to find it out!

  1.  When I get up in the morning …
  2.  I am always happy and I have a lot of energy.
  3.  I am sometimes happy and sometimes I am not.
  4.  I am never happy and I don’t have energy.
  5.  At the weekend …
  6.  I always wake up before 9 a.m.
  7.  I sometimes wake up before 9 a.m. and sometimes sleep till noon.
  8.  I hardly ever wake up before 9 a.m.
  9.  When there’s a good film on TV late at night…
  10.  I often watch the beginning but I never see the end.
  11.  I may record it and go to bed or may watch it.
  12.  I always watch it to the end.
  13.  When I go to the party …
  14.  I never stay to the end.
  15.  I sometimes stay to the end and sometimes I don’t.
  16.  I always stay to the end.
  17.  When I see friends at the weekend …
  18.  I hardly ever see them before 9 p.m.
  19.  I sometimes have coffee with them in the morning.
  20.  I usually see them in the afternoon.
  21.  When a friend phones me before 8 a.m. …
  22.  I am always happy to talk to him/her.
  23.  I am sometimes happy to talk to him/her.
  24.  I never answer the phone at such time.
  25.  If you have the majority of «A» answers it means that you are a typical early bird. The majority of «B» answers shows that you are neither an early bird, nor a night owl. Your regimen is not stable and you should change it to avoid problems with your health. And the majority of «C» answers means that you are a night owl.
  26.  Do you agree with the conclusion? Do you think it is possible to become a night owl if you are an early bird and vice versa? Do you want to change your regimen?

 VI. Read the following situations then choose one of them and role-play it.

You are a night owl. Yesterday you went to bed at 2 o’clock. And today, in the early Sunday morning your friend is phoning you to invite you for a run. Refuse your friend but be tactful with him/her.

You are an early bird. You are at a birthday party of your best friend. He/she wants you to stay for the whole night but you know that if you stay you will feel bad tomorrow. Refuse your friend but don’t hurt him/her.

VII. Compose an essay on the topic «My working day» and be ready to retell it.

Topic 3.  MY FAVOURITE SPORTSMAN

I. Look through the list of vocabulary notes and try to match them with the words and phrases given in Russian.

1) sportswoman, 2) gymnast, 3) sport career, 4) under supervision, 5) sport-lover, 6) training, 7) gymnastics, 8) championship, 9) to make a deep impression, 10) to take up sport/to go in for sport, 11) support, 12) lifestyle, 13) calisthenics, 14) flexible, 15) train hard, 16) merited, 17) coach, 18) to gain a victory/to win, 19) combined team, 20) tournament, 21) multi-discipline event, 22) hoop, 23) skipping-rope, 24) mace, 25) fan, 26) perform, 27) regimen, 28) disqualify, 29) competition, 30) to take part in/to participate in, 31) under the strictest control, 32) performance, 33) elegance, 34) grace.

 1) турнир, 2) грациозность, 3) тренер, 4) любитель спорта, 5) выступление, 6) режим, 7) гимнаст, 8) тренировка, 9) дисквалифицировать, 10) гимнастика, 11) изящество, 12) под руководством, 13) принимать участие в …, 14) спортсменка, 15) художественная гимнастика, 16) чемпионат, 17) сборная команда, 18) гибкий, 19) выступать, 20) скакалка, 21) под строжайшим контролем, 22) спортивная карьера, 23) фанат, 24) заниматься спортом, 25) поддержать, 26) обруч, 27) заслуженный, 28) произвести сильное впечатление, 29) образ жизни, 30) многоборье, 31) булава, 32) завоевать победу/выиграть, 33) усиленно тренироваться, 34) соревнование.

II. Read the title of the text, try to guess and say what it is about. Read and translate the text.

Irina Chaschina

There are many outstanding sportsmen all over the world. I have got a favourite sportswoman: it is Irina Chaschina, the famous Russian gymnast. Irina Chacshina was born on the 24th of April in 1982 in the Russian city of Omsk. She began her sport career at the age of 6 under supervision of Arais Elena Nikolaevna in Omsk. Her grandfather, a great sport-lover, first brought her to training. Only a day before Irina watched gymnastics world championship which made a deep impression on her. She realized at once that she wants to take this kind of sport up. Her grandfather supported this decision, besides, sport was a very good idea for a plump young girl. Irina’s mother, a teacher of musical school, wanted her daughter to devote herself to music. Moreover, the parents wished Irina to learn to swim. So, that was her crazy lifestyle: music – swimming pool – gymnasium.

In the 7th form she had to choose and it was gymnastics that Irina began to go in for. It is rather interesting, that in the beginning Irina was offered to do sport gymnastics but the girl rejected this idea and declared that she would gladly take up calisthenics. That time Irina was far from being slim and flexible. In other words, she was not in a sports form but she trained hard and gradually got success.

Four years later the famous merited coach of Russia – Vera Efremovna Shtelbaums began to train Irina. The girl gained her first victory at the championship in Omsk, when she was 8 years old. At 12 she joined the combined team of Russia and began to train in Moscow from time to time. Being a junior Irina took the first place at a very prestigious tournament – the Unity of Independent States Spartakiada and won twice the championship among girls. Then she won bronze at the championship of Russia and took the third place at the championship of Europe. Since august 1999 Irina trained under supervision of Irina Aleksandrovna Winer and became the world champion in Osaka.

The season of 2001 became the most successful for Irina. She won the multi-discipline event at the 7th world games in Japan, won gold medals at the championship of Europe in the exercises with a hoop and a skipping-rope. She also took the first place at the international tournament in France, won gold at the world championship in Spain in the exercises with a hoop and silver in all other kinds of exercises. Irina believes her best compositions the exercises with a hoop and maces. «They are the most difficult, that’s why they are interesting!», – says Irina.

Irina’s fans often mark her seriousness and the fact that she hardly ever smiles while performing. In fact Irina is a very kind and responsive person. «In my usual life I like to laugh when it is really very funny, especially if interesting people surround me», – she says.

Everybody knows that the geography of gymnastics tournaments is quite vast. Irina Chaschina has visited a lot of countries but she likes Japan best of all, though its way of life seems a bit complicated and unusual to her. Irina reads a lot, adores going to the cinema. She always dreams of having a dog but her strict regimen doesn’t allow her to do it yet. To those who just do their first steps in gymnastics Irina advises not only to train the body but also the brains. «In calisthenics you should have intellect», – she says.

There was one unpleasant thing that happened to Irina and one more famous Russian gymnast – Alina Kabaeva. Being the leaders of the world calisthenics in 2001 they were caught taking a strong diuretic. As a result they were both disqualified for two years, so they had no right to take part in competitions. The second year of disqualification was conditional, so, the sportswomen were allowed to participate in official tournaments but they were constantly under the strictest control.

Irina Chaschina is considered to be a great sportswoman. Some people even call her the queen of calisthenics. Her performances are always interesting to watch as they are full of elegance, grace and boundless talent.

III. Answer the following questions.

  1.  When and where was Irina Chaschina born?
  2.  What kind of sport does Irina go in for?
  3.  When did Irina begin her sport career?
  4.  Who was Chaschina’s first coach?
  5.  Who first brought Irina to training?
  6.  When did the girl realize that she wants to go in for gymnastics?
  7.  Was gymnastics her only occupation?
  8.  Was Irina Chaschina in a good sport form when she decided to do calisthenics?
  9.  What was the name of Irina’s second coach?
  10.  When did the gymnast gain her first victory?
  11.  What other sport achievements does Chaschina have?
  12.  Who was Irina’s third coach?
  13.  The season of what year became the most successful for Chaschina? Why?
  14.  What compositions does Irina believe the best ones in her exercises? Explain why.
  15.  What is her favourite country?
  16.  What does Irina like to do in her free time?
  17.  What does she advise to beginners in gymnastics?
  18.  What unpleasant thing once happened to the famous gymnast?
  19.  What was the punishment for taking diuretic?
  20.  What Chaschina’s performances are like? Do you agree with it?

IV. Say if the given below statements are true or false. If the statement is correct, you should say «It’s true» or «I agree». If the statement is not correct you should say «It’s false» or «I disagree» and correct it.

  1.  Irina Chaschina was born on the 24th of April in 1983 in the Russian city of Tomsk.
  2.  Irina’s grandfather was a great sport-lover and wanted her to take up figure skating.
  3.  Irina Chaschina never wanted to go in for sports gymnastics.
  4.  Vera Efremovna Shtelbaums was the girl’s second coach.
  5.  The season of 1999 became the most successful for the sportswoman.
  6.  Irina doesn’t like exercises with maces.
  7.  Chaschina always smiles while performing but in her usual life she is very serious.
  8.  Irina believes that the most important thing in Calisthenics is a good sport form.
  9.  Irina Chaschina was once disqualified for 2 years.
  10.  The performances of Irina Chaschina are elegant and graceful.

V. Translate the following sentences into English using the active vocabulary of the lesson.

  1.  Чемпионаты по художественной гимнастике всегда интересно смотреть.
  2.  Заниматься спортом регулярно (regularly) значит соблюдать (follow) определенный режим и образ жизни.
  3.  Будучи юниором, Ирина Чащина заняла первое место на очень престижном турнире – Спартакиаде СНГ.
  4.  В художественной гимнастике много упражнений: с обручем, мячом, скакалкой, булавами.
  5.  Спортсмены тяжело переживают (suffer greatly from) дисквалификацию.
  6.  Ирина Чащина тренировалась под руководством трех заслуженных тренеров.
  7.  В 12 лет Ирина Чащина вошла в сборную команду России.
  8.  Ирина Чащина принимала участие в многочисленных соревнованиях.
  9.  Фанаты всегда поддерживают любимых спортсменов или команды.
  10.  Выступление этой гимнастки произвело на меня сильное впечатление.

 VI. Read, translate and role-play the following dialogue between two fans of calisthenics. You may choose some other kind of sport to discuss while role-playing.

– I say, calisthenics is a very difficult kind of sport. It requires big endurance, hard and regular trainings and good health, of course.

– I absolutely agree with you. You forgot to mention good physical form and flexibility. I guess in calisthenics flexibility is the most important quality.

– Right you are, moreover, this artistic kind of sport is always interesting to watch.

– Yeah, it’s very beautiful and graceful. Besides, it develops not only the body, but the brain.

– That’s right. Coaches say it works out logical thinking, attention, fast reaction. No wonder, calisthenics is a complex-coordinated kind of sport, that’s why it has so many advantages and difficulties, at the same time.

VII. Compose an essay on the topic «My favourite sportsman». Be ready to retell it.

Topic 4.  SIBERIAN STATE UNIVERSITY

OF PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORT

I. Match English and Russian words and word combinations.

1) graduates, 2) secondary schools, 3) technical schools, 4) to be founded, 5) an educational establishment, 6) to train qualified specialists, 7) an admission, 8) a staff, 9) to rename, 10) to be headed by, 11) a rector, 12) to receive the status of the university, 13) to give a qualification, 14) a Bachelor, 15) accommodations, 16) buildings for study, 17) libraries, 18) sport facilities, 19) a track-and-field indoor stadium, 20) swimming pools, 21) stadiums, 22) sport halls, 23) skating rinks, 24) football fields, 25) hockey grounds, 26) tennis courts, 27) full-time tuition, 28) extramural tuition, 29) faculties, 30) a dean, 31) chairs (departments), 32) to fulfill post-graduate training, 33) magistrate, 34) post-graduate course, 35) doctorate, 36) Institute of Improvement of Professional Skill, 37) a council, 38) to defend candidate and doctor theses, 39) to defend the honour of the university on sport arenas, 40) to participate, 41) Olympic champions, 42) World champions.

1) спортивные залы, 2) набор, 3) защищать кандидатские и докторские диссертации, 4) быть возглавляемым кем-либо, 5) футбольные поля, 6) магистратура, 7) олимпийские чемпионы, 8) библиотеки, 9) декан, 10) докторантура, 11) совет, 12) штат, 13) спортивные сооружения, 14) выпускники, 15) средние школы, 16) переименовывать, 17) чемпионы мира, 18) присваивать квалификацию, 19) подготавливать квалифицированных специалистов, 20) факультеты, 21) быть основанным, 22) техникумы, 23) образовательное учреждение, 24) ректор, 25) получить статус университета, 26) бакалавр, 27) помещения, 28) учебные корпуса, 29) легкоатлетический манеж, 30) бассейны, 31) стадионы, 32) катки, 33) хоккейные коробки, 34) теннисные корты, 35) заочное обучение, 36) очное обучение, 37) кафедры, 38) осуществлять послевузовскую подготовку, 39) аспирантура, 40) Институт повышения квалификации, 41) участвовать, 42) защищать честь университета на спортивных аренах.

II. Repeat the words after your teacher then read them yourself and guess their meanings.

Subjects: theory and history of physical culture, life safety providing, pedagogy, psychology, economic theory, philosophy and history, Russian and foreign languages (English, German, French), biology, chemistry, biochemistry, biorhythmology, anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, mathematics, physics, informatics, sport metrology, sport management, valeology, age pedagogy, sport journalism, adaptive physical culture, sport rehabilitation, sport hygiene, sport medicine, therapeutic massage.

Sports: swimming, track-and-field athletics, hockey, football, wrestling, weight-lifting, cycling, skating, boxing, fencing, gymnastics, acrobatics, calisthenics, sport gymnastics, sport dances, basketball, volleyball, handball, badminton, skiing, biathlon, lawn tennis, tourism, shaping, aerobics, martial arts.

III. Read and translate the text.

Siberian State University of Physical Culture and Sport is a large educational, scientific and sport centre. One may meet its graduates in the Urals, in the Far East, in towns and villages of European part of Russia. They work at secondary schools and technical schools, in sport clubs, sport teams, sport organizations.

The first Institute of Physical Culture was founded in Siberian city Tomsk in 1920. But due to economic and political hardships it existed only 3 years. But such vast territory of the country as Siberia needed educational establishment to train qualified specialists in physical culture and sport. In 30–40-es technical secondary schools of physical culture were opened in Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Omsk. In 1950 the Institute of Physical Culture was founded in Omsk. Its first admission was 100 young men and women. The staff numbered 10–15 teachers. It had the only building in Lenin Street.

In 1994 the institute was renamed into Siberian State Academy of Physical Culture. It is headed by a rector. In 2002 Siberian State Academy of Physical Culture received the status of the university.

The university trains specialists in physical culture and sport for the vast territory of Siberia and the Far East giving a qualification of a coach and a school teacher in physical culture and the title of a Bachelor or a specialist in physical culture and sport.

Students have good accommodations for study, trainings, rehabilitation and rest. There are 5 buildings for study, computer halls, libraries. Students have all necessary sport facilities: track-and-field indoor stadium, swimming pools, stadiums, sport halls for wrestling, boxing, gymnastics, badminton, volleyball, basketball, handball, skating rinks, football fields, hockey grounds, tennis courts, and others.

Students can choose a full-time or an extramural form of tuition. Students are trained in 5 faculties: 1) faculty of cyclic, complex-coordinating sports and martial arts; 2) faculty of wrestling, playing and power sports; 3) faculty of tourism, recreation and rehabilitation; 4) humanitarian faculty; 5) extramural tuition faculty. Each faculty is headed by a dean.

There are more than 20 theoretical and sport chairs (departments) at the university. The teachers of the university train specialists in theoretical subjects including: theory and history of physical culture, life safety providing, pedagogy, psychology, economic theory, philosophy and history, Russian and foreign languages (English, German, French), biology, chemistry, biochemistry, biorhythmology, anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, mathematics, physics, informatics, sport metrology, sport management, valeology, age pedagogy, sport journalism, adaptive physical culture, sport rehabilitation, sport hygiene, sport medicine, therapeutic massage.

Coaches of high qualification train students in sports including: swimming, track-and-field athletics, hockey, football, wrestling, weight-lifting, cycling, skating, boxing, fencing, gymnastics, acrobatics, calisthenics, sport gymnastics, sport dances, basketball, volleyball, handball, badminton, skiing, biathlon, lawn tennis, tourism, shaping, aerobics, martial arts.

The university fulfils post-graduate training in magistrate, post-graduate course, doctorate, Institute of Improvement of Professional Skills for teachers and coaches. The university has a special council to defend candidate and doctor theses in such subjects as: theory and methods of physical education, sport training and health-improving physical culture, sport psychology, physiology of humans and animals, social philosophy.

Students and graduates defend the honour of the university on sport arenas. Many students participated in Olympic Games and became Olympic champions and World champions. Here are some of them: Olympic champions – Konstantin Vyrupayev, Alexander Karelin, Shamil Khisamutdinov, Mikhail Mamiashvili are champions in Greco-Roman wrestling, Gennady Komnatov and Sergei Shelpakov – in cycling, Vladimir Barnashov – in biathlon, Yury Mukhin and Denis Pimankov – in swimming, Grigory Kirienko – in fencing; World champions – Vladimir Sokolov, Galima Shugurova, Edward Rapp and many others.

IV. Answer the questions.

  1.  When and where was the first Institute of Physical Culture founded?
  2.  When was the Institute of Physical Culture founded in Omsk?
  3.  What was the admission?
  4.  What was the staff?
  5.  When was the institute renamed into Siberian State Academy of Physical Culture?
  6.  Who heads the university?
  7.  When did Siberian State Academy of Physical Culture receive the status of university?
  8.  What accommodations do students have?
  9.  What sport facilities do students have?
  10.  What two forms of tuition are there at the university?
  11.  Who heads faculties?
  12.  What subjects do students study at the university?
  13.  What opportunities are there for students who want to continue their study at the university?

V. Agree or disagree with the statements. If the statement is correct, you should say «It’s true» or «I agree». If the statement is not correct you should say «It’s false» or «I disagree» and correct it.

  1.  Siberian State University of Physical Culture and Sport is a large educational, scientific and sport centre.
  2.  The first Institute of Physical Culture was founded in Kemerovo.
  3.  In 1970 the Institute of Physical Culture was founded in Omsk.
  4.  In 2008 Siberian State Academy of Physical Culture received the status of University.
  5.  The university fulfils post-graduate training in magistrate, post-graduate course, doctorate, Institute of Improvement of Professional Skills for teachers and coaches.
  6.  The University has special council to defend candidate and doctor theses.
  7.  Students and graduates defend the honour of the university on sport arenas.
  8.  Students receive various qualifications after graduating from the university.

VI. Make up your own three statements; use the information from the text. One of your statements should be false. Read them to the students. Their task is to say which of your statements is false and correct it.

VII. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

  1.  Сибирский государственный университет физической культуры и спорта – большой образовательный, научный и спортивный центр.
  2.  Его выпускников можно встретить на Урале, на Дальнем Востоке, в городах и селах Европейской части России.
  3.  Они работают в средних школах и техникумах, в спортивных клубах, в спортивных командах и в спортивных организациях.
  4.  Первый институт физической культуры был основан в сибирском городе Томске в 1920.
  5.  Но из-за экономических и политических трудностей просуществовал только 3 года.
  6.  Но такая огромная территория страны как Сибирь нуждалась в образовательном учреждении, которое бы осуществляло подготовку квалифицированных специалистов в области физической культуры и спорта.
  7.  В 30–40-е годы технические средние школы физической культуры были открыты в Красноярске, Новосибирске, Иркутске, Омске.
  8.  В 1950 году Институт физической культуры был основан в Омске.
  9.  Первый набор студентов составил 100 юношей и девушек.
  10.  Штат насчитывал 10–15 преподавателей.
  11.  Университет имел одно единственное здание, расположенное на улице Ленина.
  12.  В 1994 году университет был переименован в Сибирскую государственную академию физической культуры и спорта.
  13.  Университет возглавляет ректор.
  14.  В 2002 году Сибирская государственная академия физической культуры и спорта получила статус университета.
  15.  Университет осуществляет подготовку специалистов в области физической культуры и спорта для огромной территории Сибири и Дальнего Востока, присваивая квалификацию тренера или школьного учителя физической культуры и степень бакалавра или специалиста в области физической культуры и спорта.
  16.  Студенты имеют хорошие помещения для учебы, тренировок, восстановления и отдыха.
  17.  Имеются 5 учебных корпусов, компьютерные залы, библиотеки.
  18.  Студенты имеют все необходимые спортивные сооружения.
  19.  Студенты могут выбрать очную или заочную форму обучения.
  20.  Осуществляется подготовка студентов на пяти факультетах (назовите факультеты).
  21.  Каждый факультет возглавляет декан.
  22.  Имеется более двадцати теоретических и спортивных кафедр в университете.
  23.  Университет осуществляет послевузовскую подготовку в магистратуре, аспирантуре, докторантуре и Институте повышения квалификации для преподавателей и тренеров.
  24.  В университете есть совет для защиты кандидатских и докторских диссертаций.
  25.  Студенты и выпускники защищают честь университета на спортивных аренах.

VIII. Supplementary tasks.

Retell the text from your point of view as a student. What other advantages and disadvantages of the university can you add?

Say what achievements the university has as the centre of sports life in our city. Outline the perspectives.

Make the advertisement of the university. Say what attracts you and invite others to enter the university.

Imagine that you are a reporter. Make a piece of reporting about Siberian State University of Physical Culture and Sport. Say as much as you can about the university.

IX. Compose an essay on the topic «My university». Be ready to speak on the topic «My university».

Topic 5. THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

SPORT IN RUSSIA

I. Glossary.

Geographical outline: stretch over, a vast expanse of, cover twice the territory of, in the north/south/west/east, border on, wash, be washed by seas and oceans, conjoined, take up, rolling uplands, the relief is scattered with lakes and swamps, northern/southern/eastern/western, the river basins are cut by valleys and ravines, boundary, separate smth from smth, the highest peak, reach, range from… to…, merge, be bounded by smth, mountain chains, peninsula, island, flow in, become the cradle, extensive, lowland, highland, rank, be inhabited by, majority, be unequally distributed, the bulk of the people, be insufficiently populated, rapid, uninhabitable, climate, mild, harsh, limit smth, arable land, flora, fauna, latitudinal, tundra, moss, taiga, coniferous forest, deciduous forest, mixed forest, steppe, deposits of mineral resources, coal, oil, natural gas, iron ore, copper, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminium, tin, develop rapidly, be determined by smth, heavy industry, light industry, chemical industry, highly-developed.

 Political structure: be set up, the Constitution, sovereign, the head, be headed by, be elected by, a four-year term, the President, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, make treaties, enforce laws, appoint, the prime minister, override, dissolve, the parliament, the government, branch of power, consist of, legislative, executive, judicial, be vested in the Federal Assembly, the Council of Federation, the State Duma, popular vote, chamber, chairman, a bill, approve smth, sign smth, belong to smb, be represented by smb/smth, the Constitutional Court, the Supreme court, regional courts, state symbol, symbolize smth, three-colored flag, hymn, the national coat of arms, a two-headed eagle.

II. Fill in the gaps using the essential vocabulary.

Russia … for some 17 million square kilometers. Our country … of the USA. It … China, Korea …, Norway and Finland … Russia … 3 oceans and numerous … The distance between the most northern and most southern points … … 3500 … 4000 km. The country has about 3 000 000 …, the longest one is the Volga. The Baikal is not only the deepest … but also the world’s greatest freshwater reservoir. The Urals … the European part of Russia … the Asian part. There are several … such as the Caucasus and the Altai. The … are the … of Communism (7495 m), the … of Pobeda (7439 m) and Lenin … (7134 m). Mountains greatly influence … of Russia. Forests and plains … most of Russia’s territory. The country is rich in many …, especially in coal, natural gas, and ores. The current … of Russia is about 150 million people. Russia as a state is a … … The … of the state is the President who controls all the three … …

The Federal Assembly … the Council of … and the State ... exercises … The executive power … to the government which … by the prime minister. The … is represented by the …, … and regional courts. Today the state Russian … is three colored. The national coat of arms is … It is the most ancient … of our country.

