99002

PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS DENOTING FEELINGS, MOODS AND EMOTIONAL STATES OF A PERSON IN ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN: CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS

Курсовая

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

The structure of the presented course paper is the following: 1 the introduction which describes the aim the objectives the research material as well as mentions the methods of translation; 2 the theoretical part which presents the definition of the idiomatic and stable expressions denoting feelings moods and states of a person dwells upon its nature and different approaches to its...

Английский

2016-07-22

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6 чел.

MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND EDUCATION OF UKRAINE

LVIV POLYTECHNIC NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER SCIENCES AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

Department

Of Applied Linguistics

COURSE PAPER

PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS DENOTING FEELINGS, MOODS AND EMOTIONAL STATES OF A PERSON IN ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN: CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS

Presented by

The student of the group AL-34

Ohorilko O. B.

Supervised by

Assistant

Levyk Z.P.

Lviv 2013


TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1.  INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………….3
  2.  SECTION 1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS..........................................................................................................6
  3.  SECTION 2. CLASSIFICATION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS……9
  4.  PRACRICAL PART…………………………………………………...…15
  5.  CONCLUSIONS……………………………………………………...…..19
  6.  REFERENCES……………………………………………………..…….23


Introduction

According to traditional view, idioms are treated as a whole semantically speaking and they cannot be separated and synthesized. Therefore, idioms are looked on as a special kind of linguistic phenomenon. Many previous studies of idioms fail to recognize their metaphorical roots because scholars tend to detect only a few of these conventional phrases, such as rain cats and dogs. Cognitive view of metaphors shed new light on idiom learning and teaching, which holds that metaphors are not only poetical or rhetorical embellishments, but “in essence, a means of understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another” (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980: 42). As a kind of thinking mode, metaphors are so pervasive in our daily life that we are almost not aware of its existence. This is also true with many idioms. As researches go deeper and deeper, scholars find that many idioms are partly analyzable and motivated by conceptual metaphors.

Emotions, as one of the most pervasive human experience, are conceptualized and expressed in metaphorical ways as well. Conceptual metaphor plays an important role in conceptualizing emotions. However, the previous studies of conceptualizing emotions neglected the studies of linguistic expressions, especially idioms to a certain extent. Besides, studies of idioms expressing emotions are mainly based on the English linguistic data.

The aim of the present course paper is to research ways of translating idiomatic and stable expressions denoting feelings, moods and states of a person into the English and Ukrainian language, taking into account different criteria, compare and contrast the results of investigation in order to discover differences and similarities in translating meanings, stylistic peculiarities and usage.

The research materials are the idiomatic and stable expressions denoting feelings, moods and states of a person in the languages.

The objectives of my course research are: 1) to contrast idiomatic and stable expressions; 2) to consider their structure and meaning.

The methods of research are: the overall selection ( used in gathering the research material), componential analysis ( used in considering the semantic nature of researched units).

      The structure of the presented course paper is the following:

   1) the introduction which describes the aim , the objectives, the research    material, as well as mentions the methods of translation;

   2) the theoretical part which presents the definition of the idiomatic and stable expressions denoting feelings, moods and states of a person, dwells upon its nature and different approaches to its classification;

    3) the practical part which shows the contrastive analysis of phraseological units in both English and Ukrainian languages and their lexical meaning of expressions; describe the found equivalents ( full and partial) in the languages;

    4) the conclusions which summarize the research results given in the practical part of the presented course paper.

The vocabulary of a language is enriched not only by words but also by phraseological units. Phraseological units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech, they exist in the language as ready-made units. They are compiled in special dictionaries. The same as words phraseological units express a single notion and are used in a sentence as one part of it. American and British lexicographers call such units «idioms». We can mention such dictionaries as: L.Smith «Words and Idioms», V.Collins «A Book of English Idioms» etc. In these dictionaries we can find words, peculiar in their semantics (idiomatic), side by side with word-groups and sentences. In these dictionaries they are arranged, as a  rule, into different semantic groups.

 Phraseological units differ from free word-groups semantically and structurally: 1) they convey a single concept and their meaning is idiomatic, i.e. it is not a mere total of the meanings of their components 2) they are characterized by structural invariability (no word can be substituted for any component of a phraseological unit without destroying its sense (to have a bee in one’s bonnet (not cap or hat). 3) they are not created in speech but used as ready-made units. Unlike a word, a phraseological unit can be divided into separately structured elements and transformed syntactically (On the instant he was thinking how natural and unaffected her manner was now that the ice between them had been broken. (Th. Dreiser, ‘An American Tragedy’). I... found this man in a kind of seizure, and went for help. This broke the ice between us, and we grew quite chatty, without either of us knowing the other's name. (H. Pollitt, ‘Serving My Time’).

