Ecological problems of Ukraine, that present a threat to the health and life of population
Экология и защита окружающей среды
In the conditions of structural alteration of economy of Ukraine political reformation of the state becoming and claim of civil society new possibilities are opened for diminishing of negative influence of productive activity on nature and accordingly maintenance of health increase of duration and improvement of quality of life of population. A guard of environment with the aim of providing of safe vital functions and maintenance of health of man is an inalienable condition of steady economic and social development of Ukraine....
Scientific and technical revolution changes the relations of man and nature. Appearance of new technologies, energy and materials, applying sources in industry of the newest achievements of scitech resulted in global changes in life of society, humanity began to influence on nature in a planetary scale. From one side, perfection of technologies and increase of production assist more complete satisfaction of necessities of people, increase of comfort, production of foodstuffs and others like that. On the other hand, air, earth and water, is contaminated, the forests are destroyed, the ozone layer of Earth diminishes, thousands of new compounds appear, that, no doubt, negatively influences on a health people, diminishes life-span, puts under a threat existence of man as a biological kind. Our century is characteristic that an ecological situation on a planet with every year becomes complicated, the problem of negative influence of muddy environment became especially sharp on a health man. Today a man, as never before, became dependent ecologically, and health of swingeing majority of people, and, in the first turn, children became worse through development of the numerous ecologically determined diseases and defects of development.
These global contradictions in development of civilization can be overcame only by realization of drastic alternations of society in relation to attitude toward nature. Further scientific and technical progress must come true recognition him negative influence on the state of natural environment.
World Conference of UNO on questions a natural environment and development, that took place in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, accepted «Declaration about an environment and development» and admitted conception of steady development dominant ideology of civilization in 21 century. Already the first principle of this Declaration proclaims: «Anxiety about people occupies a central place in efforts in relation to providing of steady development. They have a right on healthy and fruitful life in harmony with nature» .
In the conditions of structural alteration of economy of Ukraine, political reformation of the state, becoming and claim of civil society new possibilities are opened for diminishing of negative influence of productive activity on nature and, accordingly, maintenance of health, increase of duration and improvement of quality of life of population. A guard of environment with the aim of providing of safe vital functions and maintenance of health of man is an inalienable condition of steady economic and social development of Ukraine.
Research actuality is predefined неохідністю developments of effective approaches and strategies of forming, maintenance and strengthening of health, stabilizing and improvement of demographic indicators of population of Ukraine in the conditions of ecological and demographic crisis and limited resources.
Research aim to conduct the analysis of influence of muddy natural environment on the state of health and demographic indicators of population of Ukraine and define optimal approaches in relation to maintenance of health, stabilizing of demographic indicators of population of Ukraine in the conditions of ecological and demographic crisis and limited resources.
Research methods: statistical, analysis of the systems, expert estimations.
Ecological problems of Ukraine, that present a threat to the health and life of population.
Analysis of statistical данних, the dynamics of absolute and integrated indexes of the anthropogenic and technogenic loading on a natural environment testifies that an ecological situation in Ukraine can be described as a crisis. In Ukraine an ecological crisis is opened out at limitation of natural resources, economic instability, intensifying of social and political problems. In such terms activity of the state and public in relation to the guard of environment and maintenance of health is fundamentally laboured, as she, as well as other aims, submits to the dominant of economic value [2, 3, p. 23-24; 45-47].
Moreover, during the last two decades there is combination of two crises in Ukraine - ecological and demographic to that in recent year joined yet and economic.
After a geographical location, variety and riches of raw mineral-material base Ukraine can provide the balanced development of the base industries of industry and agroindustrial complex. At the same time, Ukraine is one of the most unhappy in an ecological relation countries of Europe.
1.1. Забрудненя of atmospheric air. The analysis conducted by us testifies that from data of Government service of statistics of Ukraine, in 2010 atmosphere 6,7 млн.т of contaminents entered, that makes 11 т in a calculation on 1 км2 of territory of country, or 146 kg on one habitant. Close 62% of hazardous substances (4,1 million т) was on the stationary sources of contamination : enterprises of processing and extractive industry, electro-- and теплоенергетики. Presents contamination of atmosphere a motor transport 91% extrass from movable sources .
Dioxide of carbon (198,2 million т), methane (853,0 thousand т), oxide of nitrogen (8,9 thousand т), dioxide and other connections of sulphur, dust, is mainly thrown out in atmospheric air. During the last years in atmospheric air of most industrial cities a presence was constantly registered to 16 поліциклічних aromatic hydrocarbons, from what 8 are carcinogens, and heavy metals [4 с.37- 39, 5].