III. Write O for oceans, S for seas, R for rivers, L for lakes, I for islands, P for peninsulas, Rg for regions.

1. the Ladoga …

13. the Central Siberian  

24. the Kuril …

2. the Kara …

Plateau …

25. the Laptev …

3. the Far East …

14. the White …

26. the Russian Plain …

4. the Atlantic …

15. the Amur …

27. the Okhotsk …

5. the Bering …

16. the Baikal …

28. the Kamchatka …

6. the Altai …

17. the Ob …

29. the Black …

7. the Azov …

18. the Sakhalin …

30. the East-Siberian …

8. the Urals …

19. the Baltic …

31. the West Siberian

9. the Chukchi …

20. the Caspian …

Plain …

10. the Yenisei …

21. the Arctic …

32. the Japanese …

11. the Pacific …

22. the Barents …

33. the Caucasus …

12. the Don …

23. the Volga …

IV. Read and translate the text A.

Text A

Geographical outline

Russia stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. It is the world’s largest country. Russia covers almost twice the territory of either the United States or China. In the west Russia borders on Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and Poland through Kaliningrad province. In the south our country borders on Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea.

Russia is washed by twelve seas and three oceans. It confronts the Baltic Sea in the west. The Black, Caspian, and Azov Seas wash Russia in the south. The Arctic Ocean and conjoined seas such as the White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian Seas are in the north. The Pacific Ocean and conjoined seas including the Bering, Okhotsk, and Japanese Seas wash Russia in the east.

Russia’s main regions are the Russian (or East European) Plain, the Ural Mountains, the West Siberian Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau, and the Far East.

The Russian Plain takes up the European part of Russia. There are low, rolling uplands and broad rivers there. In the north the relief of the plain is scattered with lakes and swamps. In the southern part of the plain the river basins are cut by valleys and ravines. In the south, the Russian Plain is edged by the Caucasus Mountains between the Black and Caspian seas. The Urals form the eastern boundary of the Russian Plain. It is held that the Urals separate Europe from Asia. The Urals stretch for about 2100 km from north to south. The highest peak, Mount Narodnaya, reaches 1895 m, and other mountain tops range from 900 to 1500 m. The West Siberian Plain merges in the east with the Central Siberian Plateau. The easternmost part of Russia is bounded by various mountain chains. The Far East of Russia includes the Kamchatka and Chukchi peninsulas and the Kuril and Sakhalin Islands.

The most important rivers in the European part of Russia are the Don and the Volga. The Volga River, which flows in the Caspian Sea, is of great historic, economic, and cultural importance to Russia. It has become the cradle of such ancient Russian cities as Vladimir, Tver, Yaroslavl, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod. In the West Siberia the greatest rivers are the Ob and Yenisei. They flow along the most extensive lowland in the world. The Yenisei flows into the Kara Sea.

In Russia there are about 3 000 000 beautiful lakes. The Baikal is the deepest lake in the world. Other important lakes are the Ladoga Lake and Onega Lake.

Russia ranks ninth in the world in the size of its population. The great majority of the population of Russia are Russians. Russia is inhabited by sixty other nationalities. The population of Russia is unequally distributed. The bulk of the people live in the European part of the country.

There are various types of climate on the territory of Russia. Continental climate, with cold winters and mild or warm summers prevails. The harshness of the Russian climate limits the amount of arable land to about one-seventh of the total area.

Different latitudinal climatic regimes are mirrored in Russia’s flora. A treeless tundra with mosses and grasses extends along the entire Arctic coast. In the south it gives way to taiga. This coniferous forest growing on swampy ground covers more than half of the country. In European Russia, towards the south the taiga is replaced by a zone of mixed coniferous and deciduous forest which in the south transfers into mixed forest-steppe and finally into the almost treeless, grass-covered steppe.

Russia has the richest deposits of mineral resources in the world. It is one of the world’s biggest producers of coal, oil, and natural gas, as well as of iron, copper, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminium, and tin.

The development of the Russian economy is determined by its natural resources. Russia’s heavy industries are well-developed. They produce much of the nation’s steel and most of its heavy machinery, such as steam boilers, grain-harvesting combines, automobiles, locomotives, and machine tools. Russia’s chemical industry is also well-developed. Light industry is not so highly-developed and centers mainly on the production of textiles.

Task 1. Find answers to the following questions in the text.

  1.  Where is Russia situated?
  2.  What is Russia washed by?
  3.  What are Russia’s main regions?
  4.  What can you tell about each region?
  5.  What are the most important rivers in Russia?
  6.  What is the deepest lake in Russia?
  7.  What can you say about the population of Russia?
  8.  What types of climate are there on the territory of Russia?
  9.  Is Russia’s flora rich?
  10.  What can you say about Russia’s natural resources?
  11.  Is Russia’s industry well-developed?

Task 2. Try to define the key notes of the text after answering the questions and write a summary.

Task 3. Speak about Russia according to the following plan.

Russia’s physical features.

Climate.

Population.

Flora.

Industry.

V. Read and translate the text B.

Text B

Political system of Russia

The Russian Federation was set up by the Constitution of 1993. After its destruction the Soviet Union was broken up into independent Russia and 14 other new, sovereign nations.

Under the Constitution of 1993 Russia is a presidential republic. It is headed by the President who is elected for a four-year term. The President is commander-in-chief of the armed forces, he makes treaties, and enforces laws, appoints the prime minister, cabinet members, and key judges. The President can override and in some cases dissolve the national parliament, the bicameral Federal Assembly.

The government consists of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. Each of them is checked and balanced by the President. The legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly. It consists of the Council of Federation (upper house) and the State Duma (low house). The members of the State Duma are elected by popular vote for a four-year period. The Council of Federation is not elected. It is formed of the heads of the regions. Each Chamber is headed by the Chairman. Legislature is initiated in the State Duma. But to become a law a bill must be approved by the Lower and Upper Houses and signed by the President. The executive power belongs to the Government. The judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and regional courts.

Today the state Russian flag is three colored. It has three horizontal stripes: white, blue and red. The white stripe symbolizes the earth, the blue one stand for the sky, and the red one signifies liberty. It was the first state symbol to replace the former symbols in 1991. The hymn of Russia is created by Alexandrov and Mikhalkov. Now the national coat of arms is a two-headed eagle. It is the most ancient symbol of Russia.

Russian is the official, but not the only language which people speak in the country. Members of more than 60 other ethnic groups who live in Russia speak their own languages. The people of the Altaic group speak mainly Turkic, and Mongolian languages. The members of the Uralic group speak Uralic languages. The representatives of the Caucasus group speak various languages of the North Caucasus region of Russia. The people of Paleosiberian groups speak variety of languages of far-eastern Siberia.

Task 1. Find answers to the following questions in the text.

  1.  When was the RF set up?
  2.  Who is the head of the RF?
  3.  What are the branches of the Russian government?
  4.  What are Russia’s state symbols?
  5.  What is the official language of the RF?

Task 2. Extract the most important information and retell the text.

VI. Try your hand in interpreting.

 1. Западный берег этого острова омывается теплыми водами Тихого океана. 2. Я не думаю, что спорт занимает у тебя слишком много времени. 3. Большая река отделяет северную часть города от южной. 4. Мы наблюдаем стремительное развитие российской тяжелой, легкой и химической промышленностей. 5. Климат во Франции не суровый, а мягкий. 6. Суровость российских зим ограничивает площадь пахотных земель. 7. Китай занимает первое место в мире по численности населения. 8. Большинство студентов нашего университета – спортсмены. 9. Россия одна из немногих стран, у которых в недрах есть практически все минеральные ресурсы. Она богата углем, нефтью, природным газом, железной рудой, медью, цинком, никелем, оловом, свинцом, алюминием. 10. Если вы посмотрите на карту РФ, то в ее восточной части вы увидите Камчатский полуостров, Курильские и Сахалинские острова. 11. Эта река образует естественную границу между двумя странами. 12. Шотландия – это страна с холмистыми возвышенностями и хвойными лесами. 13. Гора Народная является самой высокой вершиной для скалолазов в Уральских горах. Ее высота достигает 1895 метров. 14. Наш новый дом в Сочи расположен в паре кварталов от моря. 15. Этот двор отделен от фабрики высоким забором. 16. Леса покрывают половину площади Канады. 17. На западе нашу страну омывает Атлантический океан. 18. Обширные территории фермерских земель простираются на сотни километров. 19. Флорида граничит с Джорджией на севере. 20. Эти файлы занимают много места на диске. 21. Киев стал колыбелью русской культуры еще много веков назад. 22. Восточная часть России окружена горными цепями. 23. Климат на территории нашей страны варьируется от арктического на севере до субтропического на юге. 24. Река Иртыш впадает в Обь. 25. Север России расположен в арктической и субарктической зонах с тундрой и тайгой, а юг – в субтропической зоне со степями и пустынями. 26. Стемнело, и холмы слились с небом позади них. 27. Реки Западной Сибири, Обь и Енисей, протекают вдоль самой обширной низменности в мире. 28. Эти острова населяют 17 тысяч человек. 29. Большинство людей проживает в Европейской части России, тогда как Сибирь и Дальний Восток недостаточно населены, а некоторые части этих регионов остаются безлюдными.

Российская Федерация – президентская республика. Это означает, что ее возглавляет президент. Он заключает соглашения и подписывает законы. Государственная власть состоит из трех ветвей: законодательной, исполнительной и судебной. Законодательная власть представлена Федеральным собранием. Оно состоит из Совета Федерации и Государственной думы. Исполнительная власть принадлежит правительству, которое возглавляет премьер-министр. Судебная власть представлена Конституционным судом, Верховным судом и региональными судами. Сегодня государственными символами России являются национальный гимн, трехцветный флаг и герб с двуглавым орлом.

VII. Read and translate the text.

Sport in Russia

Sport in Russia has always been popular. Perhaps more than a half of Russians have tried some kind of sport in their childhood. So which sports are better developed in Russia? Russia, as a rule, has good results in classical kinds of sport. This is in some ways connected with the period of Soviet Union when big attention was paid to physical education of the youth. But the lessons of Soviet school didn’t go without any influence. Quite often foreign sportsmen, lead by Russian trainers, appear on world level competitions. Also often you can see Russian sportsmen fighting of medals for other countries. There are many jokes about it. For example when you watch international competitions you hear that the trainers and the sportsmen easily understand each other because they all speak Russian.

In modern kinds of sport Russians lag behind their contenders a little. We can refer here curling, springboard jumping etc. Frankly speaking some Russians still can't see these activities as serious kinds of sport. But the situation has been changing nowadays. Actually, a healthy way of life is again coming into fashion in Russia today. That is why people have started to take an interest in sport. Even those who perceived it only as something that they could watch on TV, now come to gyms and swimming pools. That is why Russians are beginning to open to new kinds of sport. Let’s hope that this will reflect in results of different level competitions.

Tennis has a large popularity. Some people connect that with the fact that this sport was a hobby of Russian ex-president Boris Yeltsin. Today Russian tennis players are famous all over the world. Sharapova, Kurnikova, Kafelnikov, Miskina are only the best known Russian tennis players. They play wonderfully at Wimbledon and other competitions.

Ice-hockey is another one successful sport in the country. The Russian team takes worthy places in competitions. The traditions of Soviet school are kept here too. Though, unfortunately it isn’t as strong as in the past. In USSR there was a period when hockey team won 9 world championships in a row. Furthermore, there are only 2 hockey players which became championship winners 10 times. These are Russian sportsmen Alexander Rogulin and of course Vladislav Tretyak. Nowadays there are also good players in Russian hockey. Another sport which is widespread in the country is football. There are many amateurs of this game in Russia.

And of course the favorite sport of many women is figure skating. This is a very beautiful show. And here Russia is still the leader. Though it has had very worthy rivals lately. For example Chinese sportsmen who to my mind have good perspective. But don’t forget about Russian figure skaters. Today they are favorites at any competition. Besides, figure skating is quickly getting popularity in the country. New ice rinks are opened, parents take their children to sport schools. Actually many kinds of sport are popular in Russia. Both on a professional level and on an amateur one. Ski sport and volleyball are good examples here.

We should say some words about Russian supporters. Here we can call it a kind of sport too. The sense of empathy is inherent to Russians. The team spirit lives in them. Russians prepare for going and supporting their favorite team in advance. They buy flags which sometimes achieve great sizes. On the scarves, caps and etc. – everywhere it’ll be possible to see the colours of Russian flag. When you watch the competitions of the international level on TV then you’ll here through the voice of commentator the tribunes shouting «Rossya! Rossya!». And no matter where the match takes places in Russia or in 1000 km from it you’ll anyway hear this. Russians are ready to overcome big distance to see the performance of their favourite sportsmen.

Task 1. Give English equivalents for:

 откровенно говоря, здоровый образ жизни, уделять большое внимание физическому воспитанию молодежи, популярность, бороться за медали, готовиться заранее, шутка, международные состязания, командный дух, входить в моду, появляться на соревнованиях мирового уровня, иметь хорошие результаты в классических видах спорта, в наше время, любитель, влияние, соблюдать традиции, проходить, преодолевать большие расстояния, воспринимать, занимать достойные места, набирать популярность, кричать, отставать от предшественников, подряд, красивое зрелище, деятельность, возглавлять, успешный, интересоваться чем-либо, отражаться, выступление, знаменитый, болельщик, к сожалению, открываться чему-либо, широко распространенный, чувство сопереживания, соперник, к тому же.

 Task 2. Use these words and phrases in sentences of your own.

Task 3. Read the statements and say whether they are true or false. If you agree you say: «You are absolutely right»; «I think so too»; «I’m of the same opinion»; «you are right in a way». If you disagree you say: «Nothing of the kind»; «far from it»; «you are pulling my leg!»; «you are kidding!». You’ll sound more English if you use these models.

  1.  As far as I remember sport in Russia has always been unpopular.
  2.  Russian sportsmen, as a rule, have good results in hockey, skiing, figure skating and other classical kinds of sport.
  3.  Russia used to pay big attention to physical education of the youth but nowadays the situation has changed.
  4.  Russian sportsmen have no right to perform abroad.
  5.  Today we can often see both Russian trainers and sportsmen fighting of medals for other countries.
  6.  Frankly speaking a healthy way of life is coming out of fashion in Russia nowadays. That is why just few people take an interest in sport.
  7.  It is a well-known fact that in modern kinds of sport Russians are not as successful as their contenders.
  8.  Tennis is considered to have become so popular in Russia just because of the fact that it was a hobby of Russian ex-president Boris Yeltsin.
  9.  The Russian hockey team won 9 world championships in a row.
  10.  We may say that the Russians are sport-lovers. They are keen on hockey, football, skiing, figure skating, volleyball and many others.
  11.  Russian supporters are famous all over the world for their sense of empathy and team spirit. In spite of this they do not like to overcome big distances to support their favorite sportsmen.

Task 4. Write a summary of the text.

Task 5. Retell the text using the active vocabulary.

Getting about town

I. Read and translate the following text.

The Moscow Diary

If only stones could speak!

Moscow is the capital of Russia. The date of its foundation is the year 1147. Moscow began to rise in the 14th century. Under Ivan III the Great, in the mid-fifteenth century, Moscow became the principal city of the state of Muscovy. Nowadays Moscow is the largest city of Russia. It is a political, administrative, economic, industrial, educational and cultural city of the country.

Today Moscow is bubbling over with hospitality as never before. All you need to enjoy Moscow to the full is a sense of adventure, an appreciation of Russian history and several pairs of comfortable shoes! They say «Better to see once, than to hear much». Well said, isn’t it? If you want to have a full idea what Moscow is today, go and see the city yourself!

So welcome to Moscow, its seat of government, its cathedrals, its entertainment, its monuments and above all its people.

The bustling capital city of Moscow lies in the Moscow River Basin, steeped in history and flowing with life. Moscow is a vast city. Famous buildings, offices, banks, department stores, markets, high-rise blocks, elegant squares, concert halls and parks are all part of Moscow. Different areas of the city have their own special character. It may take you a lot of time to get a better overall picture. But if you made up your mind to do the sights of the city, the best place to start is the Kremlin – the centre of the city: here we feel the pulse of Russian history. Its redbrick walls and towers were erected at the end of the 15th century. If only stones could speak! The former Senate building, the Kremlin Great Palace, and the modern Palace of Congresses are located within the walls of the Kremlin. The white bell tower of Ivan III the Great, the Armory Museum, and the Arsenal are grouped around Cathedral Square. The Kremlin contains several cathedrals designed by Italian architects in a style combining Renaissance details with Russian architectural tradition. A majestic sight!

An unforgettable day that includes Red Square walk! It is the ceremonial centre of the capital. The State Historical Museum closes off the northern end of the square. It is the main museum of the State history. A real highlight of Red Square is the Church of the Intercession, or Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed – a really unique creation! It was built for Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible from 1554 to 1560 by the architects Barma and Postnik. The Cathedral is the final expression of pure Russian architectural fantasy in which Byzantine elements detached from their original meaning, were multiplied in unbelievable extravagance. Without any doubt Red Square is a chance to walk through the history of Russia!

There are more than 80 museums in Moscow. The State Tretyakov Gallery is the greatest museum of Russian art, one of the world’s leading museums. It was founded in 1856 by P. M. Tretyakov as a private collection but in 1892 was granted to the State. After 1917 numerous private collections were added to create this wonderful museum. The main departments are the Russian icon-painting, fine arts of the 18–19 centuries, sculpture, drawings, Soviet art.

The Museum of Fine Arts named after Pushkin is the second (after the Hermitage) in Russia by its collection of antiques of Egypt, ancient world, Oriental art and Western Europe.

Moscow is also a city of theatres. There are more than 30 theatres, popular with both Muscovites and tourists. The State Academic Bolshoi Theatre, Mali Theatre and Moscow Art Theatre are world-known. The Bolshoi Theatre was founded in 1776. It is famous for its vocal and ballet schools.

It is possible to trace successive epochs of the growth of Moscow by the Boulevard Ring and the Garden Ring – both following the line of former fortifications – the Moscow Little Ring Railway, and the Moscow Ring Road. They facilitate suburban commuter traffic. Beyond the Garden Ring is a middle zone dominated by 18th–19th century developments; many factories, railway stations, and freight yards are located there. Since 1960 extensive urban renewal has occurred, producing neighborhoods of high-rise apartment buildings.

If I were you I would stop for a moment to think over what you have seen. Rome wasn’t built in a day; Moscow can’t be seen in a day. Hope to see you here again some day!

II. Wordshop.

Translate and transcribe:

bubble over with hospitality (with jokes, stories); to enjoy to the full; a bustling city (area, child, woman, man); steeped in history (in fog, in study, in mystery, in heritage); high-rise blocks (buildings, towers, column); to do sights; to date back hundreds of years, months; to date back to 1554; a really unique creation (book, novel, history); a highlight of the district (book, match, concert).

Match these Russian word combinations with those from the previous exercise:

 неистощимый на гостеприимство (шутки, рассказы); получить полное удовольствие; суматошный город (деловой район; непоседливый ребенок); богатый историей (окутанный туманом, погруженный в работу, окутанный тайной, богатый наследием); многоэтажки (высокие здания, высокая башня, высокая колона); осматривать достопримечательности; насчитывать сотни лет (годы, месяцы, датироваться 1554 годом); если бы камни могли говорить; поистине уникальное сооружение; великолепный вид; гвоздь программы (острый момент матча, гвоздь концерта, «фишка»).

Learn to pronounce and spell properly:

cathedral, entertainment, bustling, incredible, medieval, unique, sightseer.

III. Restore the text with these questions to help.

  1.  What can you tell us about Moscow?
  2.  What does Moscow attract tourist with?
  3.  How can you enjoy Moscow to the full?
  4.  What is the best way to get an idea of Moscow?
  5.  What kind of city is Moscow?
  6.  Where does the bustling capital city lie?
  7.  What is the best place to start sightseeing?
  8.  If stones could speak what would they tell us about?
  9.  What is Red Square famous for?
  10.  Who is the author of the unique creation in Red Square?
  11.  What can you say about Moscow museums and galleries?
  12.  What is the Museum of Fine Arts famous for?
  13.  Why is Moscow considered to be a city of theatres?
  14.  Where is the growth of Moscow evident?
  15.  What is located beyond the Garden Ring?

IV. Read and translate the dialogue and then play it out with your partner.

Sightseeing

A: Is it possible to see anything of Moscow in one or two days?

B: Well, yes, but, of course, not half enough.

A: What do you think I ought to see first?

B: Well, if you are interested in churches and historic places you should go to the Kremlin and Red Square. Do you like art galleries?

A: Rather!

B: Then why not go to the State Tretyakov Gallery?

A: I’m told one ought to see the Museum of Fine Arts. Do you think I shall have time for that?

B: Well, you might, but if I were you, I should leave that for some other day. You could spend a whole day there. It’s much too big to be seen in an hour or so.

A: I suppose it is. What about going to Arbat?

B: That’s not a bad idea. You could spend a couple of hours there comfortably, or even a whole afternoon walking down this street with many adjoining lanes. Here you can see all architectural styles. In Arbat you can see many houses famous for the writers, painters and other celebrities, who used to live there, and some monuments.

A: I’ll do that then. How do I get there?

B: Let me see. I think your best way from here is to walk across Red Square and Prospect Kalinina.

A: Is it much of a walk?

B: Oh, no, a quarter of an hour or so, but, if you are in a hurry, why not take a taxi.

A: I think I will. Ah, here’s one coming. Taxi! Arbat, please.

V. Discourse.

Make up a plan of your trip about Moscow. Suggest places of interest you’d like to have a glimpse of and give your reasons.

Prompts: «I suggest going»; «I wish I saw»; «I’d rather see» (further see the models in the dialogue «Sightseeing»).

You come back from Moscow. The party of friends wants to know what you saw and learned there.

An English student came to your University. He/she is eager to know as much as possible about the Russian capital. What would you tell him/her about?

Use the following: «It’s up to you, but I’d»; «it depends on your tastes, but I’d / but why not go»; «I don’t mind, though I think».

VI. Role-play these etudes.

You are in Moscow and having a talk of sights with your guide.

You are going sightseeing but it’s difficult to decide on a definite plan. Your Moscow friend gives you a hand in showing you around.

Your English friend wants to know more about Russian history and historical places. He has a good guide at his disposal – you.

Take part in the «Excursion about Moscow».

Topic 6.  OMSK IS THE CITY WHERE I STUDY

I.  Topical vocabulary

confluence – слияние рек

frontier – граница

to acquire – приобретать, получать

to contribute to – способствовать, вносить вклад

enterprise – предприятие

to accommodate – заселить

saline – соленое озеро

machine-tool – станок

II. Read and translate the text. Mind your pronunciation.

Omsk is the principal city and administrative center of Omsk region. It is situated in the center of Russia (2555 km from Moscow) at the confluence of the rivers Irtysh and Om. Founded in 1716 as the fortress protecting Russian frontier in Siberia, Omsk acquired the town status in 1782. It had been the administrative center of Siberian Cossack Army until 1918. The construction of Trans-Siberian Railway in the late 19th century and the presence of the river port on the Irtysh contributed to the development of industrial production and commerce in Omsk. From June 1918 to November 1919 the town of Omsk was the residence of admiral A.V. Kolchak, the High Regent of Russia, who proclaimed Omsk the capital of Siberia.