 Phraseological units can be classified according to the ways they are formed, according to the degree of the motivation of their meaning, according to their structure and according to their part-of-speech meaning.


Theoretical part

Section 1

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS

Phraseological units reflect the wealth of a language displaying cultural paradigms of the speakers of a particular language. They reflect cultural archetypes of an ethno-linguistic community and help to make explicit the peculiarities of its world perception.

Phraseological units as the particular units of language came into the focus of linguists’ attention in the beginning of the 20th century. In the second part of the 20th century these word-combinations became the object of scientific investigation. The field of phraseology (or idiomaticity) in any language is so varied and fascinating

that one could spend an entire lifetime considering and analysing it from various viewpoints.

A phraseological unit is an established, universal and essential element that, used with care,ornaments and enriches the language.

Phraseological units are interesting because they are colourful and lively and because they are linguistic curiosities. At the same time, they are difficult because they have unpredictable meanings and grammar, and often have special connotations. Research into phraseological units shows that they have important role in language.  The vocabulary of a language is enriched not only by words but also by phraseological units. Phraseological units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech, they exist in the language as ready-made units. They are compiled in special dictionaries. The same as words phraseological units express a single notion and are used in a sentence as one part of it. American and British lexicographers call such units «idioms». We can mention such dictionaries as: L.Smith «Words and Idioms», V.Collins «A Book of English Idioms» etc. In these dictionaries we can find words, peculiar in their semantics (idiomatic), side by side with word-groups and sentences. In these dictionaries they are arranged, as a rule, into different semantic groups.

Michael McCarthy and Felicity O’Dell use the term ‘idiom’ in their book ‘English Idioms in Use’ and write that idioms are fixed expressions which have a meaning that is not immediately obvious from looking at the individual words.

Hockett claims that it is a phrase whose meaning is non-compositional, that is the meaning of the whole cannot be fully deduced from the meanings of the parts.

The English scholar U. Weinreich asserts that idiom is a phraseological unit involving at least two polysemous constituents and there is a reciprocal contextual section of subsenses.

J. Strassler’s definition of an idiom is as follows: “An idiom is a concatenation of more than one lexeme whose meaning is not derived from the meanings of its constituents and which does not consist of a verb plus adverbial particle or preposition.

Though there are differences in opinions, all linguists agree that phraseological units or idioms are probably “the most picturesque, colourful and expressive part of the language vocabulary, which reflect nation’s customs, traditions and prejudices, recollections of its past history, scraps of folk songs and fairy tales. But it is necessary to distinguish them from other words and phrases existing in the language”.

R.S.Ginzburg also accepts the term “phraseological units” and the definition given by her is the following: “Phraseological units are [..] non-motivated word-groups that cannot be freely made up in speech but are reproduced as ready-made units.” In her turn N.N.Amosova defines phraseological units as units of fixed context, that is a context characterized by a specific and unchanging sequence of definite lexical components and a peculiar semantic relationship existing between them.

Shansky defines phraseologisms as ‘frozen patterns of language that consist of two or more components and allow little or no variation in form, structure or meaning’.

Another linguist, Senina, defines phraseological units as a semantically bound set of words that are not produced at the moment of conversation but are reproduced as a rigid lexico-grammatical units with a firm semantical background.

Another outstanding Russian linguist A.V.Kunin having done an elaborate research comes to the conclusion that phraseological units are stable combinations of words with a fully or partially figurative meaning.

This definition is best suited for the purpose as it includes two inherent properties of phraseological units: stability and figurative meaning which differentiate these units from free word combinations and also from set expressions with no figurative meaning.

The same understanding of a phraseological unit is shared also by Latvian scholars A.Naciscione , A.Veisbergs.

       Emotions are one of the forms of reflection of reality and its understanding. They are expressed by language means only when they are reflected in the consciousness.

Interjections, which are highly emotive phraseological units, are not subject to a dictionary definition, the intellectual content is given instead, for example:

(God) bless me! (or my soul!) – an expression of surprise.