Contamination of water resources presents a large danger to the health and life of citizens. A population and industry of Ukraine use about 30 milliards of м3 of water annually. It follows to mark the uneffective and inefficient use of water all industries of industry, as a result of out-of-date technologies and absence of effective account of the use of water. Through contamination and exhaustion, the volume of suitable to the use water resources diminishes annually. From data of UNESCO, after the level of the rational use of water resources and quality of water Ukraine occupies a 95 place among 122 countries of the world. Most water objects after the degree of contamination are attributed to muddy and very muddy. From data of Government service of statistics of Ukraine, during 2010 1,7 milliards of м3 of muddy flows were downfaulted in the reservoirs of Ukraine. Almost 18% of muddy reverse waters were downfaulted in reservoirs without any cleaning, that on 15,6% more than in 2009, other 82% - cleared not enough [4 с.50, 5].
For today all superficial water sources are muddy practically, although, the drinkable water-supply of Ukraine almost on 80 % is provided by the use of surface-water. The high levels of contaminations are mostly fixed in the rivers of pools Western to Бугу, Dnepr, rivers of Приазов'я and Сіверського Дінця [4 с.76-79, 5].
1.2. Wastes. A sharp ecological problem that presents a threat for the health of population of Ukraine is to trade and domestic wastes. All, by the state on January, 1 in 2011 in Ukraine 13,3 млрд.т accumulated industrial and 30 млрд.т of hard domestic wastes. On territory of three regions 93,1% of industrial wastes of country is kept, in particular, in the Dnepropetrovsk area - 69,0%, Donetsk - 19,1%, to Luhansk - 5,0%. Annually there are 220-250 kg on one habitant of Ukraine, and in large cities are 330-380 kg of domestic wastes [4 p.s 65-68, 5].
Except it, in Ukraine approximately 350 тис.т of medical wastes appears annually, that dangerous pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms contain.
1.3. Contamination of the landed resources. As a result of inefficient application of facilities of хімізації of agriculture bits and pieces of mineral fertilizers and pesticides accumulate in soils. Over 4 million т of mineral fertilizers is annually used, that in a count per capita presents almost 85 kg of Contamination of the landed resources today makes an about 20 % territory of Ukraine. On the end of 2010 in Ukraine on almost 3 thousands compositions it is accumulated more than 20 тис.т. of useless pesticides, more than half from that are unknown mixtures of high-toxic proof organic pollutants [4, p. 54-55, 5].
1.4. Radiation contamination of environment. on April, 26 in 2011 25 of accident on Chornobyl' АЕС, that substantially influenced on an ecological situation in Ukraine, were carried out. At destruction of construction of block extrass happened in the atmosphere of far of радіонуклідів. The bulk of radioactive elements fell out during a 10 twenty-four hours, although, contamination of adherent territories lasted during a month. A radioactive iodine, caesium, strontium and plutonium, in a short-term and long-term plan defined a radiological situation in suffering districts. The radioactive irradiation of different intensity was tested by hundreds of thousands of people. Consequences of this accident and harm for a health, no doubt, are one of sufficient causes of development in Ukraine of demographic crisis.
1.5. Chemical contamination of food foods. Toxic substances can get in a meal both as контамінантів and as preservatives and various food elements - substances with an antimicrobial action (preservatives, antibiotics), the food colorings, taste ingredients and substances that improve commodity kind and others like that. These simple and complex connections the organism of man can not метаболізувати, they accumulate in a liver, kidneys, nervous fabric and conduce to violation of biochemical processes in an organism that predetermines heavy diseases.
Division of ІІ
An analysis of basic demographic indicators, morbidity and death rate is from the ecologically determined diseases.
One of important tasks of the state there is maintenance of health of population as basic potential of productive resources of country. It is known that the health of population depends on social and economic prosperity, heredity, way of life, and, largely, from the state of environment.
On results the analysis of the state of health of population of Ukraine during the last 20 marked the negative tendency of increase of morbidity and prevalence of illnesses, diminishing of absolute amount of population became as a result of депопуляції. The further increase of negative changes of these indexes presents a threat for national safety of country.
The peracute demographic problem of Ukraine an unfavorable dynamics of death rate of population, that was sharply increased by an ecological crisis, was and remains, on the whole, and by the consequences of accident on Chornobyl' АЕС, in particular, and also by negative influence of зятяжної of socio-economic crisis of transitional period.
In 1991 a death rate in Ukraine first exceeded a birth-rate, and already 20 the annual quantity of the dead exceeds the quantity of born. [2, с.35-38, 3, p. 78, 5]. По-суті, there is a process of extinction of population of Ukraine.
Thus, for the last five years among all population of Ukraine an important role in forming of indexes of morbidity is played by chronic uninfectious illnesses the level of that in the last few years grew considerably. Without regard to that a similar tendency is characteristic for the most world countries, the rates of increase of prevalence of illnesses of the system of circulation of blood, new formations, illnesses of the endocrine system for 5 last the exceed 10%.