During World War II (1939–1945) a lot of major industrial enterprises were evacuated from European part of Russia. It was the time when Omsk population nearly tripled. Present day Omsk is the home for about 1 200 000 citizens. 2 200 000 people live in Omsk region on the territory of 139 700 square kilometers (enough room to accommodate such countries as Austria, Belgium and Netherlands).

There are a lot of freshwater lakes and salines in Omsk region. In the south the prevailing is wooded steppe, in the north – dark-coniferous taiga. Oil is extracted in the northern part of the region.

The multinational population (more than 100 nationalities) of Omsk region consists mainly of Russians, Germans, Ukrainians, Kazakhs and Tatars.

The present day Omsk is one of the major industrial centers of Siberia. The most developed industries here are machine-building, machine-tools manufacture, electrical engineering and electronics, instrument-making, petrochemistry, woodworking and foodstuffs production. Space rockets, engines, agricultural machinery, oil and gas equipment, construction materials are also manufactured in Omsk.

30 higher educational institutions and branches are situated in Omsk. The most well-known of them on the national level are Omsk State Transport University, the University of Engineering, the State University, the Pedagogic University, the Road-Transport Academy, the University of Physical Culture, the Academy of Law and the Medical Academy. Omsk is by right called the city of youth and students. Actually, each of four citizens is a student.

The city of Omsk is a cultural and sports center of Siberia. Its history is connected with the names of F. M. Dostoyevsky, the great Russian writer; M. A. Vrubel, the famous artist. Omsk Symphony Orchestra and Omsk State Russian Folk Choir are very well-known both in Russia and abroad. Omsk «Avangard», the ice hockey team, is 2004 Champion of Russia.

There are a lot of landmarks in the city – historical, cultural and architectural monuments, theaters, museums, concert halls, a circus, exhibitions, sports complexes, swimming-pools, night clubs, cafes and restaurants.

The people of Omsk are friendly and hospitable. You will always find a ready welcome in our Siberian land, the glorious city of Omsk!

III. Give full answers to the questions.

  1.  What kind of city is Omsk?
  2.  When was it founded?
  3.  What did the Trans-Siberian Railway and the river port on the Irtysh contribute to?
  4.  Who proclaimed Omsk the capital of Siberia?
  5.  Why did Omsk population once triple?
  6.  What is Omsk population today? Is it much?
  7.  What can you say about rivers or lakes in Omsk region? Are there any?
  8.  Why is Omsk considered to be a rich region?
  9.  What nationalities live on the territory of Omsk region?
  10.  Why is Omsk one of the main industrial centers of Siberia?
  11.  Can we call Omsk a scientific center? If we can, explain why.
  12.  Do you find that Omsk is a big cultural and sports centre?
  13.  If you had a foreign guest what places of interest would you show them? Why?
  14.  What sorts of people live in Omsk? Do you agree?

IV. Retell the text using the active vocabulary.

V. Write an essay about Omsk as your native city.

VI. Make the advertisement prospect of Omsk. Say why people should visit it!

Topic 7. GREAT BRITAIN.

SPORT IN GREAT BRITAIN

I. Topical vocabulary.

the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

 Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии

 to be situated on – быть расположенным на

consist of – состоять из

the total area – общая площадь

population – население

urban – городской

to be made up of – состоять из

to be separated from ... by – отделяться от

to be washed by – омываться

surface – поверхность

 to vary – варьироваться, меняться

mountainous – гористый

 a valley – долина

a plain – равнина

to influence something – оказывать влияние на

mild – умеренный

a highly developed industrial country – высокоразвитая промышленная страна

to produce something – производить что-либо

to export something – экспортировать что-либо

machinery – станки

electronics – электроника

textile – текстиль

a chief industry – ведущая отрасль промышленности

shipbuilding – судостроение

a constitutional monarchy – конституционная монархия

Head of the State – глава государства

 cricket – крикет (английская национальная спортивная игра; отдаленно напоминает русскую лапту)

 standard of behaviour – норма поведения

to attract attention – привлекать внимание

 Association football – футбол, разг. soccer (по названию английской футбольной ассоциации, разработавшей правила современного футбола)

to support – поддерживать, болеть

football field – футбольное поле

fan – болельщик

professional – профессиональный

amateur – любительский

spectator sport – «зрительский» вид спорта, собирающий большое количество болельщиков

racing – бега (конские, собачьи и пр.)

boat-race – гребные гонки

tournament – турнир

athletics – атлетика

to toboggan – кататься на санях, санках

II. Fill in the gaps.

1) mild, 2) Head of the State, 3) is washed by, 4) urban, 5) population, 6) football fields, 7) fans, 8) athletics, 9) toboggan, 10) attracts the greatest attention, 11) a constitutional monarchy, 12) professional and amateur, 13) chief industries, 14) tournaments, 15) influence, 16) valleys, 17) plains, 18) mountainous, 19) boat-race, 20) are separated from, 21) is made up of, 22) spectator sport, 23) support, 24) total area, 25) consist of, 26) is situated on.

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland … the British Isles. 2. The British Isles … two large islands. 3. … is over 244 000 square kilometers. 4. … is over 57 million people. 5. About 80 percent of the population is … 6. The United Kingdom … four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. 7. The British Isles … the Continent by the North Sea and the British Channel. 8. The western coast of Great Britain … the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. 9. The north of Scotland is … and is called the Highlands. 10. The South which has beautiful … and … is called the Lowlands. 11. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream … the climate of the British Isles. 12. The climate is … the whole year round. 13. One of the … of the country is shipbuilding. 14. The United Kingdom is … with a parliament and the Queen as … 15. But as almost everywhere else in the world, the game which … is Association football, or soccer. 16. Every Saturday from late August till the beginning of May large crowds of people … their favourite sides in … 17. True … will travel from one end of the country to the other to see their team play. 18. There are plenty of … soccer clubs all over Britain. 19. The chief … in British life is horse-racing. 20. … between the teams of Oxford and Cambridge attracts large crowds of people. 21. Tennis … at Wimbledon are known all over the world. 22. Various forms of …, such as running, jumping, swimming, boxing are also popular. 23. Of course the English weather is not always cold enough to ski, skate, or …, but winter is a good season for hunting and fishing.

III. Match English and Russian phrases.

 1) высокоразвитая промышленная страна, 2) расположено на Британских островах, 3) омывается Атлантическим океаном и Ирландским морем, 4) производит и экспортирует станки, электронику, текстиль, 5) большие любители спорта, 6) путешествуют из одного конца страны в другой, чтобы посмотреть, как играет их команда, 7) известны во всем мире, 8) можно сделать вывод, 9) состоит из двух больших островов, 10) состоит из четырех стран, 11) не всегда достаточно холодно для того, чтобы кататься на лыжах, коньках и санках, 12) хороший сезон для охоты и рыбалки, 13) существенная часть ежедневной жизни в Британии, 14) конституционная монархия с парламентом и королевой во главе государства, 15) отделены от континента Северным морем и Британским каналом, 16) поддерживают свои любимые команды на футбольных полях, 17) умеренный весь год, 18) влияет на климат британских островов, 19) проходят на Уэмбли, 20) интересуются скачками, 21) привлекает толпы людей.

 1) is situated on the British Isles, 2) consist of two large islands, 3) is made up of four countries, 4) are separated from the Continent by the North Sea and the British Channel, 5) is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, 6) influence the climate of the British Isles, 7) mild the whole year round, 8) a highly developed industrial country, 9) produces and exports machinery, electronics, textile, 10) a constitutional monarchy with a parliament and the Queen as Head of State, 11) great sport lovers, 12) support their favourite sides in football fields, 13) travel from one end of the country to the other to see their team play, 14) take place at Wimbley, 15) are interested in the races, 16) attracts large crowds of people, 17) are known all over the world, 18) not always cold enough to ski, skate and toboggan, 19) a good season for hunting and fishing, 20) one may come to a conclusion, 21) an essential part of daily life in Britain.

IV. Read and translate the text about Great Britain.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousands small islands. Their total area is over 244 000 square kilometers. The population of the United Kingdom is over 57 million. About 80 percent of the population is urban. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast. The capital of the United Kingdom is London.

The British Isles are separated from the Continent by the North Sea and the British Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands. The South, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The highest mountain is Ben Nevis in Scotland (1343 m).

There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round.

The United Kingdom is a highly developed industrial country. It produces and exports machinery, electronics, textile. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliament and the Queen as Head of State.

Now some words about sport in Great Britain. The British are great sport-lovers, so when they don’t play or watch games, they like to talk about them. Many of the games we play now have come from Britain. One of the most British games is cricket. It is often played in schools, colleges, universities and by club teams all over the country.

But as almost everywhere else in the world, the game which attracts the greatest attention is Association football, or soccer. Every Saturday from late August till the beginning of May, large crowds of people support their favourite sides in football fields. True fans will travel from one end of the country to the other to see their team play. There are plenty of professional and amateur soccer clubs all over Britain. International football matches and The Cup Finals take place at Wembley. Rugby is also very popular, but it is played mainly by amateurs.

The chief spectator sport in British life is horse-racing. A lot of people are interested in the races and risk money on the horse which they think will win. The Derby is perhaps the most famous single sporting event in the whole world. Britain is also famous for motor-car racing, dog-racing. Boat-race between the teams of Oxford and Cambridge attracts large crowds of people.

A great number of people play and watch tennis. Tennis tournaments at Wimbledon are known all over the world. The British also like to play golf, baseball, hockey, grass-hockey. Various forms of athletics, such as running, jumping, swimming, boxing are also popular.

You can sometimes hear that there are no winter sports in England. Of course the English weather is not always cold enough to ski, skate, or toboggan, but winter is a good season for hunting and fishing. Thus, one may come to a conclusion that sport is an essential part of daily life in Britain.

V. References

Wimbley – Уэмбли (знаменитый стадион в Лондоне)

rugby – регби (особая разновидность футбола; играется овальным мячом; по называнию привилегированной средней школы Rugby, где в 1823-м впервые стали играть в эту игру)

the Derby – Дерби (ежегодные скачки лошадей-трехлеток на ипподроме Epson Downs близ Лондона; названы по имени графа Дерби)

Wimbledon – Уимблдон (предместье Лондона, в котором находится английский теннисный и крикетный клуб и проводятся международные чемпионаты по теннису)

VI. Give the full answers to the following questions, do it in the written form.

  1.  Where is the United Kingdom of Great Britain situated?
  2.  What is the total area of British Isles?
  3.  What is the population of the United Kingdom?
  4.  What is the United Kingdom made up of? What are their capitals?
  5.  What is the capital of the United Kingdom?
  6.  What is the highest mountain?
  7.  What is the longest river? What is the deepest and the most important river?
  8.  What is the climate of the British Isles? What influences the climate of the British Isles?
  9.  What does the United Kingdom produce and export?
  10.  What is one of the chief industries of the country?
  11.  What is one of the most British games? Where is it played?
  12.  Which game attracts the greatest attention?
  13.  Are there any soccer clubs in Britain? What kind of clubs?
  14.  Where do the International football matches and the Cup Finals take place?
  15.  What is the chief spectator sport in British life?
  16.  What is the most famous single sporting event in Britain?
  17.  What kind of races are held in Britain?
  18.  What kind of tournaments are known all over the world?
  19.  What kind of winter sports are popular in Britain?
  20.  Is sport an essential part of daily life in Britain?

VII. Read the statements, say if they are true or false, correct the false ones.

  1.  The United Kingdom is made up of three countries: England, Wales and Scotland.
  2.  The capital of the United Kingdom is Edinburgh.
  3.  The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
  4.  There are few rivers in Great Britain.
  5.  The United Kingdom produces and exports machinery, electronics, textile.

VIII. Make up your own three statements, use the information from the text. One of your statements should be false. Read them to the students. Their task is to say which of your statements is false and correct it.

IX. Translate the sentences from Russian into English, use the information from the text and your dictionary.

  1.  Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии расположено на Британских островах, состоящих из двух больших и тысяч малых островов.
  2.  Население Великобритании в основном городское и составляет более 57 миллионов человек.
  3.  Соединенное Королевство состоит из четырех частей: в него входят Англия, Шотландия, Уэльс и Северная Ирландия.
  4.  Британские острова омываются Атлантическим океаном, Ирландским морем, Северным морем и проливом Па-де-Кале.
  5.  Британские острова состоят из гористой части и низин.

  1.  Реки в Великобритании не очень длинные.
  2.  На климат Великобритании оказывает влияние Гольфстрим.
  3.  Великобритания производит и экспортирует станки, электронику, текстиль, суда.
  4.  Великобритания – конституционная монархия.
  5.  Британцы – большие любители спорта.
  6.  Одна из самых типичных британских игр – крикет, в нее играют в школах, колледжах, университетах и клубные команды по всей стране.
  7.  Существует множество профессиональных и любительских футбольных клубов в Британии.
  8.  Преданные фанаты будут путешествовать из одного конца страны в другой, чтобы посмотреть, как играет их команда.

  1.  Международные футбольные матчи и финальные кубки проходят на Уэмбли.
  2.  Гребные гонки между командами Оксфорда и Кембриджа привлекают толпы людей.
  3.  На следующем месте после футбола, главным зрительским видом спорта в Британии являются скачки.
  4.  Множество людей играют и смотрят теннис, теннисные турниры в Уимблдоне известны во всем мире.
  5.  Британцам также нравится играть в гольф, бейсбол, хоккей и хоккей на траве.

X. Read the dialogue and read the part of the text about sport in Britain once again. Make up your own dialogue on the following situation: two journalists (one of them is from Britain, another one is from Russia) discuss and compare sport in Russia and in Britain. Use the information and the phrases (mind the phrases in bold) from the text and the dialogue given below.

Sport in Russia

Mike: I consider, that people in Russia are great sport-lovers, aren’t they?

Ben: Yes, they are, I agree with you. Many sports are popular in Russia, such as hockey, soccer, track-and-field, weightlifting, tennis, basketball, volleyball, figure-skating, cross-country skiing, swimming, shooting and many others.

Mike: Yes, sporting activities are a part of daily life in Russia. Most Russians growing up in the North, grow with outdoor winter sports and activities, such as skiing and skating. In all parts of Russia fishing is extremely popular.

Ben: Yes, it is true and it is also worth mentioning, that there are all necessary facilities for those, who wish to go in for sport. In all schools there is a gym and a sports ground. There are a lot of indoor and outdoor stadiums. Above all, much attention is paid to organized sports: there are different sporting societies and clubs. Many of them take part in different international tournaments and are known all over the world.

Mike: Yes, and I want to add, that a great number of our sportsmen participate in the Olympic games.

Ben: Yes, certainly, we were always proud and will be proud of them. Yes, and what about National and International matches?

Mike: Sure, they are regularly held in Russia and always attract large number of fans.

Ben: Besides, there is a lot of live broadcasting of matches and championships, many of them are televised live.

XI. Prepare a report on one of the topics mentioned below. Use any additional literature or internet.

UK Political System.

Education in the UK.

Holidays, customs and traditions in the UK.

Famous people of the UK.

London – a capital of Great Britain.

XII. Write a composition on the topic «Great Britain. Sport in Great Britain».

XIII. Tell about Great Britain and sport in Great Britain.

Supplementary texts and tasks

Sports and pastime

Athletic sports include running, boxing, rowing, jumping, fencing, diving, swimming, weight-lifting, putting-the-shot, skating, wrestling, etc. To become proficient in these sports one must practise constantly. Other popular outdoor sports are hunting, shooting, fishing, horse-racing, motor racing and mountain climbing (mountaineering). The most popular outdoor games are football, cricket, hockey and tennis. Indoor games include billiards, card games, chess, draughts.

England is the home of sport. Many of the games now played all over the world originated in Britain. Most people in England are engaged in sedentary occupations; they would feel that life was hardly worth living if they were unable in the evenings, or at the week-ends, to pursue their favourite sport. Certainly, in ordinary times, the average man is more interested in games and sport than in politics. The average schoolboy may not be able to tell you the name of the Foreign Minister (Minister of Foreign Affairs), but he is able to tell you which team won the football championship last year and who is the present boxing champion.

What is a sportsman? He is one who is interested in sport. But that is only one meaning of the word. Even if a person is not interested in any sport, and has no opportunity or inclination to play any game, he may be called a sportsman if he has something called the «sporting spirit».

This «sporting spirit» is something that the playing of games develops in people, though a person may have it who plays no games. It is the ability to endure hard knocks without getting angry or seeking revenge; the ability to smile in times of danger and hardship, the ability to win without boasting afterwards, and to lose without complaining. Some people hate playing if there is no crowd to applaud them, some play only to win prizes, others are unwilling to play against stronger opponents for fear of defeat. Such people are not sportsmen in the best sense of the word, but if they go on playing they may become sportsmen in time. We should all try to become «good losers», to accept our disappointments cheerfully. Everyone has disappointments at some time or other; sportsmen smile when they occur.

In England, hunting means fox-hunting. It is the sport of the rich; for to be able to hunt regularly one has to keep several horses and pay various subscriptions. The fox is pursued by foxhounds, which are a special breed of hunting dog. They follow the fox by scent. Riders are often injured, and sometimes even killed, as their horses jump over fences and ditches. A rider may be thrown off and his horse may fall on him; when this happens the rider may receive serious injuries. But it is a fine sight to see the hounds in full pursuit of the swift red fox, followed by the riders, men and women, dressed in brightly coloured hunting clothes, on splendid horses galloping as hard as they can go.

Shooting is an expensive sport, but fishing is practised by thousands of people. Fishing is a very quiet and peaceful occupation and is an excellent pastime for those who dislike noise and crowds.

Horse racing is practised in many countries of the world. The horses are specially trained and are ridden by professional «jockeys». The most famous horse race in the world is the Derby, run on Epsom Downs, south of London. Huge sums of money are won and lost by people betting on this and other races. Many people think that all betting is wrong and should be abolished. A few years ago two schoolmasters of Alexandria bought a ticket in a sweepstake on the Derby and were lucky enough to win £10,000. The British Government forbids the organizing of sweepstakes, which are a kind of lottery. It is true that a few people win, but many thousands lose.

The sport of mountain climbing appeals to many adventurous people. As there are few high mountains in Britain, many people go to Switzerland, which is the centre of European mountaineering. Every year there are accidents, but every year finds bold young men and women arriving in Switzerland ready to risk their lives among the high mountain peaks.

The most popular game in the world is certainly football. This is the game that is played in nearly all countries. There is another game called rugby football, so called because it originated at Rugby, a well-known English school. In this game the players may carry the ball. There is also an American kind of football, different again from the other two. Hockey is fairly popular in England but it has not spread much to other countries; nor has cricket, which is sometimes called the national game of England. Tennis is an international game. The world championships are decided each year in times of peace in the Davis Cup Competition. Of the indoor games, billiards requires the most expensive equipment. A good table costs more than a hundred pounds. This is why few private houses possess one; the game is generally played in a club.

There are many kinds of card games of pure chance, but most are games of chance and skill. Chance decides which cards a player holds, but a skilful player makes the best use of them. Thousands of people play cards regularly, the most popular game being «bridge». This is played for money, but only for small stakes generally. The chief aim of the players is not to win money but to pass the time in a very interesting manner. A regular player neither wins nor loses much.

By far the most intellectual game is chess, which is several hundred years old. A popular game is draughts, which is played on a board similar to a chess board with twelve «men» on each side.

Unusual and eccentric British sports

Aunt Sally – involves the under-arm throwing of the dolly (a truncheon shaped stick) at a suspended target. Each player in the team has 6 throws. The best score out of 24 wins.

Barrel Walking – to stand on top of a small barrel and walk it forward. The distance walked before falling off is measured.

Cheese-Rolling – competitors race down a steep hill, attempting to catch a huge piece of cheese which has been set rolling from the top. Often this results in many injuries.

Coconut Shy – each player has 6 balls to throw at targets of coconuts balanced on raised stands. The player with the highest number of hits wins.

Pancake Racing – in which each participant carries a pancake in a frying pan. All the runners must toss their pancakes as they run and catch them in the frying pan.

People Herding – a group of three people are blindfolded and each holds onto a central hoop. The fourth member of the team has a whistle, one short blast move to the left, two short blasts move to the right, a long continuing blast move forward. The object is to direct the hooped group through a gate or gatepost. The team with the shortest time wins.

Welly/Wellie Wanging or Throwing – a freestyle sport that originated in Britain. Competitors are required to hurl a Wellington boot as far as possible within boundary lines, from a standing or running start. Each player has three throws, the longest distance thrown within the zone wins. Note that the word wellie is also often spelt as welly.

Wheelbarrow and Straw Bale Race – each player in the team races over 50 yards with 4 straw bales on the barrow, then tosses the bales over a 6ft height bar. The quickest team wins.

Education in the UK

The system of education in the United Kingdom is rather complicated. It is divided into school education, further education and higher education. There are different types of educational institutions: schools, colleges, universities and various courses. It should be mentioned that the education may be public or private. It depends on the source of funding. If an institution is financed by the government – it is public, and students study there free of charge. In private ones the course of studies costs the parents a pretty penny. For British people education is compulsory from the age of five and up to sixteen. But children can go to nursery schools at the age of three. These schools are not cheap but still available and many parents prefer them. At the age of five children go to primary schools where they get primary education. They study there up to eleven. From eleven secondary education begins. There are three types of secondary schools in the UK: grammar schools, technical schools and secondary modern schools. In grammar schools pupils get classical education. They are prepared to go on for higher education that is to enter the university. The level of education there is very high. In technical schools various technical subjects are included into the curriculum. From there pupils enter technical colleges. Secondary modern schools are opposed to grammar schools. The level of knowledge is low and the graduates can only start working but can’t get higher education. After a secondary school high school (that is a college) begins. In colleges students are selected according to their abilities (like at schools). From there students apply to the university. There are three types of universities according to their age: old (Oxford and Cambridge), redbrick (London University) and new, which are built almost in every big city. Every year thousands of high school graduates apply to universities. At the university students obtain a Bachelor’s degree (Bachelor of Arts, Science, Law etc.). After the Bachelor’s degree is obtained they may also go on to obtain a Master’s degree, Doctor’s degree or, at last, a Professor’s degree.

Education in Russia

By and by we are becoming a democratic society and it brings changes in all the spheres of our life. This is quite true for the system of education. First of all there appeared the division of educational institutions into public, that is state supported, and private. But, sorry to say, the quality of education in many of them leaves much to be desired. There are two tendencies, which are competing to take priority. The first tendency is that we are coming back to gymnasiums, lyceums, which is a purely Russian tradition. The second tendency is the attempt to Americanize our education, and the fact that many schools and other secondary institutions are turning into colleges and students at the universities obtain Bachelor’s and Master’s degree, proves it. Many people criticize these new ideas. But the results are positive rather than negative. On the one hand we can make a choice from the great amount of variants, the level of education is higher, especially in universities and academies. On the other hand this choice is very often the question of money. The educational system in Russia is undergoing a crisis just like all the spheres of our life. But we hope that it’s good future that faces our education. But we shouldn’t live in a fool’s paradise, looking forward to this good future and doing nothing. We must do our best to struggle our way through life and to find the best means of educating our future.