God bless his soul (heart)! – an expression of fondness, gratefulness, kind feelings

Emotions as a form of the man's attitude to reality are always accompanied by evaluation. Emotivity is emotionalism through the language refraction, i.e. it is a sensual evaluation of the object, the expression of the man's feelings, emotional experience, mood – by means of language or speech [Кунин, 1996, с. 178].    Emotivity is always expressive an evaluative but not vice versa.

As emotions are divided into two classes – positive and negative – their expression in the language may be negatively emotive and positively emotive. But unfortunately they do not have their necessary index in the dictionary. In English lexicography and phraseography there is no special note of positive evaluation and the notes of negative evaluation are not sufficiently worked out.

Nowadays there are such notes in the dictionaries as derog (= derogatory), sometimes impol (= impolite), taboo or vulg (= vulgar) for negative values.

Section 2

CLASSIFICATION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS

WAYS OF FORMING PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS

Phraseological units can be classified according to the ways they are formed, according to the degree of the motivation of their meaning, according to their structure and according to their part-of-speech meaning.

A.V. Koonin classified phraseological units according to the way they are formed. He pointed out primary and secondary ways of forming phraseological units.
Primary ways of forming phraseological units are those when a unit is formed on the basis
 of a free word-group :

a) Most productive in Modern English is the formation of phraseological units by means of transferring the meaning of terminological word-groups, e.g. in cosmic technique we can point out the following phrases: «launching pad» in its terminological meaning is «стартовая площадка» , in its transferred meaning - «відправний пункт», «to link up» - «стикатись, з’єднувати космічні кораблі» in its tranformed meaning it means -«знакомитись»;

b) a large group of phraseological units was formed from free word groups by transforming their meaning, e.g. «granny farm» - «пансіонат для  людей літнього віку», «Troyan horse» - «комп’ютерна програма, навмисно створена для пошкодження комп’ютера»; 

c) phraseological units can be formed by means of alliteration , e.g. «a sad sack» - «випадковість», «culture vulture» - «людина,що цікавиться мистецтвом», «fudge and nudge» - «ухильність».

d) they can be formed by means of expressiveness, especially it is characteristic for forming interjections, e.g. «My aunt!», « Hear, hear !» etc.

e) they can be formed by means of distorting a word group, e.g. «odds and ends» was formed from «odd ends».

f) they can be formed by using archaisms, e.g. «in brown study» means «in gloomy meditation» where both components preserve their archaic meanings.

g) they can be formed by using a sentence in a different sphere of life, e.g. «that cock won’t fight» can be used as a free word-group when it is used in sports (cock fighting ), it becomes a phraseological unit when it is used in everyday life, because it is used metaphorically.

h) they can be formed when we use some unreal image, e.g. «to have butterflies in the stomach» - «испытывать волнение», «to have green fingers» - »преуспевать как садовод-любитель» etc.

i) they can be formed by using expressions of writers or polititions in everyday life, e.g. «corridors of power» (Snow), «American dream» (Alby) «locust years» (Churchil) , «the winds of change» (Mc Millan).

Secondary ways of forming phraseological units are those when a phraseological unit is formed on the basis of another phraseological unit; they are:

a) conversion, e.g. «to vote with one’s feet» was converted into «vote with one’s feet»;

b) changing the grammar form, e.g. «Make hay while the sun shines» is transferred into a verbal phrase - «to make hay while the sun shines»;

c) analogy, e.g. «Curiosity killed the cat» was transferred into «Care killed the cat»;

d) contrast, e.g. «cold surgery» - «a planned before operation» was formed by contrasting it with «acute surgery», «thin cat» - «a poor person» was formed by contrasting it with «fat cat»;

e) shortening of proverbs or sayings e.g. from the proverb «You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear» by means of clipping the middle of it the phraseological unit «to make a sow’s ear» was formed with the meaning «ошибаться».

f) borrowing phraseological units from other languages, either as translation loans, e.g. « living space» (German), « to take the bull by the horns» ( Latin) or by means of phonetic borrowings «meche blanche» (French), «corpse d’elite» (French), «sotto voce» (Italian) etc.

Phonetic borrowings among phraseological units refer to the bookish style and are not used very often.