Morbidity and death rate are from malignant new formations. Taking into account considerable ecological детермінованість of oncologic diseases, we spared the special attention to them. Concordantly data of the National register of канцер, on the end of 2010 on an oncologic account was 989 637 patients (2 161,6 on a 100 thousand population), the amount of primary patients made 160 797 persons., the index of death rate equaled 184,8 on a 100 thousand population (the 84 927 dead). In the structure of death rate from malignant new formations of masculine population first five grade places occupy malignant new formations lungs, stomach, prostate gland, ободової and direct bowel (55,6%); for women - suckling gland, stomach, ободової and direct bowel and ovary (51,5%).
Most specific gravity in the structure of contingents (68,9%) patients with have malignant new formations of skin - 22,7%, muliebrias - 17,1%, suckling gland - 15,0% and organs of digestion - 14,1%. To 60% of patients with malignant new formations formed at Donetsk (10,4%), Dnepropetrovsk (7,2%), Kharkiv (6,2%), Odesa (6,1%), Lviv (5,1%), Luhansk (4,5%), Zaporizhzhya (4,4%) areas, Kyiv (6,8%) and ARE Crimea (4,8%). Higher, than on the average in Ukraine, the levels of morbidity are observed to Sevastopol (490,6 on a 100 thousand population), in Kirovohrad, Zaporizhzhya, Mykolaiv, Odesa, Sumy, Chernihiv, Kharkiv areas and ARE Crimea (370,7 - 426,0 on a 100 thousand population).[6, с.24-27].
The regional analysis of morbidity and death rate testifies that their greatest level is observed in the South-east region, where such diseases as new formations, illnesses of breathing organs, psychical diseases, nee anomalies prevail. And the population of the Central region is mostly ill new formation, illnesses of blood and hematogenesis organs, endocrine diseases and others like that. In the structure of death rate in the North-eastern region a basic place is occupied by the vascular defeats of brain, new formation, traumas, poisoning and accidents. Thus, the analysis of statistical data after regions finds out their clear dependence on direction of economic development and ecological state of environment.[ 7, 8, с.34-36].
1. The analysis of the state, dynamics and tendencies of ecological situation testifies in Ukraine, that a present ecological situation in Ukraine can be described as a crisis, that formed spontaneously during great while without the account of objective laws of development and recreation of naturally-resource complex of Ukraine, without a scientifically-reasonable estimation and prognosis of consequences. The deformed branch pattern of production entailed the giant centers of excessive concentration of industry (Donbas and Придніпров'я, what сладають of 18% territory of Ukraine, where lives a 28% population and produced over 40% of general volume of industrial products), that characterized by high anthropogenic influence on a natural environment. It is most ecologically muddy regions in Europe.
2. Intensive development of industry and motor transport, хімізація of agriculture, result in an accumulation in the environment of plenty of toxic for the organism of man connections, that enter organism of man with a meal, water and air. Wastes of booty and processing of minerals ten of thousands of hectares of agricultural lands is not almost used and occupy, complicating an ecological situation, harming to the health of population.
3. The increases of morbidity and death rate on malignant new formations, cardiovascular and endocrine diseases, defeats of the respiratory, digestive, nervous and hematogenesis systems are largely predefined by the action of toxic substances, air, water, soils and foodstuffs, is muddy that.
4. An ecological crisis in Ukraine requires mobilization and co-ordination of efforts of government and public agencies, all society for the decision of existent problems by the increase of level of ecological consciousness of society, decision of problem of health of man that, largely, stopped up in a man, in knowledge and understanding by her Natural Laws, and also in ability to adhere to the rules of healthy way of life.
Conclusion. Vatican in the person of dad Benedict XVI pulled out initiative to extend the list of death sins set by Church. To the sins meant until now, such as, pride, envy, gluttony, lewdness, avidity, lazinesses, anger, it is suggested to add five, among that is contamination of environment, abortions, interferences with human genes, drug-trafficking and paedophilia. Id est, ecological trouble is subsumed heavy sins.
List of the used sources :
1. United Nations Conference on of Environment of and of Development. United Nations Environment Programme. Rio Declaration on of Environment of and of Development. - http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/
2. Богатирьова In., Сердюк А.М., Тимченко О. And. Change of public reference-points as method of maintenance of health of population. // Environment and health, 2011, № 2, с.3 - 8. Bogatyrіova R.V., Serdiyk A.M., Tymchenko O.I. Modification Of The Social Orientations As Method Of Population Health Maintain. // Environment &Health, 2011, № 2, р.3 - 8.