Dialogue A

Mary: Today is a very special workshop. There is no text to read or listen to, no exercises to do. You may ask me all sorts of questions, if you have any.

Student A: Do English students take examinations every term?

Mary: No, they don’t. They do exams – they are called «finals» in their last term at the University.

Student B: Only once. Then they can enjoy life in the first years.

Mary: They have a lot of work to do. They attend lectures, seminars and tutorials and write essays. Technical students do a lot of work in the lab. And then they take class exams every year about May, but these are not public exams.

Student A: We do class exams every other week. That is not difficult.

Student C: What is a tutorial?

Mary: In a tutorial a teacher discusses individual work with a student. The teacher is called a tutor. He reports to the head of the department, so the professor knows everything about the students.

Student B: What do they do in a seminar?

Mary: Discuss things.

Student A: Do all students live in the halls of residence?

Mary: Most first year students do. Others rent a flat or a bed-sitter in town.

Student C: Where do married students live?

Mary: Married students? They do not normally marry while at the University. They wait till they get a job and can support a family.

Student C: Do English students receive grants?

Mary: It depends on their parents’ income.

Student A: Are there any clubs?

Mary: A lot of them. The Students’ Union organizes social, sporting and cultural activities.

Student B: What is the latest dance in England now?

Mary: I’m afraid I don’t know.

Student C: What do you think of the «Police»?

Mary: Do you mean demonstrations and all that?

Student C: No, I mean the pop group.

Mary: Ah, that «Police» group. Personally I don’t like them. But I have a suggestion. What about having a party – a music party in the English club? We may listen to my tapes or your records and have a nice talk.

Students: That’s a great idea. When?

Task 1. Read the dialogue and translate it.

Task 2. Retell the dialogue, as if you were one of the participants.

Task 3. Reproduce the dialogue.

Dialogue B

Henry Robinson is twenty-two and he is in his final year at Cambridge. Liz Robinson is twenty and is at a redbrick university in a northern industrial city. Patricia, who is nineteen, has just started at one of the new universities.

Pat: We live in halls of residence around the main university building. We are a real community. We’ve got comfortable common rooms and bars. We arrange dances and parties. We’ve got clubs, theatre groups, choirs and soon. And we’ve got an orchestra. I play the drums in it.

Liz: We’ve got bars and common rooms and clubs too. But I hate to live in the sort of closed community you live in, Pat. Two other girls and I rent a house in the middle of the city, about ten minutes walk from the university. The district is poor and the house is falling to pieces.

Henry: I couldn’t work in a place like yours.

Pat: Nor could I.

Liz: You’re a couple of snobs. We live among real people, who treat us as a real people. We prefer to be independent. It’s nice to belong to the city and to do things outside the university.

Henry: What sort of things do you do outside the university?

Liz: Well, there’s a group of us who go and help in a home for handicapped children. And I sing in the city Bach choir. We get on well with the local people – not like Henry and the people in Cambridge.

Henry: Oh, most of us get on very well with the local people. Cambridge isn’t a big place.

Liz: So you’re sorry you chose Cambridge?

Henry: No, I’m reading chemistry and Cambridge is one of the best universities for any science subject. Besides, Cambridge, like Oxford, has got a special atmosphere.

Pat: I chose my university because of its progressive ideas on education and its broader and more varied courses. Many of the new universities are experimenting with new subjects. And besides I am fond of this «seminar» system which is common in the new universities. It works, because we get on well with the professors and lecturers. Some of them aren’t much older than we; and they don’t mind at all, if we disagree with them.

Liz: You’re lucky. We have classes, but we hardly ever ask questions or discuss anything. The Profs don’t seem to be able to do anything but lecture. Besides, the course itself is out of date. It hasn’t changed for twenty years.

Henry: Just so the professors and lecturers are more interested in their own research than in helping students in their studies. However, we attend lectures given by some of the most brilliant scholars in the country. I go to classes at well as to lectures, but most important person in my academic life is my tutor. I enjoy my weekly tutorials.

Task 1. Read the dialogue and translate it.

Task 2. Retell the dialogue, as if you are one of the participants.

Task 3. Reproduce the dialogue.

Vocabulary

available – доступный

compulsory – обязательный

complicated – сложный

educational institutions – образовательные учреждения

to include – включать в себя

various courses – различныe курсы

public/private – государственный (общественный)/частный

 to depend on – зависеть

 the source of funding – источник финансирования

to finance – финансировать

free of charge – бесплатный

to cost a pretty penny – влетать в копеечку

the course of study – курс обучения

a nursery school – младшая школа, детсад

a primary school – начальная школа

a secondary school – средняя школа

a grammar school – грамматическая школа

a technical school – техническая школа

a secondary modern school – средняя современная школа

a level of education – уровень образования

to go on for higher education – продолжать образование до получения высшего

 to enter the university – поступать в университет

to graduate from – закончить

 curriculum – учебная программа

 to apply to the university – подать заявления для поступления в университет

 to obtain – приобретать

a bachelor’s degree – степень бакалавра

Bachelor of Arts – бакалавр искусств

Bachelor of Science – бакалавр наук

Bachelor of Law – бакалавр закона

old-fashioned – старомодный

further education – дальнейшее образование

 by and by – постепенно

 democratic society – демократическое общество

 to bring changes – приносить изменения

spheres of life – сферы жизни

true – правдивый

 to appear – появляться

 division – разделение

 sorry to say – к сожалению

quality of education – качество образования

to leave much to be desired – оставляет желать лучшего

to compete – соревноваться

to take priority – принять первенство

pure – чистый

attempt – попытка

to turn into – превратиться

to prove – доказывать

to criticize – критиковать

on the one hand/on the other hand – с одной/с другой стороны

to make a choice – сделать выбор

great amount of variants – огромноe количество вариантов

especially – особенно

to undergo the crisis – претерпевать кризис

to face – ожидать, столкнуться

 to look forward to – с нетерпением ждать

 to do one’s best – сделать всё возможноe

to struggle one’s way in life – пробить дорогу в жизни

to find the best means – найти лучшее средство

Reading comprehension and vocabulary exercises

Exercise 1. Give the English for:

1) бесплатный курс обучения; 2) государственные школы; 3) частные учебные заведения; 4) стремиться получить высшее образование; 5) постепенно; 6) оставляет желать лучшего; 7) витают в облаках сейчас; 8) учебная программа дальнейшего образования; 9) источник финансирования начальных школ; 10) превратиться в демократическое общество; 11) претерпевая кризис; 12) пробиваю дорогу в жизни.

Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following phrases:

1) to apply to the Amur State University; 2) to graduate from the Institute; 3) to bring changes into spheres of life; 4) to obtain a Bachelor’s degree; 5) to criticize the quality of education; 6) to make choice from a great amount of variants; 7) to cost a pretty penny 8) pure attempt; 9) to compete for taking priority; 10) a division into nursery, primary, secondary and secondary modern schools; 11) to look forward to obtaining the degree of a Bachelor of Science.

Exercise 3. Paraphrase the sentences using the active vocabulary.

1. The quality of education is not high. 2. Secondary school includes grammar, technical and secondary modern schools. 3. Abilities are the criteria for selecting students. 4. Nursery schools are not cheap. 5. We are facing a terrible crisis. 6. We can make a choice from the alternatives. 7. We should not only dream, waiting for the good future. 8. He tries to use every possibility to struggle his way through life. 9. The second tendency is that we try to Americanize our education. 10. Some schools become gymnasiums and lyceums. 11. They are in good relations with local people. 12. I am studying literature. 13. They like modern tendencies in education. 14. The course is old-fashioned. 15. The «seminar system» is a usual thing in new universities. 16. You are fortunate.

Exercise 4. Find antonymic sentences.

1. The quality of education is very low. 2. All spheres of our life are successfully developing. 3. Education in private institutions is free of charge. 4. Many people don’t like nursery schools, because it is impossible to pay for them. 5. The graduates of secondary modern schools can get higher education. 6. The results are positive. 7. Last year he entered the university. 8. It is a modern institution. 9. We have got very bad single rooms. 10. I don’t like to live in a close society. 11. This building is very new. 12. There aren’t many courses in this university.

Communicative exercises

Exercise 1. Speak about the difference between British (American) system of education and the system of education in Russia.

Exercise 2. Speak about advantages and disadvantages of modern tendencies in Russian education.

English meals

Meals are really a good subject to talk about. Ways and customs in laying the table and serving dishes differ from country to country. You need time and effort to make meals tasty and perfectly beautiful. This time you’ll have a great deal of conversation about good table manners, ham and eggs, biscuit and honey breakfasts, ice-cream and jelly-cake desserts, cheese-and-coffee parties. Hope you find it useful and jolly. Here’s something about English meals.

The usual meals are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner, or in simpler homes, breakfast, dinner, tea and supper. The usual English breakfast is a breakfast of porridge (made of oats and water) or cornflakes with milk or cream and sugar, bacon and eggs, marmalade (made from oranges) with buttered toast and tea or coffee. Lunch is served at about one o’clock. We have cold meat (left over probably from yesterday’s dinner), potatoes, salad and pickles, with pudding or fruit to follow. Sometimes we have a chop, or a steak and chips, followed by biscuits and cheese.

Afternoon tea you can hardly call a meal but it is a sociable sort of thing, as friends often call in then for a chat, while they have their cup of tea, cake or biscuit. In some houses dinner is the biggest meal of the day. But in a great many English homes, the midday meal is the chief one of the day, and in the evening we have a much simpler supper – an omelet, or sausages, sometimes bacon and eggs and sometimes just bread and cheese, a cup of coffee or cocoa and fruit.

We have «high tea» between five and six o’clock, and we have ham or tongue and tomatoes and salad, or tinned fish, or sausages with good strong tea, plenty of bread and butter, stewed fruit, or a tin of pears, apricots or pine-apples with cream and pastries or a good cake.

Dialogue A

Anne is a schoolgirl; James is a schoolboy; Mr. Jones is a businessman; and Miss Eccles is … a cook.

Anne: I never want any breakfast. Just a cup of tea and a piece of toast…

James: I don’t eat much either. Just some cornflakes, and an egg, and coffee, and toast and marmalade.

Anne: I call that a huge breakfast!

James: No, it isn’t! Anyhow, I haven’t time for any more during the week when I have to get to school.

Mr. Jones: Well, what do you have at the weekend, James?

James: Oh, on Sundays it’s different. I have orange juice, then porridge, with sugar and cream, and bacon and sausages and scrambled eggs, of course, and coffee and toast and honey.

Anne: What do you have, Mr. Jones?

Mr. Jones: Oh! I never change, I always have the same; bacon and eggs.

Miss Eccles: But you don’t have to cook it yourself, do you?

Mr. Jones: Well, no. My wife cooks the breakfast. She cooks the most perfect bacon and eggs in the world! I can smell them cooking, while I’m shaving. I just couldn’t start the day in any other way!

Miss Eccles: You’re lucky. I have to cook other people’s breakfasts. I never eat any myself. Just half a grapefruit and a cup of tea for me.

Anne: You’re like me. I can’t think how people eat those great huge meals at eight o’clock in the morning!

Mr. Jones: You see, James, women are always thinking about their figures. They’re afraid of getting fat…

Miss Eccles: There’s just one thing: sometimes, when I’m on holiday, I have a special treat…

Mr. Jones: And what’s that?

Miss Eccles: A lovely, fat, juicy kipper!

James: Oh, I’d forgotten about kippers! They’re the best of all!

Task 1. Read the dialogue and translate it.

Task 2. Retell the dialogue, as if you are one of the participants.

Task 3. Reproduce the dialogue.

Dialogue B

Ann and Fred are newly-weds, Jane, a group-mate of theirs, comes on a visit to them.

Ann: Good morning, Jane. Come in, please.

Jane: I hope Fred is at home?

Ann: Yes, he is. So nice of you to have come. We are about to have dinner. Will you dine with us?

Jane: With great pleasure.

Ann: That’s fine. I’m off to lay the table. Excuse me, please.

Jane: By all means.

(At table)

Jane: It’s good to be in a company like this, I admit.

Ann: Let me help you to some salad, Jane.

Jane: Please, do. It looks so inviting. That’s quite enough, thank you.

Ann: Some soup, Jane?

Jane: Why, yes. I think I could manage a plateful.

Ann: How do you find a salad?

Jane: Awfully nice. I have never tasted such a lovely salad; will you tell me how you make it?

Ann: I’m glad you’ve enjoyed it and it’s very nice of you to say so. It is quite easy to make. I’ll write down the ingredients and the directions for mixing.

Jane: Thank you very much. Don’t you think it’s lovely, Fred?

Fred: Yes, it is, indeed. Kindly pass me the salt, Ann, will you?

Ann: Here you are. Some more bread, Fred?

Fred: Yes, please. What comes next, Annie?

Ann: Chops with roast potatoes and vegetables.

Fred: And what follows that?

Ann: Wouldn’t you like to make a guess?

Fred: Ice-cream, I suppose.

Ann: There you are wrong, Fred, it’s coffee.

Jane: Coffee? It’s just to my taste.

Ann: I am happy that I’ve suited your taste, Jane. Do you take milk in your coffee?

Jane: Yes, I like it milky.

Fred: Well, Jane, what about fruit?

Jane: I’d be delighted.

Task 1. Read the dialogue and translate it.

Task 2. Retell the dialogue, as if you are one of the participants.

Task 3. Reproduce the dialogue.

Dialogue C

Mrs. Smith: How nice of you, Mrs. Brown, to drop in. I’m so glad to see you. Jane and I are just having a cup of tea. Do join us.

Mrs. Brown: Thank you ever so much. I’ve been doing some shopping, as you can see, and I am a bit thirsty. I’d enjoy a cup with you.

Mrs. Smith: Jane, lay the table for Mrs. Brown and bring some fresh buns and rolls from the pantry. I haven’t any cake to offer you today, Mrs. Brown, but I can treat you to a wide choice of jams, I’ve made this year. I’m especially fond of strawberry and black currant, while Jane prefers cherry. We always have several jars of raspberry jam in the house in case of colds. It’s a good remedy, you know. Strong tea or weak, Mrs. Brown?

Mrs. Brown: Weak tea, please. What tasty buns you have here! Are they from the baker’s?

Mrs. Smith: Jane did the baking today. She rather likes cooking.

Mrs. Brown: Would you mind telling me how to make such buns?

Mrs. Smith: Most willingly. All you need is a few cups of flour, some shortening (fat), a little yeast, four egg-yolks, a glass of milk and sugar. You knead the dough stiff, and then cut it up into tiny buns. When the dough has risen, you bake the buns in a hot oven for 20–25minutes. It’s rather quick work and not much trouble. Served with tea, they are delicious. Help yourself to some more, Mrs. Brown.

Mrs. Brown: They’re simply wonderful with strawberry jam. I must have another.

Mrs. Smith: Won’t you have another cup of tea?

Mrs. Brown: I’ve had quite enough, thank you.

Task 1. Read the dialogue and translate it.

Task 2. Retell the dialogue, as if you are one of the participants.

Task 3. Reproduce the dialogue.

Vocabulary

a meal – пища, прием пищи

 midday meal – прием пищи в середине дня

 to lay the table – накрывать на стол

to serve dishes – подавать блюда

tasty, delicious – вкусный

 table manners – поведение за столом

ham – ветчина

meat – мясо

egg – яйцо

scrambled eggs – яичница

honey – мед

porridge – овсяная каша

cornflakes – кукурузные хлопья

buttered toast – подрумяненный хлеб с маслом

potatoes – картофель

pickles – маринованные овощи, пикули

a chop – отбивная котлета

a steak – бифштекс

sausage – колбаса

tongue – язык

tinned fish – рыбные консервы

 stewed fruit – компот

a pear – груша

an apricot – абрикос

a pine-apple – ананас

vegetables – овощи

juice – сок

cream – сливки

pastry – печенье, выпечка

kipper – копченая рыба

to cook – готовить пищу

to get fat – полнеть

 to treat smb to smth – угощать кого-либо чем-либо

to dine – обедать

fat, shortening – жир (для приготовления пищи)

 to have a cup of tea (coffee) – выпить чашку чая (кофе)

help yourself to – угощайтесь

it looks so inviting – выглядит так аппетитно

I could manage a plateful – я могу съесть целую тарелку

to taste – пробовать

it’s just to my taste – это мне по вкусу

 I’ve suited your taste – я угодила вашему вкусу

pass me … – передайте …

to take milk in tea (coffee) – добавить молока в чай (кофе)

to be thirsty – испытывать жажду

buns, rolls – булочки

pantry – кладовая

strawberry – клубника

black currant – черная смородина

raspberry jam – малиновое варенье

a good remedy – хорошее средство

strong tea – крепкий чай

weak tea –некрепкий чай

 to do the baking – печь

yeast – дрожжи

to knead the dough stiff – круто замесить тесто

hot oven – горячая духовка

Reading comprehension and vocabulary exercises

Exercise 1. Answer the questions to the text.

How many meals a day does an Englishman usually have?

What does the usual English breakfast consist of?

Does an Englishman like to vary his breakfast?

Many of them never change it, do they?

What can one see on the table at lunch as a rule?

What is the menu of an ordinary dinner?

What is «afternoon tea»?

Which is the biggest meal of the day?

What do you think of English meals?

Exercise 2. Answer the questions to the dialogue A.

What is Anne’s idea of breakfast?

Who prefers a huge breakfast?

Is James’ breakfast different at the weekend?

It is a huge meal, isn’t it?

Is Mr. Jones’ breakfast as substantial as James’?

What does he think of his breakfast?

What does Miss Eccles have for breakfast as a rule?

Does she ever change it?

A lovely, fat, juicy kipper is her special treat, isn’t it?

Who else enjoys kippers?

James is a hearty eater, isn’t he?

What is your special treat?

Exercise 3. Answer the questions to the dialogue B.

Who came on a visit to Ann and Fred?

What did Ann treat Jane to?

Did Jane enjoy the salad?

Did Ann treat her guest to chops or a grilled chicken?

What did they have for the third course?

What dishes did Jane like most at the dinner?

What coffee did Jane prefer?

What followed coffee?

Was Ann a poor cook and hostess?

Exercise 4. Answer the questions to the dialogue C.

Was Mrs. Smith delighted to see Mrs. Brown at her place?

Did she offer her friend a cup of tea?

Why did Mrs. Brown think she’d enjoy a cup of tea?

Did Mrs. Smith suggest that Jane should lay the table?

What was Jane to bring from the pantry?

What could Mrs. Smith treat her guest to?

Why did she always have several jars of raspberry jam in the house?

Did Mrs. Brown find the buns tasty?

Who did the baking?

Mrs. Brown got interested in the recipe of the buns, didn’t she?

What foodstuffs were necessary to make the buns?

All Jane needed to make the buns was a few cups of flour, some shortening, a little yeast, 4 egg-yolks, a glass of milk and sugar, was that so?

Did she beat up everything into a mixture?

When the dough was kneaded stiff Jane cut it up into tiny buns, didn’t she?

Was it necessary to let the buns rise nicely before putting them into the oven?

How long did Jane bake them?

British leisure

How do British people spend their time when they are not actually working? Leisure time of British people isn’t very much organized. They might for instance watch TV. Television is the most popular entertainment in many countries. Statistics says that we spend an average of 25 hours a week watching it or at least keeping it switched on. Theatre, opera and ballet, sorry to say, are almost exclusively the pleasures of the educated middle class. The author of the book «Understanding Britain» Caren Hewitt is convinced that people who are deprived of the great works of art suffer a diminishment of spirit no matter whether they are intellectuals, blue-collar or white collar and so forth.

Private leisure is characterized by the national enthusiasm for gardening. About 44 % of the population claim to spend time gardening. In fact they don’t need to grow vegetables, but home grown fruit and vegetables taste much better than those in shops, which have been grown commercially. They also grow flowers and have a passion for lawns of grass which stay green throughout the year.

The other popular home-based activity is «D-I-Y» or «Do-It-Yourself». It means improvement of one’s home by decorating, making furniture, fitting in shelves, cupboards, etc. There are excellent stores (such as hardware stores), which supply the materials and tools, and books with detailed advice are everywhere on sale. Women more concentrate on needlework – sewing curtains and cushions as well as clothes. About half the women in the country spend time on needlework or knitting.

It is extremely difficult to decide how important books are for in the lives of the British citizens. There are well-stocked shops and a good public library service. Books are available, brightly coloured, cheerfully designed – and expensive. However there is an unquestionable loss when the attractions of television and videos have reduced the enthusiasm for reading, which is for many people just glancing at a newspaper. And no wonder! TV dramas and documentaries, cultural and scientific programmes and coverage of the world’s news are excellent in general, by world standards. And of course, there is a lighter entertainment – games, family comedies, celebrity shows, soap operas and so on.

Music is another way of spending time. People listen to pop and rock music on the radio, on records and tapes, at home and in public places. Music magazines persuade teenagers to buy new and new records with the only purpose to make money. That is why cultivating an individual taste becomes very difficult, and cultivating a serious musical taste is extremely difficult. People often keep on spending money to catch up with what is popular. Some people are interested in music making and might play in amateur or professional orchestras or sing in choirs.

Some words should be said about holidays. Summer holidays is the time to spend as a couple or a family. It may just be like visiting friends, or hiring a caravan on the seashore, or camping. You can walk, explore mountains and streams, and take picnics on boating expeditions on lakes, and visit castles, caves and historic sites. This is the way the majority spends their time. Of course, there are minorities. They may join various clubs, or just relax each evening in pubs drinking, or do something else. People are free in their choice as they should be. It may be good or bad, but the reality is like this and you know, there are people and people.

Dialogue A. Going out

Mark: Hello, Julia. Would you like to go the movies tonight?

Julia: Why not. And what’s on?

Mark: A historical film «The First Night». They say the film is worth seeing. It’s praised to the sky by critics. The publicity is really good.

Julia: How wonderful! Is it a screen version of a novel? I enjoy screen versions of historical novels.

Mark: Unfortunately not. But the playwright did a very good job. The cast is brilliant: Sean O’Connery, Richard Gery and Julia Ormond are starring.

Julia: Oh, they are my favourite actors! And who is the producer?

Mark: What a shame! I’m not sure.

Julia: Never mind. Let’s go and book tickets.

Mark: Yes, we should do it in advance for the film has been on for a fortnight already, but each time the house is sold out.

Julia: Oh, Mark, I’m so anxious to see this film.

Mark: No doubt, you’ll be carried away by it, if you enjoy historical films.

Task 1. Read the dialogue and translate it.

Task 2. Retell the dialogue, as if you were one of the participants.

Task 3. Reproduce the dialogue.

Dialogue B. Invitation for barbecuing

John: Hello, Steve, hello, Margo. How are you today?

Margo: Hi, John. We are fine as usual.

John: Planning anything special this weekend?

Margo: Actually not.

John: What would you say to barbecuing together?

Steve: It’s so nice of you to invite us. We’ve never barbecued; it’ll be so exiting!

John: Are your children going to join us?

Margo: I wish they could, but they are still camping in Michigan.

Steve: You know, there are good camping sites there. And quite civilized: showers, toilets and even a shop are available.

John: Oh, yes. They have a lot of summer activity in Michigan. Many people take in sun and swim there.

Margo: Certainly, it will do our children a lot of good.

Steve: What are we to take with us?

John: Nothing special. Just a couple of blankets and towels and tea or coffee in order not to be thirsty. Annie and I will take care of all the rest.

Steve: What time are we starting?