SEMANTIC CLASSIFICATION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS

 Phraseological units can be classified according to the degree of motivation of their meaning. This classification was suggested by acad. V.V. Vinogradov for Russian phraseological units. He pointed out three types of phraseological units:
a) fusions where the degree of motivation is very low, we cannot guess the meaning of the whole from the meanings of its components, they are highly idiomatic and cannot be translated word for word into other languages, e.g. on Shank’s mare - (on foot), at sixes and sevens - (in a mess) etc;

b) unities where the meaning of the whole can be guessed from the meanings of its components, but it is transferred (metaphorical or metonymical), e.g. to play the first fiddle ( to be a leader in something), old salt (experienced sailor) etc;
c) collocations where words are combined in their original meaning but their combinations are different in different languages, e.g. cash and carry - (self-service shop), in a big way (in great degree) etc.

STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS

Prof. A.I. Smirnitsky worked out structural classification of phraseological units, comparing them with words. He points out one-top units which he compares with derived words because derived words have only one root morpheme. He points out two-top units which he compares with compound words because in compound words we usually have two root morphemes.

Among one-top units he points out three structural types;
a) units of the type «to give up» (verb + postposition type), e.g. to art up, to back up, to drop out, to nose out, to buy into, to sandwich in etc.;

b) units of the type «to be tired» . Some of these units remind the Passive Voice in their structure but they have different prepositons with them, while in the Passive Voice we can have only prepositions «by» or «with», e.g. to be tired of, to be interested in, to be surprised at etc. There are also units in this type which remind free word-groups of the type «to be young», e.g. to be akin to, to be aware of etc. The difference between them is that the adjective «young» can be used as an attribute and as a predicative in a sentence, while the nominal component in such units can act only as a predicative. In these units the verb is the grammar centre and the second component is the semantic centre;

c) prepositional- nominal phraseological units. These units are equivalents of unchangeable words: prepositions, conjunctions, adverbs , that is why they have no grammar centre, their semantic centre is the nominal part, e.g. on the doorstep (quite near), on the nose (exactly), in the course of, on the stroke of, in time, on the point of etc. In the course of time such units can become words, e.g. tomorrow, instead etc. 
 Among two-top units A.I. Smirnitsky points out the following structural types:
a) attributive-nominal such as: a month of Sundays, grey matter, a millstone round one’s neck and many others. Units of this type are noun equivalents and can be partly or perfectly idiomatic. In partly idiomatic units (phrasisms) sometimes the first component is idiomatic, e.g. high road, in other cases the second component is idiomatic, e.g. first night. In many cases both components are idiomatic, e.g. red tape, blind alley, bed of nail, shot in the arm and many others
.

b) verb-nominal phraseological units, e.g. to read between the lines , to speak BBC, to sweep under the carpet etc. The grammar centre of such units is the verb, the semantic centre in many cases is the nominal component, e.g. to fall in love. In some units the verb is both the grammar and the semantic centre, e.g. not to know the ropes. These units can be perfectly idiomatic as well, e.g. to burn one’s boats,to vote with one’s feet, to take to the cleaners’ etc. Very close to such units are word-groups of the type to have a glance, to have a smoke. These units are not idiomatic and are treated in grammar as a special syntactical combination, a kind of aspect.
c) phraseological repetitions, such as : now or never, part and parcel , country and western etc. Such units can be built on antonyms, e.g. ups and downs , back and forth; often they are formed by means of alliteration, e.g cakes and ale, as busy as a bee. Components in repetitions are joined by means of conjunctions. These units are equivalents of adverbs or adjectives and have no grammar centre. They can also be partly or perfectly idiomatic, e.g. cool as a cucumber (partly), bread and butter (perfectly).
 Phraseological units the same as compound words can have more than two tops (stems in compound words), e.g. to take a back seat, a peg to hang a thing on, lock, stock and barrel, to be a shaddow of one’s own self, at one’s own sweet will.

SYNTACTICAL CLASSIFICATION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS

 Phraseological units can be clasified as parts of speech. This classification was suggested by I.V. Arnold. Here we have the following groups:
a) noun phraseologisms denoting an object, a person, a living being, e.g. bullet train, latchkey child, redbrick university, Green Berets
;

b) verb phraseologisms denoting an action, a state, a feeling, e.g. to break the log-jam, to get on somebody’s coattails, to be on the beam, to nose out , to make headlines;
c) adjective phraseologisms denoting a quality, e.g. loose as a goose, dull as lead
;

d) adverb phraseological units, such as : with a bump, in the soup, like a dream , like a dog with two tails.

e) preposition phraseological units, e.g. in the course of, on the stroke of;

f) interjection phraseological units, e.g. «Catch me!», «Well, I never!» etc.
 In I.V.Arnold’s classification there are also sentence equivalents, proverbs, sayings and quatations, e.g. «The sky is the limit», «What makes him tick», » I am easy». Proverbs are usually metaphorical, e.g. «Too many cooks spoil the broth», while sayings are as a rule non-metaphorical, e.g. «Where there is a will there is a way».