3. Сердюк А.М., Корзун В.Н., Калинкин М. Н., Давыдов Б.Н., Кириленко Н.П., Жмакин І.А. Укрепление и сохранение здоровья человека общее дело ученых разных стран. // Environment and health, 2010, № 1, с.3 8. Serdyuk A.M., Korzun V.N., Kalinkin M.N., Davydov B.N., Kirilenko N.P., Zhmakin I.A. Health Promocion A Common Task For Cientists In Different Countries. // Environment &Health, 2010, № 1, р.3 8.
4. About Basic principles (strategy) of public ecological policy of Ukraine on a period 2020 to. Law of Ukraine from December, 21, 2010 N 2818 - VI. - http://search.ligazakon.ua
5. Government service of statistics - http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua
6. Медико-демографічна situation and organization of medicare to the population in 2010: results of activity of the system of health protection and realization of Program of economic reforms on 2010-2014 "Solvent society, competitive economy, effective state". - К.: ОЗ of Ukraine, 2011. are 104 p.s
7. National канцер-реєстр. - http://www.ucr.gs.com.ua
8. Сердюк А.М. Prophylactic aspiration of medicine as strategy of reforms of health protection. // Magazine НАМН Ukraine, 2011, т.17, № 1, p. 39 - 43.
PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT4
А также другие работы, которые могут Вас заинтересовать
|630.||Разработка микропроцессорного устройства управления шаговым двигателем||340.5 KB|
|Расчет остальных элементов микропроцессорного устройства управления шаговым двигателем. Разработать систему управления двумя шаговыми двигателями семейства FL35ST и 25BYT на базе микроконтроллера Atmega16. Связь с верхним уровнем осуществить через протокол Bluetooth. Для обратной связи использовать датчик контрастной полосы.|
|631.||Транспортные, информационные и документальные потоки ООО Викторг||140 KB|
|Транспортно-технологическая схема доставки и грузопереработки. Характеристика транспорта предприятия. Обработка и анализ статистических данных работы транспорта. Схема укладки грузов на подвижном составе.|
|632.||Расчет экстенсивных свойств в результате протекания химической реакции 2NO2=2NO+O2||3.8 MB|
|ВЛИЯНИЕ ТЕМПЕРАТУРЫ НА ИЗМЕНЕНИЕ СТАНДАРТНЫХ МОЛЬНЫХ ЭНТАЛЬПИЙ, ЭНТРОПИЙ И ЭНЕРГИЙ ГИББСА. РАСЧЕТ ВЕЛИЧИН СТАНДАРТНОЙ МОЛЬНОЙ ИЗОБАРНОЙ ТЕПЛОЕМКОСТИ РЕАКЦИИ. РАСЧЕТ РАВНОВЕСНОГО СОСТАВА СИСТЕМЫ ГОМОГЕННОЙ ГАЗОВОЙ РЕАКЦИИ.|
|633.||Безпека у надзвичайних ситуаціях||125 KB|
|Безпека у надзвичайних ситуаціях – це стан захищеності населення, робітників та службовців, об'єктів економіки та довкілля від небезпеки у надзвичайних ситуаціях.|
|634.||Проектирование водопроводной сети||230.5 KB|
|Определение расчетных расходов воды. Подготовка водопроводной сети к гидравлическому расчету. Определение расчетных расходов воды в час максимального водопотребления. Назначение диаметров трубопроводов на участках водопроводной сети. Пьезометрический анализ СПРВ, построение графиков пьезометрических линий равных напоров.|
|635.||Современные информационные технологии организационной культуры||139 KB|
|Информационное обеспечение как совокупность информационных ресурсов (Банков данных), средств. Негативная роль информационного шума. Вербальные (словесные) и невербальные (мимика, жесты, интонация) свойства информационного шума.|
|636.||Анализ структуры затрат на производство каркаса боковины автобуса||240 KB|
|Оценка времени на изготовление партии деталей. Технологический маршрут обработки детали с указанием штучного времени, применяемого оборудования. Оценка предельно-необходимых затрат на автоматизацию. При использовании сварочного робота Nachi SH200 общие затраты на производство уменьшаются, несмотря на то, что амортизация, материальные и прочие расходы увеличились.|
|637.||Государственные и муниципальные организации||130 KB|
|Государственные организации как институт проведения политики государства. Механизм экономического государственного регулирования, поддержки и стимулирования предпринимательской деятельности. Функции властных структур в предпринимательской деятельности.|
|638.||Уравновешивание механизмов и балансировка роторов||131.5 KB|
|Понятие о неуравновешенности звена и механизма. Статическая, моментная и динамическая уравновешенности механической системы. Статическое уравновешивание рычажных механизмов. Метод замещающих масс. Полное и частичное статическое уравновешивание механизма. Ротор и виды его неуравновешенности: статическая и динамическая. Балансировка ротора.|