John: About 10 a.m. on Sunday. Is it all right with you?

Margo: It’s fine.

John: Then we’ll come to pick you up at 10. You’re sure to have a lot of fun. Everything is so tasty when you’re out of town.

Steve: Thanks again. We appreciate it so much.

John: My pleasure.

Task 1. Read the dialogue and translate it.

Task 2. Reproduce the dialogue.

Vocabulary

leisure – свободное время

to convince smb of smth (Syn. to persuade, to assure, to be convinced) – убедить(убедиться, быть убежденным)

to deprive smb of smth ( to be deprived of smth) – лишить (быть лишенным)

to suffer diminishment of spirit – страдать от плохого настроения

 blue-collar (white-collar) – «синие воротнички», (люди, занятые физическим трудом), «белые воротнички», (люди, занятые умственным трудом)

 to claim – заявлять

a taste – вкус

 to have a passion for – иметь страсть к чему-либо

hardware stores – магазины, продающие строительные и другие материалы

 «Do It Yourself» stores – магазины «Сделай сам»

to supply (a supply of) – поставлять, снабжать (поступление)

to be on (for) sale – быть в продаже

 a loss – ущерб

аn attraction (to attract, attractive) – привлекательность (привлекать, привлекательный)

 to reduce (Syn. decrease, Ant. increase) – снижать, уменьшать

to glance at – взгляд на

to hire – нанимать

to explore – обследовать

a stream – поток, ручей

a castle – замок

a cave – пещера

 majority (Ant. minority) – большинство (ант. меньшинство)

various (Syn. different) – различный, разный

to relax – расслабляться, отдыхать

 a pub – «паб», кабачок, пивная

a knight – рыцарь

to be praised to the skies – быть расхваленным до небес, сверх меры

publicity (Syn. advertizing) – реклама

a screen version – экранизация

a playwright – сценарист

a cast – труппа

to star, (n. – a star) (Syn. to play the leading role (part) – играть главную роль, быть звездой (звезда)

to book tickets in advance (beforehand, ahead of time) – покупать билеты заранее

a fortnight – две недели

The house is sold out – Все билеты проданы, аншлаг

to be anxious to do smth/for smth (Syn. to be eager to do smth) – страстно желать что-либо сделать

to be carried away by (Syn. to be swept away by) – быть захваченным, увлеченным

 to barbecue – выезжать «на шашлыки», барбекю

 to camp (camping, camping sites) – останавливаться лагерем (кемпинг)

to take in sun and swim (Syn. to lie in the sun (to get a tan) and bathe – загорать и купаться

to do smb a lot of good (Ant. to do smb harm (adj. – harmful) –приносит пользу (ант. приносить вред, вредоносный, вредный)

a blanket – одеяло

thirsty – испытывающий жажду

to pick smb up (Syn. to give smb a lift) – подвезти кого-либо

to switch on (Syn. to turn on, Ant. to switch (turn) off) – включить (ант. выключить)

 multitasking (multitasker) – многоцелевой (оборудование, имеющее несколько областей применения)

to be accustomed to smth / doing smth, to be used to smth / doing smth – привыкнуть что-либо делать

to be engaged in smth / doing smth (Syn. to indulge in smth / doing smth) – быть занятым чем-либо, иметь занятие

There are people and people / There are tastes and tastes / Tastes differ. – О вкусах не спорят. На вкус и цвет товарища нет.

What a shame! – Какой стыд!

 What a pity! – Как жаль!

 I appreciate it. – Я благодарен, ценю это.

My pleasure – мне приятно было это сделать (ответ на выражение благодарности)

You’re welcome – Пожалуйста!

It was nothing – никаких затруднений (ответ на выражение благодарности)

Reading comprehension and vocabulary exercises

Exercise 1. Read and translate the text.

Exercise 2. Find in the text English equivalents for the following word combinations and sentences:

 не очень хорошо организован;

самое популярное развлечение;

мы проводим в среднем 25 часов в неделю у телевизора;

или, по крайней мере, держим его включенным;

неважно, кто он, интеллектуал или синий воротничок;

овощи и фрукты, выращенные в домашних условиях, намного вкуснее;

около половины женщин страны;

очень трудно решить;

книги доступны и красиво оформлены;

бесспорная потеря;

способ проводить время;

с одной только целью – сделать деньги;

люди часто тратят деньги на то, что популярно;

любительские и профессиональные оркестры;

это может быть что-то подобное посещению друзей;

реальность такова.

Exercise 3. React to the statements using the phrases of agreement and disagreement. Extend your answers to the small situations.

Leisure time of British people is very much organized

Television is not very popular in England.

Private leisure is characterized by the national enthusiasm for gardening.

They need to grow vegetables because it's impossible to buy them.

«D-I-Y» activity is not very popular.

Television has reduced enthusiasm for reading.

Books are well-designed, brightly-coloured and expensive.

Music magazines persuade teenagers to buy new and new records with the purpose to develop individual taste.

People buy records which they like.

People are free in their choice, it concerns their leisure time as well.

Exercise 4. Study the text and answer the following questions.

Is leisure time of British people very much organized?

What is the most popular entertainment in Great Britain and other countries of the world?

Are theatre, opera and ballet available for all people?

What is the British national enthusiasm?

Why do British people grow vegetables and fruit?

What do British people have passion for?

What does "do-it yourself" activity mean?

What are women's activities in Great Britain?

Is music a perfect activity to spend one's free time?

What music do people listen to?

Is it difficult to cultivate individual taste in music and why?

Do people always spend their money to buy what they like?

Concerning one's leisure time summer is a boring season, isn't it?

Are people free in their choice?

Exercise 5. Make up five special, five alternative and five disjunctive questions basing on the text.

Exercise 6. Give the summary of the text «British leisure».

Exercise 7. Complete the following sentences.

Leisure time of British people ...

Statistics says that ...

People who are deprived of great works of art ...

Private leisure is characterized by ...

In fact ...

«Do-It-Yourself» means ...

Women concentrate on ...

It is extremely difficult ...

There is an unquestionable loss ...

No wonder ...

Music magazines ...

In summer you can ...

People are ...

Exercise 8. Make up situations using the following words and word combinations:

leisure time, to be free in one's choice, there are people and people, majority, minority, to relax, to deprive smb of smth, to suffer a diminishment of spirit, to be good or bad;

to taste, national enthusiasm for, to have a passion for, home-based activity, improvement of one's home, to supply a detailed advice, «Do-It-Yourself» department;

to reduce reading, attraction, lighter entertainment, well-stocked shops, cheerfully designed, brightly coloured, to glance at;

music, magazines, to cultivate one's individual taste, to persuade, amateur or professional orchestras, chorus/choir?/, to hire, a stream, to explore mountains.

Communicative exercises

Exercise 1. Find in the dialogues A–C equivalents for the following word combinations and sentences:

 1. Что идет? (в кинотеатре) 2. Этот фильм стоит посмотреть. 3. Мне нравится. 4. К сожалению, нет. 5. Какой стыд! 6. заказать билеты заранее. 7. Каждый раз все распродается (о билетах). 8. Несомненно, тебе понравится (ты увлечешься им). 9. Планируете что-нибудь на эти выходные? 10. Ваши дети поедут с нами? – Я бы хотел. 11. Это будет так здорово! 12. … и довольно цивилизованных. 13. ничего особенного. 14. … чтобы не испытывать жажду. 15. Я позабочусь об остальном. 16. Когда мы выезжаем? 17. Вас устроит? 18. Замечательно! 19. Будьте уверены! 20. за городом.

Exercise 2. Complete the following dialogues.

Dialogue 1

A: Would you like to join us for a picnic this Saturday?

B:

A: Is your son going to join us?

B:

A: Oh, yes. It will do him a lot of good.

B:

A: Nothing special. Just a couple of blankets and towels.

B:

A: No, you needn't. My wife and I will take care of all the rest.

B:

A: We'll come to pick you up at 10. Is it all right with you?

B:

Dialogue 2

A: Hello. How are you doing?

B:

A: I'd like to invite you to the movies tonight.

B:

A: A historical film. It is said to be worth seeing.

B:

A: Oh, the publicity is really good. The film is praised to the skies by the critics.

B:

A: Unfortunately not. But the cast is brilliant: Sean Connery, Richard Gary and Julia Ormond.

B:

A: Yes, we should book them ahead of time for the film has been on for a fortnight already, but each time the house is sold out.

B:

A: You are sure to be swept away by it if you enjoy historical films.

Exercise 3. Translate the words of the Russian speaker into English.

A: Не хотела бы ты присоединиться к нашему пикнику? Мы собираемся поехать за город в субботу.

B: Thank you. It's so nice of you to invite me, but I'm afraid I won't be able to.

A: Планируешь что-нибудь на выходные?

B: Nothing special. You see, my diploma...

A: Я думаю, эти выходные твой диплом проведет без тебя. Тебе нужен отдых. Поехали с нами. Позагораем, искупаемся.

B: You seem to be right. One day in the open air will do me a lot of good. Shall I take something with me?

A: Нет, не нужно. Мы с Мэри позаботимся обо всем.

B: I'd rather take some tea in order not to be thirsty. What time are we starting?

A: Чем раньше, тем лучше. Семь утра тебя устроит?

B: It is. I'm an early riser.

A: Заехать за тобой?

B: It would be wonderful.

A: В таком случае мы заедем за тобой в 6-30. До субботы!

B: See you on Saturday morning.

A: Будь уверена, тебе понравится.

B: Thanks again. I appreciate it so much.

Exercise 4. Discuss the ways of spending spare time.

Exercise 5. Compare the leisure in Great Britain and in your country.

London

London is without doubt one of the most fascinating cities in the world, one of the biggest cities in the world, the capital of Great Britain. It has many faces and means many things to many people. London is a very old city even by European standards. The history of London has begun long before our time. The Roman conquerors of Britain founded Londinium (London) in 43 AD by settling and fortifying two small hills on the river Thames. More than a thousand years later, another conqueror turned the city into his capital. This was William of Normandy, who defeated the last Saxon ruler of England in 1066. In 1666 the city of London suffered the Great Fire and survived. 13 200 buildings and 87 churches were burnt down. The historic centre of the capital was turned into a heap of ashes. This natural disaster gave a rare opportunity to replan and build it anew. However the owners of the land insisted on building on the old foundations, and the streets of the city remained as narrow and winding as they had been before the fire. Now modern London is a number of cities, towns and villages, that have, during the past centuries, grown together to make one vast area. London today stretches for nearly thirty miles from north to south and nearly thirty miles from east to west. This is area, known as «Greater London», with a population of nine million. The river Thames divides London into two parts: Northern and Southern. And to the right is the West End; to the left is the East End. Many years ago the City and Westminster, where the kings and queens lived, became parts of one urban organism, and the area around the royal court was called the «West End». Today, far from being an «end» or suburb, it might be called the centre of London. In the West End there are many parks, squares, wide and straight streets, which are famous for their splendid shops and restaurants. One can see here elegant people, grand hotels, clubhouses and modern cars. The name of the «West End» is associated with wealth, luxury and goods of high quality. As for the East End it is the workers’ district. There are miles of docks and great industrial areas. The East End has many old houses build in Dickens’ time. Jack London described the London slums in his book «The people of the Abyss». But the people are fond of their district and are proud of being called Cockneys or true Londoners. A foreigner with a fair knowledge of Standard English can’t understand their lovely Cockney dialect. Besides, there is the City of London, the commercial and business centre. It is only a very small part of modern London; it measures only one square mile and the number of people who live there is only about ten thousand. The City is famous for its offices, banks and museums. London is more than two thousand years old. Although London is a crowded and noisy city one can find many sights and memorial places there. Trafalgar Square is one of the tourist’s centres of the city. On the column in the centre there is a statue of Admiral Nelson who defeated the French in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Orators often use the large platform at the foot of it. This square is a place for all sorts of meetings and demonstrations for peace and disarmament, for better schooling and pensions for the aged. To the left of Trafalgar Square there is the National Gallery. It has a fine collection of European painting. Another sight, which is worth to be mentioned about, is Piccadilly Circus. It is not very large, but it is dynamic and colourful. Piccadilly Circus is especially very beautiful in the evening. That famous Eros statue on the top of the fountain in the centre is very wonderful. It is the meeting point of six streets. There is Regent Street, one of London’s most fashionable shopping streets. Another one leading off Piccadilly Circus in the direction of Soho is Shaftesbury Avenue. Soho is one of the entertainment centres of London. There live artists, actors and writers. There are many restaurants, cafes and clubs. Other famous streets of the centre of London are Oxford Street, the Strand and Fleet Street. The Houses of Parliament stand on the north side of the Thames. The official name of the building is the Palace of Westminster. It was built in Gothic style. In 11th century it was destroyed by fire many times. Only Westminster Hall and the crypt of the chapel were saved. It was rebuilt only in 1840. Everyone knows that Westminster Abbey is a royal church and the centre of the Westminster Area. It was founded in the middle of the 11th century by Edward the Confessor and was mainly built by Henry III in the 13th century as a fitting burial ground for English sovereigns. Also one should mention about the Tower of London. It was a fortress, a royal palace and later a prison. It is a museum now. There are a lot of interesting collections in the Tower of London. The ravens are another famous sight. The legend says that without them the Tower will fall. The Raven Master is the person who gives them food. St. Paul’s Cathedral is the greatest work of the architect Sir Christopher Wren. It took him 35 years to plan and carry out his plan of building this cathedral. There is so much to see in London that even Londoners can always find new sights. They like to say: «When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life».

Task 1. Practice your pronunciation. Repeat the words after your teacher.

a conqueror – завоеватель

to serve – служить

a citadel – цитадель

royal – королевский

a palace – дворец

a seat of the government – местонахождения правительства

a traitor – изменник, предатель

a spy – шпион

to murder – убивать

to execute – казнить, execution – казнь

to imprison – садить в тюрьму

to torture – пытать

arms – оружие

armour – доспехи

 crown – корона, to crown – короновать

jewels – драгоценности

a bridge – мост

to trace – проследить, установить

aircraft – авиатехника

weapons – оружие

equipment – снаряжение

 plague – чума

to recreate – воссоздать

a dungeon – темница

an exhibition – выставка, an exhibit – экспонат

an event – событие

horror – ужас

Middle Ages – средние века

a cathedral – собор

 a masterpiece – шедевр

imposing – внушительный, впечатляющий

craftsmanship – мастерство; тонкая, искусная работа

woodcarving – резьба по дереву

mosaics – мозаика

ceiling painting – потолочная живопись

 a resting place – место погребения

a square – площадь

 to commemorate – устраивать в память, в честь; ознаменовывать commemoration – ознаменование

 to erect – воздвигать

a battle – битва

to feed – кормить

a pigeon – голубь

an engraving – гравюра

a law – закон

 to debate – обсуждать

to enact – принимать, вводить в действие

to bury – хоронить

a banquet – банкет, торжественный обед

craft – ремесло

wax – воск

solar system – солнечная система

a satellite – спутник

spacecraft – космические корабли

 hands-on – практический

a screen – экран

 carved ivories – изделия из слоновой кости

tapestries – изделия из гобелена

furniture – мебель

science – наука

road – дорожный

railways – железнодорожные пути

a wind engine – ветряной двигатель

nuclear physics – ядерная физика

a lawn – газон

a soft drink – безалкогольный напиток

 to consider – считать

fowl – птица

round – круглый

pond – пруд

Task 2. Read and translate the text «London».

Task 3. Listen to the situations your teacher offers you and give a piece of advice.

Use the expressions of giving advice.

I advise you to go to/visit … – Я советую Вам пойти/посетить …

Be sure to see/visit … – Обязательно посмотрите/посетите …

 If I were you, I would … – На Вашем месте я бы

Task 4. Make a dialogue.

Situation: you are from London. A person from Russia is asking for a piece of advice. The person will tell you about his/her interests. Tell him/her what places of interest he/she should visit.

Use the phrases below to help you. Be polite (вежливый).

I would like to get information about … – Я хотел бы узнать о

I would like to see … – Я хотел бы увидеть

I am interested in … – Я интересуюсь

I am fond of … – Я увлекаюсь

What are you interested in / fond of? – Чем Вы интересуетесь/увлекаетесь?

In this case, you should go to/visit … – В этом случае Вам следует посетить

There you can see/get information about … – Там Вы сможете увидеть/узнать о

 If I were you, I would go to/visit … – Если бы я был на Вашем месте, я бы сходил/посетил …

Formulas of politeness

Excuse me, may I ask you …? – Извините, позвольте спросить Вас

 Excuse me, could you help me …? – Извините, не могли бы Вы мне помочь …?

 You see, I am a stranger here … – Знаете ли, я

Thank you. I am so grateful to you! – Спасибо. Я так Вам благодарен.

Don’t mention it. – Рад, что смог помочь.

 You are welcome. – Пожалуйста.

Task 5. Imagine, that you are in London. What places would you like to see/visit? Explain your choice. Use the model.

Model. If I were in London, I would see/visit …, because …

 Если бы я был в Лондоне, я бы посмотрел/посетил …, потому что …

Task 6. Watch the film about places of interest in London and enjoy it.

Dialogue A

Sightseeing in London

There are a lot of places of interest in London. One of them is the Tower of London. Thousands of tourists visit it every year to see the Crown Jewels and the famous Beefeaters. There is not only one tower of the site. You can notice several towers with different names: the White Tower, the Bloody Tower, the Green Tower and others. There is much to see in the Tower of London. Natasha and Jane are there now.

Natasha: Well… There’s so much history here. Everything is so impressive, almost terrifying.

Jane: Exactly. Let’s have another look at the White Tower, which is 900 years old.

Natasha: And who are those men in the striking uniforms, Jane?

Jane: You see, those are the «beefeaters», the wardens. There are a lot of them here. I suggest coming here tonight. A very interesting ceremony will take place at 10 o’clock here. The Ceremony of the Keys.

Natasha: Very well, let’s come tonight. There must be very many stories about the Tower.

Jane: Oh, sure! Quite a lot. Generally speaking there are also a lot of books and films about it; and they are about English kings and queens at the same time. And the Tower Bridge… Isn’t it beautiful?

Natasha: Certainly it’s beautiful and quite unique in design. And as far as I know Tower Bridge is the most spectacular of the bridges crossing the river Thames. The roadway is raised to allow the ships to pass through.

Jane: It goes without saying. But there are lots of bridges over the Thames and they are all different. I suppose we’d better make a trip on the Thames in one of the water buses one of these days instead of wandering about the city.

Natasha: That’s a good idea! And how many palaces are there in London, Jane? One?

Jane: You must be joking! There are two main ones – Buckingham Palace and St. James’s Palace and also there is Kensington Palace with the Russian embassy quite near.

Natasha: I think the palaces are far from each other, aren’t they?

Jane: They are rather. But you should see them all, all the same. There’s a lot to see. In Buckingham Palace there is the Queen’s picture gallery and in Kensington Palace – the London museum.

Natasha: Oh, how interesting!

Task 1. Read the dialogue and translate it.

Task 2. Retell the dialogue, as if you were one of the participants.

Task 3. Reproduce the dialogue.

Dialogue B

Chernov, an engineer of the Russian Trade Delegation, met Borisov at the airport and took him to the Embassy Hotel, which is in the centre of London near Hyde Park. On the way to the hotel some things impressed Borisov: bright advertisements, red London buses (double-deckers), left-hand traffic and terraced houses.

Chernov: Good afternoon!

Receptionist: Good afternoon, sir. What can I do for you?

Chernov: I’m from the Russian Trade Delegation. We have reserved accommodation for Mr. Borisov at your hotel.

Receptionist: Wait a minute please. I’ll check it. Yes, that’s right. One single room, with private bath from today. The room is on the third floor. № 301.

Chernov: Thank you.

Receptionist: Will Mr. Borisov check in?

Borisov: What shall I write here?

Receptionist: Your name and address, please. (Borisov fills in the form).

Thank you, Mr. Borisov. Here’s your key.

(Now Chernov and Borisov are in the room).

Borisov: I’ve only caught a glimpse of London on the way to the hotel. But frankly speaking this city has made a great impression on me.

Chernov: Yes. They say one can’t judge about the country without being in London and I entirely agree London is the largest and the most beautiful city all over the world.

Borisov: You are quite right. So in such a case there must be many interesting places to see.

Chernov: Of course! Here are some photos. Look! This is Madam Tussaud’s museum.

Borisov: I see, but what is it?

Chernov: Oh, you don’t know? Shame on you! Madam Tussaud’s has one of the largest collections of wax models of famous people in the world.

Borisov: You don’t say so! I should never have thought that such things can exist. It’s very exciting!

Chernov: And have you ever heard about Canary Wharf? It’s a huge business complex on the north bank of the River Thames. It’s served by its own railway.

Borisov: I must confess that the more I learn about London the more I am astonished. But look! I believe this castle is the largest one in the world.

Chernov: It’s Windsor Castle, that is a famous home of Queen Elizabeth II of England. You see there are many sights and memorial places a visitor will want to see. But to tell the truth I have no time and I must go. See you later.

Borisov: See you.

Task 1. Read the dialogue and translate it.

Dialogue C

A: I’m afraid of failing the exam in history.

B: Why? You can’t be serious! You are a top student.

A: That’s one way of looking at it. But I don’t remember the history of London at all. Neither history nor modern time.

B: Oh! Cheep up! I’ll help you. I think what you need is to collect your wits.

A: Of course! But I’m so excited and that’s why everything has slipped out of my mind.

B: OK! Let’s begin with…

Task 1. Complete the dialogue, using the text.

Explanatory notes

AD – anno domini (лат.) – нашей эры

 Cockney – «кокни», лондонец, уроженец Ист-Энда

 «The people of the Abyss» – «Люди бездны»

 Beefeaters – бифитеры, «мясоеды» – прозвище стражников лондонского Тауэра

Edward the Confessor – Эдуард-Исповедник, английский король

 The Ceremony of the Keys – церемония передачи ключей

 Terraced houses – ряд одинаковых домов, соединенных в один квартал

Vocabulary

a conqueror – завоеватель

to found – основывать

 to defeat – разбить, нанести поражение

to suffer – страдать

 to survive – выживать

a heap of ashes – груда пепла

to insist on – настаивать на

winding – извилистый

to associate with – ассоциировать с

slums – трущобы

an abyss – бездна

an entertainment – развлечение

to destroy – уничтожать

a crypt – склеп

 a chapel – часовня, церковь

to save – спасать, сохранять

a tower – башня

royal – королевский

a burial ground – кладбищe, мeсто погребения

 a sovereign – монарх

a fortress – крепость

a prison – тюрьма

a cathedral – собор

a church – церковь

a raven – ворон

to settle – поселяться

to fortify – сооружать

to turn into – превращать

impressive – впечатляющий

a warden – смотритeль

an embassy – посольство

spectacular – импозантный

to pass through – пересекать

on the way to – по дорогe

a double-decker – двухэтажный автобус

left-hand traffic – левостороннее движение

to catch a glimpse of something – увидеть что-то мельком

to make an impression on somebody – произвести впечатление на

 wax – воск

huge – огромный

a wharf – пристань, причал

 a castle – замок

financial – финансовый

commercial – коммерческий

to be famous for – быть известным чeм-либо

a column – колонна

a statue – статуя

a fountain – фонтан

an abbey – аббатство

a palace – дворец

bright advertisements – яркая реклама

Conversational formulas

It goes without saying. – Само собой разумеется.

That’s one way of looking at it. – Это с одной стороны.