Practical part

This part of the course paper deals with analysis and comparison phraseological units denoting feelings, moods and emotional states of a person in English and Ukrainian language. There have been found 60 idioms concerning feelings, emotions, moods and emotional states of a person. The main part of my research investigates similarities and differences of phraseological units and giving examples. The analysis has been made according to semantic classification suggested by Acad. V. V. Vinogradov and classified according to his criteria. The translations of these phraseological units were made by choosing according equivalents for both languages.

According to the system suggested by V. V. Vinogradov phraseological units are classified to:

  1.  Phraseological fusions

Green as envy

Лікті кусати

Frozen with terror

Аж око в’яне

Soft in the brain

Ані верша ані ворітця

A young Tartar

Шило в одному місці

Have a head dizzy with

Обрік грає

Butterflies in a stomach

Кішки на душі шкребуть

Dog tired

Втомлений як собака

Beat about the bush

Пекти раків

Boiling mad

Важким духом дихати

To be downhearted

Як скупаний у мертвій воді

  1.  Phraseological unities

As cold as ice

Холодний як лід

Be over the moon

Бути на сьомому небі від щастя

Chicken heart

Заяча душа

Good Samaritan

Добрий Самарянин

Be out of sorts

Не з тієї ноги встати

Lose one’s temper

Тупотіти ногами на (когось)

As pale as corpse

Блідий як стіна

As proud as peacock

Гордий як павич

To feel like a bush out of water

Почуватись не у своїй тарілці

To be scared to death

Наляканий до смерті

  1.  Phraseological combinations

As hungry as a hunter

Голодний як пес

To be dead with cold

Промерзнути до кісток

To shrug one’s shoulder

Насупити брови

Furious over/with

Затаїти злість

Bite the dust

Гнити в сирій землі

Hands feel clammy

Гадюка ссе коло серця

To sell the bears skin before one has caught it

Ділити шкуру не вибитого ведмедя

To be red as a lobster

Бути червоним як рак

Heart bleeds

Серце обливається кров’ю

Fall in love

Серце тенькає

To sum up a practical part of my course paper, I show that there are various phraseological units and a slight difference in their classification.

To begin with the first classification of phraseologisms and idioms I can say that not every time Ukrainian and English phraseological units are related to this group but their meaning does. Such occasions can happen because there is no clear distinction between these types of phraseologisms. Most of the time it depends on speaker’s awareness and knowledge. Those who do not know Ukrainian traditions can regard as unreasonable expressions давати гарбуза, to beat about the bush. For example, frozen with terror can be related also to the second type of classification as phraseological unities, but its Ukrainian equivalent аж око в’яне is definitely phraseological fusion.

The next group of phraseologisms/idioms is related to phraseological unities which are semantically invisible combinations as phraseological fusions, but their semantic content is partially motivated by the meaning of words to make up this phraseological unit. For example, to be as cold as ice – бути холодним як лід, it has motivated meaning because ice is cold and it refers to the person. The same examples are as pale as corpse – блідий як стіна, but to contrast English uses corpse and Ukrainian has its equivalent стіна. It also can be said in English as white as sheet and in Ukrainian it still can be the same equivalent блідий як стіна or can be used another idiom but with the same meaning серце в п’яти впало.

Concerning phraseological combinations, they are stable phrases in which one of the components has an independent meaning, which is concretized in permanent use with other words. For example, to shrug one’s shoulder – насупити брови. Both English and Ukrainian equivalents a referred to this type of classification.  Супити can be only used with брови, and shrug is used only with the word shoulders. But to contrast, heart bleeds – серце обливається кров’ю, the word heart can be used with another words making new idioms and phraseological units for example, at heart, cross one’s heart, eat one’s heart out/ в душі, їй-богу, краяти душу. In phraseological combinations words retain their full semantic independence although they are limited in their combinative power, they can be combined only with certain words and cannot be combined with any other words, they preserve not only their meaning, but all their structural forms, e.g. nice distinction is a phraseological combinations and it is possible to say nice distinctions, nicer distinction, etc., or to clench one’s fist ( clenched his fists, was clenching his fists, etc.)