 Frankly speaking. – Откровенно говоря.

You don’t say so. – Да что ты говоришь!

Reading comprehension and vocabulary exercises

Exercise 1. Read the text «London» and translate it.

Exercise 2. Practice the pronunciation of the following words:

square, restaurant, luxury, dialect, museum, column, statue, European, fountain, chapel, sovereign, burial, ground, cathedral, tourist.

Exercise 3. Read and guess the meaning of the international words:

restaurant, elegant, grand hotels, dock, industrial, commercial centre, office, bank, column, statue, platform, meeting, demonstration, avenue, National Gallery, collection, fountain, gothic style, memorial, museum, legend, architect, tourist, cafe.

Exercise 4. Listen, pronounce and remember:

The river Thames, London, William of Normandy, Cockney, Trafalgar Square, Admiral Nelson column, The National Gallery, Piccadilly Circus, Eros statue, Regent Street, Soho, Shaftesbury Avenue, Fleet Street, The Strand, Oxford Street, The Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey, Edward the Confessor, The Tower of London, The Raven Master, St. Paul’s Cathedral, Christopher Wren.

Exercise 5. Join suitable parts.

Fleet, Trafalgar, Admiral Nelson, The Houses of, Shaftesbury, The London, Christopher, Edward, Westminster, Eros, The National, Cockney, Piccadilly, The Raven, The River, Buckingham.

Column, Street, Parliament, Square, Palace, Avenue, Tower, Wren, Abbey, the Confessor, dialect, Gallery, Statue, Master, London, Circus, Cathedral, Thames.

Exercise 6. Answer the following questions.

Who founded London? When?

What happened to London in 1666?

Which parts is London divided into? Name them.

What can you say about Cockney?

Name the streets, which lead to Piccadilly Circus.

What is Soho?

What is official name of the Houses of Parliament?

When was it built?

When was Westminster Abbey founded and by whom?

What does the word «The Raven Master» mean?

What do you know about St. Paul’s Cathedral?

Exercise 7. Give Russian equivalents for the following phrases:

turn into; a heap of ashes; insist on building on the old foundations; narrow and winding streets; divide into; is associated with wealth; the London slums; commercial and business centre; is famous for; a statue of; the entertainment centre; was built by; in Gothic style; was destroyed by; a fortress; the Roman conquerors; founded Londinium by settling and fortifying two small hills; the owners of the land; spectacular; unique design; a huge business complex; protect the Crown Jewels; defeat the French; the crypt of the chapel was saved; left-hand traffic.

Exercise 8. Say whether it is true or false using formulas of agreement and disagreement.

Agreement

Yes, I agree entirely here. – Я полностью согласен.

I couldn’t agree more. – Всецело согласен.

I’m of the same opinion. – Я того жe мнения.

 Yes, that’s true. – Да, это правда.

I think so. – Я тоже так думаю.

 That’s a fine way of putting it. – Прекрасно сказано.

Disagreement

It’s not all the same thing. – Это нe одно и то жe.

 I see your point but… – Я понимаю вашу точку зрения, но…

 Just the other way round! – Как раз наоборот.

 I shouldn’t say so! – Я бы так нe сказал.

You can’t be serious. – Ты не можешь говорить это серьезно.

 It might be right but… – Может быть правильно, но

1. London is the capital of the USA. 2. It was founded in 43 AD by the Roman conquerors. 3. After the Great Fire the capital was turned into a heap of ashes. 4. In the West End there are many docks, plants and factories. 5. The City is the commercial and business centre of London. 6. The statue of Admiral Nelson is situated in Buckingham Palace. 7. Soho is the entertainment centre of London. 8. The Houses of Parliament stand on the seashore. 9. Only Westminster Hall and the crypt were saved after the fire. 10. Westminster Abbey was founded in the middle of the 11th century by Edward the Confessor. 11. London is famous for double-deckers, terraced houses and right-hand traffic. 12. Tower Bridge is the most spectacular of the bridges.

Exercise 9. Complete the following sentences.

London is one of …

The Roman conquerors of Britain …

In 1666 the City of London …

This natural disaster gave …

London today stretches …

The name of the «West End» is …

The East End has …

Trafalgar Square is …

That famous Eros statue …

Everyone knows that …

St. Paul’s Cathedral is …

Madame Tussaud’s has …

Windsor Castle is …

Tower Bridge is the most …

Exercise 10. Remember the situations from the text or dialogues where the following phrases or proper names can be used:

to conquer, to defeat, a heap of ashes, a church, to insist on, William of Normandy, tower, impressive, warden, the Ceremony of the Keys, double-decker, terraced houses, to catch a glimpse of, to make an impression on, huge, Admiral Nelson, Edward the Confessor, Sir Christopher Wren, The Houses of Parliament, Jack London.

Communicative exercises

Exercise 1. Divide the text into parts, name them and retell.

Exercise 2. Speak about the four parts of London.

As if you are a native Londoner.

As if you are a guide meeting the group of foreigners.

As if you are a teacher of history, giving a lecture on the history of London.

Exercise 3. Make up and act out your own dialogues using the following key-words:

financial and commercial centre, to be famous for, palace, abbey, huge, to catch a glimpse of, to make an impression on, impressive, cathedral, to destroy, to be associated with.

Exercise 4. Make up and act out conversations between:

the English guide and the Russian tourist;

two Russians, who are going to leave for London.

Exercise 5. Speak on the following situations.

London is a very old city.

The East End is the worker’s district.

The London there are many sights a visitors wants to see.

There is not only one Tower on the site.

Everything in London makes a great impression on everybody.

The Tower Bridge is unique in design.

Exercise 6. Imagine that you have just returned from London, speak about London to your group-mates.

Holidays in Great Britain

Task 1. Find the Russian equivalents for the names of British holidays.

Shrove Tuesday (Pancake Day), Mothering Sunday, St. Valentine’s Day, April Fool’s Day, May Day, Easter Monday, Good Friday, Boxing Day, Christmas, Easter, Guy Fawkes’ Night, Hallowe’en.

Канун Дня Всех Святых, Пасха, День подарков, Ночь Гая Фокса, Страстной вторник, День святого Валентина, День смеха, 1 Мая, Пасхальный понедельник, Страстная пятница, День матери, Рождество.

Task 2. Guess the meaning of the words.

A festival (a holiday), witches and ghosts, a candle, trick or treat, a dummy, straw, a bonfire, fireworks, Easter bunny, a carol service, holly, Christmas tree, a sock, a stocking, Christmas Eve, Father Christmas, chimney, presents (gifts), turkey, Christmas pudding, cracker, Christmas message, Christmas cake, mince pie, servants, Christ, hot-cross buns, a celebration, jokes, a pancake race, valentine cards.

Task 3. Guess the names of the holidays which are described and fill in the gaps. Use the words from Task 2. One word is repeated twice.

A day of small family reunions. On this day absent sons and daughters return to their homes and gifts are made to mothers by their children of all ages.

People eat pancakes on this day. One of the main events on this day is the …

It is the holiday when the church marks the day of … death. On this day people eat … (buns marked on top with a cross).

On this day, people send … and presents to their husbands, wives, boyfriends and girlfriends. You can also send a card to a person you don’t know. But traditionally you must never write your name on it. Some British newspapers have a page for Valentine’s Day messages on February 14thsend a card to a person you don’t know. But traditionally you must never write your name on it. Some British newspapers have a page for Valentine’s Day messages on February 14th.

It is a day for tricks and …

It is … of the coming of spring. On this day different outdoor events are held. Usually May queen, the most beautiful girl of the celebration, is selected.

It is a traditional day for the start of the summer tourist season.

This is the time to visit friends and relatives or watch football. People usually give presents to … on this day.

This festival is connected with witches and ghosts. At parties people dress up in strange costumes and pretend they are … They cut horrible faces in potatoes and other vegetables and put … inside, which shines through the eyes. People may play difficult games such as trying to eat an apple from a bucket of water, without using their hands. Children dressed in white sheets knock on doors and ask if you would like a … If you give them something nice, a «treat», they go away. However, if you don’t they play a «trick» on you, such as making a lot of noise or spilling flour on your front doorstep!

People burn …, made of … and old clothes, on … and let off …

People dye eggs. Children eat candy bunnies and listen to stories about the …, who supposedly brings Easter eggs in a fancy basket.

This is …, when many people go home to be with their families. For most British families, this is the most important festival of the year. On the Sunday before this holiday, many churches hold … where special hymns are sung. Sometimes carol singers can be heard on the streets as they collect money for charity. Most families decorate their houses with brightly coloured paper or …, and they usually have a … in the front room, glittering with coloured lights and decorations. There are a lot of traditions connected with this holiday. But perhaps the most important one is the giving of presents. Family members wrap up their gifts and leave them under the … to be found on … morning. Children leave a long … or a … at the end of their beds on …, 24thimportant festival of the year. On the Sunday before this holiday, many churches hold … where special hymns are sung. Sometimes carol singers can be heard on the streets as they collect money for charity. Most families decorate their houses with brightly coloured paper or …, and they usually have a … in the front room, glittering with coloured lights and decorations. There are a lot of traditions connected with this holiday. But perhaps the most important one is the giving of presents. Family members wrap up their gifts and leave them under the … to be found on … morning. Children leave a long … or a … at the end of their beds on …, 24th December, hoping that … will come down the … during the night and bring them small …, fruit and nuts. On this day the family sit down to a big … dinner followed by … People pull …, which makes a loud crack and a coloured hat, a small toy and a joke fall out. Later in the afternoon they may watch the Queen on television as she delivers her traditional … to the United Kingdom. If they have room for even more food, they may enjoy a piece of a … or eat a hot…

Topic 8. THE OLYMPIC GAMES

The Ancient Olympic Games

I. Look through the list of some new vocabulary notes and try to match them with the Russian words and phrases given below.

1) ancient, 2) to take place, 3) to invite, 4) to emphasize physical fitness and strength, 5) education of youth, 6) a contest, 7) discus and javelin throwing, 8) chariot racing, 9) to hold (held, held), 10) to honour the winners, 11) olive wreaths, 12) deeds, 13) to halt, 14) origin, 15) to be closely connected with, 16) in honour of, 17) supreme, 18) peculiar, 19) selected participants, 20) to take an oath, 21) to compete honestly, 22) to keep the rules, 23) sacred, 24) to follow the principle, 25) to fine, 26) to be exposed to corporal punishment, 27) to allow, 28) under the fear of death penalty, 29) a disobeyer, 30) to be cruelly punished, 31) to throw off, 32) a priestess, 33) a god/а goddess, 34) to have the right, 35) honourable place, 36) to affect, 37) to teach (taught, taught), 38) fisticuffs, 39) in a burst of joy, 40) to give oneself away, 41) to slip from, 42) to recognize, 43) a deception, 44) to reveal, 45) to forgive, 46) to introduce, 47) naked, 48) to last, 49) to be devoted to, 50) triumphant, 51) sacrifices, 52) separate, 53) to award, 54) to gain a victory.

 1) соблюдать правила, 2) древний, 3) в порыве радости, 4) метание диска и копья, 5) узнать, 6) священный, 7) избранные участники, 8) чествовать победителей, 9) обман, 10) иметь тесную связь с, 11) ослушник, 12) оштрафовать, 13) позволять, 14) прощать, 15) почетное место, 16) приглашать, 17) придавать особое значение хорошей физической форме и силе, 18) следовать принципу, 19) жертвоприношения, 20) состязание, 21) гонки на колеснице, 22) бог/богиня, 23) быть подвергнутым телесному наказанию, 24) происходить (случаться), 25) обучение молодежи, 26) подвиги, 27) сбросить (сбрасывать), 28) выдать (себя), 29) соревноваться честно, 30) венки из оливкового дерева, 31) происхождение, 32) награждать, 33) проводить, 34) под страхом смерти, 35) давать клятву, 36) верховный, 37) торжественный, 38) быть жестоко наказанным, 39) завоевать победу, 40) обнаженный, 41) кулачный бой, 42) быть посвященным чему-либо, 43) ввести, 44) обучать, 45) в честь, 46) соскользнуть, 47) отдельный, 48) раскрыть, 49) иметь право, 50) длиться, 51) своеобразный, 52) жрица, 53) распространяться на (воздействовать), 54) прекратить.

 II. Fill in the gaps with the necessary vocabulary notes:

1) supreme, 2) ancient, 3) gain a victory, 4) sacrifices, 5) sacred, 6) halt, 7) olive wreaths, 8) under the fear of death penalty, 9) deeds, 10) triumphant, 11) compete honestly, 12) exposed to corporal punishment.

1. To … in the ancient Olympic Games was a great honour. 2. The ancient Olympic Games were devoted to the … god of the Greeks – Zeus. 3. Women were not allowed to watch the competitions or to participate in them … 4. Ancient Greeks offered up different … to the … gods and goddesses. 5. Ancient Greek gods and heroes are famous for their … 6. The original Olympic Games began in the … Greece, in 776 BC. 7. The ancient Olympics were accompanied by … processions and festivals. 8. The participants, who didn’t … were … 9. The winners of the Ancient Olympic Games were awarded … and cups of olive oil. 10. One of the main principles of the Olympic Games was to … all the wars if there were any during the Olympiad.

III. Before reading the text, look through and remember the following words:

 Zeus [zju:s] – Зевс, верховный бог древних греков, отец богов и смертных;

Hera [`hɪǝrǝ] – Гера, верховная Олимпийская богиня, жена Зевса, покровительница брака и рождения;

Demeter [di`mi:tǝ] – Деметра, древнегреческая богиня плодородия, покровительница земледелия;

BC (Before Christ) – до нашей эры (до рождения Христова);

himation [hɪ`meɪʃn] – гиматий, одежда древних греков в виде прямоугольного куска ткани, прикрывавшая правое плечо и закрывавшая левое.

IV. Read and translate the text.

The Ancient Olympic Games

The Olympic Games have a very long history. They began in 776 BC and took place for nearly 1200 years in Olympia, Greece. The citizens of all the Greek states were invited to take part in the games. The Greeks emphasized physical fitness and strength in their education of youth. Therefore contests in running, jumping, discus and javelin throwing, boxing, horse and chariot racing were held in individual cities, and the winners competed every four years at Mount Olympus. Winners were greatly honoured by having olive wreaths placed on their heads and having poems sung about their deeds. Originally these competitions were held as games of friendship and any wars were halted to allow the contests to take place.

There are a lot of myths and legends about the origin of the Olympic Games. However, all of them are closely connected with ancient Greek Gods and heroes. Actually, the games were held in honour of the supreme God of the ancient Greeks – Zeus. During ten or twelve months before the beginning of the Games the athletes trained hard to take a peculiar physical fitness examination. After it the selected participants of the Olympic Games trained according to the special Olympic programme. The athletes took an oath to compete honestly and to keep the rules of the sacred Olympic Games. Those, who didn’t follow this principle were fined or exposed to corporal punishment.

Only men could take part in the Olympic Games. Women were not allowed even to watch the competitions at the stadium under the fear of death penalty. Disobeyers were cruelly punished: they were thrown off a high mountain. Only the priestess of the ancient Greek goddess Demeter had right to be present at the competitions: a marble throne was constructed specially for her at the most honourable place at the stadium. According to some other sources this rule affected only married women. But still, the history of the ancient Olympics mentions a fact, when a woman was present at the competitions. In 404 BC a Greek woman who taught her own son fisticuffs came to the stadium dressed in a man’s clothes – himation. Her son gained a victory in the competitions and in a burst of joy she gave herself away: the himation slipped from her body and everybody recognized the woman. So, the deception was revealed. But since the woman’s father, her three brothers and her nephew were all the Olympic winners she was forgiven. However a new Olympic rule was introduced since then: all the participants and the spectators had to be naked during the competitions.

For about three hundred years the ancient Olympic Games lasted for three days. The first and the third days were devoted to triumphant ceremonies, processions and sacrifices to the Gods: thus, the competitions lasted for just one day.

Women had their own athletic Games, devoted to the ancient Goddess of Olympia – Hera. Greek women competed mainly in running. They had a separate stadium but its area was not as vast as the men’s one. The women winners were awarded olive wreaths and half a cow, sacrificed to Hera.

V. Answer the following questions.

  1.  When and where did the Olympic Games begin?
  2.  What did the ancient Greeks emphasize in their education of youth?
  3.  What contests did the ancient Greeks participate in?
  4.  How were the ancient winners honoured?
  5.  What is the origin of the Olympic Games connected with?
  6.  What did the ancient Greeks do to take part in the Olympics?
  7.  What kind of oath did the participants of the Games take before the beginning of the competitions?
  8.  Was there any punishment for those who broke the rules of the sacred Olympics?
  9.  Were women allowed to take part in the Games?
  10.  What expected women-disobeyers who dared to come to the site of the competitions?
  11.  Women never visited the ancient Olympics, did they?
  12.  For how many years did the Olympic Games last for three days?
  13.  What were these days devoted to?
  14.  Did women have their own athletic Games? Whom were they devoted to?
  15.  How were the Greek women awarded?

VI. Say if the given below statements are true or false. If the statement is correct, you should say «It’s true» or «I agree». If the statement is not correct you should say «It’s false» or «I disagree» and correct it.

The ancient Olympic Games began in 776 BC in ancient Egypt, Cairo.

The best ancient Greek athletes competed every four years at the Mount Olympus.

The Olympic Games were devoted to the supreme god of the Greeks – Apollo.

There were no wars waged during the ancient Olympics.

Unmarried women were allowed to come and watch the competitions.

Women had their own athletic Games devoted to Demeter.

Women were traditionally awarded some jewelry for taking part in the Olympics.

VII. Make up your own three statements, using the information from the text. One of your statements should be false. Read your statements to the students. Their task is to say which of the statements is false and correct it.

VIII. Use the text and give the English equivalents for the following Russian sentences.

  1.  У Олимпийских игр очень длинная история: они начались в 776 до нашей эры и проходили в течение 1200 лет в Древней Греции.
  2.  Древние Олимпийские игры включали в себя состязания в беге, прыжках, метании диска и копья, гонках на колеснице, боксе и др.
  3.  Эти соревнования символизировали дружбу, и всякие войны, приходившиеся на период Олимпиады, прекращались.
  4.  Победители награждались оливковыми венками и песнями о своих подвигах.
  5.  Все спортсмены давали клятву соревноваться честно и соблюдать правила священных Олимпийских игр.
  6.  Игры проводились в честь верховного древнегреческого бога Зевса.
  7.  Только мужчины имели право на участие в Олимпийских играх.
  8.  Женщинам не позволялось даже смотреть на соревнования под страхом смерти, а ослушниц ожидало суровое наказание: их сбрасывали с высокой горы.
  9.  Около 300 лет древние Олимпийские игры продолжались в течение трех дней: первый и третий дни были посвящены триумфальным церемониям и только второй день отводился на проведение соревнований.
  10.  Женщины Древней Греции проводили соревнования, которые были посвящены богине Гере.

 IX. Write an essay on the topic «The Ancient Olympic Games». Be ready to speak on the topic «The Ancient Olympic Games».

The Modern Olympic Games

I. Look through the list of some new vocabulary notes and try to match them with the Russian words and phrases given below.

1) to provide an opportunity, 2) a sport-lover, 3) to abolish, 4) a pagan rite, 5) to ban, 6) due to religious reasons, 7) renewal, 8) educator, 9) to manage to do smth., 10) to persuade, 11) the International Olympic Committee, 12) to be set up, 13) to adopt a motto, 14) «Faster, Higher, Stronger», 15) number, 16) to increase, 17) central policy-making body, 18) a representative, 19) participant countries, 20) separately, 21) to host the Games, 22) to start preparations, 23) to take great efforts, 24) to arrange, 25) to pay much attention to, 26) the opening ceremony, 27) to appear as host, 28) anthem, 29) to march past the Lodge of Honour, 30) host country, 31) to declare smth open, 32) the Olympic flag, 33) to raise, 34) the Olympic flame, 35) to light, 36) The Olympic torch, 37) to carry smth, 38) a torch bearer, 39) the oath-taking ceremony, 40) to promise, 41) to join, 42) to express, 43) triumph, 44) struggle.

 1) церемония произнесения клятвы, 2) Международный олимпийский комитет, 3) требовать больших усилий, 4) из-за религиозных причин, 5) центральный орган, определяющий политику, 6) проходить мимо почетной ложи, 7) любитель спорта, 8) олимпийский факел, 9) языческий обряд, 10) триумф, 11) борьба, 12) снабдить возможностью, 13) олимпийский флаг, 14) уделять большое внимание ч.-л., 15) отменить, 16) количество, 17) начинать приготовления, 18) организовать, 19) возрождение, 20) принимать Олимпийские игры, 21) страны-участники, 22) педагог, 23) нести ч.-л., 24) поднимать, 25) суметь сделать ч.-л., 26) объявить об открытии ч.-л., 27) принять девиз, 28) «Быстрее, выше, сильнее», 29) олимпийский огонь, 30) зажечь, 31) церемония открытия, 32) представитель, 33) запрещать, 34) гимн, 35) выступать в качестве хозяина, 36) обещать, 37) отдельно, 38) присоединиться, 39) носильщик факела, 40) быть основанным, 41) убедить, 42) выражать, 43) увеличиваться, 44) страна-хозяин.

II. Fill in the gaps with the necessary vocabulary notes:

1) number, 2) educator, 3) adopted, 4) central policy-making body, 5) oath-taking ceremony, 6) joined, 7) takes great efforts, 8) banned, 9) motto,10) provide an opportunity, 11) to host, 12) a pagan rite.

1. The … is a compulsory part of the Olympic Games. 2. Baron Pierre de Coubertin was a great … 3. It usually … to arrange everything for the Olympic Games. 4. The International Olympic Committee … the Olympic …: «Faster, Higher, Stronger!» 5. The Olympic games … for people to meet together. 6. The International Olympic Committee is the … of the whole Olympic Movement. 7. It is very respectful and prestigious … summer or winter Olympic Games for any city. 8. Russia … the Olympic Movement in 1952. 9. Once the Olympic Games were considered … by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I and he … them. 10. The number of events, included in the programme of the modern Olympic Games has greatly …

III. Before reading the text, look through and remember the following:

 AD, Anno Domini [`ænʊ `domɪnaɪ] – нашей (новой) эры, от рождества Христова.

IV. Read and translate the text.

The Modern Olympic Games

Today the Olympic Games are visited by thousands of people every time they are held. They provide an opportunity for sport lovers of all nations to meet together. A few people know that in ancient time they were abolished. In 394 AD the Roman Emperor Theodosius I considered the Olympics a pagan rite and banned them due to religious reasons. The renewal of the Games came when the French educator Baron Pierre de Coubertin managed to persuade people to start the Olympic Games again. The International Olympic Committee was set up in 1894 and the first modern Olympic Games took place in Athens two years later, in 1896.

The motto adopted by the International Olympic Committee is «Faster, Higher, Stronger» («Citius, Altius, Fortius» in Greek). There were competitions in many kinds of sport: running, jumping, and boxing. All the nations of the world were invited to take part in the Games. From then on the Olympic Games have become international and the number of events on the programme has increased. The International Olympic Committee is the central policy-making body of the Olympic movement, formed by the representatives of the participant countries.