When I was making contrastive analysis I discovered that to describe feelings, moods and states of the person in English and Ukrainian languages most of the time I had to use a lot of similes as they describe the best states and emotions of the person.

 To summarize all said above, most of my phraseologisms describe negative feelings. They are more popular than those which denote happiness or joy. The most popular are idioms which denote anger, fear and tiredness. But to find Ukrainian equivalent was not as easy task.


Conclusions

Language is the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, and a language is any specific example of such a system. A language is a living substance, which evolves under the influence of different factors. Being very flexible English and Ukrainian languages constantly enrich their vocabulary with the words invented by the language speakers, making it more colorful with new idiomatic expressions, and at times refills its stocks with the borrowings and neologisms. English just amazes by its extraordinary linguistic diversity.

Emotions, as one of the most pervasive human experience, are conceptualized and expressed in metaphorical ways as well. Conceptual metaphor plays an important role in conceptualizing emotions. However, the previous studies of conceptualizing emotions neglected the studies of linguistic expressions, especially idioms to a certain extent. Besides, studies of idioms expressing emotions are mainly based on the English linguistic data.

In this course paper was made a research ways of translating idiomatic and stable expressions denoting feelings, moods and states of a person into the English and Ukrainian language, taking into account different criteria, compare and contrast the results of investigation in order to discover differences and similarities in translating meanings, stylistic peculiarities and usage.

This topic was chosen because the number of phraseological units denoting feelings, moods and emotional states of a person is very huge and here can be showed the way they can be translated and used in English and Ukrainian. The use of these idioms in everyday life can be very popular and describe the person as well educated and observed in traditions of both nationalities.

The course paper deals with analysis and comparison phraseological units denoting feelings, mood and state of a person in English and Ukrainian language. There have been found 60 idioms concerning feelings, emotions, moods and emotional states of a person. The main part of my research investigates similarities and differences of phraseological units and giving examples. The analysis has been made according to system suggested by Acad. V. V. Vinogradov and classified according to his criteria.

- first of all, there were found different idioms denoting feelings, moods and states of the person from Ukrainian and English dictionaries and articles; They were matched  according to their meaning;

-then it was devised the ways of faithful rendering the idiomatic and stable expressions, which have been found. That presented considerable difficulties as there was a need for a proper classification which could illustrate typical features of translating these stable phrases denoting communication of information in Ukrainian and English.

- the forthcoming work was dedicated to the dividing idioms denoting feelings, moods and emotional states of a person according to the suggested classifications;

The great part of investigation belongs to theoretical section which consists of analysis of translation of idiomatic/phraseological and stable expressions in the English and Ukrainian languages. The last stage of the research is a general conclusion to the data obtained.

Phraseological units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech. They exist in the language as ready-made units. They are compiled in special dictionaries. Phraseological units differ from free word-groups semantically and structurally. They can be classified according to the ways they are formed, according to the degree of the motivation of their meaning, according to their structure and according to their part-of-speech meaning.

In Ukrainian linguistic tradition phraseological units are usually classified according to the system suggested by V.V.Vinigradov:

  1.  Phraseological fusions (фразеологічні зрощення) – stable, indivisible word combinations the meaning of which cannot be deduced from the meaning of the words which make up a combination, e.g. пекти раків, собаку з’їсти, скакати в гречку, розводити антимонії, дати драла, врізати дуба, не до солі, точити ляси
  2.  Phraseological unities (фразеологічні єдності) – semantically indivisible combinations but their semantic content is partially motivated by the meaning of words that make up this phraseological unit, e.g.,закинути вудку, тягнути лямку, мілко плавати, покласти зуби на полицю, товкти воду у ступі,
  3.  Phraseological combinations (фразеологічні сполучення) – stable phrases in which one of the components has an independent meaning, which is concretized in permanent use with other words. For example, брати preserves its lexical meaning in combination with different nouns reveals the meaning of the phraseological unit, e.g. нічого в рот не брати, брати рушники, брати гору, брати близько до серця, боати на глум.

To sum up a practical part of my course paper, I show that there are various phraseological units and a slight difference in their classification. To the each of criteria I suggested 10 English and 10 Ukrainian phraseological units.

The first one classification phraseological fusions, I can say that not every time Ukrainian and English phraseological units are related to this group but their meaning does. Such occasions can happen because there is no clear distinction between these types of phraseologisms. Most of the time it depends on speaker’s awareness and knowledge.

The second one, phraseological unities are semantically invisible combinations as phraseological fusions, but their semantic content is partially motivated by the meaning of words to make up this phraseological unit.

The third one, phraseological combinations are stable phrases in which one of the components has an independent meaning, which is concretized in permanent use with other words. In phraseological combinations words retain their full semantic independence although they are limited in their combinative power, they can be combined only with certain words and cannot be combined with any other words, they preserve not only their meaning, but all their structural forms.

When contrastive analysis was made it was discovered that to describe feelings, moods and emotional states of a person in English and Ukrainian languages most of the time a lot of similes had to be used as they describe the best states and emotions of the person.

 To summarize all said above, most of phraseologisms in this course paper describe negative feelings. They are more popular than those which denote happiness or joy. The most popular are idioms which denote anger, fear and tiredness. But to find Ukrainian equivalent was not as easy task.

Expressive value of phraseological units is combined with distinctiveness and emotional colouring, they autonomies human features and behaviour, actualise norms of life etc. Both English and Ukrainian languages abound in various phraseological units covering the whole anthropocentric spectrum: from the internal life of a person – to social status. Phraseology reflects the human psychology in all its representations and features, simulates probable variants of human behaviour, gives “recipies (рецепти)” of the situations etc. We can discover a lot of similarities and differences in phraseological treasures of both contrasted languages. Similarities can be explained either by the common source of origin (biblical expressions, expressions of  Roman origin etc.) or universal character of some peculiarities of the natural world, human physiology etc. For example, right hand and права рука are registered in both languages. But mostly phraseological units reflect national peculiarities of the cognitive perception of the world and life.

Phraseology as an integral part of a language still demands further complex and interdisciplinary investigations in which the different humanities and social science methods are used.


References

  1.  Зорівчак Р.П. Фразеологічна одиниця як перекладацька категорія. -Львів: «Вища шк.» Вид-во при Львівському ун-ті, 1983. – 112 c.
  2.  Кириленко Т.С. Психологія: емоційна сфера особистості: Навч. посібник. – К.: Либідь, 2007. -  342 с.
  3.  Корунець І.В. Теорія та практика перекладу./І.В.Корунець. – Вінниця: «Нова книга», 2003. – 448 с.
  4.  Кочерган М.П. Вступ до мовознавства: Підручник для студентів філологічних спеціальностей вищих навчальних закладів освіти. – К.: Видавничий центр «Академія», 2002. – 368 с.
  5.  Селіванова О. Нариси з української фразеології (психокогнітивний та етнокультурний аспекти): Монографія. – К.-Черкаси: Брама, 2004. – 250 с.
  6.  Фразеологічний словник української мови/Уклад.: В.М.Білоноженко та ін. –К.: Наук. думка, 1999. – 432 с.
  7.  Амосова, Н. Н. (1963) Основы английской фразеологии. – Ленинград: Наука, Изд-во Ленинградского университета, 1963. - 208 c.
  8.  Кунин А.В. Англо-русский фразеологический словарь / Лит. ред. М.Д.Литвинова. 5-е изд., перераб. и доп. М.: Русский язык, 1998. – 352 с.
  9.  Кунин А.В. Фразеология английского язьїка. - М.: Международ. отношения, 1972. Martin H. Manser A Dictionary of Contemporary Idioms. - London, Pan Books Ltd, 1983. – 452 с.
  10.   Шанский, Н. М. (1969) Фразеология современного русского языка. Москва: Высшая школа, 1985. – 160 с. 
  11.  Cambridge International Dictionary of Idioms. – 622 с.
  12.  CollinsV.N.ABook of English Idioms. -Л.:Учпедгиз, 1950. Англо-український фразеологічний словник Склав К.Т. Баранцев. - Київ: Рад. шк., 1969. – 578 с.
  13.  McCathy,M, O’Dell, F. (1994) English Vocabulary in Use. Cambridge University Press, 2004. – 438 с.
  14.  New Longman Pocket Idioms Dictionary. – Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2003. – 394 с.
  15.  Oatley K. Emotions: a brief history. – USA; UK; Australia: Blackwell publishing. – 112 с.
  16.  Oxford Idioms Dictionary for Learners of English. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. – 326 с.
  17.   Strassler, J. (1982) Idioms in English: a Pragmatic Analysis. Tubingen: Gunter Narr Verlag. – 138 с.


 

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