There are summer and winter Olympic Games nowadays. They are held separately. There are always several cities which wish to host the Games. The International Committee of the Olympic Games selects the most suitable. (Over 150 countries are represented in the International Olympic Committee at present.) After that the host city starts its preparations for the competitions: builds new sport facilities, reconstructs buildings, hotels, sport centres… Thousand of athletes, journalists and guests arrive to the games and it takes great efforts to arrange everything. Much attention is paid to the opening ceremony. At the opening of the Games the International Olympic Committee appears as host. The national anthem of the host country is played and all the participants march past the Lodge of Honour. The Head of the host country declares the Games open. Then the Olympic flag – the symbol of the five continents with five interlaced rings of blue, yellow, black, green and red colours on a white background – is raised and the Olympic hymn is sung. Then the Olympic flame is lit that will burn till the end of the Games and the Olympic torch is carried by torch bearers. The oath taking ceremony also takes place and all the participants of the Games promise to compete honestly.

Russia joined the Olympic movement in 1952. Since then, Russian sportsmen and sportswomen have won a great deal of gold, silver and bronze medals. The importance of the Olympic Games was well expressed by Pierre de Coubertin: «The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win, but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph, but the struggle».

V. Answer the following questions.

  1.  What opportunity do the Olympic Games provide sport-lovers today?
  2.  The Olympic Games were never abolished, weren’t they?
  3.  Who banned the Olympic Games? What was the reason for it?
  4.  When did the renewal of the Olympic Games come?
  5.  When was the International Olympic Committee set up?
  6.  What motto did the International Olympic Committee adopt?
  7.  What is the International Olympic Committee?
  8.  What is one of the most important Olympic ceremonies?
  9.  What happens after the head of the host country declares the Games open?
  10.  What other Olympic ceremonies take place before the beginning of the Games?
  11.  When did Russia join the Olympic movement?
  12.  What are the achievements of the Russian sportsmen and sportswomen?

VI. Say if the given below statements are true or false. If the statement is correct, you should say «It’s true» or «I agree». If the statement is not correct you should say «It’s false» or «I disagree» and correct it.

  1.  Today the Olympic Games are visited by many people.
  2.  In 394 AD the Roman Emperor Theodosius banned the Olympic Games because he thought they were not so very interesting and exciting.
  3.  Pierre de Coubertin managed to revive the Olympic Games.
  4.  The International Olympic Committee was set up in 1894 and soon adopted the Olympic motto: «Faster, Higher, Wider».

  1.  It doesn’t take great efforts to arrange everything for the Olympic Games.
  2.  At the beginning much attention is usually paid to spectators.
  3.  There are summer, winter and spring Olympic Games.
  4.  The Olympic flag has five colours: blue, yellow, green, black and purple.
  5.  Sportsmen usually decide themselves where and when the Olympics take place.
  6.  Pierre de Coubertin once said: «The most important thing in the Olympic Games is to win, and not to take part, just as the most important thing in life is the triumph, and not the struggle».

VII. Make up your own three statements, using the information from the text. One of your statements should be false. Read your statements to the students. Their task is to say which of the statements is false and correct it.

VIII. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English. Use the topical vocabulary.

Сегодня Олимпийские игры посещают тысячи любителей спорта. Мало людей знают о том, что однажды Олимпийские игры были запрещены римским императором Феодосием I, который посчитал их языческим ритуалом. Пьер де Кубертен сумел убедить народ возобновить Олимпийские игры. Международный олимпийский комитет был основан в 1894 году, и в 1896 году прошли первые современные Олимпийские игры. Международный олимпийский комитет – это центральный орган, определяющий политику олимпийского движения, именно он выбирает страну и город, в которых проходят Олимпийские игры. Страна-хозяин тщательно готовится к организации Олимпийских игр: строятся новые спортивные сооружения, реконструируются спортивные центры. Много внимания уделяется церемонии открытия Игр. Сначала появляется представитель страны-хозяина и объявляет открытие Олимпийских игр. Затем поднимается олимпийский флаг, исполняется гимн и зажигается олимпийский огонь, который горит до самого окончания Олимпийских игр. Церемония произнесения клятвы – также одно из важнейших событий Олимпиады, при котором спортсмены обещают соревноваться честно. Важность Олимпийских игр была хорошо сформулирована Пьером де Кубертеном: «Самое главное в Олимпийских играх не победа, а участие, подобно тому, как самое главное в жизни не победа, а борьба».

IX. Think over 5 differences between Ancient Olympic Games (see the previous text) and Modern Olympic Games. Do you find them all advantages or disadvantages? Give your reasons.

X. Write an essay on the topic «The Modern Olympic Games». Be ready to speak on the topic «The Modern Olympic Games».

Pierre de Coubertin

I. Look through and remember the following vocabulary notes:

initiator – инициатор

renewal – возрождение

painter – живописец

 clan – клан, родословная

highly-educated – высокообразованный

all-rounder – разносторонний человек

fine arts – изобразительное искусство

law – закон, право

encourage – подвигнуть, подстрекать

 Bachelor of Arts – Бакалавр Искусств

instructor – наставник

humanistic sciences – гуманистические науки

rhetoric – риторика

unfortunate outcome – плачевный исход

publish – публиковать

 gain ground – продвигаться вперед

necessity – необходимость

establishment – основание

integral part – неотъемлемая часть

upbringing – воспитание

attempt – попытка

the greatest value – величайшая ценность

persuade – убедить

get success – добиться успеха

 bury – хоронить

make a great contribution – внести значительный вклад

serve the cause of peace – служить причиной мира

II. Fill in the gaps with the necessary vocabulary notes:

1) made a great contribution, 2) integral part, 3) attempts, 4) all-rounder, 5) published, 6) fine arts, 7) law, 8) highly-educated, 9) serve the cause of peace, 10) painter, 11) renewal.

The Olympic Games … in the whole world nowadays.

Since his early childhood Pierre de Coubertin was an …

Pierre de Coubertin always thought physical culture an … of people’s development.

The father of Pierre de Coubertin was a … by profession.

Pierre de Coubertin … many articles and books on physical education.

The … of the Olympic Games happened due to Pierre de Coubertin.

Pierre de Coubertin made a lot of … to renew the Olympics.

The mother of Pierre de Coubertin was a … woman.

Except physical education theories Pierre de Coubertin was fond of … and …

Pierre de Coubertin … to the development of physical education in the world.

III. Read and translate the text.

Pierre de Coubertin

The initiator of the Olympic Games’ renewal Pierre de Coubertin was born on the 1st of January in 1863, in Paris. His father, a painter by profession came from the ancient family clan of Baron Charles Louis Fredy de Coubertin. Pierre de Coubertin’s mother, Agathe-Gabrielle de Mirville, was a highly-educated woman from an aristocratic family.

Since his early childhood Pierre de Coubertin was an all-rounder. He studied fine arts, science and law. He also went in for sport and was very good at riding, fencing and rowing. At the age of 12 he read the book «The School Years of Tom Brown» which encouraged him to study the basis of physical education. Having left the lycée in Paris he entered the Parisian University and after its graduation became the Bachelor of Arts, Science and Law. Pierre de Coubertin respected greatly his instructor and close friend Father Caron, professor of humanistic sciences and rhetoric who taught him the Greek language and the history of the Roman Empire and who told him a lot about the ancient Olympic Games.

The Franco-Prussian war and its unfortunate outcome stimulated de Coubertin’s patriotism and he devoted himself to the study of different physical education theories. In 1886–1887 he published several articles on these problems. Pierre de Coubertin travelled a lot and his travels around Europe and the United States of America showed him that the interest in the physical education was gaining ground in quite a lot of countries: England, Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands. Pierre de Coubertin often spoke about the necessity of physical education and insisted on the establishment of the Physical Education League. Later on and due to his efforts physical education became an integral part in the theory of young people’s upbringing in France, his motherland.

The first attempts of Pierre de Coubertin to revive the Olympic Games began on the 30th of August, in 1887 after the publication of one of his articles on the subject.

Since that time he published a lot of other articles and books about the importance of physical education considering it the greatest value in the intellectual development of people and took part in different conferences where he persuaded people to revive the Olympic Games. And as a result he got success. Thanks to Pierre de Coubertin the International Olympic Committee was set up and de Coubertin was its president till his death. He died on the 2nd of September in 1937 in Geneva and was buried in Lausanne. His heart was buried in another place – in the monument near the ruins of ancient Olympia.

Pierre de Coubertin made a great contribution to the development of physical culture in the world. People of all nationalities will remember him as a strong-willed, purposeful and highly-educated man, and of course as a man who did all the best to revive the Olympic Games which serve the cause of peace on the Earth and unify people of the whole world today.

IV. Answer the following questions.

  1.  Who is Pierre de Coubertin?
  2.  When and where was he born?
  3.  Who were his father and mother?
  4.  Pierre de Coubertin was an all-rounder, wasn’t he? Prove it.
  5.  What encouraged him to study the basis of physical education?
  6.  What university did Pierre de Coubertin graduate from?
  7.  Who was his close friend and instructor? Why did Pierre de Coubertin respect him?
  8.  What countries did Pierre de Coubertin visit? What was the purpose of his travels in your opinion?
  9.  When did the first Pierre de Coubertin’s attempts to revive the Olympic Games begin? What was the result of those attempts?
  10.  When did Pierre de Coubertin die?
  11.  Where was his heart buried? Why, do you think, his heart was buried separately from his body?
  12.  What kind of contribution did Pierre de Coubertin make? Prove your idea.

V. Try your hand in the following translation.

 Пьер де Кубертен родился в Париже первого января 1863 года. У Пьера были высокообразованные родители. С детства Пьер де Кубертен был весьма разносторонним человеком: он изучал изобразительное искусство, науку и право, занимался спортом, в частности, верховой ездой, греблей и фехтованием. Пьер де Кубертен окончил лицей в Париже, а затем университет и стал бакалавром искусства, науки и права. После прочтения книги «Школьные годы Томаса Брауна» Пьер де Кубертен начал изучать теорию физического воспитания. Его близкий друг и наставник помогал ему в этом. После окончания Франко-прусской войны Пьер опубликовал множество книг и статей о важности физического воспитания в интеллектуальном развитии людей. Пьер много путешествовал и обращал внимание на то, как физическая культура и спорт развиваются в разных странах. Благодаря его стараниям возобновились Олимпийские игры. Это и было основной целью всей его жизни. Пьер де Кубертен умер второго сентября 1937 года в Женеве и был похоронен в Лозанне. Его сердце было захоронено в памятнике около руин древней Олимпии. Люди всего мира запомнят, какой великий вклад он внес в развитие физического воспитания.

VI. Write an essay on the biography of Pierre de Coubertin. Be ready to speak about the biography of Pierre de Coubertin.

Topic 9.  SPORT AND SOCIETY

I. Match English and Russian words and word combinations.

1) society, 2) humanity (mankind), 3) to develop, 4) development, 5) growth, 6) to derive, 7) to disport, 8) to appear, 9) to mean, 10) pastime, 11) recreation, 12) pleasure, 13) to be fond of, 14) to unite, 15) to keep fit, 16) daily activity, 17) to suffer from tiredness, 18) to do jogging, 19) to go in for, 20) facilities, 21) to pay much attention to, 22) educational establishments, 23) a compulsory subject, 24) high rewards, 25) to encourage, 26) to take drugs, 27) to improve performance, 28) violence, 29) to demonstrate true value of sport, 30) to include, 31) fair play, 32) sportsmanship, 33) respect, 34) to be practiced for various reasons, 35) amusement, 36) social relationships, 37) fame, 38) to make all people kin.

 1) объединять, 2) развивать, 3) отдых, 4) развлекаться, 5) слава, 6) развитие, 7) общество, 8) улучшить выступление, 9) человечество, 10) подстрекать, потворствовать, 11) спортивное мастерство, 12) высокие награды, 13) рост, 14) значить, означать, 15) бегать трусцой, 16) принимать запрещенные препараты, 17) роднить всех людей, 18) обязательный предмет, 19) увлекаться, 20) удовольствие, 21) заниматься, 22) оснащение, 23) появляться, 24) времяпрепровождение, 25) страдать от усталости, 26) показать истинную ценность спорта, 27) уделять большое внимание, 28) заниматься чем-либо по разным причинам, 29) образовательные учреждения, 30) насилие, 31) быть в хорошей форме, 32) происходить от, 33) повседневная деятельность, 34) включать, 35) честная игра, 36) уважение, 37) общественные связи, 38) развлечение.

 II. Fill in the gaps:

1) daily activities, 2) pleasure, 3) humanity, 4) development, 5) suffer from tiredness, 6) demonstrate the true value of sport, 7) respect, 8) educational establishments, 9) compulsory subject, 10) sportsmanship, 11) disport, 12) to keep fit, 13) recreation, 14) growth, 15) pastime, 16) unites, 17) facilities, 18) fair play, 19) amusement, 20) social relationships, 21) fame, 22) makes all people kin, 23) to take drugs, 24) recreation, 25) to improve their performance, 26) violence.

1. Sport is probably as old as the … itself. 2. It has been developing with the … and … of the mankind. 3. The word sport was derived from the word «…» and first appeared in the literature in 1303 and meant sport, …, … and … 4. Sport … people of different classes and nationalities. 5. It helps people to become strong, … and to develop physically, makes them more organized and better disciplined in their … 6. Regular exercises give you energy. That is why people who … should do more exercises. 7. All necessary … are provided for people: stadiums, sports grounds, swimming pools, skating rinks, skiing stations, football fields. 8. Sport is paid much attention to in our … 9. Physical culture is … at schools, colleges and universities. 10. The high rewards encourage sportsmen … 11. Another problem is aggression and … within the sport area. 12. Athletes and coaches must …, which includes …, …, … for others. 13. Despite these problems, people like sport and go in for sport, sport is practiced for various reasons: …, education, …, health, …, physical development, … 14. Sport is a very important part of our daily life and a thing that …

III. Match English and Russian phrases.

 1) спорт, вероятно, существует столько же, сколько и человечество; 2) спорт обычно ассоциируется с игрой, физическими упражнениями и соревнованиями; 3) спорт объединяет людей различных классов и национальностей; 4) спорт помогает людям становиться сильными, быть в хорошей форме, развиваться физически, делает их более организованными и дисциплинированными в их повседневной деятельности; 5) спортом занимаются по разным причинам: развлечение, образование, отдых, здоровье, общественные связи, физическое развитие, слава; 6) спорт очень важная часть нашей повседневной жизни, вещь, которая роднит всех людей.

 1) sport unites people of different classes and nationalities; 2) sport is practiced for various reasons: amusement, education, recreation, health, social relationships, physical development, fame; 3) sport is usually associated with play, physical exercises and competitions; 4) sport is probably as old as the humanity itself; 5) sport is a very important part of our daily life and a thing that makes all people kin; 6) sport helps people to become strong, to keep fit, to develop physically, makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily activities.

 IV. Read and translate the text.

Sport is probably as old as the humanity itself. It has been developing with the development and growth of the mankind. Sport is usually associated with play, physical exercises and competitions. The word sport was derived from the word «disport» and first appeared in the literature in 1303 and meant sport, pastime, recreation and pleasure.

All over the world people of different ages are fond of sports and games. Sport unites people of different classes and nationalities. It helps people to become strong, to keep fit and to develop physically, makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily activities. Regular exercises give you energy. That is why people who suffer from tiredness should do more exercises. Some people do morning exercises or jogging, some go in for aerobics, skiing, skating, shaping, swimming, tennis, football, hockey, etc.

All necessary facilities are provided for people: stadiums, sports grounds, swimming pools, skating rinks, skiing stations, football fields.

Sport is paid much attention to in our educational establishments. Physical culture is a compulsory subject at schools, colleges and universities.

Sport is also very popular among children. Many children are fond of ball games: basketball, volleyball, football. Besides they like to take part in competitions to see who is the quickest, the strongest, who can jump best, and who is the best swimmer or player.

But unfortunately there are some problems in the sport area nowadays. Sport today means business, huge sums of money for both players and sponsors. The high rewards encourage sportsmen to take drugs to improve their performance. Another problem is aggression and violence within the sport area. Athletes and coaches must demonstrate the true value of sport which includes fair play, sportsmanship, respect for others. Despite these problems, people like sport and go in for sport, sport is practiced for various reasons: amusement, education, recreation, health, social relationships, physical development, fame. Numerous international competitions and tournaments are constantly held.

Thus we can make a conclusion, that sport is a very important part of our daily life and a thing that makes all people kin.

V. Give the full answers to the following questions, do it in the written form.

  1.  How old is sport?
  2.  What sport is associated with?
  3.  When did the word sport first appear and what did it mean?
  4.  Why do people go in for sport?
  5.  What facilities are provided for people who go in for sport?
  6.  What attention is paid to sport in our educational establishments?
  7.  Why do children like to go in for sport?
  8.  What problems are there in the sport area nowadays?
  9.  Why do people go in for sport? What are the reasons?
  10.  Why do you go in for sport?

VI. Read the statements, say if they are true or false, correct the false ones. If the statement is correct, you should say «It’s true» or «I agree». If the statement is not correct you should say «It’s false» or «I disagree» and correct it.

People who suffer from tiredness should not do a lot of exercises.

Sport is not paid much attention in our educational establishments.

Sport is not very popular among children.

There are some problems in the sport area nowadays.

Sport is a very important part of our daily life and a thing that makes all people kin.

VII. Make up your own three statements, use the information from the text. One of your statements should be false. Read them to the students. Their task is to say which of your statements is false and correct it.

VIII. Translate the sentences from Russian into English, use the information from the text and your dictionary.

  1.  Во всём мире люди всех возрастов увлекаются разными видами спорта и играми.
  2.  Постоянные упражнения дают вам энергию. Вот почему людям, которые страдают от усталости, следует делать больше физических упражнений.
  3.  Физическая культура является обязательным предметом в школах, колледжах и университетах.
  4.  Многие дети увлекаются играми с мячом: баскетболом, волейболом, футболом.
  5.  Спорт сегодня – это бизнес, огромные суммы денег, как для игроков, так и для спонсоров.
  6.  Высокие награды заставляют спортсменов принимать запрещенные препараты, для того чтобы улучшить свое выступление.
  7.  Спортсмены и тренеры должны показывать истинную ценность спорта, которая включает честную игру, спортивное мастерство и уважение к другим.

IX. Read the statements and find the additional information proving them in the text.

All over the world people of different ages go in for sport.

Children like to go in for sport very much.

There are some problems in the sport area today.

X. Write a composition on the topic «Sport and society». Be ready to speak on the topic «Sport and society».

Supplementary texts and dialogues

Text 1

What is better watching sports or participating in sports?

Nowadays sport and recreation have become an important feature in the people's life. But tastes differ and different people have different attitudes to sport and recreation. Some people prefer to watch different sports events, others choose to participate in them actively. Watching other people playing is a popular leisure activity. Large crowds attend numerous national and international occasions; millions watch them on television.

Among the most popular sports are football, hockey, basketball, tennis, and motor racing. Many people assemble to watch these competitions. World Football, Hockey and Basketball Championships attract people from all over the world who cover great distances in order to support their favourite team. Wimbledon Championship is the most important tournament of lawn tennis, while Grand Prix is the major motor racing competition. But of cause the most important sport event is the Olympiad that takes place every four years.

Most of the important games are shown on TV. In many countries there are special TV channels that broadcast sports programmes for 24 hours. The major sporting competitions, such as the Olympic Games, are shown on the central TV channels attracting millions of people who can be thousands of kilometres away from the event. Popularity of sports differs from country to country. In Latin America football stadiums are always crowded, while the Russian fans are so disappointed with the poor performance of our football teams that many prefer not to watch the games even on TV.

I can’t agree that it is good to disapprove of watching sports events and approve of participating in sports. The desire to follow the example of sports stars induces people to take up sports that they used to watch seriously. For example many young Russians are fond of playing football. Even if the Russian teams are far from being the best in the world, Brazilian, Italian and French players become the example that young people try hard to follow.

In the past decades people's involvement in sport and recreation have grown considerably. Now there is a large variety of available opportunities and facilities. Sport is the best and the shortest way to health and fitness. Increasing number of people are involved today in activities that help them keep fit and enjoy life. Physical recreation tends to be informal and non-competitive and may include, for example, cycling, boating, jogging. Dancing has become a very popular recreation. Many Russians have started learning Latin American dances, such as samba, rumba, cha-cha-cha.

Sport and recreation facilities provided at schools and universities enable young athletes to develop their talents. In Russia schools and universities participate in sports tournaments, for example in football and basketball. Many facilities are made available by local clubs and parks. There are commercial facilities, which include bowling centres, skating rinks, tennis courts and riding stables.

According to the latest figures the most popular activity of all is walking. It is a well known fact that walking for an hour every day is healthier than rare and irregular participation in any of the more active physical activities. To keep fit some people attend special classes or take part in aerobics or yoga, do some kind of weight training in a gym. Others play football, badminton, tennis.

Evidently participating in sports has more advantages than simply watching sports competitions. At the same time these two kinds of activities are tightly interconnected. Professional sport is important not only for the professional athletes, one of its missions is to propagandize and popularize sports activities on the everyday level. At the same time it is always an individual preference. And only the individual has the right to decide what is better for him. But whatever the choice is, the pleasure is undoubted.

Dialogue 1

Let’s talk about sport

– Do you like to watch sports events on TV?

– Yes, of course. It is wonderful that television is bringing all kinds of sports to our homes. Sometimes I go to the stadium to watch a game, but more often I stay at home and watch matches on TV.

– What sports do you prefer to watch?

– Football and tennis are my favourite sports. I try not to miss the most important football and lawn tennis tournaments and watch them on TV. The fact that I prefer to watch sports competitions on TV does not mean that I am lazy. Unfortunately, Russia is not the major football or tennis power. There is only one important tennis tournament that is held in Moscow – the Kremlin Cup, and the best football teams do not come to Moscow to play too often. Thus, if I want to see really good matches I shall either go abroad or watch TV. For example, in the summer of 2002 there was a World Football Championship that took place in Japan and Korea. Although it would have been nice to visit those countries, was the best possibility of seeing the strongest football teams play simply turning on the TV set.

– Do you play football or tennis yourself?

– Yes, I do, although not very often. Several years ago I used to do tennis. Once I was even thinking of pursuing a professional career, but now all that is in the past. I prefer watching others play tennis to playing myself. As for football, I have been a football fan from my childhood. My grandfather was the first to teach me to play football. Since then thousands of times I have played football with my friends and classmates. I think that the best time for playing football is early autumn and late spring. After classes my friends and I go to the playing ground, take a ball and we can really play for hours. In summer my friends are out of Moscow, while the Russian winter does not induce to playing football.

– Do you admire any athletes?

– Yes, I do. Eugeny Kafelnikov is my favourite tennis player. He is really good in tennis and ranks among the best tennis players of the world. Kafelnikov was the first Russian tennis player who managed to defeat the strongest Western athletes. I hope Eugeny will show excellent results for many years to come. I think that the example of Kafelnikov should inspire many young Russians to play tennis. As for football, I cannot, unfortunately, say that there is a particular Russian player whom I admire. My favourite football player is Gabriel Batistuta. He is an Argentinean, but now he is playing in the Italian championship. He is a really gifted athlete, he loves football and makes thousands of fans adore him. At the same time he neither shows any pride nor demonstrates contempt for his fans. This is also very important. Batistuta serves me an example not only as a sportsman but as a personality too.

– Do you have any friends who go in for sports professionally?

– Yes, I do. I have one friend who is doing professional tennis. We started to play tennis together. While I quitted, he continued to pursue a sport career. He works very hard under the supervision of his coach. He takes part in various competitions. He tries to achieve good results, but sometimes they are not perfect. In either case he is pretty sure that one day he will become a good tennis player. His dream is to play with Kafelnikov. My other friends do not take sport seriously. Just for fun they play football or badminton, and I think that they are right. Sport is good while there is not too much of it.

Dialogue 2

Sport in your life

– What role does sport play in your life?

– Although I do not go in for sports, I am fond of such activities that allow me to keep fit at home. I start with running then I take exercise programmes.

– Do your friends go in for sports?

– Some of them go in for sports and sports activities such as swimming, skiing, playing badminton, ice hockey, football or basketball. Unfortunately, public sports facilities are not always available to my friends, and they are engaged into outdoor activities. Most of them prefer running. They put on the white 'trainer' shoes and tracksuits and run through the parks or along the streets for half an hour a day.

– Do secondary schools officials pay attention to sports?

– Russian schools use sports activities as a way of teaching social values. Among these are teamwork and sportsmanship. The average secondary school offers its pupils such sports as football, basketball, track-and-field. Being intelligent and being good in sports are regarded as an ideal.

– Do you often attend a swimming pool?

– I enjoy swimming that is why twice a week I go to the swimming pool in autumn, winter and spring. In summer I swim in the lakes and rivers. But most of all I like to swim in the Black sea.

– Is the healthy life-style popular in Russia?

– Yes, certainly. Today everybody wants to be fit, feel good, look slim and stay young. Everyone who wants can participate in sports activities in our country. Many fitness clubs and public leisure centres have been built during the past years. These modern centres with their swimming pools, squash courts, gym and indoor courts for tennis are competing with cinemas and theatres as places for people to go to spend their leisure time. There one can find a leisure pool with a wave machine, water slides and tropical plants Families can spend their holidays at huge indoor water parks.

– What do you know about sports in foreign countries?

– Nowadays sports and activities are fashionable in Europe and America. For example, popular marathons are now held everywhere. Lots of people want to see if they can run 42 km and do it faster than everyone else. The big city marathons, in London and New York, are important sporting events. Television cameras and newspapers report them in detail. According to the latest figures the most popular sports in Europe and America are walking, cycling, jogging, playing football and golf. Other popular sports are bowling, badminton, tennis. Experts are asking a very important question: should sports be taken seriously or should it be just for fun?

– What do you think about it?

– I think, it depends upon the people's choice. Some people want to go in for sports seriously, others consider it to be a way to keep fit.

– What sports are British fond of?

– Sports play an important part in the life of the English people. All sports are very popular among them. The national British sports are: football, golf, cricket, table tennis, lawn tennis, snooker, steeplechase, racing, darts. The British are fond of football which is of two kinds there: association football (soccer) and rugby. Englishmen like all kinds of racing. Horse-racing, motor-car racing, boat-racing, dog-racing, donkey-racing are very popular in England.

– What sports are popular in American?

– Such sports as hockey, soccer, weightlifting, track and field, tennis, rowing, wrestling, golf, basketball, volleyball, boxing, figure-skating, cross-country skiing, swimming, judo and shooting are popular in the USA. The variety and size of the country, its different climates and the people's love of competitions of any type can explain the large choice of sports in America. The most recent unusual sport that first reached popularity in the USA is triathlon. It includes swimming, bicycle racing and long-distance running and is becoming more and more popular in Europe.

– What do you know about the Olympic games?

– The history of the Olympic games dates back to Ancient Greece. According to the legend Hercules was the founder of the first Olympic Games. An athletic festival with competitions in music and poetry began to attract the Greeks in the 8th century. The year 776 BC was established by history as the first date of the recorded Olympiad. The Olympic Games were held every five years. People dated events by the Olympiads throughout ancient period. The athletes competed in running, boxing, wrestling, horse and chariot racing. The winners were given laurel wreaths. According to the rules established at Olympia all hostilities between warring states ceased for the duration of the Olympiad. The truce was universally respected and no Greek state could break it. In the course of time the festival became so popular that not only athletes competed for the crown of wild olive but artists, poets, philosophers, orators and historians, were trying to create immortal works dedicated to the unity and splendour of Hellenic civilization. The prestige and brilliance of the Olympic Games was so great that other panhellenic festivals were instituted two centuries later – the Pythian (590 BC), the Isthmian (580 BC), the Nemean (573 BC), in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and Zeus respectively. The Olympic Games were held for nearly twelve centuries and were abolished in 394 AD by Theodosius I, the Christian Emperor, on the ground of their pagan origin. At the end of the 19th century Baron Pierre de Coubertin revived them. In 1894 he addressed the International Congress of Athletes emphasizing the importance of sports in the peoples' life. The first modem Olympic Games were held in Athens in 1896 to signify the succession of the tradition. Since then the Games have been regularly held in different countries of the world.

– What body controls the programme of the Olympic games?

– The International Olympic Committee is responsible for the programme, the number of the participants and the city-host for the Games.

– When did Russia join the Olympic movement?

  •  Our country first participated in the 1952 Summer and 1956 Winter Olympic Games. The achievements of our athletes in the Olympic Games were a source of great national pride. Although athletes were technically amateurs, they were well supported by the Sports State Committee. In ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, gymnastics, track-and-field athletes, weight lifting, wrestling, and boxing our country was among the best in the world. At the 1992 Barcelona Olympics the team of our country won 45 gold medals.

My keep-fit programme

– Hi, George!

– Hi, Emily, how are you?

– I feel great. I have just got back from the sports centre.

– I didn't know you were doing any sports.

– Oh yes, I have got quite a few exercise classes. On Mondays and Wednesdays I go to aerobics. It's really good for my heart and it helps me keep fit.

– That's true. You look great. Do you do any other kind of sport?

– On Tuesdays I go to yoga. It is good for stretching the body and for relaxing.

– What about Fridays? Do you do anything on Fridays?

– Of course I do. I go to the gym and do weight training for two hours. It is the best way to build up your muscles. But George, do you do anything to make your life healthier?

– I also do some exercises. I go running every day before breakfast. And I do exercises every night before I go to bed. I do press-ups and sit-ups.

– Why don't you come with me to the sports centre? You will have the opportunity to train more. Your exercises are simply a warm up before real training.

– You're right, I should try it. But do you do anything else to stay healthy?

– As you know, I don't smoke cigarettes and I don't drink alcohol. I try to avoid stressful situations and not to worry about any problems. I also only eat healthy food.

– Healthy food?

– Yes, vegetables, fruit, cereals, whole-meal bread...

– I think I will also try to make my way of living healthier. I'll eat only healthy food. And when are we going to the sports centre?

Text 2

The role of sport in our life

Sport is very important in our life. It is popular among young and old people. Many people do morning exercises, jog in the morning, train themselves in clubs, in different sections and take part in sport competitions. Other people like sports too, but they only watch sports games, listen to sports news. They prefer reading interesting stories about sportsmen. But they don't go in for sports. Physical training is an important subject at school. Pupils have got physical training lessons twice a week. Boys and girls play volley-ball and basket-ball at the lessons. There is a sports ground near our school and school-children go in for sports in the open air. A lot of different competitions are held at schools, a great number of pupils take part in them. All participants try to get good results and become winners. Sport helps people to keep in good health. If you go in for sports, you have good health and don't catch cold. Children and grown-ups must take care of their health and do morning exercises regularly. There are some popular kinds of sports in our country: football, volley-ball, hockey, gymnastics, skiing, skating. Athletics is one of the most popular kinds of sports. It includes such kinds of sports as running, jumping and others. Everybody may choose the sport he (or she) is interested in. There are summer and winter sports. My favourite sport is swimming. I go to the swimming-pool twice a week. But I prefer to rest by the lake or the river and swim there. My friend Kostya goes in for boxing, He is a good boxer and he is a brave and courageous boy. His hobby helps him in his everyday life. We must speak about the Highland Games in Scotland. All competitors wear Highland dress. There are such competitions as putting the weight, tossing the caber and others. The English are great lovers of sports.

Text 3

Going in for sport

The fitness boom of the past decades led to a big rise in the numbers of people participating in sports and activities. Those who pursue the latest fitness fashion are convinced that staying in good physical form requires much more than regular exercise and balanced meals. For anyone who really wants to be healthy, fitness has become an integral part of their lives. A lot of health and fitness clubs, and public leisure centres that were created in many countries indicate the popularity of sports during the past thirty years. These centres with their swimming pools, sunshine beach, water slides, and tropical plants and gyms are very popular among the people. Families can spend their holidays at huge indoor water parks. In such places everybody will have much fun.

There are many opportunities for keeping fit. First of all it is necessary to do exercises.

People of different ages can design exercises that will fit them. Running, jumping, swimming, bending and stretching are among the most popular exercises. Many people prefer jogging, which is the cheapest and the most accessible sport. Walking is a very popular activity too. For example, popular running competitions are now held everywhere. Lots of people want to see if they can run faster than everyone else. The big city marathons have become sporting events. Television and newspapers report about them in detail. In order to keep fit some people do aerobics or yoga; others prefer some kind of weight training in a gym. People can easily learn more about fitness through popular books and videos that are sold almost everywhere. A healthy body becomes a fashion, an ideal of the life of today. Even moderate physical activity can protect against heart disease and strokes as well as improve general health and the quality of life. Everyone can benefit from being a little more active. Making small changes like using the stairs instead of the lift or walking or cycling instead of taking the bus can help people live a more active, healthier and enjoyable life. Many sports activities have become part of daily Russian life. Football has always been the most popular sport among boys. Playing football is healthy; football also brings people close because in order to win people have to work as a team. Bicycling is very popular in Russia. Skiing, skating, fishing and hunting are wide spread in our country. In summer many people like to go to the bank of the river on a hot day to swim. Another activity that is popular in our country is roller-skating. Today it has reached its peak in our country. At present the lack of facilities make enthusiasts use city pavements or parking lots.

Unfortunately, many people do not take enough exercise to keep themselves healthy. According to the statistics nowadays 60 percent of men and 91 percent of women are below activity levels necessary for a fit and healthy life. Many men and women are overweight.

Dialogue 4

Healthy lifestyle

– Why are people concerned with the healthy way of life nowadays?

– Everybody wants to live a long healthy life. Unfortunately, now it has become a dream. Because of the contaminated environment people suffer a lot of diseases. And the best way to be healthy is to do sports. Doing exercises is the best way to avoid depression caused by the abnormal rhythm of the contemporary city life.

– Do you do anything for keeping fit?

– I get up very early. Every morning I do my morning exercises. It takes me forty-five minutes to do them. Once a week I go to the swimming pool. On Sundays if the weather is fine I like to ride a bicycle in the park.

– Do you think that good appearance is the only motivation of being fit?

– Keeping fit is something that a person does alone. It is nice to look young and stay healthy as long as possible. Families can spend their free time jogging, walking, or swimming together. Some families like to get out of their city into the countryside. They can have much fun in the forests, or on the bank of a lake or a river. Just for fun they make boat trips or fish. Very often families spend their free time at huge indoor water parks, where they can play or relax. But this may not help them to get fitter. They simply enjoy being together.

– What may help people to get fitter?

– Taking exercise is only one part of keeping fit. It is important to get slim. Books and magazines about slimming are best sellers today. Some people eat nothing but fruit for several days. But it won't be of any use without proper exercises. Besides to avoid serious disease one should give up smoking. Efforts should be made to inform young people of the terrible consequences of taking up the habit. Smoking should be banned in all public places.

Text 4

About sport and Olympic Games

Thousands of people go in for sports, because sports help people to keep fit. The most popular sports in our country are track-and-field athletics, football, volleyball, basketball, hockey, gymnastics, skiing and skating. There are a lot of stadiums, sports clubs, and sports grounds in our country.

If you want to keep fit, you must go in for one kind of sport or another.

Sport is an essential part of my daily life. Every morning all year round I do my morning exercises. Almost every day I do some training. In summer I go swimming and rowing. I usually spend my winter holidays in the country where I ski, skate or toboggan. In every school pupils spend much time going in for sports. First of all they have their physical training lessons. From time to time every school organizes competitions in different kinds of sport. All my friends go in for different kinds of sports, such as water sports, gymnastics with or without apparatus, fencing, wrestling, boxing. Of all outdoor games I prefer football. Sport makes people strong, healthy, and gay, I like it very much.

The Olympic Games have a very long history. It is a very old tradition in the world of sports. History tells us that the tradition began more than two thousand years ago, in Greece.

All the cities sent their best athletes to the city of Olympus to compete in the games. During the Olympic Games all wars between the cities stopped and the people lived in peace.

The Olympic Games include favourite sports of all countries – running, high jumping, gymnastics, football, basketball, swimming, skiing, skating and other sports that young people in all countries go in for.

The Olympic Games take place every four years. The Olympic Games Committee decides the place of the Olympic Games and the sports that the athletes will compete in.

Text 5

The secret of Japanese centenarians

The number of Japanese people hitting the landmark age of 100 has reached record levels. There are now 36 276 centenarians in the country – a rise of 4000 on last year figure, a report by the Health and Welfare Ministry found. Women make up the vast majority of those who are living past 100. Japan has one of the world’s longest life expectancies, but there are concerns about the burden this is placing on society. Both the country’s pension system and social services are under pressure from its burgeoning greying population.

According to the latest figures, almost 20 000 people were set to turn 100 this year alone – receiving a congratulatory silver cup and letter from the prime minister. While the number of Japan’s centenarians has been rising for the last 40 years, the figures have accelerated in the past decade. UN projections suggest there will be nearly one million people over 100 years of age in Japan in 2050. Of the country’s current centenarians, a staggering 86 % are women. The ministry, which released its annual report ahead of Japan’s Respect For the Aged Day on 15 September, said its elderly population were living more active lives than ever. Japan’s oldest woman is 113 and lives on the southern island of Okinawa, the ministry said. The oldest man is 112-year-old Tomoji Tanabe from the southern prefecture of Miyazaki. He rises early, reads his morning newspaper, has milk in the afternoon and writes his diary in the evening. Matsu Yamazaki is 103 years old but still works in her family’s grocery shop in Tokyo, looks after her home and does puzzles to keep her mind agile. «Even if I go on living, I just don’t want to lose my mind», she told the BBC in July. «I know lots of people who have lost their memory. They go out and wander around town and can’t find their way home». The key to Japanese longevity has long been put down to a number of factors, including healthy diets, strong communities and excellent medical care.

Vocabulary

centenarian – вековой, столетний; человек ста (и более) лет

welfare – социальное обеспечение

life expectancy – средняя продолжительность жизни

burgeon – распускаться, расцветать

greying population – седеющее население; пожилое население

 figures – данные

agile mind – живой ум

 put down – приписывать (чему-л.)

 UN – OOН

Text 6

Sport and healthy lifestyle

Even if sports are not very important for you, you sure think of how to stay in good health as long as possible, how to have a high energy level, enthusiasm and zest for living, how not to feel tired after school. If you are going to say that it is not your obsession, I will not believe you. So, what do you do to keep fit? Do you go to a fitness club? They are very popular in the USA. Lots of people of different ages go to these clubs to workout. What is workout?

A workout is 25 percent of perspiration and 75 percent of determination. A workout makes you better today than you were yesterday. It strengthens the body, relaxes the mind, and toughens the spirit. When you workout regularly, your problems diminish, and your confidence grows. A workout is a personal triumph over laziness and procrastination. A workout is a wise use of time. It is a way of preparing for life challenges. A workout is a key that helps unlock the door to opportunity and success. Hidden within each of us is an extraordinary force. Physical and mental fitness are the triggers that can release it. A workout is a form of rebirth. When you finish a good workout you don’t simply feel better, you feel better about yourself!

If you just do your morning exercises, you know how they work. They help you to wake up, be ready to your classes, and set you into a cheerful working mood. Some students like to exercise in the evening. They go to the gym for aerobics, weight lifting, playing basketball, volleyball, or tennis. Some young people prefer jogging, or swimming. Whatever sport you play be sure you do it in a proper way. If you like to run, wear proper running shoes and dress for the weather conditions. If you prefer to ride your bicycle, ride with a helmet and wear bright clothing. Always keep safety in mind.

It’s great if you exercise every day or three times a week. Remember to warm up and cool down when exercising. A proper warm up increases the blood flow to your muscles, making your body parts more pliable and less likely to be injured.

Text 7

How to remain healthy?

Many parents in the USA want their families to eat healthy and nutritious food nowadays. Fatty food is dangerous not only for adults but for children as well. It is advisable to have your cholesterol level checked regularly. Research shows that cutting cheese, butter and ice-cream from your diet will reduce your cholesterol level by 50 point and only this will decrease the risk of you developing heart problems. Research also shows that children are heavier today than they used to be some 20–30 years ago and the rate of obesity in little children has increased by nearly 60 %. More and more parents are troubled by what their children eat, introducing into family diets more fresh and canned fruit, vegetables and fish. They avoid paying regular visits to fast-food restaurants because McDonald’s and the like serve unhealthy, fatty and high cholesterol food. People believe that low-fat diets and plenty of exercise will help to raise a healthy generation. But what exercise is best? For example, jogging. To jog or not to jog? That is the question. On the one hand, everyone should think about a healthy way of life… But on the other hand – getting up early at the weekend? Never! And what about swimming? What real pleasure is there in the pool? The warming up before swimming helps you to feel great. After a week sitting in front of the computer and at the desk your limbs are crying for a bit of exercise. And that music they use there is quite good – energetic and rhythmic. These 15 minutes of aerobics and 30 minutes of swimming work wonders. After that you feel ready for the next week’s marathon. Instead of swimming or jogging you could go on a cycling tour. This kind of sport also does people a lot of good, and the morning air smells wonderful.

I don’t really understand this obsession that people have with keeping fit these days. There’s nothing wrong with being healthy, but with some people it’s almost a religion. Nothing would make me go jogging. No, thank you. I’d rather sit and have a cup of tea or coffee while the joggers are out in the street. The idea of going out into the cold morning air to breath in petrol fumes doesn’t appeal to me at all. I get my exercise by walking to the bus stop on my way to work. And what about the food people eat? I know a man who eats natural food, he takes a lot of vitamins but I have never seen anybody who looks so ill. I like good food. I think most healthy food is tasteless. There’s nothing wrong in having a bar of chocolate or a big meal of meat and potatoes. A lot of people I know do yoga. I am not really sure what it is all about. I can’t see much point in sitting on the floor with your feet behind your ears. It looks very uncomfortable to me. I am sure sitting in an armchair watching TV or reading a book is just as healthy. So as you see I am not really in favour of keeping fit. I don’t jog or do any sports. I don’t eat healthy food, but I’m happy the way I am.

What is my opinion of keeping fit? Everything is determined by our lifestyle. How much time you spend on food, how much exercise you get – these can regulate the balance between food and fitness. But some people go to extremes: eating for them is the surest way to an early grave. They spend their lifetime fighting a battle with their stomachs. They often keep to a diet and exhaust themselves doing exercises. They are always hungry. You can’t be hungry and happy at the same time. What’s all this torture for? People want to obtain the state of so-called beauty. But what is beauty? In my opinion, nobody can answer this question exactly.

For example, let’s take women’s beauty. In the Middle Ages a beautiful woman first of all had to be fat. Slim women were not in fashion. In the 18–19th centuries fat women were not considered beautiful. As for beauty nowadays, well, I think there are no definite ideals about it. All people are different: fat and slim, white and coloured, fair and dark-haired, tall and short. Really, it is very difficult to find a person who is pleased with her (his) appearance. Those with dark hair make their hair fair. People with smooth hair make it curly, those who were rewarded by nature with looks, carefully uncurl and smooth it with different gels and mousse. But I believe beauty has to be physical and spiritual. What do I mean when talking about spiritual beauty? I mean the beauty of the inner world of a person: kindness, responsibility, willingness to help, friendliness and other traits of character. Such person will give warmth to the people that surround him (or her). In my opinion, a truly beautiful person must combine physical beauty with good traits of character.

Text 8

Dangers of doping

What is the big deal?

Most medications on the Prohibited List can be bought at a pharmacy – so they must be safe to use, right?

NO! Medications are for people with specific health issues – not for healthy athletes. They were not approved to be used by healthy people, in high doses and in combination with other substances.

What about dietary or nutritional supplements?

«All-natural. Pure. Fast results». Beware!

Supplement companies are not highly regulated – meaning you never know what you are taking. There could be a banned substance in your «all-natural» supplement.

What is at risk?

All medications have side effects – but taking them when your body doesn’t need them can cause serious damage to your body and destroy your athletic career.

What else should you know?

Methods

There are also methods of administering substances or manipulating your physiology that are banned. These methods can also have negative effects on your body. For example: blood doping, including having blood transfusions to change the way your blood carries oxygen to the rest of your body, may result in:

an increased risk of heart failure, stroke, kidney damage and high blood pressure;

problems with your blood like infections, poisoning, overloading of your white cells, and reduction of platelet count;

problems with your circulatory system.

HIV/AIDS

As with any injectable drug, using a syringe to dope puts you at a higher risk for contracting infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis.

What happens to an athlete who uses?

Steroids

Steroids may make your muscles big and strong, but … you may become dependent on them and they may:

give you acne,

make you bald,

increase your risk of liver and cardiovascular disease,

give you mood swings,

make you more aggressive,

make you suicidal.

EPO (erythropoietin)

EPO (erythropoietin) may help with the way your body uses oxygen, but … why risk it when it may lead to death?

Using EPO may make your blood more like honey – thick and sticky – than water. Trying to pump this thick blood through your veins may:

make you feel weak – not good when you are trying to train hard;

give you high blood pressure;

make your heart work so hard that you have a heart attack or stroke (even at your age).

Stimulants

Stimulants are used to heighten the competitive edge, but … how edgy would you feel if you:

can’t sleep (insomnia),

have involuntary shaking or trembling,

have problems with your coordination and balance,

are anxious and aggressive,

develop an increased and irregular heart rate,

have a heart attack (imaging dying of a heart attack at your age!) or stroke.

These are the effects that using stimulants may have on your body.

HGH (human growth hormone)

HGH (human growth hormone) may make muscles and bones stronger and recover faster, but … it is not only your muscles that get bigger. Using HGH may lead to:

acromegaly – protruding forehead, brow, skull and jaw – which can’t be reversed;

an enlarged heart that can result in high blood pressure and even heart failure;

damage to your liver, thyroid and vision;

crippling arthritis.

Masking agents

Some athletes try to cheat the system by using diuretics and other substances to cover-up the signs of using banned substances.

The side effects can definitely affect your ability to compete and train. You may:

become dizzy or even faint;

become dehydrated;

get muscle cramps;

have a drop in blood pressure;

lose coordination and balance;

become confused and moody;

develop cardiac disorders.

Marijuana

Marijuana, cannabis, pot – whatever you call it, it is banned. Whether you are a pot-head or a casual user, marijuana may have a negative effect on your athletic performance and your health. Using may:

reduce your memory, attention, and motivation – even result in learning disabilities;

weaken your immune system;

affect your lungs (chronic bronchitis and other respiratory diseases, even throat cancer);

lead to psychological and physical dependence.

Narcotics

Narcotics, like heroin and morphine, may help you forget about the pain, but … how competitive do you think you’d be with a:

weakened immune system;

decreased heart rate and suppressed respiratory system (you can’t compete if you are dead);

loss in balance, coordination and concentration;

gastrointestinal problem like vomiting and constipation;

narcotics are also highly addictive – your body and mind quickly become dependent on them.


 

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